JP3465675B2 - The piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type element - Google Patents

The piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type element

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JP3465675B2
JP3465675B2 JP2000275137A JP2000275137A JP3465675B2 JP 3465675 B2 JP3465675 B2 JP 3465675B2 JP 2000275137 A JP2000275137 A JP 2000275137A JP 2000275137 A JP2000275137 A JP 2000275137A JP 3465675 B2 JP3465675 B2 JP 3465675B2
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piezoelectric
electrostrictive film
electrostrictive
electrode
material
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JP2002094135A (en )
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浩文 山口
伸夫 高橋
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日本碍子株式会社
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    • B81C1/00Manufacture or treatment of devices or systems in or on a substrate
    • B81C1/00349Creating layers of material on a substrate
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    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
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    • C04B35/46Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics based on titanium oxides or titanates
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
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    • H01L41/00Piezo-electric devices in general; Electrostrictive devices in general; Magnetostrictive devices in general; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L41/08Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices
    • H01L41/09Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices with electrical input and mechanical output, e.g. actuators, vibrators
    • H01L41/0926Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices with electrical input and mechanical output, e.g. actuators, vibrators using bending displacement, e.g. unimorph, bimorph or multimorph cantilever or membrane benders
    • H01L41/0973Membrane type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B2201/00Specific applications of microelectromechanical systems
    • B81B2201/02Sensors
    • B81B2201/0292Sensors not provided for in B81B2201/0207 - B81B2201/0285
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81CPROCESSES OR APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
    • B81C2203/00Forming microstructural systems
    • B81C2203/03Bonding two components
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    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
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    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/32Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, or oxide-forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides
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    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/32Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, or oxide-forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides
    • C04B2235/3231Refractory metal oxides, their mixed metal oxides, or oxide-forming salts thereof
    • C04B2235/3251Niobium oxides, niobates, tantalum oxides, tantalates, or oxide-forming salts thereof
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    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/32Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, or oxide-forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides
    • C04B2235/3298Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. zinc bismuthate

Abstract

A ceramic substrate 1 comprises a thin diaphragm portion 3 and a thick portion 2. A lower electrode 4 is formed on the ceramic substrate and is spaced apart from an auxiliary electrode 8, also formed on the ceramic substrate. A bonding layer 7C comprises an insulator and is formed on the ceramic substrate between the lower and auxiliary electrodes. A piezoelectric/electrostrictive layer 5 is formed on at least a portion of each of the lower electrode, the auxiliary electrode and the bonding layer. An upper electrode 6 extends over the piezoelectric/electrostrictive layer and contacts the auxiliary electrode. A bonded portion exist wherein the bonding layer serves to completely bond together the substrate and the piezoelectric/electrostrictive film layer. <IMAGE>

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 【0001】 【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は、圧電/電歪膜型素子に係り、中でも屈曲変位を利用するアクチュエータや、流体特性や音圧、微小重量、加速度等のセンサとして、例えばマイクロホンや粘度センサに用いられる圧電/電歪膜型素子に関する。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0001] [Technical Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element, and an actuator utilizing inter alia bending displacement, fluid properties, sound pressure, micro weight, acceleration as sensors etc., for example, a piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element used in microphones and viscosity sensors. 【0002】 【従来の技術】圧電/電歪電歪膜型素子は、従来よりアクチュエータや各種センサとして用いられている。 [0002] piezoelectric / electrostrictive electrostrictive film type element is used as an actuator or various sensors conventionally. センサとして用いられる圧電/電歪膜型素子は、例えば特開平8−201265号公報に開示されるように、流体の密度、濃度、粘度等の特性測定に利用される。 The piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element used as a sensor, for example as disclosed in JP-A-8-201265, the density of the fluid, the concentration, is used for characteristic measurement of the viscosity and the like. このような素子にあっては、圧電体振動子の振幅と振動子に接触する流体の粘性抵抗に相関があることを利用しセンサとして用いるものである。 