JP3570607B2 - Sliding member - Google Patents

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JP3570607B2
JP3570607B2 JP06343798A JP6343798A JP3570607B2 JP 3570607 B2 JP3570607 B2 JP 3570607B2 JP 06343798 A JP06343798 A JP 06343798A JP 6343798 A JP6343798 A JP 6343798A JP 3570607 B2 JP3570607 B2 JP 3570607B2
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plating
sliding
coating layer
alloy
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JPH11257355A (en
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博文 道岡
良雄 不破
好男 志村
滋 堀田
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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    • Y02T10/865

Description

【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は摺動部材に関し、詳しくはPb(鉛)を含有しない摺動部材に関する。本発明の摺動部材は、例えば内燃機関用のすべり軸受やブッシュに好適に利用することができる。
【0002】
【従来の技術】
自動車エンジンの高出力化に伴って、クランクシャフトやコネクティングロッド等に使用されるすべり軸受には、低炭素鋼製の裏金に、初期なじみ性と高い圧縮・疲労強度とを有するケルメット合金(Cu及びPbを主成分とする合金)をライニングした軸受が多く用いられている。
【0003】
この軸受では、普通、ケルメット合金表面で相手材との摺動面に電気めっき等により薄いオーバーレイ層が形成される。これは相手材とのなじみ性をさらに高める等の目的でなされるもので、オーバーレイ層には軟質なPb及びSnを主成分とする合金が用いられる。
なお、ケルメットの耐食性を向上させたり、オーバーレイ層中のSnがケルメット合金中に拡散してオーバーレイ層が劣化することを防止する等の目的で、ケルメット表面に数μm程度の厚さのNi等のめっき処理を施し、このめっき層の上にオーバーレイ層を形成することも行われている。
【0004】
また、上記すべり軸受には、Al基でSn及びPb等を合金化したアルミニウム合金軸受(特開平4−219523号公報等参照)も多く用いられている。
【0005】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
ところで、近年の材料開発の動向としてPbフリー化の方向に進んでいる。この開発動向は上記すべり軸受等の摺動部材も例外ではない。
しかしながら、すべり軸受等の摺動部材において、摺動特性を満足させる上でPbは重要である。高出力エンジンのように高負荷条件部では、高い摺動特性が要求されることから、Pbは特に重要である。このため、摺動面にPbを含有せずに、十分な摺動特性を備えた摺動部材を提供することは、きわめて困難であった。
【0006】
本発明は上記実情に鑑みてなされたものであり、少なくとも摺動面にPbを含有せず、しかもPbを摺動面に含有するものと同等の摺動特性を発揮しうる摺動部材を提供することを解決すべき技術課題とするものである。
【0007】
【課題を解決するための手段】
記課題を解決する請求項1記載の摺動部材は、基材と、該基材の表面で相手材との摺動面に形成された被覆層とからなる、内燃機関用の摺動部材において、上記被覆層は、Pbを含有せず、かつ、Sn、Bi及びInを含有し、残部がAg及び不可避不純物よりなり、上記被覆層中に含まれるSn、Bi及びInの量は、Snが2〜20重量%、Biが5〜20重量%、Inが2〜10重量%であることを特徴とする。
【0010】
【発明の実施の形態】
本発明の摺動部材は、内燃機関用の摺動部材であって、基材と、該基材の表面で相手材との摺動面に形成された被覆層とからなるものである。
上記基材の種類としては特に限定されず、本発明の摺動部材を適用しようとする部材に応じて、鋼材、鋳鉄、鉄系焼結合金、アルミニウム合金及び銅合金等から適宜採択可能であり、これらの材料の複合材料であってもよい。但し、この基材もPbを含有しないことが好ましい。例えば、本発明の摺動部材を内燃機関用すべり軸受に適用する場合、鋼製裏金にCu−Sn系合金層をライニングしてなる基材や、Al−Sn−Si系合金層よりなる基材等を用いることができる。
