JP2014112732A - Substrate for power module with heat sink and power module - Google Patents

Substrate for power module with heat sink and power module Download PDF

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JP2014112732A
JP2014112732A JP2014052676A JP2014052676A JP2014112732A JP 2014112732 A JP2014112732 A JP 2014112732A JP 2014052676 A JP2014052676 A JP 2014052676A JP 2014052676 A JP2014052676 A JP 2014052676A JP 2014112732 A JP2014112732 A JP 2014112732A
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Prior art keywords
heat sink
layer
metal layer
power module
substrate
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Yoshiyuki Nagatomo
義幸 長友
Nobuyuki Terasaki
伸幸 寺▲崎▼
Yoshio Kuromitsu
祥郎 黒光
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Mitsubishi Materials Corp
三菱マテリアル株式会社
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    • HELECTRICITY
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a substrate for power module with a heat sink which can facilitate heat dissipation from a heating element, e.g., an electronic component mounted on a circuit layer, while having excellent power cycle characteristics, and can suppress occurrence of cracking of an insulation substrate, and a solder layer formed between a metal layer and the heat sink, during thermal cycle load.SOLUTION: Thickness tof a circuit layer 112 composed of copper or a copper alloy, on which an electronic component 3 is mounted via a first solder layer 102, is in the range of 0.1 mm≤t≤0.6 mm. Thickness tof a metal layer 113 composed by bonding an aluminum plate, composed of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, to which a heat sink 140 is bonded via a second solder layer 108, is in the range of 0.5 mm≤t≤6 mm. The thickness tof the circuit layer 112 and the thickness tof the metal layer 113 have a relation t<t.

Description

  The present invention relates to a power module substrate with a heat sink and a power module used in a semiconductor device that controls a large current and a high voltage.

Among semiconductor elements, a power module for supplying power has a relatively high calorific value, and for example, AlN (aluminum nitride), Al 2 O 3 (alumina), Si 3 N 4 ( A circuit layer formed by bonding a first metal plate to one surface side of an insulating substrate made of silicon nitride), and a metal layer formed by bonding a second metal plate to the other surface side of the insulating substrate; The board for power modules provided with is used.
In such a power module substrate, a semiconductor element of a power element is mounted on a circuit layer via a solder material.
And the heat sink for cooling the board | substrate for power modules is joined to the other surface side of a metal layer.

  For example, Patent Document 1 discloses a power module substrate in which a first metal plate and a second metal plate constituting a circuit layer and a metal layer are copper plates, and the copper plates are directly bonded to an insulating substrate by a DBC method. Proposed. Further, as shown in FIG. 1 of Patent Document 1, a power module substrate with a heat sink is configured by joining an aluminum heat sink to the power module substrate using an organic heat-resistant adhesive. Yes.

  Patent Document 2 proposes a power module substrate using an aluminum plate as a first metal plate and a second metal plate constituting a circuit layer and a metal layer. In the power module substrate, a heat module with heat sink is configured by joining a heat sink to the metal layer by brazing.

  Further, Patent Document 3 proposes a circuit layer in which a metal plate is joined to one surface of an insulating substrate, and an aluminum heat sink is directly formed on the other surface of the insulating substrate by a casting method. . And it discloses that using an aluminum plate and a copper plate as a metal plate which comprises a circuit layer.

Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 04-162756 Japanese Patent No. 3171234 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2002-075651

Incidentally, in the power module substrate and the power module substrate with a heat sink described in Patent Document 1, since the copper plate is disposed between the aluminum heat sink and the insulating substrate, the heat sink and the insulating substrate There was a problem that thermal strain caused by the difference in thermal expansion coefficient could not be sufficiently relaxed in this copper plate, and cracking or the like was likely to occur in the insulating substrate during thermal cycle loading.
Patent Document 1 describes that the thermal distortion is alleviated by an organic heat resistant adhesive interposed between the heat sink and the metal layer. However, the organic heat resistant adhesive is interposed. Since the thermal resistance increases, there is a problem that heat from a heating element such as an electrical component mounted on the circuit layer cannot be efficiently dissipated to the heat sink side.

Moreover, in the power module substrate and the power module substrate with a heat sink described in Patent Document 2, an aluminum plate is used as the first metal plate constituting the circuit layer.
Here, when copper and aluminum are compared, since aluminum has lower thermal conductivity, when an aluminum plate is used as the first metal plate constituting the circuit layer, it is mounted on the circuit layer. It is inferior to copper to spread and dissipate heat from heating elements such as electrical parts. For this reason, when the power density increases due to downsizing and high output of the electronic component, there is a possibility that heat cannot be sufficiently dissipated. Therefore, there is a possibility that durability when a power cycle is loaded may be reduced.

Furthermore, in the power module substrate with a heat sink described in Patent Document 3, since the aluminum heat sink is directly bonded to the insulating substrate, the thermal distortion caused by the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the heat sink and the insulating substrate. As a result, the insulating substrate tends to crack. In order to prevent this, in Patent Document 3, it is necessary to set the proof stress of the heat sink low. For this reason, the strength of the heat sink itself is insufficient, and handling is very difficult.
In addition, since the heat sink is formed by a casting method, the structure of the heat sink becomes relatively simple, a heat sink having a high cooling capacity cannot be formed, and heat dissipation cannot be promoted. It was.

  The present invention has been made in view of the circumstances described above, and can promote the dissipation of heat from a heating element such as an electronic component mounted on a circuit layer, has excellent power cycle characteristics, A highly reliable power module substrate and power module with a heat sink that can suppress the occurrence of cracks in the insulating substrate during cycle loading, and can also suppress the occurrence of cracks in the solder layer formed between the metal layer and the heat sink. The purpose is to provide.