In such a device is to use as making use of the fact that there is a correlation viscous resistance of the fluid in contact with the amplitude as the vibrator of the piezoelectric vibrator sensor. 振動子の振動のような機械系での振動形態は、電気系での等価回路に置き換えることができ、流体中で圧電/電歪膜型振動子を振動させ、この振動子が流体の粘性抵抗に基づいて機械的抵抗を受けることにより振動子を構成する圧電体の等価回路の電気的定数が変化するのを検出し、流体の粘度、密度、濃度等の特性を測定することが可能となる。 Vibration mode of a mechanical system such as the vibration of the vibrator can be replaced by an equivalent circuit in an electrical system, to vibrate the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type vibrator in a fluid, viscous drag this oscillator fluid it is possible to detect that a change in electric constant of the equivalent circuit of the piezoelectric body constituting the oscillator, to measure the viscosity of the fluid, density, the characteristic of the density or the like by receiving mechanical resistance based on the . 測定可能な流体としては、液体及び気体を意味し、水、アルコール、油等単一の成分からなる液体のみならず、これらの液体に可溶または不溶な媒質を溶解または混合あるいは懸濁せしめた液体、スラリー、ペーストが含まれる。 Measurable fluid means liquids and gases, water, alcohols, not only the liquid consisting of an oil such as a single component, and is dissolved or mixed or suspended soluble or insoluble medium in these liquids liquid slurry include paste. また、検出する電気的定数としては、損失係数、位相、抵抗、リアクタンス、コンダクタンス、サセプタンス、インダクタンス及びキャパシタンス等を挙げることができ、特に等価回路の共振周波数近傍で極大または極小変化点を1つもつ損失係数または位相が好ましく用いられる。 As the electric constant to be detected loss factor, phase, resistance, can be cited reactance, conductance, susceptance, inductance and capacitance, etc., having one maximum or minimum change point in the vicinity of the resonance frequency of the particular equivalent circuit loss coefficient or the phase is preferably used. これにより流体の粘度のみならず、密度や濃度をも測定することができ、例えば、硫酸水溶液中の硫酸濃度を測定することができる。 Thus not only the viscosity of the fluid, can also be determined density or density, for example, it is possible to measure the sulfuric acid concentration in the aqueous sulfuric acid solution. なお、振動形態の変化を検出する指標として電気的定数以外に、測定精度、耐久性の観点から特に問題が無ければ共振周波数の変化を利用することもできる。 In addition to the electric constant as an index for detecting the change in the vibration mode, the measurement accuracy can be utilized the change in resonant frequency if there is no particular problem in terms of durability. 【0003】かかる圧電/電歪膜型素子にあっては、特開平5−267742号公報に開示されるように、図2 [0003] In the take piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type device, as disclosed in JP-A-5-267742, Fig. 2
のように厚肉部2を周縁部に持つ薄肉ダイヤフラム部3 Thin diaphragm portion 3 having a thick portion 2 in the peripheral portion as
を有するセラミックスからなる基板1に積層した下部電極4とは独立した位置に、補助電極8を形成し、その補助電極の一部が前記圧電/電歪膜5の下側の一部に入り込ませるように形成されている。 A separate position from the lower electrode 4 laminated on a substrate 1 made of ceramics having the auxiliary electrode 8 is formed, part of the auxiliary electrode to enter the portion of the lower side of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 It is formed so as to. このような構成により、上部電極6を補助電極8及び圧電/電歪膜5の面上で断線すること無く連続して形成することが可能となり、上部電極6の接続の信頼性が向上する。 With such a configuration, it is possible to continuously form without breaking the upper electrode 6 on the surface of the auxiliary electrode 8 and the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5, thereby improving the reliability of the connection of the upper electrode 6. なお図2にあっては、被測定流体は空洞部10に存在し、貫通孔9 Note In the Figure 2, the fluid to be measured is present in the cavity 10, the through hole 9
により導入される。 Introduced by. 【0004】さらに、かかる圧電/電歪膜型素子にあっては、特開平6−260694号公報に開示されるように、図2のように、下部電極4上の圧電/電歪膜5を、 [0004] Further, in the such a piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type device, as disclosed in JP-A-6-260694, as shown in FIG. 2, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 on the lower electrode 4 ,
下部電極4を覆いかつ圧電/電歪膜5の周囲部がセラミック基板1上に張り出す大きさとされることがある。 Sometimes periphery of the cover and the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 and the lower electrode 4 is sized to overhang the ceramic substrate 1. これにより、下部電極4と圧電/電歪膜5の精密な位置合わせが不要となり、上下電極間の短絡が容易に防止できる。 Accordingly, precise alignment of the lower electrode 4 and the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 is not necessary, short circuit between the upper and lower electrodes can be easily prevented. さらに、この圧電/電歪膜5の張り出し部11を前記基板1と不完全な結合状態とし、不完全結合部7Aとすることで、張り出し部11が基板と結合していないために、十二分な屈曲変位や発生力や振動を発現することができる。 Furthermore, for this purpose a protruding portion 11 of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 and an incomplete coupling state with the substrate 1, by incomplete coupling portion 7A, the protruding portion 11 is not bonded to the substrate Twelve it is possible to express the partial bending displacement and generated force or vibration. 不完全結合状態とは、張り出し部の一部がセラミック基板と部分的に結合した状態または、結合した部分が全く無い未結合状態のことを意味し、具体的には、張り出し部とセラミック基板のピール(引き剥がし) The incompletely bonded state, a part of the projecting portion is a ceramic substrate and partially bound state or, means that the unbound state binding portion is completely free, specifically, the projecting portion and the ceramic substrate peel (peeling)
