JP2010234980A - Fixing bottom sitting member, tension mooring floating body system and installation method therefor - Google Patents

Fixing bottom sitting member, tension mooring floating body system and installation method therefor Download PDF

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JP2010234980A
JP2010234980A JP2009085742A JP2009085742A JP2010234980A JP 2010234980 A JP2010234980 A JP 2010234980A JP 2009085742 A JP2009085742 A JP 2009085742A JP 2009085742 A JP2009085742 A JP 2009085742A JP 2010234980 A JP2010234980 A JP 2010234980A
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fixing
gas
floating body
water
mooring
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JP5264593B2 (en
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Masujiro Hisatani
益士郎 久谷
Hiroo Inoue
浩男 井上
Hiroshi Suzuki
宏始 鈴木
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Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B21/00Tying-up; Shifting, towing, or pushing equipment; Anchoring
    • B63B21/50Anchoring arrangements or methods for special vessels, e.g. for floating drilling platforms or dredgers
    • B63B21/502Anchoring arrangements or methods for special vessels, e.g. for floating drilling platforms or dredgers by means of tension legs
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D13/00Assembly, mounting or commissioning of wind motors; Arrangements specially adapted for transporting wind motor components
    • F03D13/20Arrangements for mounting or supporting wind motors; Masts or towers for wind motors
    • F03D13/25Arrangements for mounting or supporting wind motors; Masts or towers for wind motors specially adapted for offshore installation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B2231/00Material used for some parts or elements, or for particular purposes
    • B63B2231/60Concretes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/90Mounting on supporting structures or systems
    • F05B2240/93Mounting on supporting structures or systems on a structure floating on a liquid surface
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/90Mounting on supporting structures or systems
    • F05B2240/95Mounting on supporting structures or systems offshore
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/727Offshore wind turbines

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Combustion & Propulsion (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Ocean & Marine Engineering (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Sustainable Development (AREA)
  • Sustainable Energy (AREA)
  • General Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Wind Motors (AREA)

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide fixing bottom sitting member capable of reducing a structure strength and a weight, reducing costs, adjusting an underwater weight which is the difference between the weight and a buoyancy, easily controlling a posture, eliminating the need of a floating crane used in moving and bottom sitting operations in a prior art, facilitating the moving and bottom sitting operations, and improving high reliability in a fixing bottom sitting member mooring a floating body. <P>SOLUTION: A fixing bottom sitting member 14 is provided with a plurality of gas chambers 14a provided with an opening 14a communicated to underwater on its bottom or side face, and the gas chambers 14b are provided with a gas receiving/supplying device 14d. The posture and the underwater weight of the fixing bottom sitting member 14 in floating or underwater are adjusted through adjusting gas amounts inside the respective gas chambers 14b. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2011,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、浮体を係留する係留索を固定するために使用され、軽量で移動作業や着底作業が容易な固定用着底部材と、風力発電装置等の台座として使用される緊張係留浮体を緊張係留する緊張係留浮体システムとその設置方法に関する。   The present invention relates to a fixing bottoming member that is used for fixing a mooring line for mooring a floating body, is lightweight and easy to move and bottom, and a tension mooring floating body that is used as a base for a wind power generator or the like. The present invention relates to a tension mooring floating body system for tension mooring and its installation method.

地球温暖化対策として、有力な技術分野である風力発電において、特に国土の狭い日本では、陸上の立地可能な場所が次第に減少し、今後は洋上、それも50m以上の深い海に設置する、浮体型洋上風力発電システムが発展普及することが期待されている。   As a countermeasure against global warming, wind power generation, which is a prominent technology field, has been gradually reduced especially in Japan where the land area is small. The offshore wind power generation system is expected to develop and spread.

この風力発電に関して、海岸の大陸棚の比較的水深の大きい水域に、緊張係留浮体(TLP:テンション・レグ・プラットホーム)を設けて、この緊張係留浮体に風力発電装置等の機器を搭載する提案がなされ始めている。例えば、図12に示すように、この風力発電装置の台座11を搭載する浮体12は、この浮体12に取り付けられた1本又は複数本(図12では4本)のテンドンと呼ばれる緊張係留索13で海底や湖底や川底等の水底2に設けられたアンカー等の固定用着底部材14に係留されている。   Regarding this wind power generation, there is a proposal to install a tension mooring floating body (TLP: tension leg platform) in the relatively deep water area of the coastal continental shelf, and to install equipment such as a wind power generator on this tension mooring floating body. It is starting to be made. For example, as shown in FIG. 12, the floating body 12 on which the base 11 of the wind power generator is mounted includes one or more (four in FIG. 12) tension mooring ropes 13 attached to the floating body 12. The anchoring member 14 is anchored to the anchoring member 14 such as an anchor provided on the seabed 2 such as the seabed, lake bottom or riverbed.

風力発電装置に限らず、一般的に、図12に示すような緊張係留浮体1Xの設置は、浮体12のバラストタンクにバラスト水を注入したり、バラストを積んだりして、浮体12の喫水を設置状態の時よりも深くして沈めた状態で、予め設定水域に設置された固定用着底部材14の上に移動する。移動後、緊張係留索13の上端を浮体12の上側係留部15cに結合し、緊張係留索13の下端を固定用着底部材14の下側係留部14cに結合する。   In general, the tension mooring floating body 1X as shown in FIG. 12 is not limited to the wind power generator, and the ballast water is injected into the ballast tank of the floating body 12 or the ballast water is loaded, thereby drafting the floating body 12. In a state where it is deeper and submerged than in the installation state, it moves onto the fixing bottom member 14 installed in the preset water area in advance. After the movement, the upper end of the tension mooring line 13 is coupled to the upper mooring part 15 c of the floating body 12, and the lower end of the tension mooring line 13 is coupled to the lower mooring part 14 c of the fixing bottoming member 14.

結合後、上部構造物11を搭載している浮体12の傾斜に注意しながら、バラスト水を排出したり、バラストを取り除いたりして、浮体12の浮力を予め設定された浮力とする。更に、緊張係留索13の長さを変更して上部構造物11の傾斜と各々の緊張係留索13の張力T1〜T4の大きさを調整する。この設置では、緊張係留浮体1Xが波浪中においても上下動揺や横傾斜や縦傾斜をしないように、また、水平方向に移動可能な範囲も許容範囲に入るように、緊張係留索13に予め設定した初期張力T1〜T4を付与して係留する(例えば、特許文献1、2参照)。   After the coupling, the buoyancy of the floating body 12 is set to a preset buoyancy by discharging the ballast water or removing the ballast while paying attention to the inclination of the floating body 12 on which the upper structure 11 is mounted. Furthermore, the length of the tension mooring lines 13 is changed to adjust the inclination of the upper structure 11 and the magnitudes of the tensions T1 to T4 of the tension mooring lines 13. In this installation, the tension mooring line 13 is set in advance so that the tension mooring floating body 1X does not shake up and down, laterally tilt, and vertically tilt in the waves, and the movable range within the horizontal direction falls within the allowable range. The applied initial tensions T1 to T4 are applied and moored (see, for example, Patent Documents 1 and 2).

また、上部構造物の搭載に広い面積を必要としない、風力発電装置を搭載するような場合には、図13に示すような、水面を貫通する柱状体(センターコラム)12aと、この柱状体12aの下部に接続する水没浮力体(ポンツーン)12bとを有する浮体12に、複数本の緊張係留索13の上端側を固定し、この緊張係留索13の下端側を水底2に設置された固定用着底部材14の下側係留部14cに連結して、緊張係留索13に張力を作用させて緊張係留浮体1Yを位置保持することが提案されている(例えば、特許文献3、4参照)。   Further, in the case of mounting a wind power generator that does not require a large area for mounting the superstructure, a columnar body (center column) 12a penetrating the water surface as shown in FIG. An upper end side of a plurality of tension mooring lines 13 is fixed to a floating body 12 having a submerged buoyancy body (pontoon) 12b connected to the lower part of 12a, and a lower end side of the tension mooring lines 13 is fixed to the bottom 2 It has been proposed that the tension mooring line 1Y is held in position by being connected to the lower mooring portion 14c of the flooring member 14 and applying tension to the tension mooring line 13 (see, for example, Patent Documents 3 and 4). .