【0011】
上記被覆層は、基材の表面をめっき処理することにより形成されためっき皮膜であることが好ましい。被覆層がめっき皮膜であれば、密着性や皮膜強度の点で有利となるからである。このめっき処理としては、電気めっきや化学めっきなどの湿式めっきの他、イオンプレーティングやスパッタリングなどのPVD法による乾式めっきを採用することができる。なお、基材に被覆層を形成する方法として、めっき処理の他に溶射等を採用することも可能である。
【0012】
なお、基材表面に直接被覆層を形成してもよいが、基材と被覆層との接合性や基材の耐食性を向上させる等の観点から、基材表面に中間層を形成することが好ましい。この中間層としては、Niめっき層、Coめっき層やZnめっき層等を採用することができる。
また上記被覆層の厚さは1.0〜30μmとすることが好ましい。被覆層の厚さが1.0μmよりも薄いと、十分な摺動特性を発揮することが困難となり、一方30μmよりも厚いと密着性が低下して被覆層が基材表面から剥がれ易くなる。より好ましい被覆層の厚さは10〜30μmである。被覆層の厚さが10μm以上になると、必要ななじみ性の確保及び耐摩耗寿命の点で有利となる。
【0013】
上記被覆層は、Sn(スズ)、Bi(ビスマス)及びIn(インジウム)を含有し、残部が実質的にAg(銀)及び不可避不純物よりなるものであり、この被覆層にはPbが含有されていない。
かかるAg合金よりなる被覆層は、延性及び融点が高いというAg基の特性により耐疲労性及び耐摩耗性が良好で、しかもSn、BiやInの働きにより硬さが高過ぎることがなくなじみ性が良好で、かつ、潤滑性が良くて耐焼付き性が良好である。
【0014】
したがって、上記Ag合金よりなる被覆層が基材の表面で相手材との摺動面に形成された本発明に係る摺動部材は、少なくとも摺動面にPbを含有しないにもかかわらず、なじみ性、耐焼付き性、耐摩耗性及び耐疲労性の摺動特性が良好となる。
ここに、SnはAg合金の初期なじみ性及び耐摩耗性の向上に寄与する。上記被覆層において、Snの含有量が2重量%未満になると、硬さが高く初期なじみ性が十分でない。一方、Snの含有量が50重量%を超えると、合金融点が大幅に低下して高温下で軟化し、耐摩耗性が不十分となる。なお、耐焼付き性の観点からSnの含有量の下限は9重量%とすることが特に好ましい
【0015】
BiはAg合金の初期なじみ性及び耐疲労性の向上に寄与する。上記被覆層において、Biの含有量が5重量%未満になると、硬さが高く初期なじみ性が十分でない。一方、Biの含有量が50重量%を超えると、Agが保有している特性(延性)が悪くなり、耐疲労性の低下につながる。なお、初期なじみ性の観点からBiの含有量の下限は10重量%とすることが特に好ましい
【0016】
InはSnと同様の効果があり、上記被覆層において、Inの含有量が2重量%未満になると硬さが高く初期なじみ性が十分でなく、一方28重量%を超えると、合金融点が低下して高温下で軟化し、耐摩耗性が不十分となる。なお、初期なじみ性の観点からInの含有量の下限は7重量%とすることが特に好ましい
【0017】
こに、Ag合金中のAgの含有量はAg基による高延性及び高融点の特性を確保する観点から50重量%以上を確保することが好ましく、Sn、Bi及びInの含有量が合計で50重量%を超えると、延性及び耐摩耗性が低下する。このため、Sn、Bi及びInの含有量は、合計で50重量%以下とされ、Snが2〜20重量%、Biが5〜20重量%、Inが2〜10重量%とされる。
【0018】
したがって、本発明の摺動部材は内燃機関用のすべり軸受やブッシュに好適に利用することが可能となる。
【0019】
【実施例】
以下、実施例により本発明を具体的に説明する。
[第1実施例]
鋼製裏金付きのCu−Sn合金(Cu:94.5重量%、Sn:5重量%)試験片を準備し、この試験片のCu−Sn合金表面に、以下に示すように、表1に示す化学組成よりなる厚さ10〜30μmの被覆層を電気めっきにより形成した。
【0020】
【表1】
【0021】
参考例1〜3)
表2に示す組成よりなるめっき浴を用い、表3に示すめっき条件により電気めっきすることにより、Ag−Sn合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
【0022】
【表2】
【0023】
【表3】
参考例4〜6)
表4に示す組成よりなるめっき浴を用い、めっき被覆部材を陰極にして、表5に示すめっき条件により電気めっきすることにより、Agよりなる被覆層を形成した。そして、このめっき皮膜の上にさらにBiめっきを行った後、熱処理(150〜170℃、30〜60分)によりBiをめっき皮膜中に拡散させて表1に示す組成となるように処理することにより、Ag−Bi合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
