JP2012080143A - Semiconductor light-emitting element - Google Patents

Semiconductor light-emitting element Download PDF

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JP2012080143A
JP2012080143A JP2012015065A JP2012015065A JP2012080143A JP 2012080143 A JP2012080143 A JP 2012080143A JP 2012015065 A JP2012015065 A JP 2012015065A JP 2012015065 A JP2012015065 A JP 2012015065A JP 2012080143 A JP2012080143 A JP 2012080143A
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layer
semiconductor
light emitting
semiconductor layer
electrode
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JP5395916B2 (en
JP2012080143A5 (en
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Katsura Kaneko
Hiroshi Katsuno
Mitsuhiro Kushibe
Yasuo Oba
弘 勝野
康夫 大場
光弘 櫛部
桂 金子
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Toshiba Corp
株式会社東芝
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Abstract

A semiconductor light emitting device that simultaneously satisfies high brightness, high efficiency, and high reliability at the same time.
According to an embodiment, a first conductive type first semiconductor layer made of a nitride based semiconductor, a second conductive type second semiconductor layer made of a nitride based semiconductor, and the first semiconductor layer, A light emitting layer provided between the second semiconductor layer and a first metal layer including silver or a silver alloy provided on the opposite side of the second semiconductor layer from the light emitting layer. And a second metal layer that is provided on the opposite side of the first metal layer from the second semiconductor layer and includes at least one element of gold, platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and osmium. The second semiconductor layer is provided in contact with the interface between the second semiconductor layer and the first metal layer, includes an interface layer containing silver, and the contact resistance between the second semiconductor layer and the electrode is Provided is a semiconductor light emitting device having 10 × 10 −4 Ωcm 2 or less. It is.
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a semiconductor light emitting device.

  In order to improve the light extraction efficiency of a semiconductor light emitting element such as an LED (Light Emitting Diode), it is desired to use a material having a high reflectance for the electrode. Silver or a silver alloy shows high reflection characteristics even for short-wavelength emission light of 400 nm or less, and has good electrical characteristics such as ohmic characteristics and contact resistance, but easily undergoes migration and chemical reaction. Is a problem.

  In order to improve the adhesion, for example, if the sinter process is performed, the reflection characteristics are likely to deteriorate. Moreover, although the structure which forms the metal layer which covers it after forming a silver electrode can be considered, a silver electrode raise | generates a migration and a chemical reaction in the middle of the process, and a characteristic deteriorates. Also, when a protective film continuously formed after silver is simultaneously sintered for the purpose of protecting the surface of silver, the adhesion is easily deteriorated by the low temperature sintering process, and the reflection characteristics are easily deteriorated by the high temperature sintering process.

  Patent Document 1 discloses a configuration in which, for example, a Pt / Au second metal film not containing silver is provided on a first metal film of silver or a silver alloy to suppress silver migration and chemical reaction. However, there is room for improvement for higher reflectivity, higher electrical properties, higher stability, and higher adhesion.

JP 2009-49266 A

  The present invention provides a semiconductor light emitting device that simultaneously satisfies high brightness, high efficiency, and high reliability at the same time.

According to an aspect of the present invention, a first conductive type first semiconductor layer made of a nitride semiconductor, a second conductive type second semiconductor layer made of a nitride semiconductor, the first semiconductor layer, A light emitting layer provided between the second semiconductor layer and a first metal layer including silver or a silver alloy provided on the opposite side of the second semiconductor layer from the light emitting layer; An electrode having a second metal layer provided on the opposite side of the first metal layer from the second semiconductor layer and containing at least one element of platinum, palladium, and rhodium, and The semiconductor layer is provided in contact with the interface between the second semiconductor layer and the first metal layer, includes an interface layer including silver, and a contact resistance between the second semiconductor layer and the electrode is 10 × Provided is a semiconductor light emitting device characterized by being 10 −4 Ωcm 2 or less. The

  According to the present invention, there is provided a semiconductor light emitting device that simultaneously satisfies high luminance, high efficiency, and high reliability.

It is a schematic diagram which shows a semiconductor light-emitting device. It is a typical sectional view showing a semiconductor light emitting element. It is a graph which shows the characteristic of a semiconductor light-emitting device. It is a graph which shows the characteristic of a semiconductor light-emitting device. It is a typical sectional view showing a semiconductor light emitting element. It is a typical sectional view showing a semiconductor light emitting element. It is a schematic cross section which shows the manufacturing method of a semiconductor light-emitting device. It is a typical sectional view showing a semiconductor light emitting element. It is a flowchart figure which shows the manufacturing method of a semiconductor light-emitting device. It is a flowchart figure which shows the manufacturing method of a semiconductor light-emitting device. It is a flowchart figure which shows the manufacturing method of a semiconductor light-emitting device.

Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
Note that the drawings are schematic or conceptual, and the relationship between the thickness and width of each part, the ratio coefficient of the size between the parts, and the like are not necessarily the same as actual ones. Further, even when the same part is represented, the dimensions and ratio coefficient may be represented differently depending on the drawing.
Further, in the present specification and each drawing, the same reference numerals are given to the same elements as those described above with reference to the previous drawings, and detailed description thereof will be omitted as appropriate.

(First embodiment)
FIG. 1 is a schematic view illustrating the configuration of a semiconductor light emitting element according to the first embodiment of the invention.
That is, FIG. 4B is a schematic plan view, and FIG. 4A is a cross-sectional view taken along the line AA ′ in FIG.
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating the configuration of the semiconductor light emitting element according to the first embodiment of the invention.
That is, FIGS. 9A to 9C are enlarged views of a cross section taken along line AA ′ in FIG. 1B, and illustrate three types of states of the main part of the semiconductor light emitting device 110. FIG. is doing.

  As shown in FIG. 1, the semiconductor light emitting device 110 according to this embodiment includes a stacked structure 10 s and an electrode EL.

  The laminated structure 10s includes a first conductive type first semiconductor layer 10 made of a nitride semiconductor, a second conductive type second semiconductor layer 20 made of a nitride semiconductor, a first semiconductor layer 10 and a second semiconductor layer 10. A light emitting layer 30 provided between the semiconductor layer 20 and the semiconductor layer 20.

  The first conductivity type is, for example, an n type. The second conductivity type is, for example, a p-type. However, the first conductivity type may be p-type and the second conductivity type may be n-type. In the following description, it is assumed that the first conductivity type is n-type and the second conductivity type is p-type.

The electrode EL includes a first metal layer 51 and a second metal layer 52.
The first metal layer 51 is provided on the opposite side of the second semiconductor layer 20 from the light emitting layer 30 and contains silver (Ag) or a silver alloy.
The second metal layer 52 is provided on the opposite side of the first metal layer 51 from the second semiconductor layer 20, and gold (Au), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), iridium (Ir). , Ruthenium (Ru), and osmium (Os). Here, in the present specification, at least one of the above-mentioned “gold (Au), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), iridium (Ir), ruthenium (Ru), and osmium (Os)”. “Element” is simply referred to as “noble metal element”.

  The electrode EL has a first metal layer 51 and a second metal layer 52 that are stacked. The first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52 are in contact with each other. The first metal layer 51 is in contact with the second semiconductor layer 20.

The first metal layer 51 is, for example, an Ag layer, and has a thickness of, for example, 200 nm (nanometers). The second metal layer 52 is, for example, a Pt layer (platinum layer) and has a thickness of 2 nm.
The Ag layer and the Pt layer are formed continuously, for example, and subjected to sintering treatment (heat treatment) at 380 ° C. for 1 minute in a gas atmosphere in which oxygen and nitrogen are mixed at a ratio of 8 to 2, for example. Is formed.

  As shown in FIG. 2A, the concentration of the noble metal element in the interface region IFR including the interface 25 between the first metal layer 51 and the second semiconductor layer 20 is from the interface 25 in the first metal layer 51. It is higher than the separated first metal inner region 51c. Here, the first metal inner region 51 c is a region separated from the interface 25 of the first metal layer 51 and includes the region near the interface of the first metal layer 51 on the second metal layer 52 side.

  As shown in FIG. 2B, the second semiconductor layer 20 includes an interface layer IFL provided in contact with the interface 25 between the second semiconductor layer 20 and the first metal layer 51 and containing silver (Ag). . In particular, silver is included in the crystal defects 29 included in the interface layer IFL, and a compound layer of the second semiconductor layer 20 and silver is formed at the interface 25.

  With such a configuration, the reflectivity of the first metal layer 51 containing silver or a silver alloy is kept high, electrical characteristics such as ohmic characteristics and contact resistance are good, and silver migration and chemical reaction are suppressed and stability is improved. High adhesion can be improved. Thereby, it is possible to provide a semiconductor light emitting device that simultaneously satisfies high luminance, high efficiency, and high reliability.

  The inventor provides a structure in which a first metal layer 51 containing silver or a silver alloy is provided as an electrode EL on the second semiconductor layer 20 and a second metal layer 52 containing a noble metal element is provided thereon. As a result of experiments in which sintering is performed under various conditions, as described above, the noble metal element contained in the second metal layer 52 includes the second semiconductor layer 20 and the first metal layer 51 below the first metal layer 51. The present inventors have found that the above-described good characteristics are exhibited when localized in the interface region IFR including the interface 25 with.

