JP2012220131A - Solar heating and cooling ventilator, and solar heating and cooling ventilation method using the same - Google Patents

Solar heating and cooling ventilator, and solar heating and cooling ventilation method using the same Download PDF

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JP2012220131A
JP2012220131A JP2011088019A JP2011088019A JP2012220131A JP 2012220131 A JP2012220131 A JP 2012220131A JP 2011088019 A JP2011088019 A JP 2011088019A JP 2011088019 A JP2011088019 A JP 2011088019A JP 2012220131 A JP2012220131 A JP 2012220131A
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cooling
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Yukihisa Ebara
幸久 荏原
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EOM KK
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S20/00Solar heat collectors specially adapted for particular uses or environments
    • F24S20/60Solar heat collectors integrated in fixed constructions, e.g. in buildings
    • F24S20/61Passive solar heat collectors, e.g. operated without external energy source
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/70Hybrid systems, e.g. uninterruptible or back-up power supplies integrating renewable energies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a solar heating and cooling ventilator and a solar heating and cooling ventilation method that may operate at low running cost in optimal combination with minimum heating and cooling apparatuses essential to actualization of a comfortable indoor environment while positively utilizing natural energy including solar heat, moreover greatly shorten a conveyance duct etc., and not only reduce execution labor hour costs but also have large advantages of easy maintenance and are highly practical.SOLUTION: An outside air introduction heat collection unit 1, such that a plurality of plate-like bodies in a flat panel shape which each have a plate material on a side receiving solar radiation and a plate material on the opposite side arranged in parallel with a thin vent layer of approximately 10 mm or less in distance interposed are arranged in parallel on the entire heat receiving surface receiving the solar radiation to form a large panel on the whole, is installed on a wall surface that can receive the solar light. A heat accumulation layer 6 is provided in a space 4 under the floor to which the outside air introduction heat collection unit 1 is linked, and further, a heating and cooling unit 10 is installed near the floor.

Description

本発明は、暖房、冷房そして24時間換気を必要とする建物空間において、自然エネルギーを有効に利用しながら、それらに係る消費エネルギーを低く抑え、安価なイニシアルコスト、ランニングコストで実現でき、また、メンテナンスを容易にしたソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法である。   The present invention, in a building space that requires heating, cooling and 24-hour ventilation, can effectively use natural energy, while suppressing the energy consumption related to them, and can be realized at low initial cost and running cost. It is a solar heating / cooling ventilation device that facilitates maintenance and a solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the same.

石化エネルギー資源の乏しいわが国の建物の熱性能は、省エネという観点からは十分とはいえず、従来から灯油や電力によって暖冷房を行い快適感を得ているのが現状である。近年の地球温暖化防止対策の一環としても建物の熱性能基準を引き上げることが検討され、段階的な引き上げが行われた。   The thermal performance of buildings in Japan, which are scarce of petrochemical energy resources, is not sufficient from the viewpoint of energy saving, and the current situation is that they have been comforted by heating and cooling with kerosene and electric power. As part of measures to prevent global warming in recent years, it was considered to raise the thermal performance standards of buildings, and a gradual increase was made.

図9は一般的な住宅を想定した場合の省エネルギー基準の変遷である。平成11年(1999年)住宅の省エネルギー基準が強化され、更に平成15年(2003年)には24時間換気システムの設置が義務化された。これにより建物の断熱性能や気密性能が一層向上し、暖冷房に係るエネルギー消費が抑制された。   FIG. 9 shows the transition of energy saving standards when a general house is assumed. In 1999, the energy saving standards for houses were strengthened, and in 2003, the installation of a 24-hour ventilation system became mandatory. As a result, the heat insulation performance and airtight performance of the building were further improved, and energy consumption related to heating and cooling was suppressed.

一方、24時間換気については外気を室内に直接導入する第三種換気が主流であり、換気負荷を除く建物の熱負荷は小さくなったものの換気負荷は変わらないため、かえって換気負荷の占める割合は2倍に増えた。   On the other hand, for 24-hour ventilation, the third type ventilation that directly introduces outside air into the room is the mainstream, and although the heat load of the building excluding the ventilation load has decreased, the ventilation load does not change, so the proportion of the ventilation load is rather Doubled.

わが国では二度のオイルショックを経験したことから、太陽熱や太陽光を利用した技術開発が盛んになった。その成功例としては温水パネルや太陽電池が広く知られるところである。   Since Japan experienced two oil shocks, technological development using solar heat and sunlight became active. Hot water panels and solar cells are widely known as successful examples.

太陽熱を利用し建物の暖房負荷を軽減しようとする試みは、ガラス窓を大きくとって太陽熱を室内に取り込むダイレクトゲイン方式(パッシブソーラー)はコストも安く、誰でもが取り込みやすい技術として一般化している。   Attempts to reduce the heating load of buildings using solar heat have been generalized as a direct gain method (passive solar) that captures solar heat indoors by taking a large glass window at a low cost and is easy for anyone to capture. .

また、より積極的に太陽熱を利用する技術として、屋根面で集熱した空気を送風ユニットによって床下へと導き、床下から室内に放出させる太陽熱床暖房換気システム(通称OMソーラー)が下記特許文献等にある。
特許第2626966号(ソーラーシステムハウス利用の空冷方法)
Further, as a technique for more actively using solar heat, a solar floor heating and ventilation system (commonly referred to as OM solar) that guides air collected on the roof surface to the floor by a blower unit and discharges it from the floor to the room is the following patent document etc. It is in.
Patent No. 2626966 (Air cooling method using solar system house)

図10にソーラーシステムハウスの概略を説明すると、カラー鉄板やスレート板等の屋根板101の直下に屋根勾配を有する空気流路102を形成し、この空気流路102の一端は軒先に空気取入口103として開口し、他端は断熱材による集熱ボックスとしての棟ダクト104に連通させる。   The outline of the solar system house will be described with reference to FIG. 10. An air flow path 102 having a roof gradient is formed immediately below a roof plate 101 such as a color iron plate or a slate plate, and one end of the air flow channel 102 is provided at the eaves. The other end communicates with a ridge duct 104 as a heat collection box made of a heat insulating material.

内部に逆流防止ダンパー106、ファン107及び流路切換えダンパー108を設け、該流路切換えダンパー108の流出側の一方は排気ダクト109により屋外に開口するハンドリングボックス105を屋根裏空間である小屋裏122に設置し、このハンドリングボックス105の逆流防止ダンパー106の流入側を前記棟ダクト104に連通させ、流路切換えダンパー108の流出側の一方を立下りダクト110の上端に連結する。立下りダクト110の下端は床下蓄熱体としての蓄熱土間コンクリート111と床パネル112との間の空気流通空間113に開口し、該空気流通空間113から室内への床吹出口114を設けた。   Inside, a backflow prevention damper 106, a fan 107, and a flow path switching damper 108 are provided, and one of the flow path switching dampers 108 on the outflow side is opened to an outdoor space by an exhaust duct 109 to a hut 122 that is an attic space. Installed, the inflow side of the backflow prevention damper 106 of the handling box 105 is communicated with the ridge duct 104, and the outflow side of the flow path switching damper 108 is connected to the upper end of the falling duct 110. The lower end of the falling duct 110 opened to the air circulation space 113 between the thermal storage soil concrete 111 as the underfloor heat storage body and the floor panel 112, and a floor outlet 114 from the air circulation space 113 to the room was provided.

