JP3312472B2 - Magnetic pole position detection device for motor - Google Patents

Magnetic pole position detection device for motor

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Publication number
JP3312472B2
JP3312472B2 JP05502594A JP5502594A JP3312472B2 JP 3312472 B2 JP3312472 B2 JP 3312472B2 JP 05502594 A JP05502594 A JP 05502594A JP 5502594 A JP5502594 A JP 5502594A JP 3312472 B2 JP3312472 B2 JP 3312472B2
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Prior art keywords
motor
detecting
magnetic pole
voltage
current
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JP05502594A
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JPH07245981A (en
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隆司 藍原
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富士電機株式会社
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Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a magnetic pole position detecting device for detecting a magnetic pole position of a rotor of an electric motor having an electric saliency, for example, a synchronous motor or a reluctance motor, without using a sensor.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art Synchronous motors (eg, brushless motors)
When driving a motor or a reluctance motor, it is necessary to supply a current with an appropriate phase corresponding to the magnetic pole position of the rotor in order to generate a desired torque. In a conventional driving device for these motors, the magnetic pole position of the rotor is detected by a method as shown in FIG. That is, the magnetic pole position sensor 2 is attached to the rotor shaft 1a of the electric motor 1, and when more accuracy is required, the magnetic pole position sensor 2 and the pulse encoder 3 are used in combination. FIG. 7B shows an example of an output signal of each phase of the magnetic pole position sensor 2, and FIG. 7C shows an example of an output signal of the pulse encoder 3.

[0003]

In the above prior art, since the magnetic pole position sensor 2 and the pulse encoder 3 are used for detecting the magnetic pole position, the sensor itself, the wiring of the output signal thereof, the receiving circuit and the like are provided. There was a problem that the cost was high. Also, if the wiring distance for supplying power to the sensor or transmitting the output signal is increased, the voltage drop due to the wiring resistance will increase, which will hinder the operation of the sensor. In the connection, there was a problem that troubles such as erroneous wiring and disconnection occurred.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention has been made to solve the above-mentioned various problems, and an object of the present invention is to eliminate the need for various kinds of sensors for detecting the position of magnetic poles and the wiring of power supplies and outputs thereof, thereby reducing costs. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide a magnetic pole position detecting device which solves the problem associated with wiring while solving the problem.

[0005]

In order to achieve the above object, a first aspect of the present invention is to detect a magnetic pole position of a motor having an electric saliency and to connect the motor to a variable voltage such as an inverter.
In a system driven by a driving device as a variable frequency power supply, an alternating voltage applying unit that applies an alternating voltage to the motor, a unit that detects the motor current, and a detected motor current that has a parallel component with respect to the applied alternating voltage and Vector conversion means for separating into orthogonal components, and magnetic pole position detection means for detecting the magnetic pole position of the motor based on at least one of the parallel component and the orthogonal component of the motor current.

According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided an alternating voltage applying means for applying an alternating voltage in the same direction as the estimated position of the magnetic flux axis of the rotor to the motor, a means for detecting the motor current, a parallel component and a quadrature of the detected motor current. Magnetic pole position detecting means for changing a magnetic flux axis estimated position by an adjuster so as to match a magnetic flux axis estimated position of the rotor with a magnetic flux axis actual position based on at least one of the components, and detecting a magnetic pole position based on the magnetic flux axis estimated position. And

A third aspect of the present invention provides an alternating current applying means for applying an alternating current to the motor, a means for detecting the motor terminal voltage, and a parallel component and a quadrature component with respect to the alternating current applying the detected motor terminal voltage. Vector conversion means for separating the motor; and magnetic pole position detection means for detecting a magnetic pole position of the motor based on at least one of a parallel component and a quadrature component of the motor terminal voltage.

According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided an alternating current applying means for applying an alternating current in the same direction as an estimated position of a magnetic flux axis of a rotor to a motor, a means for detecting a motor terminal voltage, a parallel component and a quadrature of the motor terminal voltage. Magnetic pole position detecting means for changing a magnetic flux axis estimated position by an adjuster so as to match a magnetic flux axis estimated position of the rotor with a magnetic flux axis actual position based on at least one of the components, and detecting a magnetic pole position based on the magnetic flux axis estimated position. And

In a fifth aspect based on the first to fourth aspects, there is provided means for removing a frequency component of the applied alternating voltage or alternating current from a voltage command value or a current command value for driving the motor.