水面を貫通する柱状体12aと、この柱状体12aに接続する水没浮力体12bとを有する浮体12で構成される「ミニ・テンション・レグ・プラットフォーム(ミニTLP)」と呼ばれる緊張係留浮体1Yでは、緊張係留索13は水深Dの水没浮力体12bの上側係留部15cに係留されている。この緊張係留浮体1Yは、設置後は、水面を貫通する部分は柱状体12aのみとなるので、潮位変動や波による水面の上下による緊張係留索13の張力への影響が少なくなる。   In a tension mooring floating body 1Y called a “mini tension leg platform (mini TLP)” composed of a floating body 12 having a columnar body 12a penetrating the water surface and a submerged buoyant body 12b connected to the columnar body 12a, The tension mooring line 13 is moored to the upper mooring part 15c of the submerged buoyancy body 12b at the water depth D. Since the tension mooring floating body 1Y has only the columnar body 12a penetrating the water surface after installation, the influence on the tension of the tension mooring line 13 due to fluctuations in the tide level and up and down of the water surface due to waves is reduced.

また、上記の緊張係留浮体等の浮体型海洋構造物を係留するために、水底に配置する重錘であるテンプレートと呼ばれる固定用着底部材が、通常はクレーン船等を用いて沈設される(例えば、特許文献4参照。)。   Further, in order to moor a floating type offshore structure such as the above-described tension mooring floating body, a fixed landing member called a template, which is a weight placed on the bottom of the water, is usually laid down using a crane ship or the like ( For example, see Patent Document 4.)

また、緊張係留浮体においては、水底に設置されたテンプレートと浮体本体をテンドンと呼ばれる緊張係留索で連結し、浮体のバラスト調整でテンドンを緊張させて所定の状態にするが、この作業時には、作業途中の浮体の安定性を確保して、転倒するのを防止するためにクレーン船等の作業船が使用される。   In addition, in a tension mooring floating body, the template installed on the bottom of the water and the main body of the floating body are connected by a tension mooring line called tendon, and the tendon is tensioned by adjusting the ballast of the floating body. A work ship such as a crane ship is used to ensure the stability of the floating body on the way and prevent it from falling over.

この場合に、風力発電装置を搭載するような「ミニTLP」でも、発電容量が大きなものでは重量で千トンを越えるものもあるので、使用するクレーンは、大型洋上クレーンとならざるを得ない。この大型洋上クレーンは、市場での保有隻数が少ない上に、曳航時から設置完了時まで必要になるため、大型洋上クレーンの使用期間が長くなる。そのため、曳航及び設置工事の日程調整が難しい上に、コストが嵩むという問題がある。   In this case, even a “mini-TLP” equipped with a wind power generator has a large power generation capacity and can exceed 1000 tons in weight, so the crane to be used must be a large offshore crane. This large offshore crane has a small number of ships in the market and is necessary from the time of towing until the completion of installation, so that the period of use of the large offshore crane becomes long. Therefore, it is difficult to adjust the schedule of towing and installation work, and there is a problem that costs increase.

特に、緊張係留型浮体を用いる洋上風力発電装置においては、陸上風車や着底型の洋上風車に比べて、浮体、係留装置、その設置方法等で、どうしてもコスト高になる傾向があるので、機能を保ったまま、できるだけコストダウンを図る必要がある。   In particular, offshore wind power generators using a tension mooring type floating body tend to be costly due to the floating body, mooring device, installation method, etc. compared to land wind turbines and bottomed type offshore wind turbines. It is necessary to reduce costs as much as possible while maintaining

また、海象条件が良くないと、複雑で長時間を要する設置作業は困難になるため、沿岸のドックなどではほぼ発電装置全体を組立てて、そのまま引き船で曳航し、設置現場海域に着いたら、なるべく、簡単に設置作業を行うことが望ましい。   In addition, if the sea conditions are not good, installation work that requires complicated and long time becomes difficult, so if you assemble almost the whole power generation equipment at the coastal dock etc., tow it as it is and arrive at the installation site sea area, It is desirable to perform the installation work as easily as possible.

また、テンプレートに関しても、浮体を係留するテンプレートを密閉構造の容器で形成して、内部に空気や水を入れて重量を調整し、曳航時には浮力を持たせて浮体の一部として、設置海域に到達したら小さな水中重量となるように浮力を調整して、密閉状態で水底まで沈め、着底した後に水を入れてテンプレートの浮力を減少して重量を増して固定するという方法が考えられる。しかしながら、この着底方法では、テンプレートが沈降していくに従って、周囲の水圧が大きくなり、大きな圧力を受けるため、この水圧に対向できるようにテンプレートに構造体としての強度を持たせる必要があるために、密閉容器を形成する板の板厚を増加したり、補強材を入れたりする必要があり、コスト高を招くという問題がある。   As for the template, the template for mooring the floating body is formed with a sealed container, and the weight is adjusted by putting air or water inside, and when towing it has buoyancy and is part of the floating body in the installation sea area. When it reaches, the buoyancy is adjusted so that the weight in water is small, and the buoyancy is submerged to the bottom in a sealed state. After landing, water is poured to reduce the buoyancy of the template to increase the weight and fix it. However, in this bottoming method, as the template sinks, the surrounding water pressure increases and receives a large pressure. Therefore, it is necessary to give the template strength as a structure so as to face this water pressure. In addition, it is necessary to increase the thickness of the plate forming the sealed container or to insert a reinforcing material, which causes a problem of increasing the cost.

この水底に設置するテンプレートも、可能であれば浮体本体と一体にして曳航し、クレーン船や専用作業用浮体を用いることなく、設置する方が好ましい。また、水底に設置した後は、水流や砂の動きなどによって経時的に固定用着底部材の固定位置や姿勢が変化しないように、テンドンによって浮体を確実に固定する必要がある。   The template to be installed on the bottom of the water is preferably towed together with the floating body if possible, and installed without using a crane ship or a dedicated working floating body. In addition, after the installation on the bottom of the water, it is necessary to securely fix the floating body with tendon so that the fixing position and posture of the fixing bottoming member do not change over time due to water flow or sand movement.

特開平1−145292号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 1-145292 特開平4−197887号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 4-197887 実開昭64−2692号公報Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 64-2692 特開2005−69025号公報JP 2005-69025 A

本発明は、上記の状況を鑑みてなされたものであり、その目的は、浮体を係留する固定用着底部材において、構造強度を低減化できて軽量化でき、コストダウンを図ることができる固定用着底部材を提供することにある。   The present invention has been made in view of the above situation, and an object of the present invention is to fix a fixing bottom member for mooring a floating body, which can reduce the structural strength, reduce the weight, and reduce the cost. It is to provide a flooring member.

また、更なる目的は、重量と浮力の差である水中重量の調整だけではなく、姿勢の制御も容易にできて、従来技術で移動時と着底作業時に用いていたクレーン船を不要にすることができ、移動作業と着底作業の容易化と、高信頼化を図ることができる固定用着底部材を提供することにある。   In addition, the objective is not only to adjust the weight in water, which is the difference between the weight and buoyancy, but also to easily control the attitude, eliminating the need for crane ships that were used for moving and landing work in the prior art. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a fixing bottoming member that can facilitate moving work and bottoming work and can achieve high reliability.

また、更なる目的は、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、固定用着底部材の姿勢の制御も容易にできて、クレーン船が不要となり、移動作業と着底作業の容易化と、高信頼化を図ることができる緊張係留浮体システム及びその設置方法を提供することにある。   Another purpose is not only to adjust the fixing bottom member to approximately neutral buoyancy during movement and bottoming work, but also to easily control the posture of the fixing bottom member, eliminating the need for a crane ship. Another object of the present invention is to provide a tension mooring floating body system and a method for installing the same, which can facilitate moving work and bottoming work and achieve high reliability.

上記の目的を達成するための固定用着底部材は、上部構造物を支持するための浮体を係留するための係留索を水底に固定するための固定用着底部材において、該固定用着底部材に底面又は側面に水中に連通する開口部を設けたガス室を複数設けると共に、該ガス室にガス受給装置を備え、該固定用着底部材の浮上時又は水中時の姿勢と水中重量の調整を、前記各ガス室の内部のガス量をそれぞれ調整することで行うように構成される。なお、ガスとしては空気を用いるのが便利であるが、必ずしも空気である必要はない。   A fixing bottom member for achieving the above object is a fixing bottom member for fixing a mooring line for mooring a floating body for supporting an upper structure to a water bottom. The gas chamber is provided with a plurality of gas chambers provided with openings on the bottom surface or side surfaces thereof, and the gas chamber is provided with a gas receiving device. The adjustment is performed by adjusting the amount of gas inside each gas chamber. In addition, although it is convenient to use air as gas, it does not necessarily need to be air.