In order to solve such problems and achieve the object, a power module substrate with a heat sink according to the present invention includes an insulating substrate, a circuit layer formed on one surface of the insulating substrate, and the insulating substrate. A power module substrate with a heat sink, comprising: a metal layer formed on the other surface of the substrate; and a heat sink bonded to the metal layer, wherein the circuit layer is made of copper or a copper alloy. One surface of the layer is a mounting surface on which an electronic component is mounted via a first solder layer, and the metal layer is formed by joining an aluminum plate made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and the metal layer And the heat sink are joined via a second solder layer, the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer is in the range of 0.1 mm ≦ t 1 ≦ 0.6 mm, and the thickness t of the metal layer 2 is 0 .5 mm ≦ t 2 ≦ 6 mm, and the relationship between the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer is t 1 <t 2 .

In the power module substrate with a heat sink having this configuration, the power module substrate includes a circuit layer made of copper or a copper alloy, and a metal layer made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. Since the thickness t 1 and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer are defined as described above, the rigidity of the power module substrate is ensured, and the power module substrate is deformed during a thermal cycle load. It is difficult to suppress the occurrence of cracks in the second solder layer.
Further, since the thickness t 1 of the relatively deformation resistance larger copper and circuit layer made of a copper alloy is equal to or greater than 0.1 mm, it is possible to flow a large current, it is possible to mount the power element . Further, since the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer is a 0.6mm or less, without being restricted more than necessary insulating substrate by the circuit layer, it is possible to suppress the cracking of the insulating substrate.
Further, since the thickness t 2 of the metal layer composed of a relatively small aluminum and aluminum alloy deformation resistance is equal to or greater than 0.5 mm, it is loaded on the power module substrate by the metal layer is deformed stress Is mitigated, and it becomes possible to suppress cracking of the insulating substrate. Further, since the thickness t 2 of the metal layer is a 6mm or less, it is possible to reduce the thermal resistance in the metal layer. The thickness t 2 of the metal layer from the point of view it is desirable to 3mm or less.
Furthermore, since the relationship between the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer is t 1 <t 2 , the occurrence of warpage in the power module substrate can be suppressed.

Moreover, in the above-mentioned power module substrate with a heat sink, the thermal strain caused by the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the insulating substrate and the heat sink can be alleviated by deformation of the sufficiently thick metal layer. Since the circuit layer does not strongly restrain the insulating substrate itself, the insulating substrate can be prevented from cracking.
Furthermore, in the power module substrate with a heat sink described above, the circuit layer having the mounting surface on which the electronic component is mounted is made of copper or copper alloy, so that the heat generated from the electronic component can be sufficiently expanded. It becomes possible to promote heat dissipation. Therefore, durability when a power cycle is loaded can be improved.

Here, the relationship between the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer is preferably t 2 / t 1 ≧ 2.5.
In this case, the relationship between the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer made of copper or copper alloy and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer made of aluminum and aluminum alloy is t 2 / t 1 ≧ 2.5 Therefore, the occurrence of warpage in the power module substrate with a heat sink can be reliably suppressed.

Further, in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate in the metal layer, any one or more additive elements of Si, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mg, Ge, Ca, Ga, and Li are present. It is preferable that the total concentration of the additive elements in the vicinity of the bonding interface in the metal layer is set within a range of 0.01% by mass to 5% by mass.
In this case, one or more additive elements of Si, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mg, Ge, Ca, Ga, and Li are dissolved in the metal layer, and the metal layer Of these, the total concentration of the additive elements in the vicinity of the bonding interface is 0.01% by mass or more, so that the bonding interface side portion of the metal layer is strengthened by solid solution. In addition, since the total concentration of the additive elements in the vicinity of the bonding interface in the metal layer is 5% by mass or less, it is possible to prevent the strength in the vicinity of the bonding interface of the metal layer from being excessively increased. When a thermal cycle is loaded on the power module substrate with attachment, thermal strain can be alleviated with the metal layer, and cracking of the insulating substrate can be suppressed.

Furthermore, the concentration of any one or more of additive elements of Si, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mg, Ge, Ca, Ga, and Li is present at the bonding interface with the insulating substrate in the metal layer. However, it is preferable that a high concentration portion of the additive element that is at least twice the concentration of the additive element in the metal layer is formed.
In this case, a high concentration portion of the additive element in which the concentration of the additive element is twice or more the concentration of the additive element in the metal layer is formed at the junction interface of the metal layer, so that it exists in the vicinity of the interface. The additive element atoms to be improved can improve the bonding strength of the metal layer. The concentration of the additive element in the metal layer is the concentration of the additive element in a portion of the metal layer that is apart from the bonding interface by a certain distance (for example, 5 nm or more).

Moreover, it is preferable that the indentation hardness H B1 in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate in the circuit layer is in a range of 60 mgf / μm 2 ≦ H B1 ≦ 120 mgf / μm 2 .
In this case, since the indentation hardness H B1 in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate in the circuit layer is 60 mgf / μm 2 or more, the strength in the vicinity of the bonding interface of the circuit layer is secured, and the circuit layer itself It is possible to prevent cracks from occurring. Further, since the indentation hardness H B1 is set to 120 mgf / μm 2 or less, the insulating substrate is not firmly restrained by the circuit layer, and cracking of the insulating substrate can be suppressed.

Moreover, it is preferable that the indentation hardness H B2 in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate in the metal layer is in the range of 30 mgf / μm 2 ≦ H B2 ≦ 80 mgf / μm 2 .
In this case, since the indentation hardness H B2 in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate in the metal layer is 30 mgf / μm 2 or more, the strength in the vicinity of the bonding interface of the metal layer is secured, and the metal layer itself It is possible to prevent cracks from occurring. Further, since the indentation hardness H B2 is 80 mgf / μm 2 or less, the deformation resistance of the metal layer can be kept low, and the stress is relieved by the deformation of the metal layer to suppress the cracking of the insulating substrate. It becomes possible.