  It is presumed that the noble metal element localized in the interface region IFR has moved from the second metal layer 52 to the interface region IFR via the inside of the first metal layer 51. If this phenomenon is a normal diffusion phenomenon, the concentration of the noble metal element is high in the region near the second metal layer 52 in the first metal layer 51, and the base metal is in the region away from the second metal layer 52. Although the concentration of the element is considered to be low, according to the experimental results described later, in the first metal layer 51, noble metal element is not detected in a region near the second metal layer 52, and the interface away from the second metal layer 52. Conditions for detecting noble metal elements in the region IFR were found, and good characteristics were obtained at this time.

  Then, it was found that an interface layer IFL containing Ag is formed in the portion of the second semiconductor layer 20 in contact with the interface 25 under these conditions.

  The present invention has been made on the basis of the above newly discovered findings. The experimental results will be described later in detail.

Below, the specific example of a structure of the semiconductor light-emitting device 110 and the example of the manufacturing method are demonstrated.
As illustrated in FIG. 1, the first electrode 40 is provided in contact with the first semiconductor layer 10, and the second electrode 50 is provided in contact with the second semiconductor layer 20.

  In this specific example, the second electrode 50 includes the first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52. That is, the second electrode 50 is the electrode EL described above.

  The second semiconductor layer 20 can have a plurality of layers to be described later, and a layer (a contact layer to be described later) disposed on the opposite side of the light emitting layer 30 among the plurality of layers is the second electrode 50 (specifically Specifically, it is in contact with the first metal layer 51).

  In this specific example, the first semiconductor layer 10 is exposed in a region in which a part of the second semiconductor layer 20 and the light emitting layer 30 on the first main surface 10a side of the stacked structure 10s is removed by etching, for example. A first electrode 40 is provided on the first semiconductor layer 10 in that region. And the 2nd electrode 50 is provided on the 2nd semiconductor layer 20 of the 1st main surface 10a.

  Furthermore, in this specific example, the substrate 5 is provided on the side of the first semiconductor layer 10 opposite to the light emitting layer 30. That is, for example, a buffer layer (not shown) made of single crystal AlN is provided on the substrate 5 made of sapphire, and the first semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the second semiconductor layer 20 are stacked in this order on the buffer layer. As a result, the laminated structure 10s is formed.

  For example, a nitride-based semiconductor can be used as a layer included in each of the first semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the second semiconductor layer 20.

Specifically, for example, Al x G 1-xy In y N (x ≧ 0, y ≧ 0, x + y ≦ 1) is used for the first semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the second semiconductor layer 20. These gallium nitride compound semiconductors are used. The formation method of the 1st semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the 2nd semiconductor layer 20 is arbitrary, For example, methods, such as a metal organic chemical vapor deposition method and a molecular beam epitaxial growth method, can be used.

Hereinafter, an example of a method of forming the laminated structure 10s will be described.
First, a high carbon concentration first AlN buffer layer (for example, the carbon concentration is 3 × 10 18 cm −3 to 5 × 10 20 cm −3 and the thickness is 3 nm to 20 nm) as a buffer layer on the substrate 5. A high-purity second AlN buffer layer (for example, a carbon concentration of 1 × 10 16 cm −3 to 3 × 10 18 cm −3 and a thickness of 2 μm), and a non-doped GaN buffer layer (for example, a thickness) Are formed sequentially in this order. The first AlN buffer layer and the second AlN buffer layer are single crystal aluminum nitride layers.

In addition, as the first semiconductor layer 10, a Si-doped n-type GaN layer (for example, a Si concentration of 1 × 10 18 cm −3 to 5 × 10 18 cm −3 and a thickness of 4 μm), Si-doped n-type GaN contact layer (for example, Si concentration of 5 × 10 18 cm - at 3~1 × 10 20 cm -3, 0.2μm thickness), and, Si-doped n-type Al 0.10 Ga 0.90 n cladding Layers (for example, Si concentration is 1 × 10 18 cm −3 and thickness is 0.02 μm) are sequentially formed in this order.

On top of that, a Si-doped n-type Al 0.11 Ga 0.89 N barrier layer and a GaInN well layer are alternately stacked for three periods as the light emitting layer 30, and the final Al 0.11 of the multiple quantum well is further formed. A Ga 0.89 N barrier layer is further stacked. In the Si-doped n-type Al 0.11 Ga 0.89 N barrier layer, for example, the Si concentration is set to 1.1 × 10 19 cm −3 to 1.5 × 10 19 cm −3 . The final Al 0.11 Ga 0.89 N barrier layer has a thickness of, for example, 0.075 μm. Thereafter, a Si-doped n-type Al 0.11 Ga 0.89 N layer (for example, the Si concentration is 0.8 × 10 19 cm −3 to 1.0 × 10 19 cm −3 and the thickness is 0.00. 01 μm). In addition, the wavelength of the emitted light in the light emitting layer 30 is 370 nm or more and 400 nm or less, for example. More specifically, it is, for example, 370 nm or more and 385 nm or less.

Furthermore, as the second semiconductor layer 20, a non-doped Al 0.11 Ga 0.89 N spacer layer (for example, a thickness of 0.02 μm), an Mg-doped p-type Al 0.28 Ga 0.72 N cladding layer (for example, Mg A concentration of 1 × 10 19 cm −3 and a thickness of 0.02 μm), a Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer (for example, a Mg concentration of 1 × 10 19 cm −3 and a thickness of 0.1 μm), and A high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer (for example, Mg concentration is 5 × 10 19 cm −3 to 9 × 10 19 cm −3 and thickness is 0.02 μm) is sequentially formed in this order.
Note that the above composition, composition ratio, impurity type, impurity concentration, and thickness are merely examples, and various modifications are possible.

Note that the ohmic characteristics with the second electrode 50 can be improved by setting the Mg concentration of the high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer as high as 10 20 cm −3 . However, in the case of a semiconductor light emitting diode, unlike the semiconductor laser diode, since the distance between the high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer and the light emitting layer 30 is short, there is a concern about deterioration of characteristics due to Mg diffusion. Therefore, by utilizing the fact that the contact area between the second electrode 50 and the high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer is wide and the current density during operation is low, the high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN is not greatly impaired. By suppressing the Mg concentration of the contact layer to 1 × 10 19 cm −3 , Mg diffusion can be prevented and light emission characteristics can be improved.
Further, by using the first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52 as the second electrode 50, the Mg concentration of the high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer is suppressed to 1 × 10 19 cm −3. In addition, good ohmic characteristics can be obtained.

  The first AlN buffer layer functions to alleviate the difference in crystal type with respect to the substrate 5 and particularly reduces screw dislocations.

The surface of the second AlN buffer layer is planarized at the atomic level. Thereby, the crystal defects of the non-doped GaN buffer layer grown thereon are reduced. For this purpose, the thickness of the second AlN buffer layer is preferably thicker than 1 μm. In order to prevent warping due to distortion, the thickness of the second AlN buffer layer is preferably 4 μm or less. The material used for the second AlN buffer layer is not limited to AlN, but may be Al x Ga 1-x N (0.8 ≦ x ≦ 1), thereby compensating for wafer warpage.

  The non-doped GaN buffer layer plays a role of reducing crystal defects by performing three-dimensional island growth on the second AlN buffer layer. When the average film thickness of the non-doped GaN buffer layer is 2 μm or more, the growth surface of the non-doped GaN buffer layer is planarized. From the viewpoint of reproducibility and warpage reduction, the thickness of the non-doped GaN buffer layer is suitably 4 μm to 10 μm.

  By adopting these buffer layers, crystal defects can be reduced to about 1/10 as compared with low-temperature grown AlN buffer layers. With this technique, a highly efficient semiconductor light-emitting device can be fabricated while being highly concentrated Si-doped into an n-type GaN contact layer (for example, the above-mentioned Si-doped n-type GaN contact layer) and emitting light in the ultraviolet band. In addition, light absorption in the buffer layer can be suppressed by reducing crystal defects in the buffer layer.

  When an amorphous or polycrystalline aluminum nitride layer is provided as a buffer layer in order to alleviate the difference in crystal type between the sapphire substrate 5 and the laminated structure 10s formed thereon. In addition, since the buffer layer itself becomes a light absorber, the light extraction efficiency as the light emitting element is lowered. In contrast, the stacked structure 10s is formed on the substrate 5 made of sapphire via the first AlN buffer layer and the second AlN buffer layer, which are single crystal aluminum nitride layers, thereby greatly reducing crystal defects. The absorber in the crystal can be greatly reduced.

  As described above, the semiconductor light emitting device 110 is provided on the opposite side of the light emitting layer 30 from the second semiconductor layer 20 (on the second main surface 10b facing the first main surface 10a), and the substrate 5 made of sapphire is provided. You can also have. The light emitting layer 30 and the second semiconductor layer 20 (laminated structure 10s) are disposed on the substrate 5 via a single crystal aluminum nitride layer (for example, the first AlN buffer layer and the second AlN buffer layer). It is preferable to be formed. Note that the substrate 5 and at least a part of the buffer layer may be removed.