なお、前記のごとくハンドリングボックス105の逆流防止ダンパー106の流入側は棟ダクト104に接続されるが、この逆流防止ダンパー106の流入側は天井等で室内に開口する循環用ダクト119にも接続され、該逆流防止ダンパー106はこの棟ダクト104側と循環用ダクト119側との流路を切り換える流路切換えダンパーとして構成する。また、この循環用ダクト119が開口する吸込口120を設ける部屋はこれが2階であれば、前記室内への床吹出口114を設けた床パネル112がある1階の部屋とは吹き抜け構造として空気が自由に流れるようにすることが望ましい。   As described above, the inflow side of the backflow prevention damper 106 of the handling box 105 is connected to the ridge duct 104. The inflow side of the backflow prevention damper 106 is also connected to a circulation duct 119 that opens indoors through a ceiling or the like. The backflow prevention damper 106 is configured as a flow path switching damper for switching the flow path between the ridge duct 104 side and the circulation duct 119 side. In addition, if the room provided with the suction port 120 through which the circulation duct 119 opens is on the second floor, the room having the floor panel 112 provided with the floor outlet 114 to the room has a blow-off structure as air. It is desirable to make the flow freely.

ハンドリングボックス105内で、逆流防止ダンパー106とファン107との間にお湯とりコイル115を設け、このお湯とりコイル115は循環配管116で貯湯槽117と連結し、該貯湯槽117には、追焚き用の給湯ボイラー118を途中へ設けて、風呂や洗面所、台所へとつながる給湯配管121を接続する。   In the handling box 105, a hot water take-off coil 115 is provided between the backflow prevention damper 106 and the fan 107, and the hot water take-off coil 115 is connected to the hot water storage tank 117 by a circulation pipe 116. A hot water supply boiler 118 is provided on the way, and a hot water supply pipe 121 connected to a bath, a washroom, and a kitchen is connected.

このようにして、太陽光で加熱された金属板である屋根板101が、空気流路102へ入った外気を温め、この温められた空気は屋根勾配に沿って上昇する。そして、この加熱空気は棟ダクト104に集められてからファン107によりハンドリングボックス105に入り、ハンドリングボックス105から立下りダクト110内を流下し、蓄熱土間コンクリート111と床パネル112との間の空気流通空間113へ入る。この空気流通空間113では加熱空気が床パネル112を介して直接床面下を温めるのと、蓄熱土間コンクリート111に蓄熱させるのと、床吹出口114から温風として直接室内へ吹出されるのとの3通りの暖房作用を行う。   Thus, the roof board 101 which is a metal plate heated by sunlight warms the outside air that has entered the air flow path 102, and the warmed air rises along the roof gradient. Then, this heated air is collected in the ridge duct 104 and then enters the handling box 105 by the fan 107 and flows down from the handling box 105 through the falling duct 110 to flow air between the thermal storage soil concrete 111 and the floor panel 112. Enter the space 113. In this air circulation space 113, heated air directly warms the floor surface via the floor panel 112, stores heat in the thermal storage soil concrete 111, and is blown directly into the room as warm air from the floor outlet 114. The three types of heating are performed.

一方、お湯とりコイル115で、ここに循環配管116を介して貯湯槽117から送り込まれる水が加熱され、湯として貯湯槽117へ蓄えられ、さらにここから必要に応じて追焚き用の給湯ボイラー118で再加熱されて給湯配管121から各所へ給湯される。   On the other hand, the hot water coil 115 heats water fed from the hot water storage tank 117 through the circulation pipe 116 and stores it as hot water in the hot water storage tank 117, and from here the hot water supply boiler 118 for reheating as necessary. Then, it is reheated and hot water is supplied from the hot water supply pipe 121 to various places.

このような図10に示す太陽光により集熱した加熱空気を利用するソーラーシステムハウスでは、夏季等高温時で暖房の必要のない季節では屋根板101で温められた加熱空気は全部外気に放出して捨てることが必要となる。その場合は流路切換えダンパー108で流出側の一方である立下りダクト110側を閉塞し、流出側の他の一方である排気ダクト109側を開放すれば、ハンドリングボックス105から加熱空気は排気ダクト109を介して屋外へ捨てられる。なお、加熱空気はハンドリングボックス5を通ることでお湯とりコイル115の加熱は行うので、夏季等高温時でも太陽熱利用で湯が得られることは確保できる。   In the solar system house using the heated air collected by sunlight as shown in FIG. 10, all the heated air heated by the roof plate 101 is released to the outside air at a high temperature such as summer and when heating is not necessary. It is necessary to throw it away. In that case, if the falling duct 110 side that is one of the outflow sides is closed by the flow path switching damper 108 and the exhaust duct 109 side that is the other outflow side is opened, the heated air is discharged from the handling box 105 to the exhaust duct. It is thrown away via 109. In addition, since the heated air passes through the handling box 5 to heat the hot water coil 115, it can be ensured that hot water can be obtained by using solar heat even at high temperatures such as summer.

一方、夏等の暖房がいらない季節の昼間の集熱時には示すように、逆流防止ダンパー106は循環用ダクト119側を閉じ、棟ダクト104側を開く。また、流路切換えダンパー108はファン107と立下りダクト110側とを閉鎖し、ファン107と排気ダクト109側とを連通させる。   On the other hand, the backflow prevention damper 106 closes the circulation duct 119 side and opens the ridge duct 104 side, as shown in the case of heat collection during the daytime when heating such as summer is not necessary. Further, the flow path switching damper 108 closes the fan 107 and the falling duct 110 side, and connects the fan 107 and the exhaust duct 109 side.

このようにしてファン107を駆動すれば、換気口125から屋根の小屋裏122に入り、さらに空気流路102を経て棟ダクト104に集められた加熱空気はハンドリングボックス105に入り、お湯とりコイル115を加熱してから排気ダクト119を流れ屋外へ捨てられる。その際、ファン107から直接排気ダクト109へ送り込まれる空気が立下りダクト110へ誘引力を与え、床下の空気は立下りダクト110を介して排気ダクト109へ吸い込まれるので前記小屋裏122の換気のみならず、床下の換気も同時に行うことができる。   When the fan 107 is driven in this way, the heated air that has entered the roof shed 122 from the ventilation opening 125 and then collected in the ridge duct 104 via the air flow path 102 enters the handling box 105, and the hot water coil 115. After being heated, it flows through the exhaust duct 119 and is thrown away outdoors. At that time, the air sent directly from the fan 107 to the exhaust duct 109 gives an attractive force to the falling duct 110, and the air under the floor is sucked into the exhaust duct 109 through the falling duct 110, so that only ventilation of the hut 122 is performed. Moreover, ventilation under the floor can be performed at the same time.

そして、夏の夜間には逆流防止ダンパー106は循環用ダクト119側を閉じ、棟ダクト104側を開く点は前記昼間と同じであるが、前記流路切換えダンパー108はファン107と立下りダクト110側とを連通させ、ファン107と排気ダクト109側を閉鎖する。   In the summer night, the backflow prevention damper 106 closes the circulation duct 119 side and opens the ridge duct 104 side in the same way as in the daytime. However, the flow path switching damper 108 includes the fan 107 and the falling duct 110. The fan 107 and the exhaust duct 109 side are closed.

この状態で、ハンドリングボックス105のファン107を回せば、夜の冷気が換気口125から屋根の小屋裏122に入り、そしてこの小屋裏122の空気が南面の屋根の屋根板104直下に形成された空気流路102に入り、ここで放射冷却がなされる。そして、棟ダクト104に集められてからハンドリングボックス105に入り、該ハンドリングボックス105から立下りダクト110内を流下し、蓄熱土間コンクリート111と床パネル112との間の空気流通空間113へ入り、蓄熱土間コンクリート111に蓄冷されるのと、吹出口114から冷風として直接室内へ吹出されるのとの冷却作用を行う。   In this state, if the fan 107 of the handling box 105 is turned, the night cold air enters the roof shed 122 from the ventilation opening 125, and the air in the shed 122 is formed immediately below the roof plate 104 of the south roof. The air flow path 102 is entered, where radiative cooling is performed. Then, after being collected in the building duct 104, it enters the handling box 105, flows down from the handling box 105 through the falling duct 110, enters the air circulation space 113 between the thermal storage soil concrete 111 and the floor panel 112, and stores the heat. Cooling action is performed between the cold storage in the soil concrete 111 and the direct discharge into the room as cold air from the air outlet 114.