The indentation hardness H B1 in the vicinity of the bonding interface of the circuit layer and the indentation hardness H B2 in the vicinity of the bonding interface of the metal layer were measured under the following measurement conditions with a measurement position of 50 μm from the bonding interface.
Measuring device: ENT-1100a manufactured by Elionix Co., Ltd.
Indenter: Berkovich triangular pyramid indenter Test load: 5000 mgf
Number of divisions: 500 steps
Step interval: 20 msec
Temperature: 27 ° C
Mode: Load-unloading test Measured value: HIT = maximum load / contact projected area

A power module of the present invention is a power module comprising the above-described power module substrate with a heat sink and an electronic component mounted on the circuit layer, wherein the electronic component is on one surface of the circuit layer. The metal layer and the heat sink are bonded to each other through a first solder layer, and the metal layer and the heat sink are bonded to each other through a second solder layer.
According to the power module of this configuration, the heat from the electronic components mounted on the circuit layer can be efficiently dissipated, and even when the power density (heat generation amount) of the electronic components is improved, it is sufficient It can correspond to. Further, durability during power cycle loading can be improved.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to promote the dissipation of heat from a heating element such as an electronic component mounted on a circuit layer, to have excellent power cycle characteristics, and to prevent generation of cracks in an insulating substrate during a cold cycle load. It is possible to provide a highly reliable power module substrate with a heat sink and a power module that can suppress the occurrence of cracks in the solder layer formed between the metal layer and the heat sink.

It is a schematic explanatory drawing of the power module using the board for power modules which is a reference embodiment of the present invention. It is a flowchart of the manufacturing method of the board | substrate for power modules which is reference embodiment of this invention, and the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink. It is explanatory drawing which shows the manufacturing method of the board | substrate for power modules which is reference embodiment of this invention, and the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink. It is a schematic explanatory drawing of the power module using the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink which is embodiment of this invention. It is a flowchart of the manufacturing method of the board | substrate for power modules which is embodiment of this invention, and the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink. It is a schematic explanatory drawing of the power module using the board | substrate for power modules which is other reference embodiment of this invention. It is expansion explanatory drawing of the circuit layer and insulating board of the board | substrate for power modules which are other reference embodiment of this invention.

Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 shows a power module substrate 10, a power module substrate 40 with a heat sink, and a power module 1 using the power module substrate 10 according to a reference embodiment of the present invention.
This power module 1 includes a power module substrate 40 with a heat sink, and a semiconductor element (electronic component) bonded to one surface (upper side in FIG. 1) of the power module substrate 40 with a heat sink via a solder layer 2. 3 is provided.
Here, the solder layer 2 is made of, for example, a Sn—Ag, Sn—In, or Sn—Ag—Cu solder material.

The power module substrate 40 with a heat sink includes a power module substrate 10 and a heat sink 41 that cools the power module substrate 10.
The heat sink 41 in the present embodiment includes a top plate portion 42 joined to the power module substrate 10 and a cooling member 43 stacked on the top plate portion 42. A flow path 44 through which a cooling medium flows is formed inside the cooling member 43.

Here, the top plate portion 42 and the cooling member 43 are connected by a fixing screw 45. For this reason, it is necessary to ensure rigidity so that the top plate portion 42 is not easily deformed even if the fixing screw 45 is screwed. Therefore, in this embodiment, the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41 is made of a metal material having a proof stress of 100 N / mm 2 or more, and the thickness thereof is 2 mm or more. In the present embodiment, the top plate portion 42 is made of an A6063 alloy (aluminum alloy).

  The power module substrate 10 includes an insulating substrate 11, a circuit layer 12 disposed on one surface of the insulating substrate 11 (upper surface in FIG. 1), and the other surface (lower surface in FIG. 1) of the insulating substrate 11. And a disposed metal layer 13.

The insulating substrate 11 prevents electrical connection between the circuit layer 12 and the metal layer 13, and is, for example, AlN (aluminum nitride), Si 3 N 4 (silicon nitride), Al 2 O 3 (alumina). In the present embodiment, it is made of Al 2 O 3 (alumina). Further, the thickness of the insulating substrate 11 is set within a range of 0.2 mm or more and 1.5 mm or less, and is set to 0.635 mm in the present embodiment.

  The circuit layer 12 is formed by bonding a copper plate 22 made of copper or a copper alloy to one surface of the insulating substrate 11. In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 3, a tough pitch copper rolled plate is used as the copper plate 22 constituting the circuit layer 12. A circuit pattern is formed on the circuit layer 12, and one surface (the upper surface in FIG. 1) is a mounting surface on which the semiconductor element 3 is mounted.

The metal layer 13 is formed by joining an aluminum plate 23 made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy to the other surface of the insulating substrate 11. In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 3, a rolled plate of aluminum (so-called 4N aluminum) having a purity of 99.99% or more is used as the aluminum plate 23 constituting the metal layer 13. The aluminum plate 23 has a 0.2% proof stress of 30 N / mm 2 or less.

Here, the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer 12 (copper plate 22) is set within a range of 0.1 mm ≦ t 1 ≦ 0.6 mm, and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer 13 (aluminum plate 23) is is set in a range of 0.5 mm ≦ t 2 ≦ 6 mm, further the relationship between the thickness t 2 of the thickness t 1 and the metal layer 13 of the circuit layer 12 is a t 1 <t 2. The relationship between the thickness t 2 of the thickness t 1 and the metal layer 13 of the circuit layer 12, which is preferably a t 2 / t 1 ≧ 2.5.
In the present embodiment, the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer 12 (copper plate 22) is set to t 1 = 0.3 mm, the thickness t 2 of the metal layer 13 (aluminum plate 23) is set to t 2 = 2.0 mm, and t 2 / t 1 = 6.67.

In the present embodiment, the indentation hardness H B1 in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate 11 in the circuit layer 12 is in the range of 60 mgf / μm 2 ≦ H B1 ≦ 120 mgf / μm 2 .
Furthermore, the indentation hardness H B2 in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate 11 in the metal layer 13 is in the range of 30 mgf / μm 2 ≦ H B2 ≦ 80 mgf / μm 2 .