  The aluminum nitride layer is preferably provided on the substrate 5 side and has a portion having a relatively higher carbon concentration than the side opposite to the substrate 5. That is, it is preferable that the first AlN buffer layer is provided on the substrate 5 side and the second AlN buffer layer is provided on the side opposite to the substrate 5.

Next, an example of forming the first electrode 40 and the second electrode 50 on the laminated structure 10s will be described.
First, dry etching using a mask, for example, so that the n-type contact layer (for example, the Si-doped n-type GaN contact layer described above) is exposed on the surface of a part of the first main surface 10a of the stacked structure 10s. Thus, the second semiconductor layer 20 and the light emitting layer 30 are partially removed.

  Next, a patterned lift-off resist is formed on the exposed n-type contact layer, and, for example, a Ti / Al / Ni / Au laminated film is formed using a vacuum evaporation apparatus, and the first electrode 40 is formed. To do. The thickness of the Ti / Al / Ni / Au laminated film is, for example, 300 nm. Then, sintering is performed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 650 ° C.

  Next, in order to form the second electrode 50, a patterned lift-off resist is formed on the p-type contact layer (for example, the above-described high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer). Then, for example, an Ag layer to be the first metal layer 51 is formed with a thickness of 200 nm using a vacuum deposition apparatus, and subsequently, a Pt layer to be the second metal layer 52 is formed with a thickness of 2 nm. After the lift-off resist is lifted off, a sintering process is performed at 380 ° C. for 1 minute in a gas atmosphere in which oxygen and nitrogen are mixed at a ratio of 8 to 2.

  Note that if a slight amount of moisture or ionic compound adheres to the p-type contact layer before forming the Ag layer, the migration and graining of the Ag layer is promoted and deviates from optimum conditions. Before forming the Ag layer 51, the surface of the p-type contact layer is sufficiently dried.

  Then, for example, a Ti / Pt / Au laminated film is formed with a thickness of 500 nm so as to cover the first electrode 40 and the second electrode 50.

  Next, the laminated structure 10 s is cut by cleaving or a diamond blade or the like to obtain individual devices, and the semiconductor light emitting device 110 is obtained.

  As described above, the second electrode 50 includes an Ag layer having a thickness of 200 nm to be the first metal layer 51 and a Pt layer having a thickness of 2 nm to be the second metal layer 52 on the second semiconductor layer 20. Are continuously formed, and are formed by sintering at 380 ° C. for 1 minute in a gas atmosphere in which oxygen and nitrogen are mixed at a ratio of 8 to 2.

  The second electrode 50 formed in this manner has good adhesiveness, good ohmic characteristics, low contact resistance, and good electrical characteristics.

Since the second electrode 50 can be formed at a relatively low sintering temperature of, for example, about 380 ° C., grain growth in the Ag layer of the first metal layer 51 can be suppressed. Thereby, the favorable reflection characteristic of the substantially same grade as Ag layer before a sintering process is shown.
As described above, the second electrode 50 that simultaneously satisfies the reflectance, electrical characteristics, and adhesion can be obtained at the same time, and a semiconductor light emitting device that simultaneously satisfies the high luminance, high efficiency, and high reliability can be provided.

(Comparative example)
In the semiconductor light emitting device 119 (not shown) of the comparative example, a single layer film of Ag is used as the second electrode 50. That is, only the first metal layer 51 in the semiconductor light emitting device 110 is provided as the second electrode 50, and the second metal layer 52 is not provided. Since the other configuration is the same as that of the semiconductor light emitting device 110, the description thereof is omitted.

  In manufacturing the semiconductor light emitting device 119, when the second electrode 50 is formed, a patterned lift-off resist is formed on the p-type contact layer (high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer), and then using a vacuum evaporation apparatus. For example, after forming an Ag layer to be the second electrode 50 with a film thickness of 200 nm and lifting off the lift-off resist, a sintering process is performed at a temperature of 380 ° C. in a nitrogen atmosphere. Except this, it is the same as the semiconductor light emitting device 110.

  In the semiconductor light emitting device 119 of the comparative example, Ag after the sintering treatment has an average grain size that is five times or more larger than that before the sintering treatment, and the adhesion is very poor.

  On the other hand, in the semiconductor light emitting device 110 according to this embodiment, the stacked structure of the first metal layer 51 (Ag layer) and the second metal layer 52 (Pt layer) is formed on the second semiconductor layer 20. By providing a sintering process at 380 ° C. in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, the noble metal concentration in the interface region IFR is higher than that in the first metal inner region 51c, and Ag is included on the interface 25 side of the second semiconductor layer 20 An interface layer IFL can be provided. And the reflectivity of the 1st metal layer 51 containing Ag is maintained highly, an electrical property is favorable, silver migration and a chemical reaction are suppressed, stability is high, and adhesiveness can be improved.

  The second metal layer 52 supplies the noble metal element Pt localized at the interface 25, suppresses the migration of Ag contained in the first metal layer 51, suppresses the growth of Ag grains, Protect the Ag layer. With these effects, it is possible to maximize the characteristics and reduce the cost because the semiconductor light-emitting element can achieve high brightness, high efficiency, and long life, and at the same time, there are no restrictions on the process.

  In the semiconductor light emitting device 110 according to the present embodiment, the adhesion and electrical characteristics are improved because the Pt contained in the second metal layer 52 is extremely small at the interface 25 between the second electrode 50 and the second semiconductor layer 20. And / or Ag contained in the first metal layer 51 diffused into the second semiconductor layer 20 through crystal defects 29 such as cracks and dislocations due to sintering in an atmosphere containing oxygen. The main cause is considered to be that a compound layer of Ag and the second semiconductor layer 20 formed in the first metal layer 51 is formed by the sintering process in an atmosphere containing oxygen. The state where Pt is localized at the interface 25 between the second electrode 50 and the second semiconductor layer 20 is considered to be generated by, for example, precipitation of Pt at the interface 25.

  By appropriately setting the processing conditions of the second semiconductor layer 20, the thicknesses of the first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52, the sintering processing conditions, and the like, the interface region IFR illustrated in FIG. In the structure, the concentration of the noble metal element can be higher than that of the first metal inner region 51c. In this configuration, for example, the first metal inner region 51 c does not substantially contain the noble metal element contained in the second metal layer 52. That is, the first metal layer 51 does not substantially contain the noble metal element contained in the second metal layer 52. In this case, the amount of the noble metal element contained in the first metal layer 51 (for example, the first metal inner region 51c) is below the detection limit.

  For example, in the semiconductor light emitting device 110 manufactured as described above, Ag present in each region was examined by TEM-EDX analysis, and the following results were obtained. That is, Pt was detected at the first measurement point M1 corresponding to the second metal layer 52 illustrated in FIG. And in the 2nd measurement point M2 corresponding to the field by the side of the 2nd metal layer 52 of the 1st metal layer 51, and the 3rd measurement point M3 corresponding to the approximate center area of the thickness direction of the 1st metal layer 51, , Pt was not detected, and the Pt concentration was below the detection limit. The second measurement point M2 and the second measurement point M3 are measurement points corresponding to the first metal inner region 51c. Then, Pt was detected at the fourth measurement point M4 corresponding to the interface region IFR including the interface 25. That is, the concentration of the noble metal element in the interface region IFR is higher than that in the first metal inner region 51c.

  Pt has a high work function, electric characteristics such as ohmic characteristics with respect to the second semiconductor layer 20, and adhesion of Pt to the second semiconductor layer 20 is higher than Ag. However, since Pt has lower reflection characteristics than Ag, when a layered Pt layer having a certain thickness is provided in contact with the second semiconductor layer 20, the reflectance decreases.

  In the semiconductor light emitting device 110 according to this embodiment, a Pt layer in a certain layer state is not provided in contact with the second semiconductor layer 20, but an interface 25 between the second semiconductor layer 20 and the first metal layer 51. By localizing Pt in a small amount in the interfacial region IFR, the bonding between the second semiconductor layer 20 and the second electrode 50 has good electrical characteristics, high adhesion, and high reflection characteristics. it can.

  For example, by using appropriate processing conditions, the noble metal element contained in the second metal layer 52 can be precipitated in the interface region IFR including the interface 25, and Pt can be localized in a slight amount in the interface region IFR. .

  Further, Ag is easily diffused into the second semiconductor layer 20 through, for example, a crystal defect 29 included in the second semiconductor layer 20 by performing the sintering process in an atmosphere containing oxygen, which is illustrated in FIG. For example, the interface layer IFL containing Ag is provided in a region on the interface 25 side of the second semiconductor layer 20. In addition, by performing a sintering process in an atmosphere containing oxygen, Ag can easily form a compound with the second semiconductor layer 20. For example, Ag is formed in the region on the interface 25 side of the second semiconductor layer 20 illustrated in FIG. An interface layer IFL containing Ag is provided. Ag diffused or compounded in the interface layer IFL is considered to improve electrical characteristics and adhesion.