強度で、0.5 kg/mm 2以下とされる。 Intensity, it is 0.5 kg / mm 2 or less. このような不完全結合状態の形成には、基板材料と圧電/電歪材料の相互の反応性が低くなるように、それらを選択してなされるほか、圧電/電歪膜と基板が直接接しないように、ダミー層を形成したうえで、圧電/電歪膜5を形成する場合もある。 The formation of such incompletely bonded state as in the mutual reactivity of the substrate material and the piezoelectric / electrostrictive material is low, in addition to be made by selecting them, piezoelectric / electrostrictive film and the substrate directly contacts lest, after forming the dummy layer, may form a piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5. このダミー層の形成には、スタンピング法、スクリーン印刷法、あるいはインクジェット法が好適に用いられる。 The formation of the dummy layer, a stamping method, a screen printing method or an ink jet method is preferably used. ダミー層は、圧電/電歪膜5が焼結のために熱処理される場合には、この熱処理により燃焼・消失する材料、例えば樹脂材料等で形成され、消失後不完全結合部7Aが形成されるのである。 The dummy layer, when the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 is heat treated for sintering, a material which burns or lost by the heat treatment, is formed, for example, a resin material or the like, after the disappearance incompletely bonded portion 7A is formed it's that. または、圧電/電歪膜及び上部電極が熱処理されない場合には、ダミー層を水や有機溶媒等に溶解する樹脂材料で形成し、圧電/電歪膜5を形成後あるいは圧電/電歪膜5と上部電極6を形成後、水や有機溶媒等により溶解・除去処理され不完全結合部7Aが形成される。 Or, the piezoelectric / if electrostrictive film and the upper electrode are not heat treated, the dummy layer is formed of a resin material that dissolves in water or organic solvents such as, piezoelectric / electrostrictive film after the 5 formation or piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 after forming the upper electrode 6, is dissolved and removed treated with water or an organic solvent or the like is incompletely bonded portion 7A is formed with. 【0005】 【発明が解決しようとする課題】このような振動における電気的特性を検知することによりセンシングを行うセンサ用素子にあっては、電気的特性がばらつかないのが望ましいのに対し、従来の圧電/電歪膜型素子の構造においては、初期の電気的定数が素子固体間でばらついたり、電気的定数の経時変化が生じたりする場合があり、 [0005] [Problems that the Invention is to Solve] In the sensor element for sensing by detecting the electrical characteristics in such vibration, whereas the electrical properties not vary is desired, in the structure of a conventional piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type device, there are cases where the initial electric constant or occur vary or change with time of the electric constant between elements solid,
そのような場合には、微調整の手間をかける必要があった。 In such a case, it was necessary to put the time and effort of fine-tuning. 【0006】 【課題を解決するための手段】そこで、研究の結果、従来の圧電/電歪膜型素子においては、図2に示すように、張り出し部11の不完全結合部7Aと同様な不完全結合状態にある不完全結合部7Bが、下部電極4と補助電極8間で、基板の薄肉ダイヤフラム3上と厚肉部2に跨り形成され、振動における電気的定数を利用したセンサ素子等にあっては、かかる不完全結合部7Bの不完全結合状態のばらつきや経時変化が、振動形態の変化ひいては電気的定数の変化を引き起こす主原因の一つであることを見出した。 [0006] Means for Solving the Problems] Therefore, the result of the study, in the conventional piezoelectric / electrostrictive membrane element, as shown in FIG. 2, similar to the incompletely bonded portion 7A of the projecting portion 11 not incompletely bonded portion 7B in the fully coupled state, between the lower electrode 4 auxiliary electrode 8 is formed astride the thin diaphragm 3 and on the thick portion 2 of the substrate, the sensor element or the like utilizing electrical constants in oscillation is a, variation or aging of the incompletely bonded state of such incompletely bonded portion 7B has been found to be one of the main causes of change in the change and thus the electrical constants of the vibration form. すなわち、不完全結合状態であるがために、不完全結合状態を再現性よく安定的に形成することができないほか、実使用時に薄肉ダイヤフラム部が振動あるいは変位するため、部分的に結合がとれたり、マイクロクラックが生じたりするなどの現象が生じる。 That is, in order but incomplete coupling state, incompletely bonded state with good reproducibility stably form can not be other, since the thin diaphragm portion vibrates or displaced during actual use, or take a partially bonded , phenomena such as or cause micro-cracks. 【0007】本発明は、厚肉部を周縁部に持つ薄肉ダイヤフラム部を有するセラミックスからなる基板に、下部電極及び補助電極と、圧電/電歪膜と、上部電極を順次積層させた圧電/電歪膜型素子であって、下部電極と補助電極間に、絶縁体からなる結合層を設けることにより、圧電/電歪膜とセラミック基板を完全結合状態としたことを特徴とする圧電/電歪膜型素子である。 [0007] The present invention is a substrate made of ceramic having a thin diaphragm portion having a thick portion in the peripheral portion, and the lower electrode and the auxiliary electrode, a piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, a piezoelectric / electrostrictive where the upper electrode are sequentially laminated a strain film type element, between the lower electrode and the auxiliary electrode, by providing a bonding layer made of an insulator, a piezoelectric / electrostrictive characterized in that the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film and the ceramic substrate and the complete coupling state a film-type element. 完全結合状態とは、基板と結合層と圧電/電歪膜が一体化処理がなされた後の、圧電/電歪膜のピール(引き剥がし) Complete coupling state is after the coupling layer and the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film integrated process has been performed to the substrate, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film peel (peeling)
強度が2kg/mm 2以上の状態をいう。 Strength refers to 2kg / mm 2 or more states. 【0008】前記圧電/電歪膜としては、チタン酸鉛、 [0008] As the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, lead titanate,
ジルコン酸鉛、マグネシウムニオブ酸鉛、ニッケルニオブ酸鉛から選ばれた少なくとも1種以上を主成分とする材料で構成されることが好ましい。 Lead zirconate, lead magnesium niobate is preferably composed of a material containing as a main component at least one or more selected from nickel lead niobate. 【0009】また、前記圧電/電歪膜が、(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 ) Further, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5)
TiO 3またはこれを主成分とする材料で構成されることが好ましく、さらには、前記圧電/電歪膜は、(1−x) It is preferably composed TiO 3 or containing a material whose main component, and further, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film is (1-x)