In the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate 11 in the metal layer 13, any one or more additive elements of Si, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mg, Ge, Ca, Ga, and Li are present. In this embodiment, Cu is dissolved as an additive element.
The concentration of the additive element in the vicinity of the bonding interface of the metal layer 13 (Cu concentration in the present embodiment) is set within a range of 0.01 mass% or more and 5 mass% or less. The concentration of the additive element in the vicinity of the bonding interface of the metal layer 13 is an average value measured at five points from the metal layer 13 at a position of 50 μm by EPMA analysis (spot diameter of 30 μm).

Further, in the vicinity of the bonding interface between the metal layer 13 and the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41, the metal layer 13 and the top plate portion 42 are made of Si, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mg, Ge, Ca, Ga, Li. Any one of these or two or more additional elements are in solid solution, and in this embodiment, Cu is dissolved as the additional element.
The concentration of the additive element in the vicinity of the bonding interface between the metal layer 13 and the top plate portion 42 (Cu concentration in the present embodiment) is set within a range of 0.01 mass% to 5 mass%. The concentration of the additive element in the vicinity of the bonding interface between the metal layer 13 and the top plate portion 42 is an average value measured at 5 points from the bonding interface by EPMA analysis (spot diameter 30 μm).

Further, when the bonding interface between the insulating substrate 11 and the metal layer 13 is observed with a transmission electron microscope, an additive element high concentration portion in which the additive element (Cu) is concentrated is formed at the bonding interface. In the high concentration portion of the additive element, the concentration of the additive element (Cu concentration) is set to be twice or more the concentration of the additive element (Cu concentration) in the metal layer 13. The thickness H of the high concentration portion of the additive element is 4 nm or less.
The junction interface observed here is defined as a reference plane S at the center between the interface side end of the lattice image of the metal layer 13 and the junction interface side end of the lattice image of the insulating substrate 11. Further, the concentration (Cu concentration) of the additive element in the metal layer 13 is the concentration (Cu concentration) of the additive element in a portion of the metal layer 13 that is away from the bonding interface by a certain distance (5 nm in this embodiment).

  Below, the manufacturing method of the board | substrate 10 for power modules of the above-mentioned structure and the board | substrate 40 for power modules with a heat sink is demonstrated with reference to FIG. 2, FIG.

First, as shown in FIG. 3, the copper plate 22 to be the circuit layer 12 and the insulating substrate 11 are joined (copper plate joining step S01). Here, since the insulating substrate 11 is made of Al 2 O 3 , the copper plate 22 and the insulating substrate 11 are joined by the DBC method using a eutectic reaction between copper and oxygen. Specifically, the copper plate 22 made of tough pitch copper and the insulating substrate 11 are brought into contact and heated at 1075 ° C. for 10 minutes in a nitrogen gas atmosphere, so that the copper plate 22 and the insulating substrate 11 are bonded. Become.

  Next, the aluminum plate 23 to be the metal layer 13 is joined to the other surface side of the insulating substrate 11 (aluminum plate joining step S02), and the aluminum plate 23 and the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41 are joined (heat sink joining). Step S03). In this embodiment, the aluminum plate joining step S02 and the heat sink joining step S03 are performed simultaneously.

The additive element (Cu) is fixed to the bonding surface of the aluminum plate 23 with the insulating substrate 11 by sputtering to form the first fixing layer 51, and the sputtering is performed on the bonding surface of the aluminum plate 23 to the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41. Thus, the additional element (Cu) is fixed to form the second fixed layer 52 (fixed layer forming step S11). Here, the amount of added elements in the first fixed layer 51 and the second fixed layer 52 is in the range of 0.01 mg / cm 2 or more and 10 mg / cm 2 or less, and in this embodiment, Cu is used as the additive element. The amount of Cu in the first fixing layer 51 and the second fixing layer 52 is set to 0.08 mg / cm 2 or more and 2.7 mg / cm 2 or less.

Next, as shown in FIG. 3, the aluminum plate 23 is laminated on the other surface side of the insulating substrate 11. Further, the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41 is laminated on the other surface side of the aluminum plate 23 (lamination step S12).
At this time, as shown in FIG. 3, the surface of the aluminum plate 23 on which the first fixing layer 51 is formed faces the insulating substrate 11 and the surface of the aluminum plate 23 on which the second fixing layer 52 is formed. These are laminated so as to face the top plate portion 42.

Next, the insulating substrate 11, the aluminum plate 23, and the top plate portion 42 to which the copper plate 22 is bonded are placed in a vacuum heating furnace in a state of being pressurized (pressure 1 to 35 kgf / cm 2 ) in the stacking direction. Heat (heating step S13). Here, in this embodiment, the pressure in a vacuum heating furnace is set in the range of 10 < -3 > -10 < -6 > Pa, and the heating temperature is set in the range of 550 degreeC or more and 650 degrees C or less.

Then, the additive element (Cu) of the first fixed layer 51 diffuses to the aluminum plate 23 side, so that a first molten metal region is formed at the interface between the aluminum plate 23 and the insulating substrate 11.
Further, the additive element (Cu) of the second fixing layer 52 diffuses to the aluminum plate 23 side and the top plate portion 42 side, whereby a second molten metal region is formed at the interface between the aluminum plate 23 and the top plate portion 42. The

Next, the temperature is kept constant with the first molten metal region and the second molten metal region formed (molten metal solidification step S14).
Then, Cu in the first molten metal region diffuses further to the aluminum plate 23 side, the Cu concentration in the portion that was the first molten metal region gradually decreases, and the melting point rises. Coagulation proceeds while maintaining a constant value. Thereby, the insulating substrate 11 and the aluminum plate 23 are joined.
Similarly, Cu in the second molten metal region further diffuses toward the aluminum plate 23 side and the top plate portion 42 side, and the Cu concentration in the portion that was the second molten metal region gradually decreases, and the melting point becomes lower. As the temperature rises, solidification proceeds while the temperature is kept constant. Thereby, the aluminum plate 23 and the top plate part 42 are joined.