前記特許文献1のシステムは外気が導入されている時、即ち主として冬の日中(集熱温度が室温より高い時)と夏の夜間(集熱温度が室温より低い時)がシステムが稼働できる条件であり、それ以外の条件では何らかの暖冷房機器と24時間換気装置を必要とする。   The system of Patent Document 1 can be operated when outside air is introduced, that is, mainly during winter days (when the heat collection temperature is higher than room temperature) and summer nights (when the heat collection temperature is lower than room temperature). It is a condition, and other conditions require some heating and cooling equipment and a 24-hour ventilator.

前者の設備は必須ながら、後者については24時間換気が義務化されている住宅の場合、これとは別に24時間換気装置が必要となり設置費用の増加を招く。   In the case of a house where the former facilities are essential but the latter is obliged to provide 24-hour ventilation, a 24-hour ventilation device is required separately from this, resulting in an increase in installation costs.

また、夏季の日中に何らかの理由で停電したり、システムの故障で停止せざるを得ない状況下に遭遇した場合、屋根集熱面のガラス板直下の金属板は100℃を超える高温となり、建築材料の耐久性や強度に少なからず悪影響を与える結果となる。   Also, if you encounter a power outage for some reason during the summer day or have to stop due to a system failure, the metal plate directly under the glass plate on the roof heat collection surface will be over 100 ° C, As a result, the durability and strength of building materials will be adversely affected.

一方、昨今の地球温暖化の影響で冬の暖房負荷が減少する反面、冷房期間や冷房負荷が増大し、毎年電力の供給不足が懸念されている。   On the other hand, although the heating load in winter decreases due to the recent global warming, the cooling period and the cooling load increase, and there is a concern that the supply of power will be insufficient every year.

また、花粉症(外から入れない)やシックハウス(汚染空気を外に出す)などの解決策のひとつとして重要な役割を担う、イニシャルコスト、ランニングコストそして外気を温めるなどの熱負荷の小さな24時間換気の実現が望まれている。   Also, it plays an important role as one of the solutions such as hay fever (cannot enter from outside) and sick house (take out polluted air), 24 hours with small initial load, running cost and heat load such as warming the outside air Realization of ventilation is desired.

本発明の目的は前記従来例の不都合を解消し、太陽熱を含む自然エネルギーを積極的に利用しつつ、快適な室内環境の実現に不可欠な最低限の暖冷房機器との最適な組み合わせで、低いランニングコストでの運転ですみ、しかも、搬送ダクトなどを大幅に短縮することができ、施工手間やコストの削減のみならず、メンテナンスの容易さにとってもメリットが大きい実用性の高いソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびソーラー暖冷房換気方法を提供することにある。   The object of the present invention is to solve the disadvantages of the above-mentioned conventional example, and is low in an optimal combination with the minimum heating and cooling equipment essential for realizing a comfortable indoor environment while actively using natural energy including solar heat. Highly practical solar heating / cooling ventilator that can be operated at a running cost, and that can greatly reduce transfer ducts, which not only saves labor and cost but also has a merit for ease of maintenance. And providing a solar heating / cooling ventilation method.

前記目的を達成するため、請求項1記載の本発明は、ソーラー暖冷房換気装置として、太陽放射を受ける側の板材料と反対側の板材料を間に距離が約10mm以下の薄い厚さの通気層を介在させて平行に配置した扁平パネル形状の板状体であり、板状体は通気層の流れ方向に数cm〜2m程度の短い長さのものであり、太陽放射を受ける受熱面全体に複数を並列させて全体が大きなパネルとなるように配置し、均等に空気を吸い込むように通気抵抗を調整し、太陽放射を受ける側の空間から空気を薄い厚さの通気層に吸い込み、通気層を通過する間に受ける放射熱と対流あるいは伝導で熱交換し、太陽放射を受ける側と反対側に熱交換した空気を吹き出す外気導入集熱ユニットを太陽光が受光できる壁面に設置し、この外気導入集熱ユニットが連通する床下空間に蓄熱層を設け、さらに、床近傍に暖冷房ユニットを設置したことを要旨とするものである。   In order to achieve the above object, the present invention according to claim 1 is a solar heating / cooling ventilator having a thin thickness of about 10 mm or less between a plate material on the side receiving solar radiation and a plate material on the opposite side. It is a flat panel-like plate-like body arranged in parallel with an air-permeable layer interposed therebetween, and the plate-like body has a short length of several cm to 2 m in the flow direction of the air-permeable layer, and receives a solar radiation. Arrange multiple units in parallel so that the whole is a large panel, adjust the ventilation resistance so that air is evenly sucked in, suck air from the space on the side that receives solar radiation into the thin ventilation layer, Installed on the wall where sunlight can be received, an external air introduction heat collection unit that exchanges heat by convection or conduction with the radiant heat received while passing through the ventilation layer, and blows out the heat exchanged to the side opposite to the side receiving solar radiation, This outside air introduction heat collection unit The heat storage layer provided on the underfloor space communicating further, it is an Abstract that it has established a heating and cooling unit on the floor near.

請求項5記載の本発明は、請求項1の装置を用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法として、暖房必要時の日中には外気導入集熱ユニットにより温められた外気を床下へ導入し、床下空間にある蓄熱層を温めながら室内へ放出させ、夜間など要求室温に満たない場合には室内空気を暖冷房ユニットを通して温めながら床下に送りこみ、冷房必要時の夜間には外気導入集熱ユニットにより冷えた外気を床下へ導入し、床下空間にある蓄熱層を冷ましながら室内へ放出させ、日中など要求室温に満たない場合には室内空気を暖冷房ユニットを通して冷やしながら床下に送りこむことを要旨とするものである。   According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, as a solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the apparatus according to the first aspect, outside air heated by an outside air introduction heat collecting unit is introduced under the floor during the day when heating is required, When the required room temperature is not reached, such as at night, the room air is sent to the floor while warming through the heating / cooling unit, and cooled by the outside air introduction heat collecting unit when cooling is necessary. The idea is to introduce fresh air under the floor, let the heat storage layer in the underfloor space cool down, and then release it into the room, and if it does not meet the required room temperature, such as during the day, send the room air to the floor while cooling it through the heating / cooling unit. Is.

請求項1および請求項5に記載の本発明によれば、外気導入集熱ユニットと蓄熱層を有する床下空間と床近傍に設置する暖冷房ユニットを組み合わせることで、上下差の少ない横一列に近い配置として装置の組み合わせ構成ができ、集熱空気を床下に導入する際の搬送ダクトなどを大幅に短縮することができる。このことは施工手間やコストの削減のみならず、メンテナンスの容易さにとってもメリットが大きい。かつ、外気導入集熱ユニットを壁面に設置することで、屋根面に設置する従来技術に比べ、冬季の有用な集熱を確保しながら夏季の無用な集熱を抑制することができる。   According to the first and fifth aspects of the present invention, by combining the outside air introduction heat collecting unit, the underfloor space having the heat storage layer, and the heating / cooling unit installed in the vicinity of the floor, it is close to a horizontal row with little vertical difference. The arrangement can be combined with the apparatus, and the conveyance duct when introducing the heat collection air under the floor can be greatly shortened. This has great merit not only for reduction of construction labor and cost but also for ease of maintenance. In addition, by installing the outdoor air introduction heat collecting unit on the wall surface, unnecessary heat collection in summer can be suppressed while securing useful heat collection in winter compared to the conventional technology installed on the roof surface.