この構成によれば、固定用着底部材の水深に関わらず、ガス室と外部の水中とが開口部により連通しているので、同じ圧力となり、固定用着底部材のガス室を形成する壁は内外の圧力が同じとなる。そのため、ガス室の形状を維持するための構造的な強度が小さくて済むので、構造強度を低減化して固定用着底部材を軽量化できる。   According to this configuration, the gas chamber and the outside water communicate with each other through the opening regardless of the water depth of the fixing bottom member, so that the wall has the same pressure and forms the gas chamber of the fixing bottom member. The pressure inside and outside is the same. Therefore, since the structural strength for maintaining the shape of the gas chamber is small, the structural strength can be reduced and the fixing bottom member can be reduced in weight.

更に、ガス室の内部のガス量で浮力を調整できるので、重量と浮力の差である水中重量を調整して、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材を略中性浮力に調整し作業を容易化できるだけではなく、各ガス室のガス量の調整により、固定用着底部材の姿勢の制御も容易にできるようになる。従って、従来技術で移動時と着底作業時に用いていたクレーン船が不要となり、これらの作業の信頼性を向上できる。   Furthermore, since the buoyancy can be adjusted by the amount of gas inside the gas chamber, the underwater weight, which is the difference between the weight and the buoyancy, is adjusted, and the fixed bottoming member is adjusted to approximately neutral buoyancy during movement and bottoming work. Not only can the operation be facilitated, but also the posture of the fixing bottoming member can be easily controlled by adjusting the amount of gas in each gas chamber. Accordingly, the crane ship used in the prior art during movement and landing work is not necessary, and the reliability of these work can be improved.

また、上記の固定用着底部材において、前記開口部の位置を、該開口部からガスが流出する状態で、該固定用着底部材の姿勢及び水中重量が予め設定された姿勢及び水中重量になるように設定すると共に、前記開口部を該固定用着底部材の重心から最も離れた位置に設けて構成する。   Further, in the fixing bottom member, the position of the opening is set to the posture and the weight under water in which the posture and the underwater weight of the fixing bottom member are set in advance in a state where gas flows out from the opening. The opening is provided at a position farthest from the center of gravity of the fixing bottom member.

この構成によれば、開口部からガスが洩れ出るまでガスを供給し続けることにより、予め設定された姿勢及び水中重量になるので、非常に簡単な制御で予め設定された姿勢と水中重量にすることができる。特に、開口部を固定用着底部材の重心から最も離れた位置に設けることにより、固定用着底部材が傾斜すると傾斜して上側になるガス室では開口部が傾斜により上昇するのでガスが開口部から漏出するとともに開口部より水が浸入し、ガス室の浮力が減少する。一方、傾斜して下側となるガス室では開口部が傾斜により下降するのでガスは洩れず、ガス量が増加する状態となるので、傾斜を戻す方向の復原力が自動的に生じることになる。従って、特別な制御をすることなく固定用着底部材の姿勢を自動的に保つことができるようになる。   According to this configuration, since the gas is continuously supplied until the gas leaks from the opening, the posture and the weight under water are set in advance, so that the posture and the weight under water are set with very simple control. be able to. In particular, by providing the opening at a position farthest from the center of gravity of the fixing bottom member, the gas is opened because the opening rises due to the inclination in the gas chamber that is inclined upward when the fixing bottom member is inclined. The water leaks from the opening and water enters from the opening, reducing the buoyancy of the gas chamber. On the other hand, in the gas chamber that is inclined downward, the opening portion is lowered due to the inclination, so that the gas does not leak and the amount of gas increases, so that the restoring force in the direction of returning the inclination is automatically generated. . Accordingly, the posture of the fixing bottoming member can be automatically maintained without special control.

また、上記の固定用着底部材において、該固定用沈定部材の前記ガス室の内部のガス量を、前記ガス室の水面位置に基づいて調整すると共に、該水面位置を検出する水位検出センサを、該固定用着底部材の重心から最も離れた位置に設けるように構成する。   Further, in the fixing bottoming member, a water level detection sensor for adjusting a gas amount inside the gas chamber of the fixing settling member based on a water surface position of the gas chamber and detecting the water surface position. Is provided at a position farthest from the center of gravity of the fixing bottom member.

この構成によれば、ガス室の水面位置により、ガス量の調整をするので、非常に簡単な制御で予め設定された姿勢と水中重量にすることができる。特に、水位検出センサを固定用着底部材の重心から最も離れた位置に設けることにより、固定用着底部材が傾斜すると傾斜して上側になるガス室では水位検出センサで検出される水位が傾斜により下降するのでガス量を減少する制御となり、ガス室の浮力が減少する。一方、傾斜して下側となるガス室では水位検出センサで検出される水位が傾斜により上昇するのでガス量を増加する制御となり、ガス室の浮力が増加する。その結果、傾斜を戻す方向の復原力が生じることになる。従って、傾斜を戻すための特別の制御をすることなく、水位調整のみで固定用着底部材の姿勢を保つことができるようになる。従って、傾斜センサが不要となる。   According to this configuration, since the amount of gas is adjusted according to the water surface position of the gas chamber, it is possible to obtain a preset posture and underwater weight with very simple control. In particular, by providing the water level detection sensor at a position farthest from the center of gravity of the fixing bottom member, the water level detected by the water level detection sensor inclines when the fixing bottom member inclines and tilts upward. Therefore, the control is performed to reduce the gas amount, and the buoyancy of the gas chamber is reduced. On the other hand, in the gas chamber inclined downward, the water level detected by the water level detection sensor rises due to the inclination, so that the control is performed to increase the gas amount, and the buoyancy of the gas chamber increases. As a result, a restoring force in the direction of returning the inclination is generated. Therefore, the posture of the fixing bottoming member can be maintained only by adjusting the water level without performing special control for returning the inclination. Therefore, an inclination sensor is not necessary.

上記の固定用着底部材において、該固定用着底部材の前記ガス室の内部のガス量を、該固定用着底部材を支持する支持索の張力に基づいて調整するように構成する。この構成により、固定用着底部材の移動時及び着底作業時における支持索の張力が過大になるのを防止することができる。   In the above fixing bottom member, the amount of gas inside the gas chamber of the fixing bottom member is adjusted based on the tension of a support line that supports the fixing bottom member. With this configuration, it is possible to prevent the tension of the support rope from being excessive during the movement of the fixing bottoming member and during the bottoming operation.

上記の固定用着底部材において、該固定用沈定部材の前記ガス室の内部のガス量の調整を、該固定用着底部材を支持する各支持索の張力、各支持索の繰り出し長さ、各前記ガス室の水面位置、各前記ガス室の圧力の一つ又は幾つかの組み合わせを調整制御用の入力とし、各前記ガス室の前記ガス受給装置を通過するガス流量、又は、高圧ガスタンクから前記ガス受給装置に接続する制御弁の開度を調整制御の出力とする制御を行う。   In the fixing bottom member described above, the amount of gas inside the gas chamber of the fixing settling member is adjusted by adjusting the tension of each supporting line supporting the fixing bottom member and the feeding length of each supporting line. One or some combination of the water surface position of each gas chamber and the pressure of each gas chamber is used as an input for adjustment control, and the flow rate of gas passing through the gas receiving device of each gas chamber or a high-pressure gas tank To control the opening of the control valve connected to the gas receiving device as an output of the adjustment control.

そして、この制御による方法と、開口部からガスが流出する状態で、固定用着底部材の姿勢及び水中重量が予め設定された姿勢及び水中重量になるようにする構成とを組み合わせることによって、能動的に姿勢と浮力を制御する方法と受動的に姿勢と浮力を安定化させる方法とを併用することで、高性能な浮力及び姿勢制御と、信頼性の高い浮力及び姿勢制御を両立できる。即ち、能動的な制御で高性能化を図り、万一、この能動的な制御が機能不全に陥った場合に、受動的なガス流量一定運転に切り替えることで、高信頼性を保証できる。   Then, by combining this control method with a configuration in which the posture and underwater weight of the fixing bottoming member are set to a preset posture and underwater weight in a state where gas flows out from the opening, By combining the method of controlling the posture and buoyancy and the method of passively stabilizing the posture and buoyancy, it is possible to achieve both high-performance buoyancy and posture control and highly reliable buoyancy and posture control. In other words, high performance can be achieved by active control, and if this active control fails, switching to passive constant gas flow operation can ensure high reliability.