  That is, the insulating substrate 11 and the aluminum plate 23 (metal layer 13), and the top plate portion 42 and the aluminum plate 23 (metal layer 13) are joined by a so-called transient liquid phase diffusion bonding. It is. And after solidification progresses, it cools to normal temperature.

  In this way, the copper plate 22 (circuit layer 12), the insulating substrate 11, the aluminum plate 23 (metal layer 13), and the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41 are joined together. The power module substrate 40 is manufactured.

According to the power module substrate 10 and the power module substrate with heat sink 40 according to the present embodiment configured as described above, the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer 12 formed by bonding the copper plate 22 is 0.1 mm. ≦ t 1 ≦ 0.6 mm, the thickness t 2 of the metal layer 13 to which the aluminum plate 23 is bonded is set to 0.5 mm ≦ t 2 ≦ 6 mm, and the thickness of the circuit layer 12 Since the relationship between the thickness t 1 and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer 13 is t 1 <t 2 , the insulating substrate 11 is more than necessary by the circuit layer 12 constituted by the copper plate 22 having a relatively large deformation resistance. The metal layer 13 made of the aluminum plate 23 having a relatively small deformation resistance is sufficiently thick to relieve the stress applied to the power module substrate 10 and to crack the insulating substrate 11. Suppress It is possible.

The relationship between the thickness t 2 of the thickness t 1 and the metal layer 13 of the circuit layer 12 is a t 2 / t 1 ≧ 2.5, specifically, t 2 / t 1 = 6.67 Therefore, the occurrence of warpage in the power module substrate 10 can be suppressed.

Moreover, since the circuit layer 12 having the mounting surface on which the semiconductor element 3 is mounted is made of tough pitch copper, the heat generated from the semiconductor element 3 can be sufficiently expanded, and the heat dissipation can be promoted. It becomes. Therefore, durability when a power cycle is loaded can be improved.
Furthermore, in the present embodiment, since the metal layer 13 is interposed between the heat sink 41 and the insulating substrate 11, the thermal strain due to the difference in the thermal expansion coefficient between the insulating substrate 11 and the heat sink 41 is sufficient. When the metal layer 13 formed thicker is deformed, it can be relaxed and cracking of the insulating substrate 11 can be suppressed.

In the present embodiment, the indentation hardness H B1 in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate 11 in the circuit layer 12 is in the range of 60 mgf / μm 2 ≦ H B1 ≦ 120 mgf / μm 2. The strength in the vicinity of the bonding interface between the layer 12 and the insulating substrate 11 is ensured, and the generation of cracks in the circuit layer 12 itself is prevented, and the insulating substrate 11 is not firmly bound to the circuit layer 12 and is insulated. Breaking of the substrate 11 can be suppressed.
In the present embodiment, the indentation hardness H B2 in the vicinity of the bonding interface with the insulating substrate 11 in the metal layer 13 is in the range of 30 mgf / μm 2 ≦ H B2 ≦ 80 mgf / μm 2. The strength in the vicinity of the bonding interface of the layer 13 is ensured, cracks are prevented from occurring in the metal layer 13 itself, and the metal layer 13 is deformed relatively easily, so that the stress can be relieved by the deformation of the metal layer 13. Moreover, the crack of the insulating substrate 11 can be suppressed.

  In the present embodiment, one or more of Si, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mg, Ge, Ca, Ga, and Li are provided in the vicinity of the bonding interface between the metal layer 13 and the insulating substrate 11. The additive element is in solid solution, and in this embodiment, Cu is dissolved as the additive element. Therefore, the joint interface side portion of the metal layer 13 is strengthened by solid solution, and the fracture at the metal layer 13 portion is caused. Can be prevented.

  In addition, at the junction interface between the metal layer 13 and the insulating substrate 11, the concentration of any one or more additive elements of Si, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mg, Ge, Ca, Ga, and Li ( In the present embodiment, since the high concentration portion of the additive element in which the Cu concentration) is twice or more the concentration of the additive element in the metal layer 13 is formed, the additive element atom (Cu atom) existing in the vicinity of the interface is formed. Thus, it is possible to improve the bonding strength of the metal layer 13.

  Furthermore, in the present embodiment, any one of Si, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mg, Ge, Ca, Ga, and Li is also present at the bonding interface between the metal layer 13 and the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41. Two or more kinds of additive elements are in solid solution, and in this embodiment, Cu is dissolved as an additive element, so that the joint interface side portion with the top plate portion 42 of the metal layer 13 is solid solution strengthened. Thus, breakage at the metal layer 13 portion can be prevented.

Further, in the present embodiment, the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41 is made of a metal material having a 0.2% proof stress of 100 N / mm 2 or more, and the thickness thereof is 2 mm or more. Since it is made of A6063 alloy (aluminum alloy), the rigidity is high and the handling becomes easy. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 1, the top plate portion 42 can be fixed to the cooling member 43 with the fixing screw 45, and the heat sink 41 having excellent cooling ability can be configured.

Further, a metal made of aluminum having a 0.2% proof stress of 30 N / mm 2 or less (pure aluminum having a purity of 99.99% or more in this embodiment) between the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41 and the insulating substrate 11. Since the layer 13 is disposed, even if the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41 has a high rigidity, the thermal strain caused by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficient between the top plate portion 42 of the heat sink 41 and the insulating substrate 11 can be reduced. The layer 13 can sufficiently relax, and the occurrence of cracks in the insulating substrate 11 can be suppressed.

