JP3405980B2 - Digital audio compact disc copy protection - Google Patents

Digital audio compact disc copy protection

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Publication number
JP3405980B2
JP3405980B2 JP2001500269A JP2001500269A JP3405980B2 JP 3405980 B2 JP3405980 B2 JP 3405980B2 JP 2001500269 A JP2001500269 A JP 2001500269A JP 2001500269 A JP2001500269 A JP 2001500269A JP 3405980 B2 JP3405980 B2 JP 3405980B2
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
data
control data
audio
compact disc
disc
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
JP2001500269A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JP2003500789A (en
Inventor
ドマゴジ トルバラック マリジャン
Original Assignee
マクロビジョン・コーポレーション
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to GB9912312.7 priority Critical
Priority to GBGB9912312.7A priority patent/GB9912312D0/en
Application filed by マクロビジョン・コーポレーション filed Critical マクロビジョン・コーポレーション
Priority to PCT/GB2000/002011 priority patent/WO2000074053A1/en
Publication of JP2003500789A publication Critical patent/JP2003500789A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP3405980B2 publication Critical patent/JP3405980B2/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=10854243&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=JP3405980(B2) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • G11B20/0092Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which are linked to media defects or read/write errors
    • G11B20/00927Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which are linked to media defects or read/write errors wherein said defects or errors are generated on purpose, e.g. intended scratches
    • G11B20/00956Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which are linked to media defects or read/write errors wherein said defects or errors are generated on purpose, e.g. intended scratches said intentional errors occurring due to an invalid TOC
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • G11B20/00572Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which change the format of the recording medium
    • G11B20/00615Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which change the format of the recording medium said format change concerning the logical format of the recording medium, e.g. the structure of sectors, blocks, or frames
    • G11B20/0063Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which change the format of the recording medium said format change concerning the logical format of the recording medium, e.g. the structure of sectors, blocks, or frames wherein the modification to the logical format mainly concerns management data, e.g., by changing the format of the TOC or the subcode
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • G11B20/0092Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which are linked to media defects or read/write errors
    • G11B20/00927Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which are linked to media defects or read/write errors wherein said defects or errors are generated on purpose, e.g. intended scratches