更に、暖冷房ユニットを床近傍に設置することで、暖冷房ユニットからの吹き出し空気を直接床下に送ることができる。   Furthermore, by installing the heating / cooling unit in the vicinity of the floor, the blown air from the heating / cooling unit can be sent directly under the floor.

請求項2記載の本発明は、外気導入集熱ユニットは、南面に対し東西90度以内、傾斜角45度以上に設置したことを要旨とするものである。   The gist of the present invention described in claim 2 is that the outside air introduction heat collecting unit is installed within 90 degrees east and west and at an inclination angle of 45 degrees or more with respect to the south surface.

請求項2に記載の本発明によれば、冬季の日中に太陽熱の受熱効果をより多く得るための設置条件であるが、南面に対し東西90度以内、傾斜角45度以上に設置することで、夏季の日中には太陽高度が高く外気導入集熱ユニットが過度に高温になるのを防ぐものである。   According to the second aspect of the present invention, the installation conditions are for obtaining more solar heat receiving effect during the winter day, but the installation is within 90 degrees east to west and at an inclination angle of 45 degrees or more with respect to the south surface. In the summer day, the solar altitude is high and the outdoor air collecting unit is prevented from becoming excessively hot.

請求項3記載の本発明は、蓄熱層として、コンクリートや水袋、潜熱蓄熱材などの比較的熱容量の大きな材料を用いることを要旨とするものである。   The gist of the present invention described in claim 3 is that a material having a relatively large heat capacity such as concrete, a water bag, or a latent heat storage material is used as the heat storage layer.

請求項3に記載の本発明によれば、冬季の日中に集熱した暖かい空気を夜間に対し蓄える蓄熱効果や、冬季の夜間に換気として導入した冷たい空気を温める放熱効果を、また、夏季の夜間に集熱した冷たい空気を翌日の日中に対し蓄える蓄熱効果や、夏季の日中に換気として導入した暖かい空気を冷ます放熱効果を担うと伴に、室温の安定化に寄与させることができる。   According to the third aspect of the present invention, the heat storage effect of storing warm air collected during the day of the winter against the night, the heat dissipation effect of warming the cold air introduced as ventilation at the night of the winter, and the summer The heat storage effect of storing cold air collected at night during the day of the next day and the heat dissipation effect of cooling the warm air introduced as ventilation during the summer day and contributing to the stabilization of room temperature Can do.

請求項4記載の本発明は、暖冷房ユニットとして、エアコン室内機を設置することを要旨とするものである。   The gist of the present invention described in claim 4 is to install an air conditioner indoor unit as the heating / cooling unit.

請求項4に記載の本発明によれば、1つの設備で暖冷房が可能であり、かつメンテナンスの容易な最も安価な設備として最適である。   According to the present invention as set forth in claim 4, heating and cooling can be performed with one facility, and it is most suitable as the cheapest facility with easy maintenance.

請求項6記載の本発明は、暖房必要時の日中、外気導入集熱ユニットにより温められた外気を床下へ導入する場合に、導入空気が床下より冷たい場合は蓄熱層によって温めながら室内へ放出させ、冷房必要時の夜間には外気導入集熱ユニットにより冷えた外気を床下へ導入し、導入空気が床下より暖かい場合は蓄熱層によって冷しながら室内へ放出させることを要旨とするものである。   According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, when the outside air warmed by the outside air introduction heat collecting unit is introduced under the floor during the day when heating is required, if the introduced air is cooler than the under floor, it is discharged into the room while being warmed by the heat storage layer. In the night when cooling is necessary, the gist is to introduce the outside air cooled by the outside air collecting unit into the floor, and if the introduced air is warmer under the floor, it is discharged into the room while being cooled by the heat storage layer. .

請求項6記載の本発明によれば、暖房必要時の日中、導入空気が床下より冷たい場合は蓄熱層によって温めながら室内へ放出させることができる。よって、換気により室内が冷たくなることはない。また、冷房必要時の夜間には導入空気が床下より暖かい場合は同様に蓄熱層によって冷しながら室内へ放出させることができるので、換気により室内がより熱くなることはない。   According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, during the day when heating is required, when the introduced air is cooler than the floor, it can be discharged into the room while being warmed by the heat storage layer. Therefore, the room does not become cold by ventilation. In addition, when the introduced air is warmer under the floor at the time of cooling, it can be discharged into the room while being cooled by the heat storage layer, so that the room is not heated by ventilation.

以上述べたように、本発明のソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法は、太陽熱や冬暖かく夏涼しい床下空間を積極的に利用しながら、必要最低限の暖冷房機器の構成で建物室内を四季を通じ、24時間換気を行いながらより快適な空間が実現できるものである。   As described above, the solar heating / cooling ventilation device and the solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the solar heating / cooling ventilation method according to the present invention can be used for the minimum heating / cooling equipment while actively using solar heat and the winter warm and cool summer floor space. With this configuration, a more comfortable space can be realized while ventilating the building interior throughout the seasons for 24 hours.

また、外気導入集熱ユニットと蓄熱層を有する床下空間と床近傍に設置する暖冷房ユニットを組み合わせることで、上下差の少ない横一列に近い配置として装置の組み合わせ構成ができ、集熱空気を床下に導入する際の搬送ダクトなどを大幅に短縮することができ、施工手間やコストの削減のみならず、メンテナンスも容易になる。   In addition, by combining an outdoor air introduction heat collection unit, an underfloor space with a heat storage layer, and a heating / cooling unit installed near the floor, the device can be combined in a horizontal arrangement with little vertical difference, and the collected air can be placed under the floor. It is possible to greatly shorten the transport duct when it is introduced into the machine, which not only saves labor and cost but also facilitates maintenance.

以下、図面について本発明の実施形態を詳細に説明する。図1〜図4は本発明の実施形態を示す説明図で、通常の住宅を想定している。本発明の住宅の断熱性能は熱損失係数で2(W/m2K)以下、気密性能は相当隙間面積で2(cm2/m2)以下の性能が望まれる。断熱性が悪い建物では暖冷房負荷が大きく、集熱したエネルギーを有効に活用することが難しく、また、気密性が悪い建物では暖冷房負荷の増大のみならず安定した計画換気ができないことが理由である。 Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. 1-4 is explanatory drawing which shows embodiment of this invention, and assumes a normal house. It is desired that the heat insulation performance of the house of the present invention is 2 (W / m 2 K) or less in terms of heat loss coefficient, and the airtight performance is 2 (cm 2 / m 2 ) or less in terms of substantial gap area. In buildings with poor thermal insulation, the heating / cooling load is large, making it difficult to effectively use the collected energy, and in buildings with poor airtightness, not only increased heating / cooling load but also stable planned ventilation is not possible. It is.

特に床下空間4は外気に接する基礎部分とその周辺の断熱および基礎と土台間の隙間の密閉性を確保する必要がある。このことにより床下空間4は居室と同じ室内空間とみなすことができる。   In particular, the underfloor space 4 needs to ensure heat insulation of the foundation portion in contact with the outside air and its surroundings, and sealing of the gap between the foundation and the foundation. Thus, the underfloor space 4 can be regarded as the same indoor space as the living room.

図中1は、壁面に取り付けられた外気導入集熱ユニットで、これは先に発明者が考案した特許第4171014号のものを利用できる。   In the figure, reference numeral 1 denotes an outside air introduction heat collecting unit attached to a wall surface, which can be the one disclosed in Japanese Patent No. 4171014 previously invented by the inventor.