上記の目的を達成するための緊張係留浮体システムは、上部構造物を支持するための浮体と、この浮体を係留するための緊張係留索と、上記の固定用着底部材を備えて構成される。この構成によれば、固定用着底部材をガス室の内部のガス量を調整しながら、水中重量を調整して、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、固定用着底部材の姿勢の制御も容易にできるので、クレーン船が不要となり、これらの作業の信頼性を向上できる。また、上記の目的を達成するための緊張係留浮体システムの設置方法は、上部構造物を支持するための浮体と、この浮体を係留するための緊張係留索と、上記の固定用着底部材を備えて構成された緊張係留浮体システムにおいて、該固定用着底部材の浮上時又は水中時の姿勢と水中重量の調整を、前記各ガス室の内部のガス量をそれぞれ調整しながら、該固定用着底部材の搬送及び着底を行うことを特徴とする方法である。この方法によれば、固定用着底部材をガス室の内部のガス量を調整することで、固定用着底部材の浮上時又は水中時の水中重量を調整できるだけではなく、固定用着底部材の姿勢の調整も容易にできるので、クレーン船が不要となり、これらの作業の信頼性を向上できる。   A tension mooring floating body system for achieving the above object includes a floating body for supporting an upper structure, a tension mooring line for mooring the floating body, and the fixing landing member. . According to this configuration, while adjusting the amount of gas inside the gas chamber of the fixing bottom member, the weight in water is adjusted so that the fixing bottom member is adjusted to substantially neutral buoyancy during movement and bottoming work. In addition, since it is possible to easily control the attitude of the fixing bottom member, a crane ship is not necessary, and the reliability of these operations can be improved. Moreover, the installation method of the tension mooring floating body system for achieving the above object includes a floating body for supporting the superstructure, a tension mooring line for mooring the floating body, and the fixing bottom member. In the tension mooring floating body system configured as described above, adjustment of the posture and the weight of the underwater and the underwater weight of the fixing bottoming member while adjusting the amount of gas inside each of the gas chambers. It is a method characterized in that the bottoming member is conveyed and bottomed. According to this method, by adjusting the gas amount inside the gas chamber of the fixing bottom member, not only can the weight of the fixing bottom member float or when it is underwater, but also the fixing bottom member can be adjusted. Therefore, the crane ship is not necessary, and the reliability of these operations can be improved.

上記の緊張係留浮体システムの設置方法において、前記固定用着底部材の前記ガス室の底面を開口して形成し、前記固定用着底部材を設置水域に着底した後に、前記ガス室の内部のガスを抜くと共に、更に内部の水を抜くことにより、前記固定用着底部材を水底に固定する。   In the installation method of the tension mooring floating body system described above, the bottom surface of the gas chamber of the fixing bottoming member is formed to be open, and after the fixing bottoming member settles in the installation water area, the inside of the gas chamber The fixing bottoming member is fixed to the bottom of the water by draining the gas and further draining the water inside.

この方法によれば、固定用着底部材の着底後に、ガス室の内部のガスを抜くことにより、浮力を減少して固定用着底部材の重量で固定できると共に、更に、開口された底面を水底によって塞がれた状態でガス室の内部の水を抜くと、外部に加わる水圧に加えて内部の圧力を小さくすることで、固定用着底部材の外部に加わる水圧との差を大きくできるので、固定用着底部材を水底に食い込ませることができ、より固定を確実にできる。つまり、水底に設置した固定用着底部材を更に安定化し、係留対象の浮体を固定する機能を向上することができる。   According to this method, after the fixing bottom member is fixed, the gas inside the gas chamber is vented to reduce the buoyancy and to fix the fixing bottom member by the weight of the fixing bottom member. When the water inside the gas chamber is drained with the water bottom blocked, the internal pressure is reduced in addition to the water pressure applied to the outside, thereby increasing the difference between the water pressure applied to the outside of the fixing bottoming member. Since it can do, the fixing bottoming member can be made to bite into the water bottom, and fixing can be ensured more reliably. That is, it is possible to further stabilize the fixing landing member installed on the bottom of the water and improve the function of fixing the floating object to be moored.

本発明の固定用着底部材によれば、水深に関わらず、ガス室と外部の水中とが開口部により連通しているので、同じ圧力となり、ガス室を形成する壁は内外の圧力が同じとなる。そのため、ガス室の形状を維持するための構造的な強度が小さくて済むので、構造強度を低減化して固定用着底部材を軽量化でき、コストダウンを図ることができる。   According to the fixing bottoming member of the present invention, the gas chamber and the outside water communicate with each other through the opening regardless of the water depth, so that the pressure is the same, and the wall forming the gas chamber has the same internal and external pressure. It becomes. Therefore, since the structural strength for maintaining the shape of the gas chamber is small, the structural strength can be reduced, the fixing bottom member can be reduced in weight, and the cost can be reduced.

更に、ガス室の内部のガス量で浮力を調整できるので、重量と浮力の差である水中重量を調整して、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、各ガス室のガス量の調整により、固定用着底部材の姿勢の制御も容易にできるようになる。従って、従来技術で移動時と着底作業時に用いていたクレーン船が不要となり、移動作業と着底作業の容易化と、高信頼化を図ることができる。   Furthermore, since the buoyancy can be adjusted by the amount of gas inside the gas chamber, the underwater weight, which is the difference between the weight and the buoyancy, can be adjusted so that the fixed bottoming member can be adjusted to substantially neutral buoyancy during movement and bottoming work. Instead, the posture of the fixing bottom member can be easily controlled by adjusting the gas amount in each gas chamber. Therefore, the crane ship used during the movement and the bottoming work in the prior art becomes unnecessary, and the moving work and the bottoming work can be facilitated and highly reliable.

更に、固定用沈定部材のガス室の内部のガス量の調整に関して、能動的な制御による方法と、開口部からガスが流出する状態で、固定用着底部材の姿勢及び水中重量が予め設定された姿勢及び水中重量になるようにする構成とを組み合わせて、能動的に姿勢と浮力を制御する方法と受動的に姿勢と浮力を安定化させる方法とを併用することにより、高性能な浮力及び姿勢制御と、信頼性の高い浮力及び姿勢制御を両立できる。即ち、能動的な制御で高性能化を図り、万一、この能動的な制御が機能不全に陥った場合に、受動的なガス流量一定運転に切り替えることで、高信頼性を保証できる。   In addition, regarding the adjustment of the gas amount inside the gas chamber of the fixing settling member, the method of active control and the posture of the fixing bottoming member and the weight in water are set in advance with the gas flowing out from the opening. High-performance buoyancy by combining a method that actively controls posture and buoyancy and a method that passively stabilizes posture and buoyancy in combination with a configuration that achieves a controlled posture and weight underwater In addition, it is possible to achieve both posture control and highly reliable buoyancy and posture control. In other words, high performance can be achieved by active control, and if this active control fails, switching to passive constant gas flow operation can ensure high reliability.

また、本発明の緊張係留浮体システム及びその設置方法によれば、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、固定用着底部材の姿勢の制御も容易にできるので、クレーン船が不要となり、移動作業と着底作業の容易化と、高信頼化を図ることができる。   Further, according to the tension mooring floating body system and its installation method of the present invention, not only can the fixing bottom member be adjusted to substantially neutral buoyancy during movement and bottoming work, but also the posture control of the fixing bottom member can be controlled. Since it can be easily performed, a crane ship is not required, and moving work and bottoming work can be facilitated and high reliability can be achieved.