【0024】
【表4】
【0025】
【表5】
参考例7、8)
まず、参考例4〜6と同様に表3に示す組成よりなるめっき浴を用い、めっき被覆部材を陰極にして、表4に示すめっき条件により電気めっきすることにより、Agよりなる被覆層を形成した。そして、このめっき皮膜の上にさらにInめっきを行った後、熱処理(150〜170℃、30〜60分)によりInをめっき皮膜中に拡散させて表1に示す組成となるように処理することにより、Ag−In合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
【0026】
参考例9)
まず、参考例1〜3と同様に表2に示す組成よりなるめっき浴を用い、表3に示すめっき条件により電気めっきすることにより、Ag−Sn合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。そして、このめっき皮膜の上にさらにInめっきを行った後、熱処理(150〜170℃、30〜60分)によりInをめっき皮膜中に拡散させて表1に示す組成となるように処理することにより、Ag−Sn−In合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
【0027】
参考例10)
まず、参考例1〜3と同様に表2に示す組成よりなるめっき浴を用い、表3に示すめっき条件により電気めっきすることにより、Ag−Sn合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。そして、このめっき皮膜の上にさらにBiめっきを行った後、熱処理(150〜170℃、30〜60分)によりBiをめっき皮膜中に拡散させて表1に示す組成となるように処理することにより、Ag−Sn−Bi合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
【0028】
(実施例11、12)
まず、参考例10と同様にAg−Sn−Bi合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
そして、このめっき皮膜の上にさらにInめっきを行った後、熱処理によりInをめっき皮膜中に拡散させて表1に示す組成となるように処理することにより、Ag−Sn−Bi−In合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
【0029】
(比較例1)
ホウフッ化浴よりなるめっき液を用い、めっき液温度20〜30℃、電流密度2〜5A/dmの条件でめっき処理することにより、Pb−Sn合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
(比較例2)
ホウフッ化浴よりなるめっき液を用い、めっき液温度20〜30℃、電流密度2〜5A/dmの条件で、まずPb−Sn合金めっき処理をし、さらにその上にInめっきをし熱処理することにより、Pb−Sn−In合金よりなる被覆層を形成した。
【0030】
(比較例3)
表4に示す組成よりなるめっき浴を用い、めっき被覆部材を陰極にして、表5に示すめっき条件により電気めっきすることにより、純Agよりなる被覆層を形成した。
(比較例4)
ホウフッ化浴よりなるめっき液を用い、めっき液温度20〜30℃、電流密度2〜5A/dmの条件でめっき処理することにより、Snよりなる被覆層を形成した。
【0031】
なお、上記比較例4に係る被覆層は、一部のすべり軸受のオーバーレイ層として、現在用いられている合金層である。
(硬さの評価)
上記参考例1〜10、実施例11、12及び比較例1〜4の被覆層の硬さをマイクロビッカース硬度計により測定した。その結果を表6及び図1に示す。
【0032】
(摩擦摩耗特性の評価)
上記参考例1〜10、実施例11、12及び比較例1〜4の被覆層を摺動面に形成したφ7mm×L12mmのピンよりなる試験片について、摩擦摩耗試験を行った。その結果を表6及び図2、図4に示す。なお、試験条件は以下のとおりである。
(耐焼付き性の評価)
上記参考例1〜10、実施例11、12及び比較例1〜4の被覆層を摺動面に形成した30mm×30mm、厚さ2mmのプレート(摺動面30mm×30mm)よりなる試験片について、焼付き試験を行った。その結果を表6及び図3に示す。なお、試験条件は以下のとおりである。
【0033】
【0034】
【表6】
【0035】
表6及び図1〜図4から明らかなように、参考例1〜10、実施例11、12は、比較例1、2及び4と比べて硬さが高くなっているが、比較例3(純Agめっき)よりは硬さが低くなっている。そして、参考例1〜10、実施例11、12は、硬さが高いわりに摩擦係数が低めで、参考例1〜10、実施例11、12の摩擦係数は比較例のものと近い値を示している。