  Note that the presence of the interface layer IFL containing Ag, that is, that Ag is localized in the vicinity of the interface 25 in the second semiconductor layer 20 is, for example, in the second semiconductor layer 20 in the cross-section TEM-EDX. It is possible to investigate by detecting the amount of Ag contained in the vicinity of the interface layer IFL (region including the crystal defect 29) and the amount of Ag contained in other regions of the second semiconductor layer 20. Further, by observing the vicinity region of the interface 25 with, for example, a cross-sectional TEM, a lattice image of the second semiconductor layer 20 and the first metal layer 51 and a compound of the second semiconductor layer 20 and Ag existing at the interface 25 It can be examined by observing the lattice image of the layer.

The sintering method for obtaining the above configuration will be described.
As already described, in the fabrication of the semiconductor light emitting device 110 according to the present embodiment, after forming the conductive layer to be the electrode EL (second electrode 50 in this specific example) on the second semiconductor layer 20, Sinter treatment (heat treatment) in an atmosphere containing oxygen is performed at a relatively low temperature (for example, 380 ° C.). Thereby, adhesiveness, electrical characteristics, and reflection characteristics can be simultaneously improved at the interface between the second semiconductor layer 20 and the electrode EL.

On the other hand, in the comparative example in which the sintering process is not performed, the reflection characteristics are relatively high, but the electrical characteristics are low and the adhesion is remarkably low.
Further, for example, when a high temperature sintering process of about 560 ° C. is performed in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, the adhesion is good, but the electrical characteristics are lowered, and the reflection characteristics are remarkably deteriorated. From various experimental results by the inventor, it is clear that the reflection characteristics decrease as the grain size in the first metal layer 51 increases. It is considered that the silver migration is promoted by the sintering treatment at a high temperature and the grain size is increased, so that the reflection characteristics are remarkably deteriorated.

Further, for example, in a low temperature (for example, 380 ° C.) sintering process in an atmosphere containing nitrogen, the reflection characteristics are good, but the electric characteristics are not sufficiently improved, and the adhesion is remarkably low.
For example, in a sintering process at a high temperature (for example, 560 ° C.) in a nitrogen atmosphere, adhesion and electrical characteristics are good, but reflection characteristics are low.
As described above, the adhesion, electrical characteristics, and reflection characteristics can be improved at the same time by the relatively low temperature (for example, 380 ° C.) sintering process in the oxygen-containing atmosphere employed in the present embodiment.

  In addition, after forming an Ag layer on a p-type semiconductor layer described in Patent Document 1 and performing a sintering process for 1 minute in a nitrogen atmosphere at 380 ° C., a Pt / Au layer is formed thereon. In the case of the method for obtaining the p-side electrode, the semiconductor light emitting device 110 is further superior in terms of the overall performance of reflection characteristics, electrical characteristics, and adhesion compared to the semiconductor light emitting device 110 of the present embodiment. In this comparative example, noble metal elements Pt and Au are not detected at the interface between the Ag layer and the p-type semiconductor layer. Further, Ag is not detected in the region on the interface side of the p-type semiconductor layer.

  Experiments have shown that the characteristics after sintering in an atmosphere containing oxygen change more sensitively to the crystal quality of the second semiconductor layer 20 than the characteristics after sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere. When the crystal quality of the second semiconductor layer 20 is low, the crystal defect 29 is amplified in a region with low crystallinity due to a load such as the formation process of the second electrode 50, Ag further diffuses, and the crystal quality deteriorates. It is thought that it will do. By repeating it, the crystal quality is accelerated and the luminous efficiency is lowered. For this reason, in order to suppress deterioration of crystal quality while diffusing and / or compounding Ag into the second semiconductor layer 20 by the oxygen sintering process, the single crystal AlN buffer layer (for example, the first AlN buffer layer described above) is used. It is preferable to use a high-quality second semiconductor layer 20 formed using the second AlN buffer layer.

  By appropriately setting the processing conditions of the second semiconductor layer 20, the thicknesses of the first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52, the sintering conditions, and the like, Pt localized in the interface region IFR becomes the second semiconductor It is considered that the crystal defects 29 on the surface of the layer 20 are blocked, and deterioration of characteristics due to excessive diffusion of Ag is suppressed.

  For example, in a blue semiconductor light emitting device, a problem caused by damage to crystals due to Ag migration does not become obvious. However, in a near-ultraviolet semiconductor light-emitting device of 400 nm or less, the characteristics are sensitive to crystal quality, and damage to the crystal due to Ag migration cannot be ignored. In the single Ag layer, the grain size is three to five times larger than that before heat treatment even at a low temperature of 380 ° C. or lower, but the surface of the Ag layer of the first metal layer 51 is covered with Pt of the second metal layer 52. Thus, it is possible to maintain the same grain size as before the heat treatment even at a relatively high temperature of about 470 ° C.

  Due to these effects, in the semiconductor light emitting device 110, the restrictions on the process are eased at the same time as increasing the brightness, increasing the efficiency, and extending the lifetime, so that the characteristics can be maximized and the cost can be reduced.

  Further, as a result of detailed analysis, as shown in FIG. 2C, in the semiconductor light emitting device 110, a gap 51 v having a width equal to or smaller than the emission wavelength of the light emitting layer 30 is formed on the interface 25 side of the first metal layer 51. It was found that it was formed. In FIG. 2C, the gap 51v is shown enlarged for easy understanding.

  By the sintering process, a slight migration occurs in the region of the first metal layer 51 (Ag layer) on the side of the high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer, and a void 51v is formed, which is included in the second metal layer 52. Pt deposited on the interface 25 (especially in the void 51v in the vicinity of the interface) can effectively suppress migration at the interface 25.

  Thereby, while forming the space | gap 51v in the interface 25, the excessive growth and deformation | transformation of the space | gap 51v by migration can be suppressed, and the space | gap 51v can be stabilized. The presence / absence of the void 51v, the width of the void 51v, and the density of the void 51v can be controlled by the temperature, time, oxygen concentration, and thickness of the first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52 in the sintering process. it can.

  Note that the void 51v formed on the interface 25 side of the first metal layer 51 reaches the surface of the first metal layer 51 on the second metal layer 52 side and penetrates the first metal layer 51. good.

  The gap 51v can change the optical path of the light generated in the light emitting layer 30, suppress the light confinement effect due to total reflection at various interfaces having a difference in refractive index, and increase the light extraction efficiency.

  That is, of the light traveling from the light emitting layer 30 toward the second electrode 50, the light incident on the portion other than the gap 51v is specularly reflected according to geometric optics. On the other hand, the light incident on the gap 51v exhibits a behavior explained by wave optics such as scattering and diffraction because the width of the gap 51v is smaller than the emission wavelength. As a result, in the gap 51v, a phenomenon of diffuse reflection including various angles different from the incident angle occurs instead of specular reflection. As a result, the incident angle with respect to various interfaces having a difference in refractive index (for example, the interface between the first semiconductor layer 10 and the substrate 5) is shallow, and the incident angle of a part of the light confined inside the semiconductor light emitting element is reduced. The light can be effectively extracted outside. Thereby, a semiconductor light emitting device with high light extraction efficiency can be provided. In general, as the width of the air gap 51v becomes smaller than the emission wavelength, the wave nature of the light increases and the component of the light that is scattered and reflected increases. As a result, the light extraction efficiency is improved.

In order to maximize the effect of improving the light extraction efficiency by the gap 51v, it is preferable to optimize the configuration of the laminated structure 10s so that the conditions for the sintering process are optimized and to meet the conditions.
That is, it has been found from experimental results that the characteristics of the first semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the second semiconductor layer 20 change sensitively to changes in the conditions of the sintering process. For example, depending on the conditions of the sintering process, the internal quantum efficiencies of the first semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the second semiconductor layer 20 are lowered. By optimizing the thickness, impurity concentration, composition, and the like in each of the first semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the second semiconductor layer 20 simultaneously with the sintering process conditions, the brightness, efficiency, and lifetime of the semiconductor light emitting device are further increased. It can be improved.

Hereinafter, experimental results regarding changes in various characteristics when the conditions of the sintering process are changed will be described.
FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating characteristics of the semiconductor light emitting device according to the first embodiment of the invention.
That is, this figure shows the result of measuring the contact resistance between the second semiconductor layer 20 and the second electrode 50 by fabricating a semiconductor light emitting device by changing the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere during the sintering process. The horizontal axis represents the oxygen concentration Cso during the sintering process, and the vertical axis represents the contact resistance Rc. The oxygen concentration Cso is the ratio of oxygen to the entire gas. For example, when the ratio of oxygen and nitrogen is 8 to 2, it is 80%.

  As shown in FIG. 3, when the oxygen concentration Cso falls below 80%, the contact resistance Rc gradually increases. When the oxygen concentration Cso is reduced from 20% to 0% (nitrogen atmosphere), the contact is doubled.

  Further, when the oxygen concentration Cso is in the range of 80% to 20%, substantially no Schottky property was observed. However, when the oxygen concentration Cso is 0% (nitrogen atmosphere), the shot is slightly Key property was observed.

  Thus, the oxygen concentration Cso has a great influence on the reduction of the contact resistance Rc and the ohmic characteristics, and the oxygen concentration Cso is preferably 20% or more and 100% or less. Thereby, the contact resistance Rc can be reduced, and good ohmic characteristics can be obtained. When the oxygen concentration Cso is lower than 20%, the contact resistance Rc increases, and a sit key property appears in the electrical characteristics.