本発明に係る実施の形態における緊張係留浮体システムの構成を示した図である。It is the figure which showed the structure of the tension mooring floating body system in embodiment which concerns on this invention. 本発明に係る実施の形態における水面上係留部を示した図である。It is the figure which showed the mooring part on the water surface in embodiment which concerns on this invention. 本発明に係る実施の形態における固定用着底部材の構成を示した平面図である。It is the top view which showed the structure of the fixing bottom member in embodiment which concerns on this invention. 図3のA−A断面を示した側断面図である。It is the sectional side view which showed the AA cross section of FIG. 本発明に係る実施の形態における固定用着底部材の他の構成を示した平面図である。It is the top view which showed the other structure of the fixing bottom member in embodiment which concerns on this invention. 図5のB−B断面を示した側断面図である。It is the sectional side view which showed the BB cross section of FIG. 浮体と固定用着底部材のドック出し及び曳航状態を示した模式的な側面図である。It is the typical side view which showed the docking out and towing state of the floating body and the fixing bottoming member. 浮体から固定用着底部材を降下させている途中の状態を示した模式的な側面図である。It is the typical side view which showed the state in the middle of lowering the fixing bottom member from a floating body. 固定用着底部材が着底している状態を示した模式的な側面図である。It is the typical side view which showed the state which the bottoming member for fixation has bottomed. 浮体12を係留する緊張係留索に張力を加えた状態を示した模式的な側面図である。It is the typical side view which showed the state which applied the tension | tensile_strength mooring line mooring the floating body 12. FIG. 浮体12から曳航及び係留作業に使用した設置用艤装品を撤去した状態を示した模式的な側面図である。It is the typical side view which showed the state which removed the equipment for installation used for the towing and mooring work from the floating body. 従来技術の緊張係留浮体システムの構成を示した図である。It is the figure which showed the structure of the tension mooring floating body system of a prior art. 従来技術のミニTLPと呼ばれる緊張係留浮体システムの状態を示した図である。It is the figure which showed the state of the tension mooring floating body system called the mini TLP of a prior art.

以下、図面を参照して本発明に係る固定用着底部材、緊張係留浮体システム及びその設置方法について説明する。ここでは、特に浮体が支持する上部構造物に風力発電装置を搭載した緊張係留浮体システムを例にして説明するが、本発明は風力発電装置に限定されず、沖合い養殖システムの海上サービスステーション、海洋資源開発用プラットフォーム等にも適用することができる。   Hereinafter, a fixing bottom member, a tension mooring floating body system, and an installation method thereof according to the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. Here, a tension mooring floating body system in which a wind power generator is mounted on an upper structure supported by the floating body will be described as an example. However, the present invention is not limited to the wind power generator, and the offshore aquaculture system offshore service station, ocean It can also be applied to resource development platforms.

最初に、本発明に係る実施の形態の緊張係留浮体システム1について説明する。この緊張係留浮体システム1は、緊張係留浮体(ミニ・テンション・レグ・プラットフォーム)のためのシステムであり、図1及び図2に示すように、風力発電装置10を搭載した上部構造物11と、この上部構造物11を支持するための浮体12と、この浮体12を係留するための複数本(図1では2本ずつ3ヶ所で計6本)のテンドンと呼ばれる緊張係留索13と、この緊張係留索13を海底や湖底や河底などの水底2に固定するための固定用着底部材14とを備えて構成される。   First, the tension mooring floating body system 1 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described. This tension mooring floating body system 1 is a system for a tension mooring floating body (mini tension leg platform). As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, an upper structure 11 on which a wind power generator 10 is mounted; A floating body 12 for supporting the superstructure 11, a plurality of tension moorings 13 called tendons for mooring the floating body 12 (two in FIG. 1 and three in total in FIG. 1), and the tension The mooring line 13 is provided with a fixing landing member 14 for fixing the mooring line 13 to the water bottom 2 such as the seabed, lake bottom or riverbed.

この浮体12は、上部構造物11の重量を浮力で支持して、上部構造物11を水面上の予め設定した高さに維持するものである。この浮体12は、上部構造物11を支持するための円柱や多角柱で形成される中央柱状体12aと、この中央柱状体12aの下部から放射状に水平方向に伸びる3本以上(図1では3本)の柱状体で形成される水没浮力体(連結部材)12bとからなる。   The floating body 12 supports the weight of the upper structure 11 with buoyancy and maintains the upper structure 11 at a preset height above the water surface. The floating body 12 includes a central columnar body 12a formed of a cylinder or a polygonal column for supporting the upper structure 11, and three or more (3 in FIG. 1) extending radially from the lower portion of the central columnar body 12a. And a submerged buoyant body (connecting member) 12b formed of a columnar body.

この中央柱状体12aはセンターコラムと呼ばれ、水没浮力体12bはポンツーンと呼ばれる。この中央柱状体12aと水没浮力体12bは中空構造とし、鋼やプレストレストコンクリート(PC)等で浮力を生じるように構成される。また、この水没浮力体12bにはバラストタンクが設けられる。また、この水没浮力体12bを中空構造で形成する代わりに、その一部又は全部をトラス構造で形成する場合もある。   The central columnar body 12a is called a center column, and the submerged buoyancy body 12b is called a pontoon. The central columnar body 12a and the submerged buoyancy body 12b have a hollow structure and are configured to generate buoyancy using steel, prestressed concrete (PC), or the like. The submerged buoyancy body 12b is provided with a ballast tank. Further, instead of forming the submerged buoyancy body 12b with a hollow structure, a part or all of the submerged buoyancy body 12b may be formed with a truss structure.

図1に示すように、この水没浮力体12bの中央柱状体12aと反対の端部に、コーナーコラムと呼ばれる係留用柱状体12cを接続して配置する。この係留用柱状体12cは、水面貫通浮力部分を有して構成され、浮体12の設置時において、その上方の一部が水面3の上に突出するように設けられる。   As shown in FIG. 1, a mooring columnar body 12c called a corner column is connected to the end of the submerged buoyant body 12b opposite to the central columnar body 12a. The mooring columnar body 12c is configured to have a water surface penetrating buoyancy portion, and is provided so that a part of the floating body 12 protrudes above the water surface 3 when the floating body 12 is installed.

この係留用柱状体12cは、図1及び図2に示すように、中空部12hを有する柱状浮力体で形成されると共に、緊張係留索13の上側部分を中空部12hに通して、緊張係留索13の上端部を係留用柱状体12cの水面より上方の部位に設けた上側係留部15cに取り付けて固定支持する。これは、緊張係留索13の長さ及びその緊張力を調整する作業を水中ではなく、空中で行えるようにするためである。これにより、設置工事や点検保守作業を容易とし、これらのコストを低減する。なお、係留用柱状体12cの水平断面形状としては、図2に示す円形の他、四角形等の多角形、及び角をアールで丸めた多角形等が考えられる。   As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the mooring columnar body 12c is formed of a columnar buoyant body having a hollow portion 12h, and the upper portion of the tension mooring cord 13 is passed through the hollow portion 12h, so that the tension mooring cord. The upper end portion of 13 is attached to and fixedly supported by an upper mooring portion 15c provided at a position above the water surface of the mooring columnar body 12c. This is for the purpose of adjusting the length of the tension mooring line 13 and its tension force in the air instead of in the water. This facilitates installation work and inspection and maintenance work, and reduces these costs. The horizontal cross-sectional shape of the mooring columnar body 12c may be a polygon such as a quadrangle, a polygon with rounded corners, etc. in addition to the circle shown in FIG.

つまり、この緊張係留浮体システム1の浮体12は、水面を貫通する中心柱状体(センターコラム)12aと、この中心柱状体12aの周囲に配置される係留用柱状体(コーナーコラム)12cと、中央柱状体12aと係留用柱状体12cとを連結する連結部材である水没浮力体(ポンツーン)12bを有して構成される。   That is, the floating body 12 of the tension mooring floating body system 1 includes a central columnar body (center column) 12a penetrating the water surface, a mooring columnar body (corner column) 12c disposed around the central columnar body 12a, A submerged buoyancy body (pontoon) 12b, which is a connecting member for connecting the columnar body 12a and the anchoring columnar body 12c, is provided.

この構成によれば、係留用柱状体12cを、水面3を貫通して水面3より上方まで達するように設けることにより、新たにこの係留用柱状体12cの水面部分12dにより、静的復原力が発生する。この復原力に関しては、上側係留部15cが、平面視で中央柱状体12aから離間することにより、上部構造物11の傾斜に関するモーメントレバーが大きくなるので、浮体12と上部構造物11に作用する転倒モーメントによって生じる緊張係留索13の張力の変化量が少なくなる。   According to this structure, by providing the mooring columnar body 12c so as to pass through the water surface 3 and reach the upper side of the water surface 3, the static surface restoring force is newly increased by the water surface portion 12d of the mooring columnar body 12c. appear. With respect to this restoring force, the upper mooring portion 15c is separated from the central columnar body 12a in plan view, so that the moment lever relating to the inclination of the upper structure 11 is increased, so that the overturn acting on the floating body 12 and the upper structure 11 The amount of change in tension of the tension mooring line 13 caused by the moment is reduced.