また、比較例1及び2のPbをベースにしたものでは、焼付き試験中に被覆層が摩耗して低荷重で焼き付きに至るのに対し、参考例1〜10、実施例11、12は全て比較例1及び2よりも優れた耐焼付き性を示すとともに耐摩耗性も大幅に優れていた。
【0036】
また、純Agめっきの比較例3では、オーバーレイとしては非常に硬く、耐摩耗性には優れているが、なじみ性が不十分なため焼付き荷重が低いのに対し、参考例1〜10、実施例11、12ではなじみ性及び耐摩耗性の双方が非常に高く、なじみ性及び耐摩耗性の両立が図られていた。
[第2実施例]
本実施例は本発明の摺動部材を内燃機関用すべり軸受に適用したものである。
【0037】
図5に示すように、鋼製裏金1に、外径48mm、肉厚1.5mmのCu−Sn合金層(Cu:94.5重量%、Sn:5重量%)2をライニングしてなる基材を準備した。この基材のCu−Sn合金層2の表面、すなわち相手材との摺動面に1.5μmの厚さのNiめっき層2’を形成した。なお、このときのめっき条件は、めっき液:ワット浴、めっき液温度:50℃、電流密度:6A/dmである。
【0038】
そして、このNiめっき層2’の表面に、前記第1実施例と同様の方法により被覆層3を形成して、すべり軸受を作製した。
第1実施例で示した参考例1〜10、実施例11、12及び比較例1〜4の被覆層を上記すべり軸受の被覆層3に適用したものについて、軸受単体試験を行った。その結果を図6に示す。なお、試験条件は以下のとおりである。
【0039】
試験装置 :静荷重軸受試験機
回転数 :5000rpm(周速:12.5m/s)
潤滑油 :SAE10W−30
給油量 :0.1リットル/分
給油温度 :100℃
相手材 :炭素鋼(S50C、Hv:600、表面粗さ:0.8μmRz)
図6から明らかなように、すべり軸受の表面で相手材との摺動面に本発明に係る被覆層を形成することにより、Pbをベースとした比較例1及び2、純Agの比較例3並びに純Snの4よりも優れた軸受性能(焼付き特性)を発揮させることができた。
【0040】
また、純Agの比較例3では、なじみ性が悪く、所定の試験条件に達する前に焼付きが発生し、試験できなかったものがあった(図6にはうまく試験できたもののデータを示す)のに対し、本実施例では試験初期に焼付きが発生するものは無かった。
なお、上記実施例では、電気めっきにより被覆層を形成した場合の結果を示したが、PVD等の気相めっき法で被覆層を形成した場合も同様の結果が得られることを確認した。
【0041】
【発明の効果】
以上詳述したように本発明の摺動部材は、摺動面にPbを含有しないものであるが、摺動面にPb含有するものと同等以上の摺動特性を発揮することができる。
【図面の簡単な説明】
【図1】第1実施例に係り、被覆層の硬さの測定結果を示す棒グラフである。
【図2】第1実施例に係り、被覆層の摩擦係数の評価結果を示す棒グラフである。
【図3】第1実施例に係り、被覆層の耐焼付き性の評価結果を示す棒グラフである。
【図4】第1実施例に係り、被覆層の耐摩耗性の評価結果を示す棒グラフである。
【図5】第2実施例に係り、すべり軸受の一部断面図である。
【図6】第2実施例に係り、被覆層の耐焼付き性の評価結果を示す棒グラフである。
【符号の説明】
1…鋼製裏金、2…Cu−Sn合金層、2’…Niめっき層、3…被覆層
[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a sliding member, and more particularly, to a sliding member containing no Pb (lead). INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The sliding member of the present invention can be suitably used, for example, for a slide bearing or a bush for an internal combustion engine.
[0002]
[Prior art]
With the increase in the output of automobile engines, sliding bearings used for crankshafts, connecting rods, etc., are made of low carbon steel backing metal with kelmet alloys (Cu and Cu) having initial conformability and high compression / fatigue strength. Bearings lined with an alloy mainly composed of Pb) are often used.