Description

Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a method for copy-protecting a digital audio compact disc and a copy-protected digital audio compact disc. [0002] Digital audio compact discs (CD-DA) that carry music and other audio are known as CD-DAs.
It is reproduced or read by a more sophisticated device such as a ROM drive. This is, for example, the CD-
This means that the data on the DA may be read by a ROM drive to a PC and may be copied to another disk or other recording medium. The increasing availability of recording devices that can write to CDs is therefore a major threat to the music industry. [0003] The present invention provides a method for copy protecting a digital audio compact disc. According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for copy protecting a digital audio compact disc, wherein control data usable by a data reader is encoded on the compact disc, and the copy protection method is selected. Making the control data incorrect and / or inaccurate. In embodiments of the present invention, incorrect data encoded on a CD is either inaccessible by an audio player or generally not read. [0006] Of course, by making it impossible to reproduce audio compact discs with a data reader,
The user cannot use the CD-ROM drive and legally simply plays music or other audio on the disc. [0007] In this specification, the term "audio player" is used to refer to players and drives adapted to play audio data on digital audio compact discs. Such a player is typically a commercially available CD music player whose function is to simply play audio data or other audio on a CD. Incorrect data encoded on the CD and, in general, affects the normal operation of such an "audio player". In this specification, the term "data reader"
Is used to refer to all players and drives that can read the data on the disc, for example, by extracting or accessing the data on the disc. Accordingly, such players include CD-ROM drives. Generally, and as is known above, CD-ROM drives are, for example, legal CD-ROM drives.
Not only does it prevent making usable copies of DA,
Generally, it can also be prevented from playing legitimate CD-DA. In one embodiment of the method of the present invention, the erroneous data encoded on the compact disc is navigation and / or timing data. For example, data identifying the location of the lead-out on the disc is misleading within the lead-in.
As described above, the data in the lead-in indicating the time A at the start of the lead-out is incorrect. For example, data in the lead-in indicates that the A-time at the start of the lead-out is zero. Instead, the data in the lead-in has a value for the A-time at the start of the lead-out that occurs in the first audio track of the compact disc. [0011] Additionally and / or alternatively, the data on the CD that defines the characteristics of the track is corrupted. In a preferred embodiment, the data on the CD that incorrectly identifies the characteristics of the track identifies the audio track as a data track. In a preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention, the data encoded on the disc that has been corrupted is data in the table-of-contents (TOC) of a compact disc. [0014] Preferably, the control data encoded on the compact disc is altered to make an error prior to mastering the disc. The invention also includes a copy protected digital audio compact disc in which the control data usable by the data reader is encoded on the compact disc, and wherein the selected control data is incorrect and / or incorrect. [0015] Preferably, the incorrect data encoded on the compact disc is either inaccessible by an audio player or generally unreadable. This allows the copy protected disc to be played normally on an audio player. However, data encoded on copy-protected compact discs generally makes it impossible for a data reader to play the disc. This prevents the use of a data reader to extract or read data on the disk, thereby also preventing copying of the disk. Of course, it is no longer possible to use a CD-ROM drive, for example, to play audio on a legally obtained copy protected disc. In an embodiment, the incorrect data on the copy protected disc is navigation and / or timing data. For example, during the lead-in, erroneous control data is provided to identify the position of the lead-out on the disc. In this way, erroneous control data in the lead-in can incorrectly indicate the A-time at the start of the lead-out. For example, incorrect control data in the lead-in may indicate that the A-time at the start of the lead-out is zero. Alternatively, the erroneous data in the lead-in may have a value for the A-time at the start of the lead-out that occurs in the first audio track of the compact disc. Additionally and / or alternatively, the copy protected digital audio compact disc of the present invention may have erroneous control data encoded on the disc that defines the characteristics of the tracks on the disc. In an embodiment, the erroneous control data incorrectly identifies each audio track as a data track. [0021] The copy protected digital audio compact disc of the present invention comprises a disc table-off content (T) encoded on the compact disc.
It may have erroneous control data which is control data in OC). An embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. A digital audio compact disc (CD-DA) that carries music and is reproduced by an audio player such as a conventional CD disc player is created and recorded in a standard format known as the Red Book standard. Along with defining the physical properties of the disc, its dimensions and its optical properties such as laser wavelength, the Red Book also defines the signal format and the data encoding used. As is known, the use of the Red Book standard is based on any CD-DA manufactured according to that standard.
Also ensures that it can be played back on audio players manufactured according to that standard. FIG. 1 schematically shows the spiral track 4 on the CD 6. This spiral track 4 on the CD-DA is divided into a lead-in 8, a continuous music or audio track 10 and a lead-out 12. Lead-in 8