FIG. 4 is a graph illustrating characteristics of the semiconductor light emitting device according to the first embodiment of the invention.
That is, the figure shows the result of evaluating the grain size of Ag contained in the first metal layer 51 of the second electrode 50 by fabricating the semiconductor light emitting device by changing the temperature during the sintering process. The horizontal axis is the sintering temperature Ts, and the vertical axis is the grain size Da. In the figure, the plot of the sintering temperature Ts of 25 ° C. corresponds to the sample Ns not subjected to sintering.

  In this experiment, in addition to the configuration of the semiconductor light emitting device 110 using Pt as the second metal layer 52, the configuration of the semiconductor light emitting device 111 using Pd as the second metal layer 52 was also evaluated. The semiconductor light emitting device 111 has the same configuration as the semiconductor light emitting device 110 except that Pd is used as the second metal layer 52.

The grain size Da referred to here is the value after the film forming the first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52 is formed (before the sintering process), or after the sintering process is performed at a predetermined temperature after the film formation. The surface of the 1st metal layer 51 and the 2nd metal layer 52 is observed by SEM, the magnitude | size (the longest diameter in one grain) of several grains is measured, and it is the value which averaged the value. That is, the grain size Da is an average particle size. Since the particle size of the noble metal element (particularly, the particle size of Pt or Pd) is sufficiently smaller than the grain size of Ag, the grain size evaluated by the above method may be considered to be substantially the grain size of Ag.
In this experiment, the oxygen concentration Cso during the sintering process was set to 80%.

  As shown in FIG. 4A, in the semiconductor light emitting device 110 using Pt as the second metal layer 52, the grain size Da when the sintering temperature Ts is 330 ° C., 380 ° C., and 470 ° C. is It is almost the same as the sample Ns that is not processed. On the other hand, when the sintering temperature Ts is 560 ° C., the grain size Da increases to 6 times or more of the sample Ns that is not subjected to sintering.

  As shown in FIG. 4B, the semiconductor light emitting device 111 using Pd as the second metal layer 52 shows the same tendency, and the grain size Da when the sintering temperature Ts is 330 ° C. and 380 ° C. The grain size Da is about 2.5 times the grain size Da of the sample Ns that is not subjected to the sintering process, but the grain size Da when the sintering process temperature Ts is 470 ° C. and 560 ° C. is the grain size Da of the sample Ns that is not subjected to the sintering process. It becomes larger than 6 times.

  On the other hand, as already described, in the semiconductor light emitting device 119 of the comparative example using only the Ag layer as the second electrode 50, the sintering treatment temperature Ts is 380 ° C., and at this time, the grain size Da is set to the sintering treatment. When the sintering process temperature Ts is increased to 470 ° C. in this configuration, the grain size Da becomes 6 times or more that of the sample not subjected to the sintering process.

  From these experimental results, as the second electrode 50, by using a laminated structure of the first metal layer 51 of Ag layer and the second metal layer 52 continuously formed thereon and containing Pt and Pd. It was found that the grain size Da is difficult to increase even in the temperature range from 380 ° C. to 470 ° C. In the temperature range from 380 ° C. to 470 ° C., the grain size Da is 0.3 μm or less, and in the region beyond it, the grain size Da is 0.6 μm to 0.8 μm.

  Furthermore, it was found from the evaluation results of the samples of this experiment and other experimental results that the contact resistance Rc tends to increase as the grain size increases. Further, it has been found that the reflection characteristic decreases as the grain size Da increases.

  As illustrated in FIGS. 4A and 4B, when the second metal layer 52 contains Pt, the grain size Da increases rapidly when the sintering temperature Ts reaches 560 ° C., and the second metal When the layer 52 includes Pd, the grain size Da increases abruptly when the sintering temperature Ts reaches 470 ° C. Therefore, it is preferable to employ a condition in which the grain size Da does not increase rapidly.

  That is, when the grain size Da (average particle diameter) in the first metal layer 51 is 0.3 μm or less, a low contact resistance Rc is obtained and a high reflection characteristic is obtained.

Furthermore, when the second metal layer was either Pt or Pd, good ohmic characteristics were obtained when the sintering temperature Ts was 330 ° C. or higher. In this way, in the sintering process using conditions where the oxygen concentration Cso is 80%, for example, and the oxygen concentration Cso is relatively high, good ohmic characteristics can be obtained even when the sintering process temperature Ts is a relatively low temperature of about 330 ° C. .
Furthermore, when the second metal layer is either Pt or Pd, the adhesion is high when the sintering temperature Ts is 330 ° C. or higher.

From the above results, when the second metal layer 52 contains Pt, the sintering temperature Ts is preferably less than 560 ° C., particularly preferably 470 ° C. or less. When the second metal layer 52 contains Pd, the sintering temperature Ts is preferably less than 470 ° C., particularly preferably 380 ° C. or less.
At this time, the grain size Da after the sintering process is 1 to 3 times the grain size before the sintering process (when the sintering process is not performed). That is, the sintering temperature Ts is preferably lower than the temperature at which the grain size Da is larger than three times the grain size Da before the sintering process.
Under these conditions, the grain size Da (average particle diameter) in the first metal layer 51 is 0.3 μm or less.
When the above conditions are satisfied, good characteristics can be obtained in all points of reflection characteristics, contact resistance Rc, ohmic characteristics, and adhesion.

  The sintering temperature Ts is higher than the maximum temperature in each step after the formation of the second electrode 50 (including the first electrode 40 in some cases) and the temperature when the semiconductor light emitting element is mounted on a submount or a radiator. Is preferably high. For example, when the semiconductor light emitting device 110 using Pt for the second metal layer 52 is mounted on the submount with AuSn solder, the sintering temperature Ts is higher than 280 ° C., which is the melting point of AuSn solder, and higher than 560 ° C. Preferably it is low. For example, when the semiconductor light emitting device 111 using Pd for the second metal layer 52 is fixed to the heat sink with a low temperature mount of about 150 ° C., the sintering temperature is preferably higher than 150 ° C. and lower than 470 ° C. .

  In the semiconductor light emitting device according to this embodiment, the material used for the substrate 5 is arbitrary, and for the substrate 5, for example, a material such as sapphire, SiC, GaN, GaAs, or Si can be used.

The first metal layer 51 includes at least Ag or an alloy containing Ag.
The reflectance of the single-layer film of a metal other than Ag and Al with respect to the visible light band tends to decrease as the wavelength becomes shorter in the ultraviolet region of 400 nm or less, but Ag is less than 370 nm to 400 nm or less in the ultraviolet band light. Have high reflection characteristics. Therefore, when the first metal layer 51 is an Ag alloy in an ultraviolet light emitting semiconductor light emitting device, it is preferable that the Ag component ratio in the region on the interface 25 side of the first metal layer 51 is high. The thickness of the first metal layer 51 is preferably 100 nm or more in order to ensure the reflectance with respect to light.

  Ag and Pt are in a solid solution relationship, and it is considered that Ag migration can be suppressed by mixing Pt in the vicinity of the interface with Ag with Ag in a region of several nm or less near the interface by sintering. In particular, since Pd is a solid solution with Ag, by using Pd as the second metal layer 52, Ag migration can be more effectively suppressed. By adopting a combination of the first metal layer 51 containing Ag and the second metal layer 52 containing a noble metal element such as Pt or Pd for the second electrode 50, high reliability can be obtained even during high current injection. be able to.

(Second Embodiment)
FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating the configuration of a semiconductor light emitting element according to the second embodiment of the invention.
That is, this figure illustrates the configuration of the semiconductor light emitting device 120 according to this embodiment, and is a cross-sectional view corresponding to a cross section taken along the line AA ′ of FIG.

  As shown in FIG. 5, in the semiconductor light emitting device 120, the peripheral regions of the first electrode 40 and the second electrode 50 on the first main surface 10 a side of the first semiconductor layer 10 and the second semiconductor layer 20. In addition, a dielectric film 60 is provided. Further, a first pad layer 45 is provided on the first electrode 40. A diffusion prevention layer 53 is provided on the second electrode 50, and a second pad layer 55 is provided thereon.

The semiconductor light emitting device 120 having such a configuration is manufactured as follows, for example.
After forming the stacked structure 10s in the same manner as the semiconductor light emitting device 110, an n-type contact layer (for example, the Si-doped n-type GaN contact layer described above) is formed in a partial region of the first main surface 10a of the stacked structure 10s. A part of the second semiconductor layer 20 and the light emitting layer 30 is removed so that is exposed on the surface.

Next, a SiO 2 film to be the dielectric film 60 is formed with a thickness of 400 nm on the first main surface 10a of the laminated structure 10s using a thermal CVD apparatus.

Next, in order to form the first electrode 40, a patterned lift-off resist is formed on the n-type contact layer, and a part of the SiO 2 film on the exposed n-type contact layer is made of ammonium fluoride. Remove by processing. For example, a Ti / Al / Ni / Au laminated film having a thickness of, for example, 300 nm is formed in the region from which the SiO 2 film has been removed by using a vacuum deposition apparatus. I do.