[0003]
In this bearing, usually, a thin overlay layer is formed by electroplating or the like on the sliding surface with the mating material on the surface of the kelmet alloy. This is performed for the purpose of further improving the conformability with the counterpart material, and an alloy mainly composed of soft Pb and Sn is used for the overlay layer.
For the purpose of improving the corrosion resistance of kelmet, preventing the Sn in the overlay layer from diffusing into the kelmet alloy and preventing the overlay layer from deteriorating, for example, Ni or the like having a thickness of about several μm is formed on the kelmet surface. A plating process is performed to form an overlay layer on the plating layer.
[0004]
Further, as the above-mentioned plain bearing, an aluminum alloy bearing in which Sn, Pb and the like are alloyed with an Al base (see Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 4-219523) is also often used.
[0005]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
By the way, as a trend of material development in recent years, Pb-free is progressing. This development trend is no exception for sliding members such as the above-mentioned plain bearings.
However, Pb is important for satisfying the sliding characteristics in a sliding member such as a sliding bearing. Pb is particularly important in a high-load condition section such as a high-output engine because high sliding characteristics are required. Therefore, it has been extremely difficult to provide a sliding member having sufficient sliding characteristics without containing Pb in the sliding surface.
[0006]
The present invention has been made in view of the above circumstances, and provides a sliding member that does not contain Pb at least on the sliding surface and that can exhibit sliding characteristics equivalent to those containing Pb on the sliding surface. It is a technical problem to be solved.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The sliding member according to claim 1, wherein solving the above SL problem is composed of a base material, and a coating layer formed on the sliding surface of the mating member on the surface of the substrate, a sliding member for an internal combustion engine in, the coating layer contains no Pb, and, Sn, contain Bi and I n, Ri is Na from a g and inevitable impurities balance, the amount of Sn, Bi and in contained in the coating layer Is characterized in that Sn is 2 to 20% by weight, Bi is 5 to 20% by weight, and In is 2 to 10% by weight .
[0010]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
The sliding member of the present invention is a sliding member for an internal combustion engine , and includes a base material and a coating layer formed on a surface of the base material on a sliding surface with a mating member.
The type of the base material is not particularly limited, and can be appropriately selected from steel, cast iron, an iron-based sintered alloy, an aluminum alloy, a copper alloy, and the like, depending on the member to which the sliding member of the present invention is applied. And a composite material of these materials. However, it is preferable that this substrate also does not contain Pb. For example, when the sliding member of the present invention is applied to a sliding bearing for an internal combustion engine, a substrate formed by lining a Cu-Sn-based alloy layer on a steel back metal, or a substrate formed by an Al-Sn-Si-based alloy layer Etc. can be used.
[0011]
The coating layer is preferably a plating film formed by plating the surface of a substrate. This is because if the coating layer is a plating film, it is advantageous in terms of adhesion and film strength. As the plating treatment, in addition to wet plating such as electroplating and chemical plating, dry plating by a PVD method such as ion plating and sputtering can be employed. In addition, as a method of forming a coating layer on a base material, thermal spraying or the like can be adopted in addition to plating.
[0012]
The coating layer may be formed directly on the surface of the base material, but from the viewpoint of improving the bondability between the base material and the coating layer and the corrosion resistance of the base material, the formation of the intermediate layer on the surface of the base material is preferred. preferable. As the intermediate layer, a Ni plating layer, a Co plating layer, a Zn plating layer, or the like can be employed.
The thickness of the coating layer is preferably 1.0 to 30 μm. When the thickness of the coating layer is less than 1.0 μm, it is difficult to exhibit sufficient sliding characteristics. On the other hand, when the thickness is more than 30 μm, the adhesion decreases and the coating layer is easily peeled off from the substrate surface. More preferably, the thickness of the coating layer is 10 to 30 μm. When the thickness of the coating layer is 10 μm or more, it is advantageous in terms of securing necessary conformability and abrasion life.
[0013]
The coating layer contains Sn (tin), Bi (bismuth) and In (indium ), and the balance substantially consists of Ag (silver) and unavoidable impurities. The coating layer contains Pb. Not.
The coating layer made of such an Ag alloy has good fatigue resistance and abrasion resistance owing to its Ag-based properties of high ductility and high melting point, and is not too high in hardness due to the action of Sn, Bi or In, and has good conformability. And good lubricity and good seizure resistance.