この離間距離が大きい程、モーメントレバーが大きくなるので、同じ水面面積で大きな復原力が得られる。しかしながら、離間距離を大きくするのには限度があるので、水没浮力体12bの端部に接続して、係留用柱状体12cを設ける。   The greater the distance, the larger the moment lever, so a greater restoring force can be obtained with the same water surface area. However, since there is a limit in increasing the separation distance, the mooring columnar body 12c is provided in connection with the end of the submerged buoyancy body 12b.

なお、風力発電装置10を搭載する場合には、曳航時や設置時においても、風力の作用点が水面から高くなるので転倒しやすく、傾斜による転倒の恐れが大きいので、この静的復原力の効果は重要となる。   When the wind power generator 10 is installed, the wind action point becomes higher from the water surface even during towing and installation, so it is easy to tip over, and there is a high risk of tipping over due to the inclination. The effect is important.

緊張係留浮体1を固定用沈底部材14に緊張係留するための緊張係留索(テンドン)13は、鋼製の鎖(チェーン)やケーブルおよびロープ等で形成され、その上端部を係留用柱状体12cの上側係留部15cに、その下端部は固定用着底部材14の下側係留部14cに取り付けられる。係留時には、緊張係留索13の長さを調整して、この緊張係留索13に常時張力(テンション)が加わっている状態にして、浮体12の浮力に抗して、浮体12を水中に引き込むように構成する。   A tension mooring line (tendon) 13 for tension-tethering the tension mooring floating body 1 to the anchoring bottom member 14 is formed of a steel chain, a cable, a rope, or the like, and the upper end of the tension mooring line 13 is a columnar body for mooring. A lower end portion of the upper anchoring portion 15c of 12c is attached to the lower anchoring portion 14c of the fixing bottom member 14. At the time of mooring, the length of the tension mooring line 13 is adjusted so that tension is always applied to the tension mooring line 13 so that the floating body 12 is pulled into the water against the buoyancy of the floating body 12. Configure.

固定用着底部材14は、テンプレートとも呼ばれる、スチールやコンクリート等で形成される錘であり、水底2に沈められ自重により固定される重力式のアンカーとして使用される。この固定用着底部材14は、下側係留部14cと緊張係留索13と上側係留部15cを介して浮体12を予め設定された位置に係留するためのものであり、緊張係留索13の下端部が下側係留部14cに固定される。   The fixing bottom member 14 is a weight formed of steel, concrete, or the like, also called a template, and is used as a gravity anchor that is submerged in the water bottom 2 and fixed by its own weight. The fixing bottoming member 14 is for mooring the floating body 12 at a preset position via the lower mooring portion 14c, the tension mooring line 13, and the upper mooring portion 15c. The part is fixed to the lower mooring part 14c.

この浮体12の大きさは、例えば、発電量が2MWを想定した場合で、かつ、大陸棚の水深100mから200m程度の所に設置される場合には、風車10aの回転直径が80m程度で、風車10aの回転軸10bは水面3の上が75m程度となり、浮体12の中央柱状体12aの直径は6m程度で高さは35m程度であり、係留用柱状体12cの直径は4m程度で、3つの固定用沈底部材14の中心を通る円の直径は60m程度である。   The size of the floating body 12 is, for example, when the power generation amount is assumed to be 2 MW, and when installed at a water depth of about 100 m to 200 m on the continental shelf, the rotational diameter of the windmill 10a is about 80 m, The rotational axis 10b of the windmill 10a is about 75m above the water surface 3, the diameter of the central columnar body 12a of the floating body 12 is about 6m and the height is about 35m, and the diameter of the mooring columnar body 12c is about 4m. The diameter of a circle passing through the centers of the two fixed bottom members 14 is about 60 m.

次に、本発明に係る固定用着底部材(テンプレート)14に関して説明する。図3及び図4に示すように、この固定用着底部材14は、連結部材16によって互いに連結されて一体化されている。この固定用着底部材14に、底面又は側面に水中に連通する開口部14aを備えた空気室(ガス室)14bを複数設けると共に、この空気室14bに空気受給装置(ガス受給装置)14dを備えて形成する。この図4の例では、空気室14b及び水が全面的に浸入する水室14eはそれぞれ底部材14fを有して構成される。   Next, the fixing bottom member (template) 14 according to the present invention will be described. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the fixing bottom member 14 is connected and integrated with each other by a connecting member 16. The fixing bottom member 14 is provided with a plurality of air chambers (gas chambers) 14b having openings 14a communicating with water on the bottom surface or side surfaces, and an air receiving device (gas receiving device) 14d is provided in the air chamber 14b. Prepare to form. In the example of FIG. 4, the air chamber 14 b and the water chamber 14 e into which water completely enters each have a bottom member 14 f.

そして、この固定用着底部材14の浮上時又は水中時の姿勢と水中重量の調整を、浮体12又は作業台船等に搭載した圧縮空気供給装置(図示しない)から空気受給装置14dを経由して供給される空気圧と空気量により、各空気室14bの内部の空気量(ガス量)をそれぞれ調整することで行う。なお、ここでは空気を用いているが必ずしも空気である必要はなく、高圧のガスが得られ易いのであれば、他のガスであってもよい。   Then, adjustment of the posture and the underwater weight of the fixing bottoming member 14 during the ascent or underwater is performed from a compressed air supply device (not shown) mounted on the floating body 12 or a work platform ship via the air receiving device 14d. The air amount (gas amount) inside each air chamber 14b is adjusted by the air pressure and the air amount supplied in this manner. Although air is used here, it is not necessarily air, and other gases may be used as long as high-pressure gas can be easily obtained.

空気受給装置14d経由で空気室14bに空気を送る空気域供給装置は、水上側に空気タンクを設け、この空気タンクの内部を十分高い圧力に保ち、バルブ操作で空気室14bに送り込む空気量を制御するように構成する。この空気タンクに空気を供給する空気圧縮機は、空気タンクの圧力を見ながら、圧力が所定量以上低下したら空気を供給するという簡単な制御で済む。そのため、制御系の精度と信頼性が上がる。なお、空気圧縮機だけで空気送入の制御を行う場合には、空気圧縮機の圧力流量の作動特性と、負荷側が要求する少流量域とが旨く適合しないと、圧力流量制御が難しくなる場合がある。   The air region supply device that sends air to the air chamber 14b via the air receiving device 14d has an air tank on the upper side of the water, keeps the inside of the air tank at a sufficiently high pressure, and controls the amount of air sent to the air chamber 14b by operating the valve. Configure to control. The air compressor that supplies air to the air tank can be simply controlled by supplying air when the pressure drops by a predetermined amount or more while observing the pressure in the air tank. This increases the accuracy and reliability of the control system. When air supply control is performed using only the air compressor, it may be difficult to control the pressure flow unless the operating characteristics of the pressure flow of the air compressor and the low flow rate range required by the load are not well matched. There is.

この構成によれば、固定用着底部材14の水深に関わらず、空気室14bと外部の水中とが開口部14aにより連通しているので、同じ圧力となり、固定用着底部材14の空気室14bを形成する壁は内外の圧力が同じとなる。そのため、空気室14bの形状を維持するための構造的な強度が小さくて済むので、構造強度を低減化して固定用着底部材14を軽量化できる。   According to this configuration, the air chamber 14b communicates with the outside water through the opening 14a regardless of the water depth of the fixing bottom member 14, so that the pressure is the same, and the air chamber of the fixing bottom member 14 is the same. The wall forming 14b has the same internal and external pressure. Therefore, since the structural strength for maintaining the shape of the air chamber 14b is small, the structural strength can be reduced and the fixing bottom member 14 can be reduced in weight.