[0010]

When an alternating voltage vector or an alternating current vector is applied to a motor, a current or a voltage is also generated in a direction orthogonal to the applied vector unless the applied vector and the rotor magnetic flux axis are parallel or orthogonal. , The magnitude of which is a sine function of twice the phase difference angle between the applied vector and the magnetic flux axis. Further, the magnitude of the current or the voltage generated in the direction parallel to the applied vector is obtained by giving an offset to the cos function of twice the phase difference angle between the applied vector and the magnetic flux axis.

Therefore, a current (motor current) vector or a voltage (motor terminal voltage) vector of a parallel component and a quadrature component is detected with respect to the alternating voltage vector or the alternating current vector applied to the motor, and at least one of the components is detected. From one side, the phase difference angle between the applied vector and the magnetic flux axis can be detected. The magnetic pole position can be directly detected from the phase difference angle, or the magnetic pole position can be indirectly detected by adjusting the phase of the applied vector so that the phase difference angle becomes zero. When both components are used, the phase difference angle can be detected based on the angle obtained by taking the inverse function of tan of the ratio of the magnitude of each component.

Further, only the current vector or the voltage vector generated in the direction orthogonal to the applied vector is detected, and the phase of the applied vector is adjusted so that the current vector or the voltage vector becomes zero. The magnetic pole position can also be detected.

In addition, a notch filter is inserted at an appropriate location so that the voltage command value or the current command value for driving the motor does not include the frequency component of the applied alternating voltage or current. Excitation other than the above can be eliminated. Conversely, on the detection side, a filter that passes only the applied alternating frequency is used, or unnecessary signals are removed by extracting the applied alternating frequency component by Fourier integration or the like, whereby the magnetic pole position can be determined even during driving of the motor. It becomes possible to detect.

[0014]

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. First, a voltage / current equation of a motor having an electric saliency is expressed on a coordinate axis on the motor side as Equation 1.

[0015]

(Equation 1)

In equation (1), the subscript d indicates the magnetic flux axis of the motor, q indicates the axis orthogonal to the d axis, and V d , V q , I d ,
I q , L d , and L q represent the d-axis component and the q-axis component of the primary voltage, primary current, and leakage inductance of the motor, respectively. Also,
R is winding resistance of the motor, P is a differential operator, in the case of the reluctance motor a field flux present when the [psi f is the synchronous motor is zero.

Here, a voltage / current equation obtained when observed from the coordinate axes (d c -q c axes) on the drive device side such as an inverter is considered. Now, d-q axes of the motor side and the d c -q c-axis of the drive side have a relationship of FIG. 5, and in between them there is θ phase difference angle. In this case, the physical quantity on the dq axis and the physical quantity on the d c -q c axis have the relationship of Equation 2.

[0018]

(Equation 2)

Equation 3 is obtained from Equations 1 and 2.

[0020]

[Equation 3]

In the equation 3, L 0 = (L d +
L q) / 2, is L 2 = (L d -L q ) / 2. Further, ω is an excitation frequency of the driving device corresponding to the rotation speed of the motor, and when ω = 0 for simplifying the calculation, Expression 4 is obtained.

[0022]

(Equation 4)

[0023] from Equation 4, changing the voltage or current on d on the c-axis or q c axis of the drive device side, PL 2 sin2θ at diagonal term of the matrix, the term -PL 2 sin2θ, perpendicular It can be seen that the current or voltage on the axis is affected. Here, L 2 is an electric motor having electrical saliency is not zero (L d ≠ L q) Therefore, the motor side of the d-
If the q-axis and the driving device side of the d c -q c-axis is phase angle θ not completely match, PL 2 sin2θ, -PL 2
The term sin2θ appears, affecting the current or voltage. The direction of the d c axis or the q c axis is arbitrary, and the direction of the applied voltage vector or current vector is also arbitrary.

Now, when an alternating current is applied to the motor to detect the motor terminal voltage, Equation 4 can be used as it is. As an example, I dc = I ·
If sin (2πf) t, I qc = 0 and the term of R is omitted, Equation 5 is obtained. Here, f is the frequency of the alternating current.

[0025]

(Equation 5)

In Equation 5, if I, f, and L 2 are known, then ± 45 ° (electrical angle, the same applies hereinafter) from V qc alone.
And the phase difference angle θ can be obtained in the range of I, f, L
Even if a part of 2 is unknown, it is possible to obtain the phase difference angle. Further, V dc and V qc are calculated as shown in the following Expression 6.
And taking the inverse function of tan using both
Is obtained and the addition and subtraction according to the magnitudes of Vdc and Vqc are performed , whereby the phase difference angle θ can be obtained in the range of ± 90 °. Based on the phase difference angle θ, the magnetic pole position can be detected directly or indirectly as described later.