外気導入集熱ユニット1は、図5〜図6に示すように、太陽放射を受ける側の板材料である受熱板11と反対側の板材料である吸熱板12を間に距離が約10mm以下の極薄通気層13を介在させて平行に配置した扁平パネル形状の板状体50である。この板状体50は曲面形状とすることも可能である。また、受熱板11を両面に設けることも考えられる。   As shown in FIG. 5 to FIG. 6, the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 has a distance of about 10 mm or less between a heat receiving plate 12 that is a plate material on the opposite side to a heat receiving plate 11 that is a plate material on the side receiving solar radiation. It is the flat panel-shaped plate-shaped body 50 arrange | positioned in parallel with the ultrathin air-permeable layer 13 interposed. The plate-like body 50 can also have a curved surface shape. It is also conceivable to provide the heat receiving plate 11 on both sides.

極薄通気層13は、薄い通気層とすることにより、受熱板と流れる空気の接触効率を高め、熱交換性能が向上するものであるが、およそ2mmが好適である。(ただし、処理風量が大きく違えば、通気層高さも変わる。)   Although the ultrathin air-permeable layer 13 is a thin air-permeable layer, the contact efficiency between the heat receiving plate and the flowing air is improved and the heat exchange performance is improved, but approximately 2 mm is preferable. (However, if the treatment air volume is greatly different, the height of the ventilation layer also changes.)

板状体50を構成する材料としては、熱伝導性が比較的よい材料であれば金属等特に限定は問わないが、受熱板11は集熱表面材料として黒色金属板、選択吸収膜板などが好適である。なお、受熱板11の集熱表面材料として、太陽電池を用いることも可能である。太陽電池が冷却できることは発電効率の低下防止になる。   The material constituting the plate-like body 50 is not particularly limited as long as the material has relatively good thermal conductivity, but the heat receiving plate 11 may be a black metal plate, a selective absorption film plate, or the like as a heat collecting surface material. Is preferred. Note that a solar cell can also be used as the heat collecting surface material of the heat receiving plate 11. The ability to cool the solar cell prevents the reduction in power generation efficiency.

板状体50は、下側を空気吸込口14、上側を空気吐出口15とし、複数を連列できるように、上端に接続代16を突設した。   The plate-like body 50 has an air suction port 14 on the lower side and an air discharge port 15 on the upper side, and a connection allowance 16 is protruded from the upper end so that a plurality can be arranged.

板状体50は、上下の長さ120mm程度とするが、60mm〜1800mm程度の範囲で製品バリエーションが可能である。また、全体は幅のある横長形状のものとし、太陽放射を受ける受熱面全体に、極薄通気層13の流れ方向に短い長さ(数cm〜2m程度)のものを複数並列させて全体が大きなパネルとなるように配置し、均等に空気を吸い込むように通気抵抗を調整する。   The plate-like body 50 has a vertical length of about 120 mm, but product variations are possible within a range of about 60 mm to 1800 mm. Also, the whole is of a horizontally long shape, and the whole heat receiving surface receiving solar radiation is arranged in parallel with a plurality of short lengths (several centimeters to 2 m) in the flow direction of the ultrathin vent layer 13. Arrange it so that it is a large panel, and adjust the ventilation resistance so that air is evenly drawn.

板状体50は、建物の壁面17に設置する場合にであり、太陽放射を受ける側と反対側(壁面17との間)に、集合通気層18を形成する。   The plate-like body 50 is used when it is installed on the wall surface 17 of the building, and the collective ventilation layer 18 is formed on the side opposite to the side receiving solar radiation (between the wall surface 17).

また、太陽放射を受ける側に、ガラス19などの太陽放射を透過する材料を空気層20とともに設けるようにしてもよい。   Moreover, you may make it provide the material which permeate | transmits solar radiation, such as glass 19, with the air layer 20 in the side which receives solar radiation.

前記板状体50を並べ、極薄通気層13の通気抵抗でバランスを考慮して、面積あたり風量を同じ程度にすること、加えて、分割された集熱部材(板状体50)を均等に吸い込むように調整することにより、小さい(短い)熱交換(集熱)面で、利用できる温度が得られるものとなる。   The plate-like bodies 50 are arranged, the balance of airflow resistance of the ultrathin air-permeable layer 13 is taken into consideration, the air volume per area is set to the same level, and the divided heat collecting members (plate-like bodies 50) are evenly distributed. By adjusting so as to suck in, a usable temperature can be obtained on a small (short) heat exchange (heat collecting) surface.

図7に示すように、多数並列した板状体50と集合通気層18に組合せによる外気導入集熱ユニット1に対してダクト2を介して送風ファン3を設ける。なお、さらに、導入ダクト35を介して室内直接用ファン30を設けることも可能である。図示は省略するが、室内直接用ファン30は停止時密閉タイプ、送風ファン3は停止時密閉用ダンパを別途取り付ける。   As shown in FIG. 7, the blower fan 3 is provided through the duct 2 to the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 which is a combination of a large number of parallel plate-like bodies 50 and the collective ventilation layer 18. Furthermore, it is possible to provide the indoor direct fan 30 via the introduction duct 35. Although illustration is omitted, the indoor direct fan 30 is separately attached with a hermetically closed type when stopped, and the blower fan 3 is separately attached with a damper when hermetically shut when stopped.

図中34は多数並列した板状体50と集合通気層18に組合せによる外気導入集熱ユニット1を設置するための見切縁(板金巻き)であり、38は該空気式太陽集熱部の下地となる外装材で、セメントサイディングと塗装からなる。37は通気層、36は下地材+透湿防水シートである。   In the figure, 34 is a parting edge (sheet metal winding) for installing the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 by combining the plate-like body 50 and the collective ventilation layer 18 in parallel with each other, and 38 is a base of the pneumatic solar heat collecting part. It is made of cement siding and painting. 37 is a ventilation layer, 36 is a base material + moisture-permeable waterproof sheet.

この外気導入集熱ユニット1が連通する床下空間4に蓄熱層6を設け、さらに、床近傍に暖冷房ユニット10を設置した。図中5は床材、7は床面に設置した吹出口、8は室内、9は室内の壁に取り付けた換気レジスタである。   A heat storage layer 6 was provided in the underfloor space 4 through which the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 communicated, and a heating / cooling unit 10 was installed near the floor. In the figure, 5 is a flooring material, 7 is an air outlet installed on the floor, 8 is a room, and 9 is a ventilation register attached to the wall of the room.

蓄熱層6としては、土間コンクリートを利用できるが、土間コンクリート以外のコンクリートや水袋、潜熱蓄熱材などの比較的熱容量の大きな材料を用いる。   As the heat storage layer 6, soil concrete can be used, but a material having a relatively large heat capacity such as concrete other than soil concrete, a water bag, or a latent heat storage material is used.

また、暖冷房ユニット10には、エアコン室内機を利用することができる。   An air conditioner indoor unit can be used for the heating / cooling unit 10.

このようにして、太陽放射を受ける位置である壁面に取り付けられた外気導入集熱ユニット1としての板状体50を複数設置し、この板状体50で太陽放射を受ける側の外気を空気吸込口14より吸い込み、薄い通気層である極薄通気層13で太陽熱を集熱し、各板状体50の空気吐出口15から吹き出した集熱空気を集合通気層18で集合して送風ファン3により床下空間4に供給する。   In this way, a plurality of plate-like bodies 50 as the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 attached to the wall surface that is the position to receive solar radiation are installed, and the outside air on the side that receives solar radiation by the plate-like bodies 50 is sucked into the air. The solar heat is collected by the ultrathin air-permeable layer 13 which is sucked from the mouth 14 and is a thin air-permeable layer, and the collected air blown out from the air outlet 15 of each plate-like body 50 is gathered by the air-collecting layer 18 and is collected by the blower fan 3 Supply to the underfloor space 4.