[0014]
Therefore, the sliding member according to the present invention, in which the coating layer made of the Ag alloy is formed on the sliding surface with the mating material on the surface of the base material, is familiar even though at least the sliding surface does not contain Pb. The sliding properties of resistance, seizure resistance, wear resistance and fatigue resistance are improved.
Here, Sn contributes to the improvement of the initial conformability and wear resistance of the Ag alloy. If the content of Sn in the coating layer is less than 2% by weight, the hardness is high and the initial conformability is not sufficient. On the other hand, when the content of Sn exceeds 50% by weight, the melting point of the alloy is significantly reduced and softened at a high temperature, and the wear resistance becomes insufficient . Na us, the lower limit of the content of Sn in view of galling resistance is arbitrarily favored especially be 9 wt%.
[0015]
Bi contributes to the improvement of the initial conformability and fatigue resistance of the Ag alloy. If the content of Bi in the coating layer is less than 5% by weight, the hardness is high and the initial conformability is not sufficient. On the other hand, if the Bi content exceeds 50% by weight, the properties (ductility) possessed by Ag deteriorate, leading to a reduction in fatigue resistance . Na us, initial conformability of the lower limit of the content of Bi is in terms arbitrarily favored particularly be 10 wt%.
[0016]
In has the same effect as Sn, and in the above-mentioned coating layer, when the content of In is less than 2% by weight, the hardness is high and the initial conformability is not sufficient. It decreases and softens at high temperatures, resulting in insufficient wear resistance . Na us, the lower limit in terms of the initial conformability of the content of In is arbitrary it is particularly preferred to 7 wt%.
[0017]
To here, the content of Ag in the Ag alloy is preferable to ensure at least 50 wt% in order to ensure high ductility and high melting point characteristics by Ag group, Sn, Bi content and In in total If it exceeds 50% by weight, ductility and abrasion resistance decrease. Therefore, the total content of Sn, Bi and In is set to 50% by weight or less, Sn is set to 2 to 20% by weight, Bi is set to 5 to 20% by weight, and In is set to 2 to 10% by weight.
[0018]
Therefore, the sliding member of the present invention can be suitably used for a slide bearing or a bush for an internal combustion engine.
[0019]
【Example】
Hereinafter, the present invention will be specifically described with reference to examples.
[First embodiment]
A Cu-Sn alloy (Cu: 94.5% by weight, Sn: 5% by weight) test piece with a steel backing was prepared, and the surface of the Cu-Sn alloy of this test piece was prepared as shown below in Table 1. A coating layer having the chemical composition shown and having a thickness of 10 to 30 μm was formed by electroplating.
[0020]
[Table 1]
[0021]
( Reference Examples 1 to 3)
Using a plating bath having the composition shown in Table 2, electroplating was performed under the plating conditions shown in Table 3, thereby forming a coating layer made of an Ag-Sn alloy.
[0022]
[Table 2]
[0023]
[Table 3]
( Reference Examples 4 to 6)
Using a plating bath having a composition shown in Table 4, using a plating coating member as a cathode, and performing electroplating under the plating conditions shown in Table 5, a coating layer made of Ag was formed. Then, after Bi plating is further performed on this plating film, Bi is diffused into the plating film by a heat treatment (150 to 170 ° C., 30 to 60 minutes) to be treated to have a composition shown in Table 1. Thus, a coating layer made of an Ag—Bi alloy was formed.
[0024]
[Table 4]
[0025]
[Table 5]
( Reference Examples 7 and 8)
First, a coating layer made of Ag was formed by performing electroplating under the plating conditions shown in Table 4 using a plating bath having a composition shown in Table 3 as in Reference Examples 4 to 6, using the plating coating member as a cathode, and plating conditions shown in Table 4. did. Then, after further performing In plating on the plating film, In is diffused into the plating film by a heat treatment (150 to 170 ° C., 30 to 60 minutes) to be treated to have a composition shown in Table 1. Thus, a coating layer made of an Ag-In alloy was formed.
[0026]
( Reference Example 9)
First, a coating layer made of an Ag-Sn alloy was formed by performing electroplating under the plating conditions shown in Table 3 using a plating bath having the composition shown in Table 2 as in Reference Examples 1 to 3. Then, after further performing In plating on the plating film, In is diffused into the plating film by a heat treatment (150 to 170 ° C., 30 to 60 minutes) to be treated to have a composition shown in Table 1. Thus, a coating layer made of an Ag—Sn—In alloy was formed.