(Bi 0 .5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0≦x≦ (Bi 0 .5 Na 0.5) TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (x is 0 ≦ x ≦ mole fraction
0.06)またはこれを主成分とする材料で構成されることがより好ましい。 It is is more preferably configured 0.06) or this in material mainly. 【0010】前記絶縁体からなる結合層としては、圧電/電歪膜の熱処理温度以上の軟化点を有するガラスであることがより好ましい。 [0010] As the bonding layer made of an insulator, and more preferably a glass having a softening point equal to or higher than the heat treatment temperature of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film. 【0011】加えて、圧電/電歪膜が、(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )Ti [0011] In addition, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) Ti
O 3またはこれを主成分とする材料、または、(1−x) O 3 or a material mainly composed of this, or, (1-x)
(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0≦x≦ (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (x is 0 ≦ x ≦ mole fraction
0.06)またはこれを主成分とする材料で構成される場合には、下部電極と補助電極間に、(1−x)(Bi 0.5 Na When constituted 0.06) or this in material mainly is between the lower electrode and the auxiliary electrode, (1-x) (Bi 0.5 Na
0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0.08≦x≦0.5)を主成分とする材料で構成された結合層を設けることにより、圧電/電歪膜とセラミック基板を完全結合状態とすることができる。 0.5) By TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (x is provided with a coupling layer made of a material composed mainly of 0.08 ≦ x ≦ 0.5) in a molar fraction, and a fully coupled state of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film and the ceramic substrate can do. 【0012】 【発明の実施の形態】図1には、本発明の圧電/電歪膜型素子の実施形態が示されている。 [0012] DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Figure 1 is an embodiment of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive membrane element of the present invention is shown. かかる圧電/電歪膜型素子は、薄肉のダイヤフラム部3と厚肉部2からなるセラミック基板1の上に、下部電極4及び補助電極8 Such piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element has, on a ceramic substrate 1 made of diaphragm portion 3 and the thick portion 2 of the thin, the lower electrode 4 and auxiliary electrode 8
と、圧電/電歪膜5及び、上部電極6が、通常の膜形成法によって順次積層されてなる一体構造となって形成されている。 When the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 and the upper electrode 6 is formed in a unitary structure formed by sequentially laminating the normal film forming method. 下部電極4と補助電極8の間で、絶縁体からなる結合層7Cにより、圧電/電歪膜とセラミック基板が完全結合状態にある完全結合部となっている。 Between the lower electrode 4 and auxiliary electrode 8, a bonding layer 7C made of an insulating material, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film and the ceramic substrate has a complete coupling unit in the fully coupled state. 本発明においては、張り出し部11は必ずしも必要ではなく、 In the present invention, overhang 11 is not necessarily required,
素子特性としての電気的定数のばらつきや経時変化をより小さくすることが求められる場合には、下部電極4と圧電/電歪膜5は、ほぼ同等の大きさとされる場合もある。 If it is desired to further reduce the variation or aging of the electric constant of the device characteristics, the lower electrode 4 and the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 may also be substantially the same size. 【0013】セラミック基板1の材質としては、耐熱性、化学的安定性、絶縁性を有する材質が好ましい。 [0013] As a material of the ceramic substrate 1, heat resistance, chemical stability, preferably a material having an insulating property. これは、後述するように下部電極4、圧電/電歪膜5、上部電極6を一体化する際に、熱処理する場合があること、センサ素子としての圧電/電歪膜型素子が液体の特性をセンシングする場合、その液体が導電性や、腐食性を有する場合があるためである。 This lower electrode 4, as described below, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5, when integrating the upper electrode 6, that it may be heat-treated, characteristics piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element is a liquid as a sensor element If sensing, the liquid and electrically conductive, there may be a case where a corrosive. かかる観点から使用できるセラミックスとしては、安定化された酸化ジルコニウム、酸化アルミニウム、酸化マグネシウム、ムライト、窒化アルミニウム、窒化珪素及びガラス等を例示することができる。 The ceramics can be used from this point of view, can be exemplified stabilized zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, mullite, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, and glass. これらの内、安定化された酸化ジルコニウムは薄肉ダイヤフラム部を薄く形成した場合にも機械的強度を高く保てること、靭性に優れることなどから、好適に使用することができる。 Among these, stabilized zirconium oxide is to maintain a high mechanical strength even when the formed thin thin diaphragm portion, and the like is excellent in toughness, can be suitably used. 【0014】セラミック基板1の薄肉ダイヤフラム部2 [0014] thin diaphragm portion of the ceramic substrate 1 2
の厚さとしては、圧電/電歪膜の振動を妨げないために、一般に50μm以下、好ましくは30μm以下、さらに好ましくは15μm以下とされる。 The thickness of, for allowing vibration of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, typically 50μm or less, preferably 30μm or less, more preferably a 15μm or less. また、薄肉ダイヤフラム部の表面形状としては、長方形、正方形、三角形、楕円形、真円形等いかなる形状もとりうるが、励起される共振モードを単純化させる必要のあるセンサ素子の応用では、長方形や真円形が必要に応じて選択される。 As the surface shape of the thin diaphragm portion, rectangular, square, triangular, elliptical, although a true circle or the like may also take any shape, in applications of the sensor elements that need to simplify the resonance mode to be excited, rectangular or true circular is selected as required. 【0015】このようなセラミック基板1の表面上に、 [0015] on the surface of such a ceramic substrate 1,
下部電極4及び補助電極8が形成されている。 The lower electrode 4 and auxiliary electrode 8 are formed. かかる下部電極4は、セラミック基板の一方の端から、薄肉ダイヤフラム部3上の、圧電/電歪膜5が形成されるべき大きさと同等か、より小さい所定の大きさで形成される。 Such lower electrode 4, from one end of the ceramic substrate, on the thin diaphragm portion 3, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 is size and equal to or to be formed, is formed at a smaller predetermined size.