In this embodiment, since the insulating substrate 11 is made of Al 2 O 3 , as described above, the circuit layer 12 made of tough pitch copper and the insulating substrate 11 are subjected to a eutectic reaction between oxygen and copper. It can join by the utilized DBC method. Therefore, the bonding strength between the insulating substrate 11 and the circuit layer 12 can be ensured, and the power module substrate 10 having excellent bonding reliability can be configured.

Next, an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.
A power module 101 shown in FIG. 4 includes a power module substrate 140 with a heat sink and a semiconductor bonded to one surface (the upper side in FIG. 4) of the power module substrate 140 with a heat sink via a first solder layer 102. And an element (electronic component) 3. Here, the first solder layer 102 is, for example, a Sn—Ag-based, Sn—In-based, or Sn—Ag—Cu-based solder material.

  The power module substrate 140 with a heat sink includes a power module substrate 110 and a heat sink 141 that cools the power module substrate 110.

  The power module substrate 110 has an insulating substrate 111, a circuit layer 112 disposed on one surface (the upper surface in FIG. 4) of the insulating substrate 111, and the other surface (lower surface in FIG. 4) of the insulating substrate 111. And a disposed metal layer 113.

  In the present embodiment, the insulating substrate 111 is made of AlN (aluminum nitride). Further, the thickness of the insulating substrate 111 is set in a range of 0.2 mm or more and 1.5 mm or less, and is set to 0.635 mm in the present embodiment.

  The circuit layer 112 is formed by bonding a copper plate made of copper or a copper alloy to one surface of the insulating substrate 111. In the present embodiment, an oxygen-free copper rolled plate is used as the copper plate constituting the circuit layer 112. A circuit pattern is formed on the circuit layer 112, and one surface (the upper surface in FIG. 4) is a mounting surface on which the semiconductor element 3 is mounted.

  The metal layer 113 is formed by bonding an aluminum plate made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy to the other surface of the insulating substrate 111. In the present embodiment, a rolled plate of aluminum (so-called 2N aluminum) having a purity of 99.0 mass% or more and 99.85 mass% or less is used as the aluminum plate constituting the metal layer 113.

In the power module substrate 110 according to the present embodiment, the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer 112 is set in a range of 0.1 mm ≦ t 1 ≦ 0.6 mm, and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer 113 is set. but it is set in a range of 0.5 mm ≦ t 2 ≦ 6 mm, further being the relationship between the thickness t 2 of the thickness t 1 and the metal layer 113 of the circuit layer 112 and t 1 <t 2 Yes. The relationship between the thickness t 2 of the thickness t 1 and the metal layer 113 of the circuit layer 112, which is preferably a t 2 / t 1 ≧ 2.5.
In the present embodiment, the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer 112 is set to t 1 = 0.3 mm, the thickness t 2 of the metal layer 113 is set to t 2 = 2.0 mm, and t 2 / t 1 = 6.67. Has been.

The heat sink 141 in the present embodiment is a heat sink made of copper, copper alloy, aluminum, or aluminum alloy.
The heat sink 141 is bonded to the metal layer 113 of the power module substrate 110 via the second solder layer 108. A Ni plating film (not shown) is formed on the surface of the metal layer 113. When the heat sink 141 is made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, it is desirable that a Ni plating film is formed on the surface of the heat sink 141. The second solder layer 108 can be made of various solder materials such as Sn—Ag, Sn—In, or Sn—Ag—Cu, as in the first solder layer 102 described above.

  A method for manufacturing the power module substrate 110 and the power module substrate 140 with the heat sink described above will be described below with reference to FIG.

First, the copper plate used as the circuit layer 112 and the insulating substrate 111 are joined (copper plate joining process S101). In this embodiment, a copper plate made of an oxygen-free copper rolled plate and the insulating substrate 111 are joined by a so-called active metal brazing method.
One surface active brazing material of the insulating substrate 111 to the copper plate serving as the circuit layer 112 via the (Ag-Cu-Ti, etc.) are stacked, the insulating substrate 111, 1 kgf / cm 2 or more copper plates in the stacking direction 35 kgf / cm 2 The copper plate that becomes the circuit layer 112 and the insulating substrate 111 are bonded together by charging and heating in a heating furnace in a pressurized state in the range of 9.8 × 10 4 Pa or more and 343 × 10 4 Pa or less. . Here, the heating temperature is 850 ° C. and the heating time is 10 minutes.

Next, an aluminum plate to be the metal layer 113 is joined to the other surface side of the insulating substrate 111 (aluminum plate joining step S102).
The insulating substrate 111 and the aluminum plate are laminated via a brazing material, and the insulating substrate 111 and the aluminum plate are joined by brazing. At this time, as the brazing material, for example, an Al—Si brazing foil having a thickness of 20 to 110 μm can be used, and the brazing temperature is preferably 600 to 620 ° C.
Thereby, the substrate 110 for power modules which is this embodiment is manufactured.

Next, the power module substrate 110 and the heat sink 141 are bonded (heat sink bonding step S103). In this heat sink bonding step S103, first, a Ni plating film is formed on the bonding surface of the metal layer 113 of the power module substrate 110 to the heat sink 141, and then the heat sink 141 and the metal layer 113 are soldered using a solder material. Join.
As a result, the solder layer 108 is formed between the metal layer 113 and the heat sink 141, and the power module substrate 140 with a heat sink according to this embodiment is manufactured.

In the power module substrate with a heat sink 140 according to the present embodiment configured as described above, cracking of the insulating substrate 111, warpage of the power module substrate 110, and the like can be suppressed as in the reference embodiment. .
Further, in the present embodiment, the circuit layer 112 is made of a copper plate, and the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer 112 is set within a range of 0.1 mm ≦ t 1 ≦ 0.6 mm, more specifically 0. Therefore, the rigidity of the entire power module substrate 110 is ensured, and the power module substrate 110 is not easily deformed under a heat cycle load, thereby suppressing the occurrence of cracks in the second solder layer 108. be able to.
In particular, in the present embodiment, the metal layer 113 is composed of an aluminum (so-called 2N aluminum) rolled plate having an aluminum content of 99.0% by mass or more and 99.85% by mass or less. The metal layer 113 is not easily deformed, and the occurrence of cracks in the second solder layer 108 can be reliably suppressed.