更に、空気室14bの内部の空気量で浮力を調整できるので、重量と浮力の差である水中重量を調整して、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材14を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、各空気室14bの空気量の調整により、固定用着底部材14の姿勢の制御も容易にできるようになる。従って、従来技術で移動時と着底作業時に用いていたクレーン船が不要となり、これらの作業の信頼性を向上できる。   Furthermore, since the buoyancy can be adjusted by the amount of air inside the air chamber 14b, the underwater weight, which is the difference between the weight and the buoyancy, is adjusted so that the fixed bottoming member 14 is made to have a substantially neutral buoyancy during the movement and the bottoming work. In addition to the adjustment, the posture of the fixing bottom member 14 can be easily controlled by adjusting the amount of air in each air chamber 14b. Accordingly, the crane ship used in the prior art during movement and landing work is not necessary, and the reliability of these work can be improved.

また、空気室14bを単一ではなく複数設けて、この空気室14bの空間にだけ空気を送り込み、ここで浮力を調整しながら、あるいは、常時小量づつ空気を開口部14aから漏出させながら、一定浮力を保つ。これによって空気圧縮機の容量が少なくなる上に、比較的粗い制御で済む。そのため、信頼性が向上する。   Also, by providing a plurality of air chambers 14b instead of a single one, air is fed only into the space of the air chamber 14b, and while adjusting the buoyancy here, or constantly leaking a small amount of air from the opening 14a, Maintain constant buoyancy. This reduces the capacity of the air compressor and requires relatively rough control. Therefore, reliability is improved.

また、更に、図4に示すように、この開口部14aの上下方向に関する位置は、開口部14aから空気が流出する状態で、固定用着底部材14の姿勢及び水中重量が予め設定された姿勢及び水中重量になるように設定する。それと共に、開口部14aの水平方向の位置は、固定用着底部材14の重心Pcから最も離れた位置に設ける。   Further, as shown in FIG. 4, the position of the opening 14a in the vertical direction is such that the posture of the fixing bottom member 14 and the weight in water are set in advance in a state where air flows out from the opening 14a. And set to the weight in water. At the same time, the horizontal position of the opening 14 a is provided at the position farthest from the center of gravity Pc of the fixing bottom member 14.

この構成によれば、開口部14aから空気が洩れ出るまで空気を供給し続けることにより、予め設定された姿勢及び水中重量になるので、非常に簡単な制御で予め設定された姿勢と水中重量にすることができる。なお、複数の開口部14aを、例えば、開閉バルブを設けた配管で形成して開閉可能にして設けて、使用する開口部14aを選択することにより、複数の予め設定された姿勢と水中重量に対応させてもよい。   According to this configuration, since the air is continuously supplied until the air leaks from the opening 14a, the posture and the underwater weight are set in advance. can do. The plurality of openings 14a are formed, for example, by a pipe provided with an opening / closing valve so as to be opened and closed, and by selecting the opening 14a to be used, a plurality of preset postures and underwater weight can be obtained. You may make it correspond.

特に、開口部14aを固定用着底部材14の重心Pcから最も離れた位置に設けることにより、固定用着底部材14が傾斜すると傾斜して上側になる空気室14bでは開口部14aが傾斜により上昇するので空気が開口部14aから漏出する状態となり、空気室14bの浮力が減少する。一方、傾斜して下側となる空気室14bでは開口部14aが傾斜により下降するので空気は洩れず、空気量が増加する状態となるので、傾斜を戻す方向の復原力が自動的に生じることになる。従って、特別な制御をすることなく固定用着底部材の姿勢を自動的に保つことができるようになる。   In particular, by providing the opening 14a at a position farthest from the center of gravity Pc of the fixing bottom member 14, the opening 14a inclines when the fixing bottom member 14 inclines when the fixing bottom member 14 inclines. Since it raises, it will be in the state which air leaks from the opening part 14a, and the buoyancy of the air chamber 14b reduces. On the other hand, in the air chamber 14b that is inclined downward, the opening 14a descends due to the inclination, so that air does not leak and the amount of air increases, so that the restoring force in the direction of returning the inclination is automatically generated. become. Accordingly, the posture of the fixing bottoming member can be automatically maintained without special control.

或いは、図5及び図6に示すように、固定用沈定部材14の空気室14bの水面位置を検出する水位検出センサ17を、この固定用着底部材14の重心Pcから最も離れた位置に設けて、この水面位置に基づいて空気室14bの内部の空気量を調整する。この図6の例では、空気室14b及び水が浸入する水室14eには底部材14fが無く、底面全体が開口部となり、下方が開放された構成となっている。   Alternatively, as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, the water level detection sensor 17 that detects the water surface position of the air chamber 14 b of the fixing settling member 14 is positioned farthest from the center of gravity Pc of the fixing bottoming member 14. It is provided and the amount of air inside the air chamber 14b is adjusted based on this water surface position. In the example of FIG. 6, the air chamber 14 b and the water chamber 14 e into which water enters do not have the bottom member 14 f, the entire bottom surface is an opening, and the lower portion is open.

この構成によれば、空気室14bの水面位置により、空気量の調整をするので、非常に簡単な制御で予め設定された姿勢と水中重量にすることができる。特に、水位検出センサ17を固定用着底部材14の重心Pcから最も離れた位置に設けることにより、固定用着底部材14が傾斜すると傾斜して上側になる空気室14bでは水位検出センサ17で検出される水位が傾斜により下降するので空気量を減少する制御となり、空気室14bの浮力が減少する。一方、傾斜して下側となる空気室14bでは水位検出センサ17で検出される水位が傾斜により上昇するので空気量を増加する制御となり、空気室14bの浮力が増加する。その結果、傾斜を戻す方向の復原力が生じることになる。従って、傾斜を戻すための特別の制御をすることなく、水位による調整のみで固定用着底部材14の姿勢を保つことができるようになる。従って、傾斜センサが不要となる。   According to this configuration, since the amount of air is adjusted according to the water surface position of the air chamber 14b, a preset posture and underwater weight can be obtained with very simple control. In particular, by providing the water level detection sensor 17 at a position farthest from the center of gravity Pc of the fixing bottom member 14, the water level detection sensor 17 in the air chamber 14b that is inclined upward when the fixing bottom member 14 is inclined. Since the detected water level is lowered due to the inclination, the air amount is controlled to be reduced, and the buoyancy of the air chamber 14b is reduced. On the other hand, in the air chamber 14b that is inclined downward, the water level detected by the water level detection sensor 17 rises due to the inclination, so that control is performed to increase the amount of air, and the buoyancy of the air chamber 14b increases. As a result, a restoring force in the direction of returning the inclination is generated. Therefore, the posture of the fixing bottoming member 14 can be maintained only by adjustment based on the water level without performing special control for returning the inclination. Therefore, an inclination sensor is not necessary.

なお、空気室14bに開口部14aと水位検出センサ17の両方を設けて、浮上しての移動時や固定用着底部材14を沈める着底作業時の状態に応じて使い分けてもよく、どちらか一方を補助的に用いてもよい。   It should be noted that both the opening 14a and the water level detection sensor 17 are provided in the air chamber 14b, and the air chamber 14b may be selectively used according to the state during the floating movement or the bottoming operation for sinking the fixing bottoming member 14. Either one may be used as an auxiliary.

更に、必ずしも緊張係留索13である必要はないが、固定用着底部材14を支持している支持索13の張力を検出し、この張力の検出値に基づいて、固定用着底部材14の空気室14bの内部の空気量を調整する。この支持索13には緊張係留索13を用いる場合には、その緊張係留索13の張力となるが、別の支持索を用いる場合には、その支持索の張力となるので、必ずしも緊張係留索13の張力である必要はない。この構成により、固定用着底部材14の移動時及び着底作業時における支持索13の張力が過大になるのを防止することができる。   Further, although not necessarily the tension mooring line 13, the tension of the support line 13 supporting the fixing bottom member 14 is detected, and the fixing bottom member 14 of the fixing bottom member 14 is detected based on the detected value of the tension. The amount of air inside the air chamber 14b is adjusted. When the tension mooring line 13 is used as the support line 13, the tension of the tension mooring line 13 is used. However, when another support line is used, the tension of the support line is used. It need not be 13 tensions. With this configuration, it is possible to prevent the tension of the support rope 13 during the movement of the fixing bottoming member 14 and the bottoming operation from being excessive.

また、固定用着底部材14の水深を検出し、この水深の検出値に基づいて、固定用着底部材14の空気室14bの内部の空気量を調整してもよい。   Further, the water depth of the fixing bottom member 14 may be detected, and the air amount inside the air chamber 14b of the fixing bottom member 14 may be adjusted based on the detected value of the water depth.