The audio player has a table of contents (TOC) identifying the track to follow, while the lead-out 12 indicates the end of the track 4. The audio player always accesses the lead-in 8 at the start. The music track is played continuously as the readhead follows track 4 from lead-in to lead-out. Instead, the player manipulates the readhead to the beginning of each audio track when needed. All compact disc players and readers are programmed to not move the readhead beyond leadout 12. This is to protect the read head. To the naked eye, a CD-ROM looks exactly like a CD-DA and has the same spiral track divided into sectors. However, data readers such as CD-ROM drives are more sophisticated and are capable of reading data from and processing information from each sector of a compact disk according to the nature of the data or information. The data reader can be operated by reading information from each sector, so that the readhead can be driven to access the appropriate part of the spiral track 4 when needed. In order to ensure that any data reader can read any CD-ROM, the compact disc and the reader are also made in this case in a standard known as the Yellow Book standard. The Yellow Book standard incorporates, but extends, the Red Book. Therefore, CD-ROM
A data reader such as a drive can be controlled to play a CD-DA. The ability of a data reader to access, extract, or otherwise read data on a CD-DA poses a problem for the music industry. A user may use a CD-R to read data from an audio disc to, for example, a computer file.
An OM drive can be used and the data can be copied. The increased availability of recording devices that can write to compact discs means that individuals and organizations have easy access to techniques for making perfect copies of audio compact discs. this is,
A major concern for the music industry. A dedicated compact disc music player or advanced CD-ROM drive when controlled to play an audio disc retrieves and uses data encoded in the Red Book standard. Further, if there is inaccuracy in the data, the audio will generally continue playing, rather than trying to correct the error. For example, if the readhead is navigated to the beginning of a track and the playback of the track starts, the audio player will continue to play the track to the end, for example, even if it is clear that there are some errors in the timing information . In contrast, data readers are adapted to identify and correct errors. Therefore, the present invention should intentionally introduce errors into the encoded data. For example, the mistake is
It can be introduced into the redbook data, but must be transparent to the erroneous audio player that is introduced. Alternatively, the audio disc may be encoded with unused, selected and erroneous yellow book data not used by the audio player. In each case, the error is selected such that the data reader cannot read or play the audio disc. The system of the present invention does not allow the user to play a legally obtained audio disc with copy protection on a data reader, i.e. simply play the music recorded on the disc, in a legal way It is recognized that there is a drawback. However, the music industry accepts this shortcoming in terms of potential losses from piracy. Data encoding on CD-DA and on CD-ROM is known and conforms to appropriate standards and need not be described at length here. Briefly, the data on the CD is EFM (8-
14 modulation). FIG. 2 illustrates the format of the frames, and as can be seen, each frame has synchronization data, subcode bits, data bits, and parity bits that provide control and display symbols. Each frame includes 24-byte data, which is audio data for CD-DA. There are eight subcode bits for each frame, designated as P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, and W. Generally, P and Q subcode bits are used in the audio format. The standard is 9 in Figure 2.
Eight frames require to be grouped into sectors, and the subcode bits from 98 frames are:
Collected to form subcode blocks. That is, each subcode block is composed of bytes from 98 consecutive frames at any one time. Thus, W is formed from eight different sub-channels P. These subchannels contain control data for the disk. P- and
The Q-subchannel incorporates timing and navigation data for tracks on the disc, and
Generally, there is only a sub-channel used in an audio disc. FIG. 3 shows the Q-subchannel blocks collected from 98 consecutive frames. As can be seen, the beginning of the subchannel block is indicated by the synchronization patterns S0 and S1 of the first two symbols. The next data bit is a control bit for defining the contents of the track. Thus, the control bits may distinguish between audio content and data content. This is followed by address information ADR that defines one of the four modes for the Q-data bits. 72 bits of Q-data follow the address information and 16C used for error detection of control, address and Q-data bits.
There are RC or check bits. FIG. 4 shows the data content of the Q-subchannel block in each of the four modes specified by the address information ADR. In mode 0, all Q-data has a value of zero. In mode 0, the data of the P-subchannel is also set to zero. In mode 2, the Q-data has the catalog number of the disc, such as a bar code of a universal product code. In addition, in the mode data 2, the A time count from the adjacent block is continuous. In mode 3, it is used privately to provide an ISR code to identify each music track. Further, as shown, in the mode 3, the absolute time count A time is continuous. As shown in FIG. 4, in mode 1, the Q-data in each sub-channel block includes the program and time information of the individual information tracks and the information area of the disc. As shown, the Q-data of the lead-in area, the program, and the Q-data of the lead-out area
The data is in a different format; However, in both formats of mode 1, the Q-data provides information along the track. The playback time of a track is called T time, which is minutes, seconds, and frames.
TFFrame is a component of T time.