As mentioned above, although embodiment of this invention was described, this invention is not limited to this, It can change suitably in the range which does not deviate from the technical idea of the invention.
For example, the aluminum plate used as the metal layer is described as a rolled plate of pure aluminum having a purity of 99.99% by mass or more, or an aluminum rolled plate having a purity of 99.0% by mass to 99.85% by mass. However, it is not limited to this, and it may be composed of other aluminum or aluminum alloy.
Similarly, the copper plate serving as the circuit layer has been described as a tough pitch copper rolled plate or an oxygen-free copper rolled plate, but is not limited thereto, and is composed of other copper or copper alloy. It may be.
Further, the heat sink has been described as an example of the heat sink, but the heat sink is not limited to this, and may be a heat sink provided with heat radiation fins, or a flow path in which a cooling medium is circulated. It is good also as a cooler provided with.

Also, the ceramic substrate is composed of Al 2 O 3 and the copper plate is joined by the DBC method, or the ceramic substrate is composed of AlN and the copper plate is joined by the active metal brazing method. There is no limitation, and the ceramic substrate may be Si 3 N 4 . Moreover, there is no restriction | limiting in the joining method of a ceramic substrate and a copper plate.
For example, as in the power module 201 shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the ceramic substrate 211 is made of AlN (aluminum nitride), and an Al 2 O 3 layer 225 is formed on one surface of the ceramic substrate 211. The circuit layer 212 may be formed by bonding the 2 O 3 layer 225 and the copper plate by the DBC method. The thickness of the Al 2 O 3 layer 225 is preferably 1 μm or more. The Al 2 O 3 layer 225 can be formed by performing an oxidation process of AlN at 1200 ° C. or higher in an Ar—O 2 mixed gas atmosphere. The oxygen partial pressure P O2 and 10 kPa, to adjust the water vapor partial pressure P H2 O to 0.05 kPa, by performing oxidation treatment of AlN at high oxygen partial pressure / low water vapor partial pressure atmosphere, excellent adhesion to the AlN A dense Al 2 O 3 layer 225 is formed.

Further, in the reference embodiment, the ceramic substrate and the metal layer made of aluminum or aluminum alloy, and the metal layer made of aluminum or aluminum alloy and the heat sink made of aluminum or aluminum alloy are joined by the transient liquid phase joining method. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and a brazing material such as an Al—Si alloy may be used.
Further, in the reference embodiment, the heat sink has a structure having a top plate portion and a cooling member as an example. However, the heat sink is not limited to this, and the heat sink is provided with a heat radiating fin. Or it is good also as a cooler provided with the flow path through which a cooling medium distribute | circulates inside.

(Reference Example)
As shown in Table 1, an insulating substrate, a copper plate serving as a circuit layer, and an aluminum plate serving as a metal layer were joined to produce a power module substrate.
The size of the circuit layer was 37 mm × 37 mm, the size of the insulating substrate was 40 mm × 40 mm, and the size of the metal layer was 37 mm × 37 mm.

The “active metal wax” shown in Table 2 is an active brazing material composed of Ag-27.4 mass% Cu-2.0 mass% Ti, and 10 minutes at 850 ° C. in a vacuum of 10 −3 Pa. The copper plate and the insulating substrate were joined by heating.
“DBC” shown in Table 2 joined the copper plate and the insulating substrate by heating at 1075 ° C. for 10 minutes in a nitrogen gas atmosphere.

In “TLP” shown in Table 2, Cu is fixed to the surface of the insulating substrate so as to be 1.0 mg / cm 2, and is pressed at 5 kgf / cm 2 in the stacking direction in a vacuum of 10 −3 Pa. Then, the aluminum plate and the insulating substrate were joined by heating at 600 ° C. for 30 minutes.
“Al—Si wax” shown in Table 2 is a state in which a brazing material foil (thickness 100, μm) made of Al-7.5 mass% Si is used and pressed in the stacking direction at 12 kgf / cm 2 . The aluminum plate and the insulating substrate were joined by heating at 650 ° C. for 30 minutes in a vacuum of 10 −3 Pa.

Moreover, the heat sink was joined to the other surface side of the metal layer of the power module substrate described above. The heat sink was an aluminum plate of A3003 alloy measuring 50 mm x 60 mm x 5 mm. The joining conditions were joining by heating at 610 ° C. in a vacuum with Al-Si brazing foil being pressurized at 3.0 kgf / cm 2 .
A heat cycle test was carried out using the power module substrate with a heat sink thus obtained. The evaluation results are shown in Table 2. In addition, observation was implemented every 500 cycles and it evaluated by the cycle number when the crack of an insulated substrate was confirmed. The measurement conditions are shown below.
Evaluation device: TSB-51 manufactured by ESPEC Corporation
Liquid phase: Fluorinert Temperature conditions: -40 ° C x 5 minutes ← → 125 ° C x 5 minutes

Further, an IGBT element was soldered to one surface side of the circuit layer of these power module substrates. In addition, the solder joining used Sn-Ag-Cu type solder, and joined at 300 degreeC in hydrogen reduction atmosphere.
A power cycle test was carried out using the power module thus obtained. The evaluation results are shown in Table 2. In addition, it evaluated by the raise rate of the thermal resistivity after loading a power cycle 100,000 times.