Next, in order to form the second electrode 50, similarly to the first electrode 40, a patterned lift-off resist is formed on the p-type contact layer (for example, the high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer). Then, the p-type contact layer is exposed by an ammonium fluoride treatment. At that time, the processing time of the ammonium fluoride is adjusted so that the p-type contact layer is exposed between the second electrode 50 and the SiO 2 film to be the dielectric film 60. As a specific example, when the etching rate is 400 nm / min, the time for removing the SiO 2 film in the region for forming the second electrode 50 and the p-type contact layer adjacent to the region are exposed with a width of 1 μm. The total of the overetching time is about 3 minutes.

In a region where the SiO 2 film is removed, for example, an Ag layer is formed with a thickness of 200 nm using a vacuum deposition apparatus, and a Pt layer is formed with a thickness of 2 nm continuously with the formation, and after lift-off, Then, sintering is performed at 380 ° C. for 1 minute in a gas atmosphere in which oxygen and nitrogen are mixed at a ratio of 8 to 2.

  Next, as the diffusion preventing layer 53, for example, five sets of stacked films of a combination of a Pt film and a W film are formed on the second electrode 50 (so as to cover) by a lift-off method. The thickness of the diffusion preventing layer 53 is, for example, 600 nm.

  Then, the first pad layer 45 and the second pad layer 55 are covered with the lift-off method so as to cover a part of the dielectric film 60 while covering the first electrode 40, the second electrode 40, and the diffusion prevention layer 53, respectively. For example, a Ti / Pt / Au laminated film is formed with a thickness of 1000 nm.

  As described above, before forming the second electrode 50 (the first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52) and the first electrode 40, which are ohmic metals, the dielectric film 60 is laminated structure. By forming it at 10 s, contamination that adheres to the interface between the electrode and the laminated structure 10 s can be significantly suppressed in these electrode forming steps, so that reliability, yield, electrical characteristics, and optical characteristics can be improved. it can.

Further, by performing the oxygen sintering process on the second electrode 50 after forming the dielectric film 60, the oxygen deficiency in the SiO 2 film formed by the thermal CVD apparatus can be compensated.

  If a good film with few oxygen vacancies by sputtering or the like is employed as the dielectric film 60 instead of thermal CVD, the characteristics of the semiconductor light emitting element may be deteriorated due to the residual stress of the dielectric film 60. In particular, this phenomenon becomes significant when the crystal quality of the laminated structure 10s is poor. Therefore, the method of forming a thermal CVD film having many oxygen vacancies and somewhat inferior quality and then filling the oxygen vacancies is likely to improve the characteristics of the semiconductor light emitting device.

  Since the second electrode 50 is covered with the diffusion preventing layer 53 and the second pad layer 55, the second electrode 50 is isolated from the outside air, so that the second electrode 50 is difficult to be exposed to moisture and ionic impurities. Migration, oxidation, and sulfurization reaction of the two electrodes 50 can be suppressed.

  In addition, since the second pad layer 55 is formed in a region near the end of the second electrode 50 on the side where the second electrode 50 and the first electrode 40 face each other, and a current path is formed in this region, Current concentration on the second electrode 50 is alleviated. At the same time, the second electrode 50 and the first electrode 40 are sandwiched between the second semiconductor layer 20 and the second pad layer 55 in the vicinity of the end of the dielectric film 60 (or the dielectric laminated film) in a region where the second electrode 50 and the first electrode 40 face each other. Since the region of the dielectric film 60 is formed, a weak electric field is applied between the second semiconductor layer 20 and the second pad layer 55 with the dielectric film 60 (or dielectric laminated film) interposed therebetween. As a result, a structure in which the electric field gradually weakens from the second electrode 50 to the dielectric film 60 (or the dielectric laminated film) can be made, so that the electric field concentration in this region can be reduced.

Furthermore, in the manufacturing process of the semiconductor light emitting device 120, there is no need for a new special device, and the semiconductor light emitting device 120 can be formed by the same process and the same number of processes as the conventional one.
Thereby, in the semiconductor light emitting device 120, it is possible to realize leakage current reduction, insulation characteristic improvement, withstand voltage characteristic improvement, emission intensity improvement, life extension, high throughput, and low cost.

  When the pad (the first pad layer 45 and the second pad layer 55) covers the dielectric film 60 (or the dielectric laminated film) is long, the pad is interposed through the dielectric film 60 (or the dielectric laminated film). Although it is advantageous in obtaining an electric field relaxation structure, there is a high risk that the second electrode 50 and the first electrode 40 are short-circuited. On the other hand, when the length is short, the risk that the second electrode 50 and the first electrode 40 are short-circuited is reduced.

  The diffusion preventing layer 53 provided between the second electrode 50 and the second pad layer 55 has an element contained in the second pad layer 55 diffusing toward the second electrode 50 and / or the element. Reaction with the element contained in the second electrode 50 is suppressed. In particular, a material that does not react with Ag contained in the first metal layer 51 of the second electrode 50 and / or does not actively diffuse into Ag is used for the diffusion preventing layer 53.

  Examples of the material used for the diffusion prevention layer 53 include vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), ruthenium ( Examples thereof include a single layer film or a multilayer film containing a refractory metal such as Ru), rhodium (Rh), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), iridium (Ir), or platinum (Pt).

  In particular, the diffusion preventing layer 53 has a high work function so that there is no problem even if it is slightly diffused, and ohmic characteristics with respect to the p-type GaN contact layer (for example, the above-described high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer). As a metal from which iron is easily obtained, iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), rhodium (Rh), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), iridium (Ir), or platinum (Pt) may be used. Further preferred.

  In the case of a single layer film, the thickness of the diffusion preventing layer 53 is preferably in the range of 5 nm to 200 nm that can maintain the film state. In the case of a laminated film, the thickness of the diffusion preventing layer 53 is not particularly limited, and can be selected between 10 nm and 10000 nm, for example.

(Third embodiment)
FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating the configuration of a semiconductor light emitting element according to the third embodiment of the invention.
In other words, this figure is a cross-sectional view of the semiconductor light emitting device 130 taken along the stacking direction of the stacked structure 10 s of the semiconductor light emitting device 130.

  As shown in FIG. 6, in the semiconductor light emitting device 130 according to this embodiment, the second electrode 50 is provided on the first main surface 10a side of the stacked structure 10s, and the first electrode 40 is the first main surface. It is provided on the second main surface 10b side facing the surface 10a. In this case, the substrate 5 is removed after crystal growth of the laminated structure 10 s is performed on the substrate 5 made of, for example, sapphire.

  And the uneven | corrugated | grooved part PP is provided in the 2nd main surface 10b of the laminated structure 10s of the area | region where the 1st electrode 40 is not provided. The uneven portion PP can reflect the light emitted from the light emitting layer 30 and increase the light extraction efficiency.

The semiconductor light emitting device 130 having such a configuration can be manufactured as follows, for example.
FIG. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating a method for manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting element according to the third embodiment of the invention.
First, as shown in FIG. 7A, the crystal growth of the first semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the second semiconductor layer 20 on the substrate 5 in the same manner as in the first and second embodiments. The laminated structure 10s is formed.

  At this time, as illustrated in FIG. 7A, the buffer layer 5b is provided on the substrate 5, and the laminated structure 10s is formed thereon. Specifically, the first AlN buffer layer 5b1, the second AlN buffer layer 5b2, and the non-doped GaN buffer layer 5b3 are formed on the substrate 5 made of sapphire as the buffer layer 5b.

  Thereafter, in the same manner as described above, on the p-type contact layer (for example, the above-described high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer) on the first main surface 10a (on the second semiconductor layer 20 side) of the laminated structure 10s, A patterned lift-off resist is formed, and an Ag layer (thickness: 200 nm) to be the first metal layer 51 and a Pt layer (thickness: 2 nm) to be the second metal layer 52 are successively formed. Thereafter, sintering is performed at 380 ° C. for 1 minute in a gas atmosphere in which oxygen and nitrogen are mixed at a ratio of 8 to 2. Thereby, the second electrode 50 is formed.

  Then, for example, a Ti / Pt / Au laminated film to be the second pad layer 55 is formed with a thickness of, for example, 500 nm so as to cover the second electrode 50.

  Thereafter, as shown in FIG. 7B, as the opposing pad layer 6p, for example, a support base 6 made of silicon provided with a Ti / Pt / Au laminated film with a thickness of, for example, 500 nm, and the laminated structure described above The body 10s is installed facing the body. At this time, the Au layer of the Ti / Pt / Au laminated film of the second pad layer 55 and the Au layer of the Ti / Pt / Au laminated film of the counter pad layer 6p are disposed so as to face each other. Then, the laminated structure 10s and the support base 6 are pressure-bonded while being heated, so that the second pad layer 55 and the counter pad layer 6p are bonded.

Then, from the side of the substrate 5 made of sapphire, for example, the laser beam LL of the third harmonic (355 nm) or the fourth harmonic (266 nm) of a YVO 4 solid-state laser is irradiated. The laser beam LL has a wavelength shorter than the forbidden bandwidth wavelength based on the forbidden bandwidth of GaN in the GaN buffer layer (for example, the non-doped GaN buffer layer 5b3). That is, the laser beam LL has energy higher than the forbidden band width of GaN.