[0027]
( Reference Example 10)
First, a coating layer made of an Ag-Sn alloy was formed by performing electroplating under the plating conditions shown in Table 3 using a plating bath having the composition shown in Table 2 as in Reference Examples 1 to 3. Then, after Bi plating is further performed on this plating film, Bi is diffused into the plating film by a heat treatment (150 to 170 ° C., 30 to 60 minutes) to be treated to have a composition shown in Table 1. Thus, a coating layer made of an Ag—Sn—Bi alloy was formed.
[0028]
(Examples 11 and 12)
First, a coating layer made of an Ag—Sn—Bi alloy was formed in the same manner as in Reference Example 10.
Then, after further In plating is performed on the plating film, In is diffused into the plating film by heat treatment to be treated to have a composition shown in Table 1, thereby obtaining an Ag-Sn-Bi-In alloy. Was formed.
[0029]
(Comparative Example 1)
A coating layer made of a Pb-Sn alloy was formed by plating using a plating solution made of a borofluoride bath under conditions of a plating solution temperature of 20 to 30 ° C and a current density of 2 to 5 A / dm 2 .
(Comparative Example 2)
First, a Pb-Sn alloy plating treatment is performed using a plating solution composed of a borofluoride bath under the conditions of a plating solution temperature of 20 to 30 ° C. and a current density of 2 to 5 A / dm 2 , followed by In plating and heat treatment. Thus, a coating layer made of a Pb-Sn-In alloy was formed.
[0030]
(Comparative Example 3)
Using a plating bath having the composition shown in Table 4, using a plating coating member as a cathode, and performing electroplating under the plating conditions shown in Table 5, a coating layer made of pure Ag was formed.
(Comparative Example 4)
Using a plating solution composed of a fluorinated bath, plating was performed at a plating solution temperature of 20 to 30 ° C. and a current density of 2 to 5 A / dm 2 to form a coating layer composed of Sn.
[0031]
The coating layer according to Comparative Example 4 is an alloy layer that is currently used as an overlay layer for some slide bearings.
(Evaluation of hardness)
The hardness of the coating layers of Reference Examples 1 to 10, Examples 11 and 12, and Comparative Examples 1 to 4 was measured with a micro Vickers hardness tester. The results are shown in Table 6 and FIG.
[0032]
(Evaluation of friction and wear characteristics)
A friction and wear test was performed on test pieces composed of φ7 mm × L12 mm pins having the coating layers of Reference Examples 1 to 10, Examples 11 and 12, and Comparative Examples 1 to 4 formed on the sliding surfaces. The results are shown in Table 6 and FIGS. The test conditions are as follows.
(Evaluation of seizure resistance)
About the test piece which consists of a 30 mm x 30 mm, 2 mm thick plate (sliding surface 30 mm x 30 mm) in which the coating layers of Reference Examples 1 to 10, Examples 11 and 12, and Comparative Examples 1 to 4 are formed on the sliding surface. And a seizure test. The results are shown in Table 6 and FIG. The test conditions are as follows.
[0033]
[0034]
[Table 6]
[0035]
As is clear from Table 6 and FIGS. 1 to 4, the hardness of Comparative Examples 1 to 10 and Examples 11 and 12 was higher than Comparative Examples 1, 2 and 4, but Comparative Example 3 ( (Pure Ag plating). Reference Examples 1 to 10 and Examples 11 and 12 have a low coefficient of friction in spite of high hardness, and the friction coefficients of Reference Examples 1 to 10 and Examples 11 and 12 show values close to those of the comparative example. ing.
Further, in the case of the bases based on Pb of Comparative Examples 1 and 2, the coating layer was worn out during the seizure test and the seizure was caused with a low load, whereas Reference Examples 1 to 10 and Examples 11 and 12 were all It showed better seizure resistance than Comparative Examples 1 and 2, and also had much better wear resistance.
[0036]
In Comparative Example 3 of pure Ag plating, the overlay was very hard and excellent in abrasion resistance, but the conformability was insufficient and the seizure load was low . In Examples 11 and 12, both conformability and abrasion resistance were extremely high, and both compatibility and abrasion resistance were achieved.