The thermal resistance was measured as follows. The heater chip was heated with a power of 100 W, and the temperature of the heater chip was measured using a thermocouple. Further, the temperature of the cooling medium (ethylene glycol: water = 9: 1) flowing through the heat sink was measured. And the value which divided the temperature difference of a heater chip | tip and the temperature of a cooling medium with electric power was made into thermal resistance. Measurement conditions are shown below.
Temperature difference: 80 ° C
Temperature range: 55 ° C to 135 ° C (measured with a temperature sensing diode in the IGBT element)
Energizing time: 6 seconds Cooling time: 4 seconds

In Comparative Example 1 in which the thickness of the copper plate serving as the circuit layer was 0.7 mm, the insulating substrate was cracked in 500 cycles or less in the thermal cycle test.
In Comparative Example 2 in which the thickness of the copper plate serving as the circuit layer was formed to be greater than the thickness of the aluminum plate serving as the metal layer, cracks were observed in the insulating substrate in 1000 cycles or less in the thermal cycle test. Furthermore, an increase in thermal resistance was observed in the power cycle test.

In Comparative Example 3 in which the thickness of the copper plate serving as the circuit layer and the thickness of the aluminum plate serving as the metal layer were the same, cracks were observed in the insulating substrate in 2000 cycles or less in the thermal cycle test. Furthermore, in the power cycle test, an increase in thermal resistance of about several percent was recognized.
In Comparative Example 4-6 in which the circuit layer was formed of an aluminum plate, it was confirmed that the thermal resistance greatly increased in the power cycle test, although the results of the thermal cycle test were good.

On the other hand, in Reference Example 1-8, no crack was observed in the insulating substrate even in 2500 cycles or more in the thermal cycle test. It is also confirmed that the increase in thermal resistance is suppressed in the power cycle test. In particular, in the reference example 1-6 the ratio t 2 / t 1 with thickness t 2 of the circuit layer thickness t 1 and the metal layer is 2.5 or more, even 4000 cycles or more in a thermal cycling test insulation No cracks were observed on the substrate.
From the above results, according to this reference example, it is possible to promote the dissipation of heat from a heating element such as an electronic component mounted on the circuit layer, and it has excellent power cycle characteristics and insulation during a cold cycle load. It was confirmed that it is possible to provide a highly reliable power module substrate, a power module substrate with a heat sink, and a power module that can suppress the occurrence of cracks in the substrate.

(Example)
Next, as shown in the above-described embodiment, the metal layer of the power module substrate and the heat sink were joined via the second solder layer, and the joining rate in the second solder layer was evaluated.
As shown in Table 3, an insulating substrate, a copper plate serving as a circuit layer, and an aluminum plate serving as a metal layer were joined to produce a power module substrate.
The size of the circuit layer was 37 mm × 37 mm, the size of the insulating substrate was 40 mm × 40 mm, and the size of the metal layer was 37 mm × 37 mm.
Note that the “active metal brazing”, “DBC”, “TLP”, and “Al—Si brazing” shown in Table 4 were the same joining methods as in the reference example and Table 2.

And the heat sink was joined to the other surface side of the metal layer of the above-mentioned power module substrate. The heat sink was an aluminum plate of A6063 alloy of 50 mm × 60 mm × 5 mmt. Using Sn—Sb solder, holding at 200 ° C. for 5 minutes in an H 2 atmosphere, then soldering by holding at 300 ° C. for 10 minutes, then replacing with N 2 atmosphere and cooling, heat sink Were joined.

A heat cycle test was carried out using the power module substrate with a heat sink thus obtained. The cooling / heating cycle conditions were the same as those in the reference example described above, and 2000 cooling / heating cycles were loaded.
And the joining rate in a 2nd solder layer was measured in the joining initial stage and after 2000 times of thermal cycle loading. The evaluation results are shown in Table 4.

In Comparative Example 11 in which the circuit layer and the metal layer were made of aluminum plates, the joining rate after the cooling and heating cycle was greatly reduced. It is presumed that cracks occurred in the second solder layer.
On the other hand, in Inventive Examples 11-14, the bonding rate did not significantly decrease even after the cooling / heating cycle. According to Invention Examples 11-14, it was confirmed that the occurrence of cracks in the second solder layer can be suppressed.

1, 101, 201 Power module 3 Semiconductor element (electronic component)
10, 110, 210 Power module substrate 11, 111, 211 Insulating substrate 12, 112, 212 Circuit layer 13, 113, 213 Metal layer 22 Copper plate 23 Aluminum plate 40, 140, 240 Power module substrate 41, 141 with heat sink 241 Heat sink 225 Al 2 O 3 layer

Claims (4)

  1. A power with a heat sink, comprising: an insulating substrate; a circuit layer formed on one surface of the insulating substrate; a metal layer formed on the other surface of the insulating substrate; and a heat sink bonded to the metal layer. A module substrate,
    The circuit layer is made of copper or a copper alloy, and one surface of the circuit layer is a mounting surface on which electronic components are mounted via the first solder layer,
    The metal layer is configured by bonding an aluminum plate made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and the metal layer and the heat sink are bonded via a second solder layer,
    A thickness t 1 of the circuit layer is in a range of 0.1 mm ≦ t 1 ≦ 0.6 mm;
    The thickness t 2 of the metal layer is in a range of 0.5 mm ≦ t 2 ≦ 6 mm,
    A power module substrate with a heat sink, wherein the relationship between the thickness t 1 of the circuit layer and the thickness t 2 of the metal layer is t 1 <t 2 .
  2. 2. The power module with a heat sink according to claim 1 , wherein a relationship between a thickness t 1 of the circuit layer and a thickness t 2 of the metal layer is t 2 / t 1 ≧ 2.5. Substrate.
  3.   3. The power module substrate with a heat sink according to claim 1, wherein the metal layer is made of aluminum having a purity of 99.0% by mass or more and 99.85% by mass or less.
  4. A power module comprising the power module substrate with a heat sink according to any one of claims 1 to 3, and an electronic component mounted on the circuit layer,
    The electronic component is bonded to one surface of the circuit layer via a first solder layer, and the metal layer and the heat sink are bonded via a second solder layer.
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