  This laser beam LL is efficiently absorbed in a region of the GaN buffer layer (non-doped GaN buffer layer 5b3) on the side of the single crystal AlN buffer layer (in this example, the second AlN buffer layer 5b2). As a result, the GaN on the single crystal AlN buffer layer side of the GaN buffer layer is decomposed by heat generation.

  Then, the decomposed GaN is removed by a hydrochloric acid treatment or the like, and the substrate 5 made of sapphire is peeled off and separated from the laminated structure 10s.

  Further, the GaN buffer layer (non-doped GaN buffer layer 5b3) on the second main surface 10b side of the laminated structure 10s from which the substrate 5 has been peeled is removed by a method such as polishing, dry etching, wet etching, and the like. The n-type contact layer of layer 10 (for example, the Si-doped n-type GaN contact layer described above) is exposed.

  Thereafter, for example, a Ti / Pt / Au laminated film having a thickness of, for example, 500 nm is formed on the surface of the n-type contact layer by a lift-off method or the like, and patterned to form the first electrode 40. Thereafter, the surface of the n-type contact layer (first semiconductor layer 10) on which the first electrode 40 is not formed is processed by alkali etching or the like to form the uneven portion PP.

  Next, the laminated structure 10s is cut by cleavage or a diamond blade to form individual devices, and the semiconductor light emitting device 130 is manufactured.

  As described above, in the semiconductor light emitting device 130, the laminated structure 10 s of the semiconductor light emitting device is bonded to the support base 6, the crystal grown substrate 5 is peeled off, and the peeled surface is processed, and then the first electrode 40 is formed. It is formed.

  In the configuration in which the laminated structure 10s on the substrate 5 and the support base 6 are bonded, the surface of the electrode (particularly the second electrode 50) on the laminated structure 10s side needs to have high reflection characteristics with respect to emitted light. There is also a need for sufficiently high adhesion. At this time, if the structure according to the embodiment of the present invention is used, adhesion, reflection characteristics, and electrical characteristics can be satisfied at the same time, so that a semiconductor light emitting device with high luminance and high reliability can be realized.

When the laminated structure 10s on the substrate 5 is bonded to the support base 6, and when the GaN layer is decomposed with laser light and the substrate 5 is peeled off, crystal defects 29 are generated in the crystals of the laminated structure 10s. Is likely to occur excessively. This crystal defect 29 is, for example, a difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the support substrate 6, sapphire and GaN, concentration of heat due to local heating, and a product generated by decomposition of GaN. Is considered to be the cause.
Thus, if the crystal defect 29 or damage occurs excessively after the sintering process in forming the second electrode 50, Ag contained in the first metal layer 51 of the second electrode 50 is generated from the laminated structure 10 s. It diffuses excessively toward the surface, causing a significant increase in leakage and crystal defects in the crystal.

  According to the above specific example, a high-quality semiconductor layer can be formed by using a single crystal AlN buffer layer (in this example, the first AlN buffer layer 5b1 and the second AlN buffer layer 5b2) as the buffer layer 5b. , Damage to the crystal is greatly reduced. In addition, when the GaN layer is decomposed with laser light, a single crystal AlN buffer layer having high thermal conductivity is disposed close to GaN, so that heat is easily diffused and thermal damage due to local heating can be suppressed. .

  As a method for adhering the laminated structure 10s on the substrate 5 and the support base 6, solder such as AuSn can be used. The solder generally forms a thick film having a thickness of several μm. The thicker the solder, the larger the strain applied to the reflective electrode (in this example, the second electrode 50). Even in this case, by adopting the configuration of the present embodiment in which the adhesion of the reflective electrode is high, good characteristics can be obtained even in the use of solder.

(Fourth embodiment)
FIG. 8 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating the configuration of a semiconductor light emitting element according to the fourth embodiment of the invention.
That is, the drawing is a cross-sectional view of the semiconductor light emitting device 140 taken along the stacking direction of the stacked structure 10s of the semiconductor light emitting device 140.

  As shown in FIG. 8, in the semiconductor light emitting device 140, the p-type contact layer 28 of the second semiconductor layer 20 (for example, the above-described high-concentration Mg-doped p-type GaN contact layer) has the low electrical characteristic portion 28c. ing. The low electrical property portion 28c is selectively formed on the surface on the second electrode 50 side (surface on the first main surface 10a side) of the portion 28b of the p-type contact layer 28 facing the first electrode 40. Is provided.

  The low electrical property portion 28c is, for example, a portion in which the ashing process is selectively performed on the surface of the p-type contact layer 28 on the first main surface 10a side. In the portion 28a of the p-type contact layer 28 that does not face the first electrode 40, ashing is not performed.

  The low electrical property portion 28c and the other portion 28a have different surface states. As a result, in the low electrical characteristic portion 28c, for example, ashing is performed, so that the contact resistance Rc is increased and the ohmic characteristics are deteriorated as compared with the other portion 28a.

  As described above, the semiconductor light emitting device 140 includes the stacked structure 10s and the electrode EL (second electrode 50 in this example), and the first semiconductor layer 10 provided on the side opposite to the light emitting layer 30. The electrode 40 (counter electrode CEL) is further provided.

  The second semiconductor layer 20 (in this case, in particular, the p-type contact layer 28) is opposed to the first electrode 40 (counter electrode CEL) on the second electrode 50 (electrode EL) side of the second semiconductor layer 20. The contact between the second semiconductor layer 20 and the second electrode 50 (electrode EL) rather than the region (part 28a) provided in the region (part 28b) that does not face the first electrode 40 (counter electrode CEL). The low electrical characteristic portion 28c having at least one of high resistance and low ohmic characteristics is provided.

The semiconductor light emitting device 140 having such a configuration can be manufactured as follows, for example.
Before forming the second electrode 50 on the stacked structure 10s, a region (part 28b) facing the region where the first electrode 40 is formed is exposed on the first main surface 10a of the second semiconductor layer 20. A pattern-shaped resist is formed. Thereafter, for example, an oxygen ashing process is performed on the surface of the second semiconductor layer 20 exposed from the resist. Then, the resist is removed, and thereafter, the semiconductor light emitting device 140 is formed by using the method already described.

  In the low electrical property portion 28c, for example, the contact resistance Rc is increased due to the ashing process, and non-ohmic characteristics are exhibited. For this reason, it is difficult for current to flow in the light emitting layer 30 in the region facing the first electrode 40. This makes it difficult for current to be injected into the light emitting layer 30 immediately below the first electrode 40, so that light emitted from the light emitting layer 30 can be suppressed from being absorbed by the first electrode 40, thereby improving efficiency.

  According to the sintering process conditions described above, a very good ohmic characteristic and a low contact resistance Rc can be realized. Therefore, for example, the control of the current conduction region by the low electrical characteristic part 28c subjected to the ashing process And the above-described sintering process are particularly preferable because a configuration in which no current substantially flows can be realized in the low electrical characteristic portion 28c.

  Note that, for example, an ashing process is selectively performed on the surface of the second semiconductor layer 20 (particularly the p-type contact layer 28) on the second electrode 50 side in a region (part 28b) facing the first electrode 40. The method of providing the low electrical property portion 28c to be formed and controlling the current application region is independent of the configuration in which the sintering process under specific conditions is performed in the combination of the first metal layer 51 and the second metal layer 52. Can be implemented. Thereby, efficiency can be improved.

In the above, the second electrode 50 (electrode EL) has a first metal layer 51 containing Ag and a second metal layer 52 containing a noble metal element. The 1 electrode 40 (counter electrode CEL) has the 1st metal layer containing Ag, and the 2nd metal layer containing a noble metal element, and may satisfy | fill said each conditions.
Moreover, each of the 1st electrode 40 and the 2nd electrode 50 may have said structure.

(Fifth embodiment)
The fifth embodiment of the present invention includes a first conductivity type first semiconductor layer 10 made of a nitride semiconductor, a second conductivity type second semiconductor layer 20 made of a nitride semiconductor, and a first semiconductor layer. 10 and a light emitting layer 30 provided between the second semiconductor layer 20 and an electrode EL (for example, a second structure) provided on the opposite side of the light emitting layer 30 of the second semiconductor layer 20. Electrode 50), a method for manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting device.

FIG. 9 is a flowchart illustrating the method for manufacturing the semiconductor light emitting element according to the fifth embodiment of the invention.
As shown in FIG. 9, in the method for manufacturing the semiconductor light emitting device according to this embodiment, silver or silver is formed on the surface (first main surface 10 a) of the second semiconductor layer 20 opposite to the light emitting layer 30. A first metal layer 51 including an alloy is formed, and a second metal layer 52 including at least one of gold, platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and osmium is formed on the first metal layer 51. A step (step S120) and a step (step S130) of sintering the second semiconductor layer 20, the first metal layer 51, and the second metal layer 52 in an atmosphere containing oxygen.

  The temperature in the sintering process (step S130) is such that the average particle diameter of the silver contained in the first metal layer 51 after the sintering process (grain size Da) is before the sintering process is performed. It is the temperature which is 3 times or less.

  As described with reference to FIG. 4, for example, when the second metal layer 52 contains Pt, the sintering temperature Ts is preferably less than 560 ° C., particularly preferably 470 ° C. or less. When the second metal layer 52 contains Pd, the sintering temperature Ts is preferably less than 470 ° C., particularly preferably 380 ° C. or less.