外気導入集熱ユニット1は、板状体50を複数並列させた配置することで、熱交換面(集放熱面)を比較的細かく分割して、分割数に応じた当該空気式熱交換部を取り付けるものである。これにより、処理風量と極薄通気層13の通気抵抗と送風機24のファン能力のバランスを取ることができる。   The outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 is arranged by arranging a plurality of plate-like bodies 50 in parallel, so that the heat exchange surface (collecting and radiating surface) is divided relatively finely, and the pneumatic heat exchange unit corresponding to the number of divisions is provided. Attached. Thereby, it is possible to balance the processing air volume, the ventilation resistance of the ultrathin ventilation layer 13 and the fan capacity of the blower 24.

外気導入集熱ユニット1は、薄い通気層とすることにより、受熱板と流れる空気の接触効率を高め、放射熱と対流あるいは伝導で熱交する熱交換性能を向上させるものである。   The outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 is a thin ventilation layer, thereby improving the contact efficiency between the heat receiving plate and the flowing air, and improving the heat exchange performance to exchange heat with radiant heat by convection or conduction.

この外気導入集熱ユニット1で外気を効率的に温めることができる。ガラス19付きの集熱ユニットでは晴天時に外気温+30〜40℃の集熱温度が得られる。   The outside air can be efficiently warmed by the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1. In the heat collecting unit with the glass 19, a heat collecting temperature of +30 to 40 ° C. can be obtained at the outside temperature in fine weather.

図8は応用例として外気導入集熱ユニット1の外側をつる植物等の植物のベール51で覆うようにすることもできる。植物のベール51はこれを壁面付近に設置することで、日射による眩しさを防止し、或いは日射熱の室内への侵入を軽減するもので、植物で緑化することにより、建物全体の意匠性を向上させ、かつ、植物から蒸散する水分が建物壁面を冷却する。植物のベール51はヨシズなどで代用させてもよい。   FIG. 8 shows an application example in which the outside of the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 can be covered with a veil 51 of a plant such as a vine. The plant veil 51 is installed near the wall surface to prevent glare caused by solar radiation or to reduce the invasion of solar heat into the room. Water that elevates and evaporates from the plants cools the building walls. The plant veil 51 may be replaced by Yoshizu or the like.

また、前記ガラス19はこれをアトリウム52を構成するものとしてもよい。前記植物のベール51とアトリウム52との組み合わせは、羽根板を横に組んで支柱に取り付け、蘇苔類植物を羽根板の上面に設置された植栽マットに生育させる緑化用植栽ルーバーとして、空気取り入れ可能な構造とすることもできる。   The glass 19 may constitute an atrium 52. As a planting louver for planting, the combination of the plant bale 51 and the atrium 52 is a louver that is laid horizontally and attached to a support, and a moss plant grows on a planting mat installed on the top surface of the slat. A structure capable of taking in air can also be used.

外気導入集熱ユニット1の面積が大きいほど、より高温の集熱できるが、暖房に供するのであるから過度に高温である必要がなく、その際は外気の導入風量を増やし温度を抑えた集熱にすることで調整する。   The larger the area of the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 is, the higher the temperature can be collected, but since it is used for heating, it does not need to be excessively high. In that case, the amount of outside air introduced is increased to suppress the temperature. To adjust.

ちなみに、外気導入集熱ユニット1は、南面に対し東西90度以内、傾斜角45度以上に設置する。   Incidentally, the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 is installed within 90 degrees east and west and at an inclination angle of 45 degrees or more with respect to the south surface.

外気導入集熱ユニット1は、冬季の日中に太陽熱の受熱効果をより多く得ることが設置条件であるが、このように南面に対し東西90度以内、傾斜角45度以以上に設置することで、夏季の日中には太陽高度が高く外気導入集熱ユニットが過度に高温になるのを防ぐことができる。   The outdoor air introduction heat collecting unit 1 is installed under the condition of obtaining more solar heat receiving effect during the winter day, but should be installed within 90 degrees east and west and at an inclination angle of 45 degrees or more. Thus, it is possible to prevent the outdoor air introduction heat collecting unit from becoming excessively hot during the summer day.

この外気導入集熱ユニット1で温められた空気は、導入ダクト2を通し送風ファン3で床下空間4に送り込まれ、床下空間4にある床材5および蓄熱層6を温め、床暖房と蓄熱を行うことができる。更に床面に設置した吹出口7から室内8へと空気を放出させ、最終的に室内の壁に取り付けた換気レジスタ9などから屋外へと排出される。   The air heated by the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 is sent into the underfloor space 4 by the blower fan 3 through the introduction duct 2, warms the flooring 5 and the heat storage layer 6 in the underfloor space 4, and performs floor heating and heat storage. It can be carried out. Further, air is discharged from the air outlet 7 installed on the floor surface to the room 8, and finally discharged from the ventilation register 9 or the like attached to the wall of the room to the outside.

この一連の空気流れによって室内の換気をも行うことができる。この換気は屋外に比べ室内がプラス圧になることから第2種換気に相当し、目に見えない建物の隙間からの外気やホコリ、花粉などの侵入を防ぐメリットがある。   This series of air flows can also provide room ventilation. This ventilation is equivalent to type 2 ventilation because the room has a positive pressure compared to the outdoors, and has the advantage of preventing the intrusion of outside air, dust, pollen, etc. from invisible gaps in the building.

図2は冬季の夜間におけるソーラー暖冷房換気方法の第2実施形態である。当然のことながら外気導入集熱ユニット1での集熱温度はほぼ外気温である。   FIG. 2 shows a second embodiment of the solar heating / cooling ventilation method at night in winter. As a matter of course, the heat collection temperature in the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 is almost the outside air temperature.

冬季の夜間での外気導入集熱ユニット1の役割は、室内の換気が目的であることから、導入外気は対象空間に対し0.5(回/h)程度の量(日中の集熱時に比べ小さい)を導入ダクト2を通し送風ファン3で床下4に送り込まれる。   Since the role of the outdoor air introduction heat collection unit 1 at night in winter is for the purpose of indoor ventilation, the amount of introduction outside air is about 0.5 (times / h) relative to the target space (during heat collection during the day Is sent to the floor 4 by the blower fan 3 through the introduction duct 2.

冬季の夜間での床下に導入した空気の温度は、通常床下空間にある床材5および蓄熱層6よりも温度が低いため、床材5および蓄熱層6で若干温められ、床面に設置した吹出口7から室内8へと空気を放出される。   The temperature of the air introduced under the floor at night in winter is usually lower than the flooring 5 and the heat storage layer 6 in the underfloor space, so it is slightly warmed by the flooring 5 and the heat storage layer 6 and installed on the floor surface. Air is discharged from the air outlet 7 into the room 8.

その際要求する室温に達しない場合には、床付近に設置した暖冷房ユニット10を運転し、室内空気を温め床下空間4に戻す(循環させる)ことで暖房を実現する。   If the required room temperature is not reached, the heating / cooling unit 10 installed near the floor is operated to warm the room air and return (circulate) it to the underfloor space 4 to realize heating.

図3は夏季の日中におけるソーラー暖冷房換気方法の第3実施形態である。壁面に取り付けられた外気導入集熱ユニット1は、太陽の高度が高くかつ建物の軒や屋根の庇などによって遮熱されることから、冬季よりも温度上昇が少ないものの、ガラス付きの集熱ユニットでは晴天時に外気温+10℃程度の集熱温度になる。より積極的な遮熱対策としては、植物のベール51やヨシズなどで覆うなどの手法が極めて有効である。   FIG. 3 shows a third embodiment of the solar heating / cooling ventilation method during the summer day. The outside air introduction heat collection unit 1 attached to the wall has a high altitude of the sun and is shielded by heat from the eaves of the building or roof fence, etc., but the temperature rise is less than in winter, When the weather is fine, the outside air temperature becomes + 10 ° C. As a more proactive heat shielding measure, a method such as covering with a plant bale 51 or reed is extremely effective.