下部電極4の一方の端は、リード用端子として用いられる。 One end of the lower electrode 4 is used as a lead terminal. 一方、補助電極8は、セラミック基板1の下部電極4とは反対側の端部から、薄肉ダイヤフラム3に向かって所定の位置まで形成されている。 On the other hand, the auxiliary electrode 8, the end opposite to the lower electrode 4 of the ceramic substrate 1 is formed to a predetermined position toward the thin diaphragm 3. 補助電極8の一方の端部は、リード用端子として用いられる。 One end of the auxiliary electrode 8 is used as a lead terminal. 【0016】下部電極4及び補助電極8は、異なる材質でも、同一の材質でもよく、セラミック基板1と圧電/ The lower electrode 4 and auxiliary electrode 8, also different materials may be the same material, the ceramic substrate 1 and the piezoelectric /
電歪膜5とのいずれとも接合性のよい導電性材料が用いられる。 With any bondability good conductive material and electrostrictive film 5 is used. 具体的には、白金、パラジウム、ロジウム、 Specifically, platinum, palladium, rhodium,
銀、あるいはこれらの合金を主成分とする電極材料が好適に用いられ、特に、圧電/電歪膜を形成する際に焼結のための熱処理が行われる場合には、白金、及びごれを主成分とする合金が好適に用いられる。 Silver, or an electrode material composed mainly of these alloys are preferably used, in particular, when the heat treatment for sintering is performed when forming the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, platinum, and Goreo alloy whose main component is preferably used. 【0017】下部電極4と補助電極8の形成には、公知の各種の膜形成手法が用いられる。 [0017] formation of the lower electrode 4 and auxiliary electrode 8, various known film formation method is used. 具体的には、イオンビーム、スパッタリング、真空蒸着、CVD、イオンプレーティング、メッキ等の薄膜形成手法や、スクリーン印刷、スプレー、ディッピング等の厚膜形成手法が適宜選択されるが、その中でも特にスパッタリング法及びスクリーン印刷法が好適に選択される。 Specifically, the ion beam, sputtering, vacuum deposition, CVD, ion plating, or a thin film formation method such as plating, screen printing, spraying, but thick-film forming technique dipping are appropriately selected, among the sputtering Law and screen printing method are preferably selected. 【0018】圧電/電歪膜5の形成に先立ち、圧電/電歪膜5とセラミック基板1を、下部電極4と補助電極8 [0018] Prior to formation of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 and the ceramic substrate 1, a lower electrode 4 auxiliary electrode 8
間で、完全結合状態とするための絶縁体からなる結合層7Cが形成される。 Between, bonding layer 7C is formed composed of an insulator for a complete coupling state. 絶縁体からなる結合層7Cとしては、圧電/電歪膜5とセラミック基板1の双方と密着性、結合性が高ければ、有機材料、無機材料のいずれの材料でもよい。 The bonding layer 7C made of an insulating material, both the adhesion of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 and the ceramic substrate 1, the higher the binding, organic material may be any material of the inorganic material. また、結合層7Cとして用いる材料の熱膨張係数が、基板材料の熱膨張係数及び、圧電/電歪膜5に用いる材料の熱膨張係数の中間の値を有することが、信頼性の高い結合性が得られるためより好ましい。 The thermal expansion coefficient of the material used as the bonding layer 7C is, the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate material and, to have an intermediate value of the thermal expansion coefficient of the material used for the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5, reliable bonding more preferable because the obtained.