[0027]

Θ ′ = (1 /) tan −1 {−V qc / (V dc −V 0 )} θ = θ ′ + 90 ° (V dc <V 0 , V qc <0), θ = θ ′ (V dc ≧ V 0 ), θ = θ′−90 ° (V dc <V 0 , V qc ≧ 0)

FIG. 6 shows the relationship between θ ′ and θ, V dc , V qc in equation (6). In Equation 6, V 0 = L 0 ω
I · sin (2πf) t.

In the above description, the applied alternating current I
Although dc is a sine wave current, it is more advantageous to apply a triangular wave current in order to reduce the calculation load on the drive device side.

Next, when an alternating voltage is applied to the motor to detect a current, the following equation (7) is obtained from the equation (4). In Expression 7, Δ = L 0 2 −L 2 2 cos 4θ.

[0031]

(Equation 7)

As an example, V dc = V · sin (2πf)
If t, V qc = 0 and the term of R is omitted, Equation 8 is obtained.

[0033]

(Equation 8)

In equation (8), if V, f, L 0 and L 2 are known, the phase difference angle θ can be obtained in a range of ± 45 ° only from I qc , and V, f, L 0 , L 2 it is possible to determine once the similarly phase difference angle θ even if you do not know part. Further, the phase difference angle θ can be obtained in the range of ± 90 ° in the same manner as in Expression 6. Based on this phase difference angle θ,
It is possible to detect the magnetic pole position directly or indirectly as described later. However, in this example, since there is a term of Δ in Expression 8, the accuracy of the phase difference angle θ is slightly lacking.

In the above description, the alternating voltage Vdc to be applied is a sine wave voltage. However, it is more advantageous to apply a square wave voltage in order to reduce the calculation load on the drive device. Further, although changing the current I dc or voltage V dc of d c-axis in either example, detecting phase difference angle θ in the same manner by changing the current I qc or voltage V qc of q c axis Can be.

As a method of detecting the magnetic pole position from the phase difference angle θ, the phase difference angle θ is added to the d c -q c axis phase angle θ 0 of the driving device (inverter) as described in the following embodiment. In addition to the method of directly obtaining the position, the d c -q c axis is rotated so that the phase difference angle θ becomes zero, in other words, the estimated magnetic flux axis position such that the estimated magnetic flux axis position of the rotor matches the actual magnetic flux axis position. , There is a method of indirectly detecting the phase difference angle θ.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a first embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment corresponds to an embodiment of the first invention described in claim 1, and detects an electric motor current by applying an alternating voltage to the electric motor. In the figure, reference numeral 4a denotes a sine wave voltage V dc (command value V dc * ) and V
qc (command value V qc * ) (= 0) and d c −q c axis phase angle θ 0 are input to the coordinate converter, and the three-phase (U, V, W phase) voltage output from the coordinate converter. The command value is input to an inverter 8 as a variable voltage / variable frequency power supply, and the output drives an electric motor 1 having an electric saliency. here,
The coordinate converter 4a and the inverter 8 constitute an alternating voltage applying means in the present invention.

Each phase current of the electric motor 1 is detected by a current detector 5 and the coordinate converter 4b is used together with the d c -q c axis phase angle θ 0.
And converted into I dc and I qc . That is, the motor current is separated into a parallel component and a quadrature component with respect to the applied alternating voltage vector. Here, the coordinate converter 4
b constitutes a vector conversion means in the present invention.

Each of the current components I dc and I qc is input to the phase difference detector 6, and the phase difference angle θ between the current components I dc and I qc and the dq axes is detected by the above equation (8). The phase difference angle θ is calculated by the adder 7 as d c
-Q c- axis phase angle θ 0 to add the magnetic pole position θ m
Is calculated. Here, the phase difference detector 6 and the adder 7 constitute magnetic pole position detecting means in the present invention.

According to this embodiment, since the magnetic pole position theta m is obtained at the moment of phase difference angle theta is obtained, there is an advantage detection delay is small. However, because it contains not a little calculation error in the detection of the phase angle theta, which is directly, there is a problem that is reflected in the detection accuracy of the magnetic pole position theta m.

FIG. 2 shows a second embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment corresponds to both embodiments of the first invention described in claim 1 and the second invention described in claim 2. This embodiment also detects an electric current by applying an alternating voltage to the motor, and the same components as those in FIG. 1 are denoted by the same reference numerals.

[0042] In this embodiment, from by changing the V dc far to obtain the phase difference angle theta is the same as FIG. 1, minus integrated by an integrator 9 phase difference angle theta, d c -q c-axis phase to convert the corner θ m. Then, the phase angle theta m coordinate converter 4a, by inputting the 4b, rotates the d c -q c-axis as phase difference angle theta is zero.