夏季の日中での外気導入集熱ユニット1の役割は、冬季の夜間と同様に室内の換気が目的であることから、導入外気は対象空間に対し0.5(回/h)程度の量を導入ダクト2を通し送風ファン3で床下空間4に送り込まれる。   Since the purpose of the outdoor air introduction heat collection unit 1 during the summer day is to ventilate the interior as in the winter night, the amount of the introduced outside air is about 0.5 (times / h) relative to the target space. Is introduced into the underfloor space 4 by the blower fan 3 through the introduction duct 2.

夏季の日中での床下に導入した空気の温度は、通常床下空間にある床材5および蓄熱層6よりも温度が高いため、床材5および蓄熱層6で若干冷まされ、床面に設置した吹出口7から室内8へと空気を放出される。その際要求する室温に達しない場合には、床付近に設置した暖冷房ユニット10を運転し、室内空気を冷まし床下空間4に戻す(循環させる)ことで冷房を実現する。   The temperature of the air introduced under the floor during the summer day is usually higher than that of the flooring 5 and the heat storage layer 6 in the underfloor space, so that the air is slightly cooled by the flooring 5 and the heat storage layer 6 and Air is discharged from the installed outlet 7 into the room 8. If the required room temperature is not reached, the heating / cooling unit 10 installed near the floor is operated to cool the room air and return (circulate) it to the underfloor space 4 to achieve cooling.

図4は夏季の夜間におけるソーラー暖冷房換気方法の第4実施形態である。当然のことながら外気導入集熱ユニット1での集熱温度はほぼ外気温である。   FIG. 4 shows a fourth embodiment of the solar heating / cooling ventilation method at night in summer. As a matter of course, the heat collection temperature in the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 is almost the outside air temperature.

外気導入集熱ユニット1で取り込んだ空気は、導入ダクト2を通し送風ファン3で床下空間4に送り込まれ、床下空間にある床材5および蓄熱層6を冷まし、床面に設置した吹出口7から室内8へと空気を放出させ、涼感を得ることができる。   The air taken in by the outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 passes through the introduction duct 2 and is sent to the underfloor space 4 by the blower fan 3 to cool the flooring 5 and the heat storage layer 6 in the underfloor space, and the air outlet 7 installed on the floor surface. The air can be discharged from the inside to the room 8 to obtain a cool feeling.

夏季の夜間では要求する室温に比べ外気温の方が低い場合には、積極的に外気の導入風量を増やし床下空間4や床材5や蓄熱層6および室内8を冷やすことで、翌日の日中の室温上昇を抑制することができる。   If the outside air temperature is lower than the room temperature required at night in the summer, the air volume of the outside air is actively increased and the underfloor space 4, the flooring 5, the heat storage layer 6, and the room 8 are cooled, and the next day The rise in room temperature can be suppressed.

以上の実施形態は、簡便であることから建物の一部をリフォームする場合などの小規模な空間においても適用できる。   Since the above embodiment is simple, it can be applied to a small space such as when a part of a building is renovated.

外気導入集熱ユニット1の設置位置は、建物の周辺状況により請求項2の設置条件を満たす限りに於いて、ベランダの手すりや建物と分離した独立設置も可能である。   The outside air introduction heat collecting unit 1 can be installed independently from the handrail of the veranda or the building as long as the installation condition of claim 2 is satisfied according to the surrounding situation of the building.

本発明のソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法の冬季の日中における実施形態の説明図である。It is explanatory drawing of embodiment in the daytime of the winter of the solar heating / cooling ventilation apparatus of this invention, and the solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the same. 本発明のソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法の冬季の夜間における実施形態の説明図である。BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS It is explanatory drawing of embodiment in the nighttime of the winter of the solar heating / cooling ventilation apparatus of this invention, and the solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the same. 本発明のソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法の夏季の日中における実施形態の説明図である。It is explanatory drawing of embodiment in the daytime of the summer of the solar heating / cooling ventilation apparatus of this invention, and the solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the same. 本発明の本発明のソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法の夏季の夜間における実施形態の説明図である。It is explanatory drawing of embodiment in the nighttime of the summer of the solar heating / cooling ventilation apparatus of this invention and the solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the same of this invention. 本発明のソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法で使用する外気導入集熱ユニットの縦断側面図である。It is a vertical side view of the outside air introduction heat collecting unit used in the solar heating / cooling ventilation apparatus of the present invention and the solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the same. 本発明のソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法で使用する外気導入集熱ユニットの斜視図である。1 is a perspective view of an outside air introduction heat collecting unit used in a solar heating / cooling ventilation apparatus and a solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the same according to the present invention. 外気導入集熱ユニットの組込み部分を示す縦断側面図である。It is a vertical side view which shows the incorporating part of an external air introduction heat collecting unit. 本発明のソーラー暖冷房換気装置およびそれを用いたソーラー暖冷房換気方法の応用例を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the example of application of the solar heating / cooling ventilation apparatus of this invention, and the solar heating / cooling ventilation method using the same. 建物の熱損失に関するグラフである。It is a graph regarding the heat loss of a building. 従来例を示す集熱時の模式図である。It is a schematic diagram at the time of heat collection which shows a prior art example. 従来例を示す空冷時の模式図である。It is a schematic diagram at the time of air cooling which shows a prior art example.

1…外気導入集熱ユニット 2…導入ダクト
3…送風ファン 4…床下空間
5…床材 6…蓄熱層
7…吹出口 8…室内
9…換気レジスタ 10…暖冷房ユニット
11…受熱板 12…吸熱板
13…極薄通気層 14…空気吸込口
15…空気吐出口 16…接続代
17…壁面 18…集合通気層
19…ガラス 20…空気層
30…室内直接用ファン 34…見切縁(板金巻き)
35…ダクト
36…下地材+透湿防水シート
37…通気層 38…外装材
50…板状体 51…植物のベール
52…アトリウム
101…屋根板 102…空気流路
103…空気取入口 104…棟ダクト
105…ハンドリングボックス 106…逆流防止ダンパー
107…ファン 108…流路切換えダンパー
109…排気ダクト 110…立下りダクト
111…蓄熱土間コンクリート 112…床パネル
113…空気流通空間 114…床吹出口
115…お湯とりコイル 116…循環配管
117…貯湯槽 118…給湯ボイラー
119…循環用ダクト 120…吸込口
121…給湯配管 122…小屋裏
123…補助暖房コイル 124…暖房・追炊きボイラー
125…換気口 126…循環配管
127…フィン 130…ケース
131…配管 138…循環配管
139…補助暖房コイル 140…通気路
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Outside air introduction heat collecting unit 2 ... Introduction duct 3 ... Blower fan 4 ... Underfloor space 5 ... Floor material 6 ... Heat storage layer 7 ... Outlet 8 ... Indoor 9 ... Ventilation register 10 ... Heating / cooling unit 11 ... Heat receiving plate 12 ... Heat absorption Plate 13 ... Ultrathin ventilation layer 14 ... Air suction port 15 ... Air discharge port 16 ... Connection cost 17 ... Wall 18 ... Collective ventilation layer 19 ... Glass 20 ... Air layer 30 ... Indoor direct fan 34 ... Parting edge (sheet metal winding)
35 ... Duct 36 ... Base material + moisture permeable waterproof sheet 37 ... Breathable layer 38 ... Exterior material 50 ... Plate-like body 51 ... Plant bale 52 ... Atrium 101 ... Roof plate 102 ... Air flow path 103 ... Air intake 104 ... Building Duct 105 ... Handling box 106 ... Backflow prevention damper 107 ... Fan 108 ... Flow path switching damper 109 ... Exhaust duct 110 ... Falling duct 111 ... Concrete between thermal storage soils 112 ... Floor panel 113 ... Air circulation space 114 ... Floor outlet 115 ... Hot water Coil 116 ... Circulation pipe 117 ... Hot water storage tank 118 ... Hot water supply boiler 119 ... Circulation duct 120 ... Suction port 121 ... Hot water supply pipe 122 ... Hut back 123 ... Auxiliary heating coil 124 ... Heating and cooking boiler 125 ... Ventilation port 126 ... Circulation Piping 127 ... Fin 130 ... Case 131 ... Piping 138 ... Circulating distribution 139 ... auxiliary heating coil 140 ... air passage