圧電/電歪膜5が焼結のために熱処理される場合には、 When the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 is heat treated for sintering,
結合層7Cを構成する材料としてガラス材料が、圧電/ Glass material as the material constituting the bonding layer 7C is, the piezoelectric /
電歪膜5とセラミック基板1の双方と密着性、結合性が高いので、好適に用いられ、中でも圧電/電歪膜5の熱処理温度以上の軟化点を有するガラス材料が、圧電/電歪膜5と基板1をより強固に結合せしめ、また、軟化点が高いために熱処理による変形を抑制できることから、 Both the adhesion of the electrostrictive film 5 and the ceramic substrate 1, because of the high binding property, suitably used a glass material having a softening point equal to or higher than the heat treatment temperature of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 is inter alia, piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 and allowed more tightly bound to the substrate 1, also, because it can suppress deformation due to heat treatment because of the high softening point,
より好適に用いられる。 More preferably used. 【0019】さらに、圧電/電歪膜5が、後述の(Bi 0.5 Furthermore, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 is described below (Bi 0.5
Na 0.5 )TiO 3またはこれを主成分とする材料、または(1 Na 0.5) material and TiO 3 or mainly of this or (1,
−x)(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0 -X) (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (x is 0 mole fraction
≦x≦0.06)またはこれを主成分とする材料で構成される場合には、(1−x)(Bi 0. 5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO When ≦ x ≦ 0.06) or composed of a material mainly containing this, (1-x) (Bi 0. 5 Na 0.5) TiO 3 -xKNbO
3 (xはモル分率で0.08≦x≦0.5)を主成分とする材料で構成された結合層7Cが、圧電/電歪膜5とセラミック基板1の双方との密着性が高く、熱処理の際の圧電/ 3 (x is 0.08 ≦ x ≦ 0.5 in mole fraction) binding layer 7C made of a material whose main component is a high adhesion to both the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 and the ceramic substrate 1, the heat treatment when the piezoelectric /
電歪膜5及び基板1への悪影響を抑制できることから、 Electrostrictive film 5 and because it can suppress the adverse effect on the substrate 1,
より好適に用いられる。 More preferably used. すなわち、結合層7Cを(1− That is, the bonding layer 7C (1-
x)(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0.08 x) (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (x is the mole fraction 0.08
≦x≦0.5)とすることで、圧電/電歪膜5と同様の成分を有することから、圧電/電歪膜5との密着性が高く、 ≦ x ≦ 0.5) With, because it has the same components as the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5, high adhesion to the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5,
また、ガラスを用いた場合に生じ易い異種元素の拡散による問題が少なく、KNbO 3を多く含むことから、基板との反応性が高く強固な結合が可能となる。 Also, fewer problems due to the diffusion of likely different element to occur when using glass, since it contains a large amount of KNbO 3, it is possible to firmly bond has high reactivity with the substrate. また、(1− In addition, (1-
x)(Bi 0 .5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0.08 x) (Bi 0 .5 Na 0.5 ) TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (x is the mole fraction 0.08
≦x≦0.5)は、圧電特性をほとんど示さないので、使用時に下部電極4と補助電極8に生じる電界に対し、振動や変位及び応力を発生しないため、安定した素子特性を得ることができる。 ≦ x ≦ 0.5), since almost no piezoelectric properties, since the lower electrode 4 with respect to an electric field generated in the auxiliary electrode 8 does not generate vibrations or displacements and stresses during use, it is possible to obtain a stable device characteristics. 【0020】これらの結合層7Cの形成には、通常の厚膜手法が用いられ、特にスタンピング法、スクリーン印刷法、あるいは形成すべき部分の大きさが数十μm〜数 [0020] The formation of these bonds layer 7C, used the usual thick film technique, in particular stamping method, a screen printing method, or a few tens μm~ number size of the portion to be formed
100μm程度の場合にはインクジェット法が好適に用いられる。 An ink jet method is preferably used in the case of about 100 [mu] m. また、結合層7Cの熱処理が必要な場合には、 Further, when the heat treatment of the bonding layer 7C is required,
次の圧電/電歪膜5の形成前に熱処理されてもよいし、 May be heat-treated before forming the next piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5,
圧電/電歪膜5の形成後同時に熱処理されてもよい。 After formation of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 may be heat treated at the same time. 【0021】圧電/電歪膜5は、下部電極4、補助電極8及び結合層7Cに跨るようにして、また、下部電極4 The piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5, so as to straddle the lower electrode 4, auxiliary electrode 8 and the bonding layer 7C, The lower electrode 4
を覆う大きさで形成されている。 It is formed in a size covering. 圧電/電歪膜の材料としては、圧電/電歪効果を示す材料であればいずれの材料でもよく、このような材料として、ジルコン酸鉛、チタン酸鉛、チタン酸ジルコン酸鉛(PZT)等の鉛系セラミック圧電/電歪材料や、チタン酸バリウム及びこれを主成分とするチタバリ系セラミック強誘電体や、ポリ弗化ビニリデン(PVDF)に代表される高分子圧電体、あるいは(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3に代表されるBi系セラミック圧電体、Bi層状セラミックを挙げることができる。 As the material of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film may be any material as long as the material showing the piezoelectric / electrostrictive effect, as such a material, lead zirconate, lead titanate, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) of or lead-based ceramic piezoelectric / electrostrictive material, and Chitabari based ceramic ferroelectric composed mainly of barium titanate and this polymer piezoelectric typified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), or (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) Bi-based ceramic piezoelectric typified by TiO 3, mention may be made of Bi layered ceramic. もちろん、圧電/電歪特性を改善した、これらの混合物や、固溶体及び、これらに添加物を添加せしめたものが用いられうることは言うまでもない。 Of course, with improved piezoelectric / electrostrictive characteristics, and mixtures thereof, solid solutions and, it goes without saying that can these is used that allowed the addition of additives. PZT系圧電体は、圧電特性が高く、高感度検出が可能なセンサの材料として好適に用いられる。 PZT piezoelectric body, the piezoelectric characteristics are high, is preferably used as a material for sensor capable of highly sensitive detection. 本発明にあっては特に、チタン酸鉛、ジルコン酸鉛、マグネシウムニオブ酸鉛、ニッケルニオブ酸鉛から選ばれた少なくとも1種以上を主成分とする材料で構成されることが、基板を構成する材料との反応性が低く、熱処理中の成分の偏析が起き難く、組成を保つための処理が良好に行われ得、目的とする組成、結晶構造が得られやすいことから、より好適に用いられる。 Particularly in the present invention, lead titanate, lead zirconate, magnesium lead niobate, it is composed of a material mainly containing at least one or more kind selected from nickel lead niobate, constituting the substrate low reactivity with the material, hardly occurs segregation of the components during heat treatment, resulting performed good process for keeping the composition, the desired composition, since the crystal structure is easily obtained, more suitably used . 【0022】また、下部電極4及び補助電極8に白金または白金を主成分とする合金が用いられる場合には、これらとの接合性がより高く、素子の特性ばらつきを少なくし、高い信頼性が得られることから、(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 Further, when an alloy mainly containing platinum or platinum lower electrode 4 and auxiliary electrode 8 are used, these and bondability higher of, to reduce the characteristic variation of the element, high reliability since the resulting, (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5)