In the program and lead-out areas, the Q-data further relates to the minute, second, and frame discs.
Amin, As which has information about the absolute time A time
ec and Aframe are all components of the A time. . FIG. 5 shows how the A and T times change across the disc. A-time is the absolute time spanned across the disc, starting at zero at the beginning of the program area. The T time is the elapsed time in each track, starting at zero at the beginning of each track. As shown in FIG. 5, the A time increases monotonically across the disk, while the T time increases along each track. As shown in FIG. 5, the P-subcode channel includes a flag F indicating the start of each track. As shown in FIG. 4, in mode 1, each Q-
The sub-channel block contains the next successive values for A-time and T-time. When the audio player plays the audio track, the head is operated at the start of the track. Navigation may be by A-time, T-time and / or P-subchannel flag or a combination thereof. Generally, once the audio player starts playing a track, it continues. In general, the reproduction of a track does not stop even if there is a data error. This effectively causes data errors that appear in the audio player to be ignored. Thus, the audio player is expected to provide a continuous audio output from the track without any problems if it is reliably operated at the beginning of the track. As described above, in mode 1, the Q-data provides the TOC in the lead-in area. Typical TO
Part of C is shown in table form in FIG. 6a. Than that
It can be seen that at 14 each track is given and at 16 the start address from the end of the lead-in is given in time and frame. Each track also has a logical block address (LBA) 18 calculated from the A time, providing an address for the beginning of the track on the disk. The TOC of the audio disc also identifies the A time from the beginning of the program area to the beginning of the lead-out indicated by 20. However, applicants generally have stated that audio players do not read or use the lead-out time from the TOC. FIG. 6b shows the table format part of the TOC from FIG. 6a after it has been modified to copy protect the disc. In particular, at 20, it can be seen that the A-time from the beginning of the disc program area to the lead-out area is set to zero, indicating that the lead-out is the start of the pre-gap of the first audio track. Therefore, the data reader accessing the disk 6 reads the lead-in information, which means that the disk has no program area and the lead-in is directly followed by the lead-out. The data reader refuses to transfer the readhead beyond the beginning of the audio track because it believes that the first track starts in the lead-out. Therefore, the data reader cannot read or play the disc having the TOC of FIG. 6b. It is understood that the values in the tables of FIGS. 6a and 6b are provided only to indicate how the information is manipulated to provide copy protection. The actual value of the disc may actually differ from the values shown in the table. The TOC of FIG. 6b is modified in a second way that also prevents the information on the disc from being used properly by the data reader. In this regard, and as is apparent from FIGS. 6a and 6b, the tracks on the audio disc are 2
All are audio tracks, as shown at 2. In the TOC of FIG. 6b, these tracks were incorrectly identified as data tracks. Thus, if the data reader is operated to ignore spurious lead-out information in the TOC, each subsequent track is told to contain digital information rather than analog audio. Thus, reading those tracks is confused because the player tries to read the data but cannot find the appropriate SYNC or sector header. In the illustrated embodiment, the A-time is set to zero, indicating that the lead-out is at the beginning of the pre-gap of the first audio track. Alternatively, the lead-out A-time can be set to an incorrect value. Such incorrect values will confuse the data reader and generally prevent the readhead from moving further across the disk than indicated by the incorrect lead-out time. For example, an A-time value provided in the TOC for a lead-out may indicate a position in the first or subsequent audio track. If the incorrect A-time value for the lead-out start time indicates the location of the program area in the disk, the data reader will cause the data reader to return to the disk at a position earlier than indicated by the incorrect A-time value. Can access audio data. However, the amount of accessible audio data is kept small. In the future, since the audio player would be able to read the lead-out time, for example, having the incorrect lead-out time recognize the position in the first audio track would mean that the audio player could Ensure that protected discs can be played. The above embodiment shows two changes made to the data in the audio disk lead-in to copy protect the disk. It will be appreciated that data, such as transparency, which spans the audio player, can also be modified to prevent operation of the data reader.
Additionally and / or alternatively, data may be provided on the audio disc to prevent the generation of digital output from the audio player. Alternative or further errors in the Red Book or Yellow Book specification data can be introduced if necessary. Further variations or modifications of the above-described embodiments are understood to be within the scope of the present application as set forth in the appended claims. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a view schematically showing a compact disc having spiral data tracks. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the structure of a frame of data encoded on a CD. FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a general data format of a Q subchannel. FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a data format of a Q sub-channel according to a mode. FIG. 5 is a diagram graphically showing both A time and T time on a compact disc. FIG. 6A is a diagram showing an example of a track definition having a table of contents of CD-DA. FIG. 6b shows the table of contents of the CD-DA shown in FIG. 6a when the disc is copy protected.