[Second embodiment]
In this embodiment, the sliding member of the present invention is applied to a slide bearing for an internal combustion engine.
[0037]
As shown in FIG. 5, a steel back metal 1 is lined with a Cu—Sn alloy layer (Cu: 94.5% by weight, Sn: 5% by weight) 2 having an outer diameter of 48 mm and a thickness of 1.5 mm. Materials were prepared. A 1.5 μm thick Ni plating layer 2 ′ was formed on the surface of the Cu—Sn alloy layer 2 of the base material, that is, on the sliding surface with the counterpart material. The plating conditions at this time are: plating solution: watt bath, plating solution temperature: 50 ° C., current density: 6 A / dm 2 .
[0038]
Then, the coating layer 3 was formed on the surface of the Ni plating layer 2 'in the same manner as in the first embodiment to produce a plain bearing.
A bearing unit test was performed on the case where the coating layers of Reference Examples 1 to 10, Examples 11 and 12, and Comparative Examples 1 to 4 shown in the first example were applied to the coating layer 3 of the above-mentioned plain bearing. FIG. 6 shows the result. The test conditions are as follows.
[0039]
Test equipment: Static load bearing tester Revolution: 5000 rpm (peripheral speed: 12.5 m / s)
Lubricating oil: SAE10W-30
Refueling amount: 0.1 liter / min Refueling temperature: 100 ° C
Counterpart material: carbon steel (S50C, Hv: 600, surface roughness: 0.8 μm Rz)
As is clear from FIG. 6, by forming the coating layer according to the present invention on the sliding surface of the plain bearing with the mating material on the surface of the plain bearing, Comparative Examples 1 and 2 based on Pb and Comparative Example 3 of pure Ag were performed. In addition, bearing performance (seizure characteristics) superior to pure Sn 4 could be exhibited.
[0040]
Further, in Comparative Example 3 of pure Ag, the conformability was poor, and seizure occurred before reaching the predetermined test conditions, and some of the samples could not be tested (FIG. 6 shows data of those successfully tested). On the other hand, in this example, there was no burn-in at the beginning of the test.
In addition, although the result in the case where the coating layer was formed by electroplating was shown in the above example, it was confirmed that the same result was obtained when the coating layer was formed by a vapor phase plating method such as PVD.
[0041]
【The invention's effect】
As described in detail above, the sliding member of the present invention does not contain Pb on the sliding surface, but can exhibit sliding characteristics equal to or higher than those containing Pb on the sliding surface.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a bar graph showing measurement results of hardness of a coating layer according to a first example.
FIG. 2 is a bar graph showing an evaluation result of a friction coefficient of a coating layer according to the first embodiment.
FIG. 3 is a bar graph showing an evaluation result of seizure resistance of a coating layer according to the first example.
FIG. 4 is a bar graph showing an evaluation result of abrasion resistance of a coating layer according to the first example.
FIG. 5 is a partial sectional view of a sliding bearing according to a second embodiment.
FIG. 6 is a bar graph showing evaluation results of seizure resistance of a coating layer according to a second example.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Steel back metal, 2 ... Cu-Sn alloy layer, 2 '... Ni plating layer, 3 ... Coating layer

Claims (1)

  1. 基材と、該基材の表面で相手材との摺動面に形成された被覆層とからなる、内燃機関用の摺動部材において、
    上記被覆層は、Pbを含有せず、かつ、Sn、Bi及びInを含有し、残部がAg及び不可避不純物よりなり、
    上記被覆層中に含まれるSn、Bi及びInの量は、Snが2〜20重量%、Biが5〜20重量%、Inが2〜10重量%であることを特徴とする摺動部材。
    A sliding member for an internal combustion engine, comprising a base material and a coating layer formed on a sliding surface of a mating material on the surface of the base material,
    The coating layer contains no Pb, and, Sn, contain Bi and I n, Ri is Na from A g and inevitable impurities balance,
    A sliding member comprising Sn, Bi and In in the coating layer, wherein Sn is 2 to 20% by weight, Bi is 5 to 20% by weight, and In is 2 to 10% by weight .
JP06343798A 1998-03-13 1998-03-13 Sliding member Expired - Fee Related JP3570607B2 (en)

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