TiO 3またはこれを主成分とする材料が好適に用いられる。 Material to TiO 3 or main component which is preferably used. これらの中でも、特に、(1−x)(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )Ti Among these, in particular, (1-x) (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) Ti
O 3 −xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0≦x≦0.06)またはこれを主成分とする材料が、比較的高い圧電特性を有することから、より好適に用いられる。 O 3 -xKNbO 3 (x is 0 ≦ x ≦ 0.06 in molar fraction) material with or main component which, because it has relatively high piezoelectric characteristics, more suitably used. 【0023】このような圧電/電歪材料は、圧電/電歪膜5として、下部電極4と補助電極8と同様に公知の各種膜形成法により形成される。 [0023] Such a piezoelectric / electrostrictive material, the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5, is formed by various known film forming method in the same manner as the lower electrode 4 auxiliary electrode 8. 中でも、低コストの観点からスクリーン印刷が好適に用いられる。 Among these, screen printing from the viewpoint of low cost is preferably used. 【0024】これにより形成された圧電/電歪膜5は必要に応じて熱処理され、下部電極4、補助電極8及び結合層7Cと、一体化される。 The heat treated thereby optionally the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 formed, the lower electrode 4, the auxiliary electrode 8 and the bonding layer 7C, are integrated. 本発明にあっては、素子の特性ばらつきを抑え、信頼性を高くするために、圧電/ In the present invention, it suppresses the characteristic variation of the element, in order to increase the reliability, the piezoelectric /
電歪膜4と下部電極5及び補助電極8、結合層7Cの接合性を強固にする必要があるため、(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 Electrostrictive film 4 and the lower electrode 5 and the auxiliary electrode 8, it is necessary to strengthen the bonding of the bonding layer 7C, (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) TiO 3
またはこれを主成分とする材料、特に、(1−x)(Bi Or a material mainly composed of this, in particular, (1-x) (Bi
0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO 0.5 Na 0.5) TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0≦x≦0.0 3 (x is 0 ≦ x ≦ mole fraction 0.0
6)またはこれを主成分とする材料を用い、900℃から140 6) or a material mainly composed of this, 140 from 900 ° C.
0℃好ましくは1000℃から1300℃の温度で熱処理されることが好ましい。 0 ℃ preferably preferably be heat-treated at a temperature of 1300 ° C. from 1000 ° C.. PZT系材料を用いた場合にも同様である。 In the case of using the PZT material is the same. この際、高温時に圧電/電歪膜5が不安定にならないように、圧電/電歪材料の蒸発源とともに雰囲気制御を行いながら熱処理することが好ましい。 At this time, as the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 at a high temperature not become unstable, it is preferable to heat treatment while controlling the atmosphere together with an evaporation source of the piezoelectric / electrostrictive material. 【0025】さらに、このようにして形成された圧電/ Furthermore, formed in this way piezoelectric /
電歪膜5の上に、上部電極6が、圧電/電歪膜5から補助電極8にまで跨って連続的に形成されている。 On the electrostrictive 5, upper electrode 6 are sequentially formed over the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 to the auxiliary electrode 8. この上部電極6の材質としては、圧電/電歪膜5との接合性の高い導電性材料が用いられ、下部電極4及び補助電極8 As the material of the upper electrode 6, the piezoelectric / high conductivity material bonding between the electrostrictive film 5 is used, the lower electrode 4 and auxiliary electrode 8
と同様の膜形成法により形成される。 It is formed by the same film forming method as. さらに、上部電極6は、膜形成後必要に応じて熱処理され、圧電/電歪膜5及び補助電極8と接合され、一体構造とされる。 Further, the upper electrode 6 is heat treated as necessary after film formation, is bonded to the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5 and auxiliary electrode 8, it is an integral structure. このような熱処理がかならずしも必要でないことは下部電極4と同様である。 That such heat treatment is not necessarily required is the same as the lower electrode 4. 【0026】なお、下部電極4、接合層、圧電/電歪膜5、上部電極6が熱処理により接合される場合には、それぞれを形成の都度熱処理してもよいし、それぞれを順次膜形成後、同時に熱処理してもよい。 [0026] The lower electrode 4, bonding layer, when the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film 5, upper electrode 6 are bonded by heat treatment may be heat-treated every time the formation respectively, after sequentially film forming each , it may be heat-treated at the same time. 熱処理する際、 When the heat treatment,
良好な接合性や構成元素の拡散による変質を抑制するために、熱処理温度が適切に選ばれるのは言うまでもない。 To suppress the deterioration due to the diffusion of good bonding properties and constituent elements, of course the heat treatment temperature is appropriately chosen. また、図1では空洞部10に貫通孔9を形成しているが、素子が流体に接触する空洞部10以下の構造は、 Also, although forming the through hole 9 into the cavity 10 in FIG. 1, the structure of the following cavity 10 with the device is in contact with the fluid,
蓋部の無い単純なキャビティ構造等、どのような構造でもよく、限定しない。 Simple cavity structure without a lid or the like, may be any structure, without limitation. 【0027】 【発明の効果】本発明による圧電/電歪膜型素子にあっては、下部電極と補助電極間において、圧電/電歪膜と基板とが完全結合状態であるため、振動のばらつきや経時変化が無く、振動における電気的定数の検知により流体特性や液体/気体を判別する素子、あるいは音圧や微小重量、加速度等の測定素子、さらにはアクチュエータ素子として、好適な素子が得られることとなる。 [0027] In the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element according to the present invention, between the lower electrode and the auxiliary electrode, since the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film and the substrate is completely coupled state, the variation of the vibration and aging without, elements to determine the fluid properties and liquid / gas by the detection of the electric constant of the vibration or sound pressure and small weight, measurement devices such as acceleration, more as an actuator element, the preferred device can be obtained and thus.