──────────────────────────────────────────────────続 き Continuation of the front page (56) References JP-A-11-328851 (JP, A) JP-A-11-96676 (JP, A) JP-A-10-326462 (JP, A) JP-A 8- 147766 (JP, A) WO 98/003973 (WO, A1) WO 98/52114 (WO, A1) WO 96/05595 (WO, A1) U.S. Patent 6,256,736 (US, A) U.S. Patent 6,208,598 (US, A) (58) Field surveyed (Int. Cl. 7 , DB name) G11B 20/10

Claims (1)

  1. (57) [Claims 1] Digital audio compact disc (CD-DA) for carrying audio data and control data
    Is copy protected, and the control data is
    -The copy protection method is encoded on the DA and the selected control data on the CD-DA is incorrectly and / or
    Or inaccurately, the selected control data is not accessible or generally not read by an audio player, and the audio player can play the audio data on its CD-DA However, wrong control data makes it impossible for audio data on the same CD-DA to be generally played by a data reader. 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the erroneous control data encoded on the compact disc is navigation and / or timing data. 3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the control data provided during the lead-in, which identifies the position of the lead-out on the disc, is misleading. 4. The method of claim 3, wherein the control data in the lead-in indicating the A-time of the start of the lead-out is incorrect. 5. The control data encoded on the compact disc defining the nature of the track is erroneous,
    5. The method according to claim 1, wherein each audio track is incorrectly identified as a data track. 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the erroneous control data encoded on the compact disc is data in table-of-contents (TOC) of the compact disc. 7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the control data encoded on the compact disc is modified prior to mastering the disc to make it incorrect. 8. Carrying audio data and control data,
    A copy-protected digital audio compact disc (CD-DA) whose control data is
    Encoded on the DA, the selected control data is incorrect and / or incorrect, and the selected control data is inaccessible or generally not read by the audio player. Either, the audio player can play the audio data on the CD-DA, but incorrect control data makes it impossible for the audio data on the CD-DA to be generally played by a data reader. A copy protected digital audio compact disc. 9. The copy protected digital audio compact disc according to claim 8, wherein the error control data on the disc is navigation and / or timing data. 10. The copy-protected digital audio compact disc according to claim 9, wherein erroneous control data is provided in the lead-in, and the position of the lead-out on the disc is identified. 11. The copy protected digital audio compact disc of claim 10, wherein the erroneous control data in the lead-in incorrectly indicates the A-time at the start of the lead-out. 12. The erroneous control data encoded on the compact disc defines the nature of the tracks on the disc and incorrectly identifies each audio track as a data track. A copy-protected digital audio compact disc according to claim 1. 13. The error control data encoded on the compact disc is control data in a table of contents (TOC) of the disc.
    A copy-protected digital audio compact disc according to any one of the preceding claims.
JP2001500269A 1999-05-26 2000-05-25 Digital audio compact disc copy protection Expired - Fee Related JP3405980B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9912312.7 1999-05-26
GBGB9912312.7A GB9912312D0 (en) 1999-05-26 1999-05-26 The copy protection of digital audio compact discs
PCT/GB2000/002011 WO2000074053A1 (en) 1999-05-26 2000-05-25 The copy protection of digital audio compact discs

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2003500789A JP2003500789A (en) 2003-01-07
JP3405980B2 true JP3405980B2 (en) 2003-05-12

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JP2001500269A Expired - Fee Related JP3405980B2 (en) 1999-05-26 2000-05-25 Digital audio compact disc copy protection

Country Status (13)

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EP (1) EP1101222A1 (en)
JP (1) JP3405980B2 (en)
CN (2) CN1523600A (en)
AU (1) AU773875B2 (en)
BR (1) BR0006159A (en)
CA (1) CA2338826A1 (en)
GB (2) GB9912312D0 (en)
HK (1) HK1037421A1 (en)
MX (1) MXPA01000950A (en)
NZ (1) NZ509615A (en)
PL (1) PL345732A1 (en)
RU (1) RU2249861C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2000074053A1 (en)

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CA2338826A1 (en) 2000-12-07
CN1523600A (en) 2004-08-25
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GB2355575B (en) 2003-07-23
GB0102129D0 (en) 2001-03-14

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