That is, the phase difference angle θ is indirectly detected by rotating the d c -q c axis to change the magnetic flux axis estimated position so that the phase difference angle θ detected by the phase difference detector 6 becomes zero. I do. According to this structure, since the d c -q c-axis phase angle theta m that matches one magnetic pole position, d c -q c-axis phase angle theta m itself is a magnetic pole position detection value. Here, the phase difference detector 6 and the integrator 9 constitute magnetic pole position detecting means in the present invention, and the integrator 9 functions as an adjuster for changing the estimated position of the magnetic flux axis.

According to the present embodiment, the detection error included in the phase difference angle θ is irrelevant to the magnetic pole position detection accuracy, which is advantageous in accuracy. Moreover, since such a case of changing the voltage or current of the d c-axis configuration, where if d c -q c-axis coincides with the polar axis q-axis current generates no torque ripple becomes zero, non Does not generate the necessary vibration. In this sense,
Axis for applying an alternating voltage or current, it can be said that people of d c-axis is advantageous than q c axis.

In the embodiments shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the case where the magnetic pole position is directly or indirectly detected by applying an alternating voltage to the motor and detecting the motor current has been described.
On the other hand, the magnetic pole position can be directly or indirectly detected by applying an alternating current to the motor and detecting the motor terminal voltage as in the third invention described in claim 4 and the fourth invention described in claim 5. The basic principle of the magnetic pole position detecting device to be detected is already clear from the above-described equations 4 to 6, and the configuration of the embodiment can be easily conceived from FIGS. 1 and 2, respectively.

For example, the input of the coordinate converter 4a in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 is applied to the sine wave I dc (command value I dc * ) and I
qc (command value I qc * ) (= 0), the current detector 5 is replaced with a voltage detector, and based on Vdc and Vqc obtained by the coordinate converter 4b, Expression 5 or The phase difference angle θ may be obtained by calculating Expression 6.

The above description is based on the assumption that ω = 0, but this is extended to ω ≠ 0 in the following. FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing a third embodiment of the present invention.
This corresponds to both embodiments of the second invention and the fifth invention described in claim 7. According to this embodiment, ω ≠
The case of 0 will be described.

In FIG. 3, ΔV dc is an alternating voltage, which is added to the voltage output of the current control controller 10 by the adder 7a and input to the coordinate converter 4a as a d-axis voltage command value. Current command value i given to current control controller 10
As for q * , the alternating frequency component is removed by passing through the notch filter 11a. Therefore, the alternating frequency component included in the voltage command value input to the coordinate converter 4a is only ΔVdc . This voltage command value is applied to the electric motor 1 by the inverter 8 as an actual voltage.

The current of the motor 1 is detected by a current detector 5 and converted into I dc and I qc via a coordinate converter 4b. These I dc, I qc is the notch filter 11b, 11
After the alternating frequency components have been removed by c, the current signals are input to the current control controller 10 as feedback signals.

On the other hand, the outputs of the adders 7b and 7c are the differences between the original signals I dc and I qc and the outputs of the notch filters 11b and 11c, respectively, and are equivalent to the outputs of the band-pass filters. That is, only the alternating frequency components appear in the outputs of the adders 7b and 7c, and are input to the phase difference detector 6 as ΔI dc and ΔI qc to detect the phase difference angle θ. can be obtained d c -q c-axis phase angle theta m if negative integral to input 9. Here, the notch filters 11a, 11b, 11c constitute means for removing the frequency components of the applied alternating voltage and current from the voltage command value for driving the electric motor. In order to extract the alternating frequency component on the input side of the phase difference detector 6, Fourier integration may be performed.

With the above configuration, the alternating frequency component of the applied voltage or current can be separated from the motor command voltage command value or current command value. This is the same result as when ω = 0 when looking only at the alternating frequency component, and the following Expression 9 can be obtained in the same manner as Expression 4. Therefore, it is possible to directly or indirectly detect the magnetic pole position by obtaining the phase difference angle θ based on Expression 9 as in the case of ω = 0.

[0052]

(Equation 9)

[0053] Further, when the motor rotation speed becomes high, the delay of the corrective action of theta m by the integrator 9 of Figure 3 causes a steady-state deviation of theta, becomes a problem. Therefore, a method for eliminating the steady-state deviation will be described with reference to FIG. 4 as a fourth embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment is also the second embodiment.
This corresponds to the embodiments of both the invention and the fifth invention.