【図面の簡単な説明】 【図1】本発明のセンサ用圧電/電歪膜型素子の実施形態を示す説明図である。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is an explanatory view showing an embodiment of a piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element for a sensor of the present invention. 【図2】従来のセンサ用圧電/電歪膜型素子の実施形態を示す説明図である。 FIG. 2 is an explanatory view showing an embodiment of a conventional piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element sensor. 【符号の説明】 1・・基板、2・・厚肉部、3・・ダイヤフラム部、4 [Description of Reference Numerals] 1 ... substrate, 2 ... thick portion, 3 ... diaphragm section, 4
・・下部電極、5・・圧電/電歪膜、6・・上部電極、 ... lower electrode, 5 ... piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, 6 ... upper electrode,
7A,7B・・不完全結合部、7C・・結合層、8・・ 7A, 7B ... incompletely bonded portion, 7C ... bond layer, 8 ...
補助電極、9・・貫通孔、10・・空洞部。 Auxiliary electrode, 9 ... through hole, 10 ... cavity.

───────────────────────────────────────────────────── フロントページの続き (58)調査した分野(Int.Cl. 7 ,DB名) H01L 41/09 ────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── of the front page continued (58) investigated the field (Int.Cl. 7, DB name) H01L 41/09

Claims (1)

  1. (57)【特許請求の範囲】 【請求項1】 厚肉部を周縁部に持つ薄肉ダイヤフラム部を有するセラミックスからなる基板に、下部電極及び補助電極と、圧電/電歪膜と、上部電極を順次積層させた圧電/電歪膜型素子であって、 下部電極と補助電極間に、絶縁体からなる結合層を設けることにより、圧電/電歪膜とセラミック基板を完全結合状態としたことを特徴とする圧電/電歪膜型素子。 (57) on a substrate made of ceramic having a thin diaphragm portion with Patent Claims 1. A thick portion in the peripheral portion, and the lower electrode and the auxiliary electrode, a piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, the upper electrode a piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type device obtained by sequentially stacking, between the lower electrode and the auxiliary electrode, by providing a bonding layer made of an insulator, in that the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film and the ceramic substrate and the complete coupling state the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type element characterized. 【請求項2】 前記圧電/電歪膜が、チタン酸鉛、ジルコン酸鉛、マグネシウムニオブ酸鉛、ニッケルニオブ酸鉛から選ばれた少なくとも1種以上を主成分とする材料で構成された請求項1記載の圧電/電歪膜型素子。 Wherein said piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, lead titanate, lead zirconate, claim configured magnesium niobate, at least one or more selected from nickel lead niobate with material mainly the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type device of 1, wherein. 【請求項3】 前記圧電/電歪膜が、(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 Wherein the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) TiO 3
    またはこれを主成分とする材料で構成された請求項1記載の圧電/電歪膜型素子。 Or piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element according to claim 1, wherein this is composed of a material mainly. 【請求項4】 前記圧電/電歪膜が、(1−x)(Bi 0.5 Wherein said piezoelectric / electrostrictive film, (1-x) (Bi 0.5
    Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO Na 0.5) TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0≦x≦0.06)またはこれを主成分とする材料で構成された請求項3記載の圧電/電歪膜型素子。 3 (x is the molar fraction in 0 ≦ x ≦ 0.06) or the piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type device according to claim 3, wherein this is composed of a material mainly. 【請求項5】 前記絶縁体からなる結合層が、該圧電/ 5. A bonding layer made of the insulator, piezoelectric /
    電歪膜の熱処理温度以上の軟化点を有するガラスであることを特徴とする請求項1乃至4のいずれかに記載の圧電/電歪膜型素子。 The piezoelectric / electrostrictive film type device according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that a glass having a softening point equal to or higher than the heat treatment temperature of electrostrictive film. 【請求項6】 前記絶縁体からなる結合層が、(1− 6. A binding layer composed of the insulator, (1-
    x)(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 −xKNbO 3 (xはモル分率で0.08 x) (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5) TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (x is the mole fraction 0.08
    ≦x≦0.5)を主成分とする材料で構成されていることを特徴とする請求項3又は4に記載の圧電/電歪膜型素子。 ≦ x ≦ 0.5) piezoelectric / electrostrictive film element according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that it is composed of a material composed mainly of.
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