Claims (6)

太陽放射を受ける側の板材料と反対側の板材料を間に距離が約10mm以下の薄い厚さの通気層を介在させて平行に配置した扁平パネル形状の板状体であり、板状体は通気層の流れ方向に数cm〜2m程度の短い長さのものであり、太陽放射を受ける受熱面全体に複数を並列させて全体が大きなパネルとなるように配置し、均等に空気を吸い込むように通気抵抗を調整し、太陽放射を受ける側の空間から空気を薄い厚さの通気層に吸い込み、通気層を通過する間に受ける放射熱と対流あるいは伝導で熱交換し、太陽放射を受ける側と反対側に熱交換した空気を吹き出す外気導入集熱ユニットを太陽光が受光できる壁面に設置し、
この外気導入集熱ユニットが連通する床下空間に蓄熱層を設け、
さらに、床近傍に暖冷房ユニットを設置したことを特徴とするソーラー暖冷房換気装置。
A flat panel-shaped plate body in which a plate material on the side receiving solar radiation and a plate material on the opposite side are arranged in parallel with a thin air-permeable layer having a distance of about 10 mm or less between them. Is a short length of about several centimeters to 2 meters in the flow direction of the ventilation layer. A plurality of heat receiving surfaces receiving solar radiation are arranged in parallel so that the whole becomes a large panel, and air is sucked in evenly. The ventilation resistance is adjusted so that air is sucked into the thin ventilation layer from the space on the side receiving solar radiation, and heat is exchanged by convection or conduction with the radiant heat received while passing through the ventilation layer to receive solar radiation. Install an outside air introduction heat collection unit that blows out air that has been heat-exchanged to the opposite side to the wall where sunlight can be received,
A heat storage layer is provided in the underfloor space where this outside air introduction heat collecting unit communicates,
Furthermore, a solar heating / cooling ventilator characterized by installing a heating / cooling unit near the floor.
外気導入集熱ユニットは、南面に対し東西90度以内、傾斜角45度以上に設置した請求項1記載のソーラー暖冷房換気装置。   The solar heating / cooling ventilator according to claim 1, wherein the outside air introduction heat collecting unit is installed within 90 degrees east to west with respect to the south surface and at an inclination angle of 45 degrees or more. 蓄熱層として、コンクリートや水袋、潜熱蓄熱材などの比較的熱容量の大きな材料を用いる請求項1または請求項2記載のソーラー暖冷房換気装置。   The solar heating / cooling ventilation apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a material having a relatively large heat capacity such as concrete, a water bag, or a latent heat storage material is used as the heat storage layer. 暖冷房ユニットとして、エアコン室内機を設置する請求項1ないし請求項3のいずれかに記載のソーラー暖冷房換気装置。   The solar heating / cooling ventilator according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein an air conditioner indoor unit is installed as the heating / cooling unit. 太陽放射を受ける側の板材料と反対側の板材料を間に距離が約10mm以下の薄い厚さの通気層を介在させて平行に配置した扁平パネル形状の板状体であり、板状体は通気層の流れ方向に数cm〜5m程度の短い長さのものであり、太陽放射を受ける受熱面全体に複数を並列させて全体が大きなパネルとなるように配置し、均等に空気を吸い込むように通気抵抗を調整し、太陽放射を受ける側の空間から空気を薄い厚さの通気層に吸い込み、通気層を通過する間に受ける放射熱と対流あるいは伝導で熱交換し、太陽放射を受ける側と反対側に熱交換した空気を吹き出す外気導入集熱ユニットを太陽光が受光できる壁面に設置し、
この外気導入集熱ユニットが連通する床下空間に蓄熱層を設け、
さらに、床近傍に暖冷房ユニットを設置し、
暖房必要時の日中には外気導入集熱ユニットにより温められた外気を床下へ導入し、床下空間にある蓄熱層を温めながら室内へ放出させ、
夜間など要求室温に満たない場合には室内空気を暖冷房ユニットを通して温めながら床下に送りこみ、
冷房必要時の夜間には外気導入集熱ユニットにより冷えた外気を床下へ導入し、床下空間にある蓄熱層を冷ましながら室内へ放出させ、
日中など要求室温に満たない場合には室内空気を暖冷房ユニットを通して冷やしながら床下に送りこむことを特徴とするソーラー暖冷房換気方法。
A flat panel-shaped plate body in which a plate material on the side receiving solar radiation and a plate material on the opposite side are arranged in parallel with a thin air-permeable layer having a distance of about 10 mm or less between them. Is a short length of several centimeters to 5 meters in the flow direction of the ventilation layer, and is arranged so that the whole is a large panel in parallel with the entire heat receiving surface that receives solar radiation, and sucks air evenly The ventilation resistance is adjusted so that air is sucked into the thin ventilation layer from the space on the side receiving solar radiation, and heat is exchanged by convection or conduction with the radiant heat received while passing through the ventilation layer to receive solar radiation. Install an outside air introduction heat collection unit that blows out air that has been heat-exchanged to the opposite side to the wall where sunlight can be received,
A heat storage layer is provided in the underfloor space where this outside air introduction heat collecting unit communicates,
In addition, a heating / cooling unit is installed near the floor,
During the day when heating is required, the outside air heated by the outside air collecting unit is introduced under the floor, and the heat storage layer in the underfloor space is released into the room while being heated,
If the room temperature is less than the required room temperature, such as at night, send the room air under the floor while warming it through the heating / cooling unit.
During the night when cooling is required, the outside air cooled by the outside air introduction heat collection unit is introduced under the floor, and the heat storage layer in the under floor space is cooled and released into the room,
A solar heating / cooling ventilation method characterized by sending indoor air under the floor while cooling the room air through a heating / cooling unit when the required room temperature is not reached, such as during the daytime.
暖房必要時の日中、外気導入集熱ユニットにより温められた外気を床下へ導入する場合に、導入空気が床下より冷たい場合は蓄熱層によって温めながら室内へ放出させ、
冷房必要時の夜間には外気導入集熱ユニットにより冷えた外気を床下へ導入し、導入空気が床下より暖かい場合は蓄熱層によって冷しながら室内へ放出させる請求項5記載のソーラー暖冷房換気方法。
When the outside air heated by the outside air introduction heat collecting unit is introduced under the floor during the day when heating is required, if the introduced air is colder under the floor, it is discharged into the room while being heated by the heat storage layer,
6. The solar heating / cooling ventilation method according to claim 5, wherein outside air cooled by an outside air introduction heat collecting unit is introduced under the floor at night when cooling is necessary, and if the introduced air is warmer under the floor, the outside air is discharged into the room while being cooled by the heat storage layer. .
JP2011088019A 2011-04-12 2011-04-12 Solar heating and cooling ventilator, and solar heating and cooling ventilation method using the same Pending JP2012220131A (en)

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JP2016014517A (en) * 2014-06-13 2016-01-28 株式会社カネカ Air conditioning system
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JP2002180558A (en) * 2000-04-28 2002-06-26 Sekisui Chem Co Ltd Building
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JP5613931B1 (en) * 2013-09-04 2014-10-29 洋樹 及川 Air conditioning system
JP2016014517A (en) * 2014-06-13 2016-01-28 株式会社カネカ Air conditioning system
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CN109163463A (en) * 2018-09-12 2019-01-08 扬州市光泽环境工程有限公司 A kind of water-feeding system and upper water method
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