Hereinafter, only differences from FIG. 3 will be described. First, the gain of the minus integration of the integrator 9 in FIG. 3 is divided as a gain (-K) 14 in FIG. Then, a differentiated signal of θ m is obtained by the differentiator 12, and the output is input to the adder 7 d through the low-pass filter 13,
The result of the addition is integrated by the integrator 15. With such a configuration, the output becomes the angular velocity omega m of the low-pass filter 13, it can be a phase difference angle theta in the steady state to zero to obtain integrated to the d c -q c-axis phase angle theta m this Can be.

The idea of the fifth invention described with reference to the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4 can be applied not only to the second invention but also to the first, third, and fourth inventions. .

[0056]

As described above, according to the present invention, in a drive system for a motor having an electric saliency such as a synchronous motor or a reluctance motor, the drive state is changed from a stop state to a drive state without using various sensors for detecting magnetic pole positions. The magnetic pole position can be detected up to this point. This eliminates the need for wiring of the sensor itself, its power supply, output, etc., thereby reducing costs and reducing sensor power supply voltage due to voltage drop in the wiring, attenuating output signals, erroneous wiring, disconnection, etc. There is an effect that trouble can be prevented.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a first embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing a second embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing a third embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing a fourth embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a relationship between dq axes and d c -q c axes in the example.

FIG. 6 is a diagram showing a relationship between θ ′ and θ, V dc , V qc in the embodiment.

FIG. 7 is an explanatory diagram showing a conventional technique.

[Explanation of symbols]

 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Electric motor 4a, 4b Coordinate converter 5 Current detector 6 Phase difference detector 7, 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d Adder 8 Inverter 9, 15 Integrator 10 Current control controller 11a, 11b, 11c Notch filter 12 Differentiator 13 Low pass filter 14 Gain

Continuation of the front page (58) Field surveyed (Int.Cl. 7 , DB name) H02P 6/16 H02P 7/05 H02P 7/63

Claims (7)

(57) [Claims]
1. A system for detecting a magnetic pole position of a motor having an electric saliency and driving the motor by a driving device as a variable voltage / variable frequency power supply, comprising: an alternating voltage applying means for applying an alternating voltage to the motor; Means for detecting the motor current; vector conversion means for separating the detected motor current into a parallel component and a quadrature component with respect to the applied alternating voltage; and based on at least one of the parallel component and the quadrature component of the motor current. And a magnetic pole position detecting means for detecting a magnetic pole position of the electric motor.
2. A system for detecting a magnetic pole position of an electric motor having an electric saliency and driving the electric motor by a driving device as a variable voltage / variable frequency power supply. Means for applying a voltage to the motor; means for detecting the motor current; means for estimating the magnetic flux axis estimated position of the rotor based on at least one of the parallel component and the orthogonal component of the detected motor current. A magnetic pole position detecting device for an electric motor, comprising: a magnetic pole position detecting means for changing a magnetic flux axis estimated position by an adjuster so as to match, and detecting a magnetic pole position based on the magnetic flux axis estimated position.
3. The magnetic pole position detecting device according to claim 1, wherein the alternating voltage applied to the electric motor is a square wave.
4. A system for detecting a magnetic pole position of a motor having an electric saliency and driving the motor by a driving device as a variable voltage / variable frequency power supply, comprising: an alternating current applying means for applying an alternating current to the motor; Means for detecting a motor terminal voltage; vector conversion means for separating a detected motor terminal voltage into a parallel component and an orthogonal component with respect to an alternating current to which the detected motor terminal voltage is applied; and at least one of a parallel component and an orthogonal component of the motor terminal voltage And a magnetic pole position detecting means for detecting a magnetic pole position of the electric motor based on the following.
5. A system for detecting a magnetic pole position of an electric motor having an electric saliency and driving the electric motor by a driving device as a variable voltage / variable frequency power supply. Means for applying an electric current to the motor; means for detecting the motor terminal voltage; and at least one of the parallel component and the orthogonal component of the motor terminal voltage. A magnetic pole position detecting device for an electric motor, comprising: a magnetic pole position detecting means for changing a magnetic flux axis estimated position by an adjuster so as to match, and detecting a magnetic pole position based on the magnetic flux axis estimated position.
6. The magnetic pole position detecting device according to claim 4, wherein the alternating current applied to the electric motor is a triangular wave.
7. The magnetic pole position detecting device according to claim 1, wherein the applied alternating voltage or the frequency component of the alternating current is determined from a voltage command value or a current command value for driving the electric motor. A magnetic pole position detecting device for an electric motor, comprising: means for removing.
JP05502594A 1994-03-01 1994-03-01 Magnetic pole position detection device for motor Expired - Lifetime JP3312472B2 (en)

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