  Accordingly, as described with reference to FIG. 4, the contact resistance Rc of the electrode EL (second electrode 50) can be reduced, the reflectance can be improved, and the adhesion can be improved.

  At this time, as described with reference to FIG. 3, the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere in the sintering process is preferably 20% or more. Thereby, the contact resistance Rc can be reduced, and good ohmic characteristics can be obtained.

  And when the peak wavelength of the emitted light of the light emitting layer 30 is 370 nm or more and 400 nm or less, a particularly high effect can be exhibited. That is, in this wavelength range, the reflectance is remarkably reduced with metals other than Ag, but the reflectance of Ag is high, and the effect of using Ag for the first metal layer 51 is high.

  The first metal layer 51 can be a single layer film containing silver. Further, the second metal layer 52 can include at least one of platinum, palladium, and an alloy containing platinum and palladium.

FIG. 10 is a flow chart illustrating another method for manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting device according to the fifth embodiment of the invention.
As shown in FIG. 10, the method for manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting device according to this embodiment further includes the following steps.
A high-carbon concentration buffer layer (for example, the first AlN buffer described above) containing single-crystal Al x Ga 1-x N (0.8 ≦ x ≦ 1) on the substrate 5 made of sapphire and containing carbon at a high concentration. Layer 5b1) is formed (step S101).

Then, on the high carbon concentration unit buffer layer comprises a single crystal Al y Ga 1-y N ( 0.8 ≦ y ≦ 1), low-carbon concentration lower than the concentration of carbon above the high carbon concentration unit buffer layer A buffer layer (for example, the second AlN buffer layer 5b2 described above) is formed (step S102).

Then, the first semiconductor layer 10 is formed on the low carbon concentration buffer layer (step S111).
Then, the light emitting layer 30 is formed on the first semiconductor layer 10 (step S112).
Then, the second semiconductor layer 20 is formed on the light emitting layer 30 (step S113).

  By using the buffer layer as described above, the first semiconductor layer 10, the light emitting layer 30, and the second semiconductor layer 20 having excellent crystallinity can be formed.

And as already demonstrated, the carbon concentration of the high carbon concentration part buffer layer is preferably 3 × 10 18 cm −3 or more and 5 × 10 20 cm −3 or less, and the thickness is 3 nanometers or more and 20 nanometers. It is preferably less than a meter.

FIG. 11 is a flowchart illustrating another method for manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting element according to the fifth embodiment of the invention.
As shown in FIG. 11, another method for manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting device according to the fifth embodiment further includes the following steps.
A GaN buffer layer containing GaN (the above-mentioned non-doped GaN buffer layer 5b3) is formed between the low carbon concentration buffer layer and the first semiconductor layer 10 (first semiconductor layer 10) (step S103).
After the sintering process (step S130), the electrode EL (second electrode 50) is opposed to the support base 6 and the electrode EL is fixed to the support base 6 (step S140).
Then, from the substrate 5 side, the GaN buffer layer is irradiated with laser light LL having a wavelength shorter than the forbidden bandwidth wavelength based on the forbidden bandwidth of GaN, so that at least a portion of the GaN buffer layer on the substrate 5 side is irradiated. The substrate 5 is separated from the GaN buffer layer by partially modifying (step S150).

  That is, the processing described with reference to FIG. According to the manufacturing method of the present embodiment, since the second electrode 50 has high reflection characteristics and good adhesion, a high-luminance and high-reliability semiconductor light-emitting element having a configuration in which the support base 6 is provided can be manufactured.

In this specification, “nitride-based semiconductor” refers to B x In y Al z Ga 1-xyz N (0 ≦ x ≦ 1, 0 ≦ y ≦ 1, 0 ≦ z ≦ 1, x + y + z It is assumed to include nitride-based semiconductors having all compositions in which the composition ratios x, y, and z are changed within the respective ranges in the chemical formula ≦ 1). Furthermore, in the above chemical formula, those that further include a group V element other than N (nitrogen), and those that further include any of various dopants added to control the conductivity type, etc. To be included.

  In the present specification, “vertical” and “parallel” include not only strictly vertical and strictly parallel, but also include, for example, variations in the manufacturing process, and may be substantially vertical and substantially parallel. is good.

The embodiments of the present invention have been described above with reference to specific examples. However, the present invention is not limited to these specific examples. For example, a light emitting layer, a nitride-based semiconductor, a first metal layer, a second metal layer, a first semiconductor layer, a second semiconductor layer, a first electrode, a second electrode, a first pad layer, which constitute a semiconductor light emitting device, A person skilled in the art has made various changes regarding the shape, size, material, arrangement relationship, etc. of each element such as the second pad layer, various buffer layers, the substrate, and the dielectric film, and the manufacturing method such as the crystal growth process. Even if it exists, as long as it has the summary of this invention, it is included in the scope of the present invention.
Moreover, what combined any two or more elements of each specific example in the technically possible range is also included in the scope of the present invention as long as the gist of the present invention is included.

  In addition, all semiconductor light-emitting devices and methods for manufacturing the same that can be implemented by those skilled in the art based on the semiconductor light-emitting devices and methods for manufacturing the same described above as embodiments of the present invention are also included in the gist of the present invention. As long as it is included, it belongs to the scope of the present invention.

  In addition, in the category of the idea of the present invention, those skilled in the art can conceive of various changes and modifications, and it is understood that these changes and modifications also belong to the scope of the present invention. .

  DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 5 ... Board | substrate, 5b ... Buffer layer, 5b1 ... 1st AlN buffer layer, 5b2 ... 2nd AlN buffer layer, 5b3 ... Non-doped GaN buffer layer, 6 ... Support base material, 6p ... Opposing pad layer, 10 ... 1st semiconductor layer, 10a DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1st main surface, 10b ... 2nd main surface, 10s ... Laminated structure, 20 ... 2nd semiconductor layer, 25 ... Interface, 28 ... P-type contact layer, 28a, 28b ... part, 28c ... Low electrical property part, 29 ... Crystal defects, 30 ... Light emitting layer, 40 ... First electrode, 45 ... First pad layer, 50 ... Second electrode, 51 ... First metal layer, 51c ... First metal inner region, 51v ... Air gap, 52 ... Second metal layer, 53 ... Diffusion prevention layer, 55 ... Second pad layer, 60 ... Dielectric film, 110, 111, 120, 130, 140 ... Semiconductor light emitting device, CEL ... Counter electrode, Cso Oxygen concentration, Da ... grain size, EL ... electrode, IFL ... interface layer, IFR ... interface region, LL ... laser light, M1 to M4 ... first to fourth measurement points, PP ... irregularity, Rc ... contact resistance, Ts ... Sintering temperature

Claims (9)

  1. A first conductive type first semiconductor layer made of a nitride semiconductor, a second conductive type second semiconductor layer made of a nitride semiconductor, and provided between the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer A laminated structure having a light emitting layer formed,
    Provided on the opposite side of the second semiconductor layer from the light emitting layer, provided on the opposite side of the first metal layer to the second semiconductor layer of the first metal layer, platinum, A second metal layer containing at least one element of palladium and rhodium, and an electrode,
    With
    The second semiconductor layer is provided in contact with the interface between the second semiconductor layer and the first metal layer, and includes an interface layer containing silver,
    A contact resistance between the second semiconductor layer and the electrode is 10 × 10 −4 Ωcm 2 or less.
  2.   The concentration of the element in a region including the interface between the first metal layer and the second semiconductor layer is higher than the concentration of the element in a region of the first metal layer away from the interface. The semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 1.
  3.   3. The semiconductor light emitting element according to claim 1, wherein an average particle diameter of silver in the first metal layer is 0.3 μm or less.
  4.   The semiconductor light emitting element according to claim 1, wherein the first metal layer does not substantially contain the element.
  5.   The semiconductor light emitting element according to claim 1, wherein the first metal layer is a single layer film containing silver.
  6.   The semiconductor light emitting element according to claim 1, wherein the second metal layer includes at least one of platinum, palladium, and an alloy containing platinum and palladium.
  7.   The semiconductor light emitting element according to claim 1, wherein a peak wavelength of emitted light of the light emitting layer is 370 nanometers or more and 400 nanometers or less.
  8. The first semiconductor layer, the light emitting layer, and the second semiconductor layer are disposed on a substrate made of sapphire via a buffer layer containing single crystal Al x Ga 1-x N (0.8 ≦ x ≦ 1). The buffer layer is provided on the substrate side of the buffer layer, the carbon concentration is 3 × 10 18 cm −3 or more and 5 × 10 20 cm −3 or less, and the thickness is 3 nanometers or more. The semiconductor light-emitting element according to claim 1, wherein the semiconductor light-emitting element has a high carbon concentration part of 20 nanometers or less.
  9. A counter electrode provided on a side of the first semiconductor layer opposite to the light emitting layer;
    The second semiconductor layer is provided in a region facing the counter electrode on the electrode side of the second semiconductor layer, and is formed between the second semiconductor layer and the electrode rather than a region not facing the counter electrode. 9. The semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 1, comprising a low electrical characteristic portion having at least one of high contact resistance and low ohmic characteristics.
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