特に、固定用着底部材14の姿勢及び浮力調整に関して、能動的な制御を行う必要がある場合には、固定用沈定部材14の空気室14bの内部の空気量の調整を、固定用着底部材14を支持する各支持索13の張力、各支持索3の繰り出し長さ、各空気室14bの水面位置、各空気室14bの圧力の一つ又は幾つかの組み合わせを調整制御用の入力とし、各空気室14bの空気受給装置14dを通過するガス流量、又は、空気タンクから空気受給装置14dに接続する制御弁の開度を調整制御の出力とする制御とする。   In particular, when it is necessary to perform active control regarding the posture and buoyancy adjustment of the fixing bottom member 14, the adjustment of the amount of air inside the air chamber 14 b of the fixing settling member 14 is performed using the fixing landing member 14. One or several combinations of the tension of each support rope 13 supporting the bottom member 14, the feeding length of each support rope 3, the water surface position of each air chamber 14b, and the pressure of each air chamber 14b are input for adjustment control. It is assumed that the flow rate of gas passing through the air receiving device 14d of each air chamber 14b or the opening degree of the control valve connected to the air receiving device 14d from the air tank is set as the output of the adjustment control.

そして、この制御による方法と、開口部14aから空気が流出する状態で、固定用着底部材14の姿勢及び水中重量が予め設定された姿勢及び水中重量になるようにする構成とを組み合わせることによって、能動的に姿勢と浮力を制御する方法と受動的に姿勢と浮力を安定化させる方法とを併用することができ、高性能な浮力及び姿勢制御と、信頼性の高い浮力及び姿勢制御を両立できる。即ち、能動的な制御で高性能化を図り、万一、この能動的な制御が機能不全に陥った場合に、受動的な空気流量一定運転に切り替えることで、高信頼性を保証できる。   And by combining this control method and a configuration in which the posture and the underwater weight of the fixing bottoming member 14 are set to the preset posture and the underwater weight in a state where air flows out from the opening 14a. , Active attitude and buoyancy control methods and passive attitude and buoyancy stabilization methods can be used in combination, providing both high-performance buoyancy and attitude control and highly reliable buoyancy and attitude control it can. In other words, high performance can be achieved by active control, and in the event that this active control fails, high reliability can be guaranteed by switching to passive air flow constant operation.

次に、上記の固定用着底部材14を用いた緊張係留浮体システム1とその設置方法について説明する。この緊張係留浮体システム1は、上部構造物を支持するための浮体12と、この浮体12を係留するための緊張係留索13と、上記の固定用着底部材14を備えて構成される。   Next, the tension mooring floating body system 1 using the above fixing bottom member 14 and the installation method thereof will be described. The tension mooring floating body system 1 includes a floating body 12 for supporting an upper structure, a tension mooring line 13 for mooring the floating body 12, and the fixing landing member 14.

この構成によれば、固定用着底部材14を空気室14bの内部の空気量を調整しながら、水中重量を調整して、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材14を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、固定用着底部材14の姿勢の制御も容易にできるので、クレーン船が不要となり、これらの作業の信頼性を向上できる。   According to this configuration, while adjusting the amount of air inside the air chamber 14b, the fixing bottom member 14 is adjusted to be substantially neutral during movement and bottoming work. Not only can it be adjusted to buoyancy, but also the attitude of the fixing bottom member 14 can be easily controlled, so that no crane ship is required, and the reliability of these operations can be improved.

また、緊張係留浮体システム1の設置方法は、固定用着底部材14の浮上時又は水中時の姿勢と水中重量の調整を、各空気室14bの内部の空気量をそれぞれ調整しながら、固定用着底部材14の搬送及び着底を行う方法である。   Moreover, the installation method of the tension mooring floating body system 1 is for fixing while adjusting the posture and the underwater weight of the fixing bottom member 14 when floating or underwater, while adjusting the amount of air inside each air chamber 14b. In this method, the bottoming member 14 is transported and bottomed.

この方法によれば、固定用着底部材14を空気室14bの内部の空気量を調整することで、固定用着底部材14の浮上時又は水中時の水中重量を調整できるだけではなく、固定用着底部材14の姿勢の調整も容易にできるので、クレーン船が不要となり、これらの作業の信頼性を向上できる。   According to this method, by adjusting the amount of air inside the fixing bottom member 14 in the air chamber 14b, not only can the weight of the fixing bottom member 14 be lifted or underwater, but also the fixing bottom member 14 can be fixed. Since the attitude of the bottoming member 14 can be easily adjusted, a crane ship is unnecessary, and the reliability of these operations can be improved.

この設置方法について、図7〜図10を参照しながら、もう少し詳しく説明する。図7に示すように、ドックなどで、浮体12の下に固定用着底部材14を配置して、浮体12の上に設けたウインチ20に巻き取られた支持索21により浮体12に固定する。このとき、柔軟な配管で形成される空気受給装置14dを空気室14bに連結して設けておく。喫水を例えば10m以下とするため、空気室14bに空気を送り込み、固定用着底部材14が浮力を持ち、浮体12を持ち上げる状態とする。出渠時における固定用着底部材14の内部の空気容積は降下時の空気容積よりも大きくすることが好ましい。   This installation method will be described in a little more detail with reference to FIGS. As shown in FIG. 7, by using a dock or the like, a fixing bottom member 14 is disposed under the floating body 12, and is fixed to the floating body 12 by a support rope 21 wound around a winch 20 provided on the floating body 12. . At this time, an air receiving device 14d formed of flexible piping is connected to the air chamber 14b. In order to set the draft to 10 m or less, for example, air is sent into the air chamber 14b, and the fixing bottom member 14 has buoyancy and lifts the floating body 12. It is preferable that the air volume inside the fixing bottom member 14 at the time of tapping is larger than the air volume at the time of descent.

この状態でドックに水を入れて、図7に示すように、浮体12と固定用着底部材14と一体化した状態で引き出して、この状態で設置水域まで曳航する。この図7の状態では、浮体12のバラスト状態の調整と空気室14bの空気量の調整により、浮体を浮上状態にすると共に、傾斜に対する復原力を持たせる。   In this state, water is poured into the dock, and as shown in FIG. 7, the floating body 12 and the fixing bottom member 14 are pulled out in an integrated state, and in this state, towed to the installation water area. In the state of FIG. 7, the floating body is brought into a floating state by adjusting the ballast state of the floating body 12 and the air amount of the air chamber 14b, and has a restoring force against inclination.

設置水域に到達したら、図8に示すように、固定用着底部材14を支持索21で支持すると共に、空気室14bの空気量を調整して、固定用着底部材14の水中重量(=重量−浮力)を少し大きくして、降下作業に適した水中重量を維持しながら、固定用着底部材14を降下させる。このときには、固定用着底部材14の内部に設けたバラスト区画(外部と貫通、非耐圧)である水室14eに水を注入し、固定用着底部材14自体の水中重量を設定値(例えば、全体で約100t程度)にする。   When reaching the installation water area, as shown in FIG. 8, the fixing bottom member 14 is supported by the support rope 21 and the amount of air in the air chamber 14 b is adjusted so that the underwater weight of the fixing bottom member 14 (= (Weight-buoyancy) is slightly increased, and the fixing bottoming member 14 is lowered while maintaining an underwater weight suitable for the lowering work. At this time, water is injected into the water chamber 14e, which is a ballast section (external and penetrating, non-pressure resistant) provided inside the fixing bottom member 14, and the underwater weight of the fixing bottom member 14 itself is set (for example, , About 100t as a whole).

水中重量が過大であると、支持索21の張力が大きくなり、強度を維持するために太くしなければならない。また、浮体12や作業基地への負荷が大きくなり、支持索21を駆動するウインチ20の容量が大きくなるなど、相応の対策が必要となる。一方、水中重量が過少であると、降下作業中に固定用着底部材14の動揺が大きくなり、事故の危険性が増す。   If the weight in water is excessive, the tension of the support rope 21 increases, and it must be thickened to maintain the strength. In addition, appropriate measures are required, such as an increase in the load on the floating body 12 and the work base and an increase in the capacity of the winch 20 that drives the support rope 21. On the other hand, if the underwater weight is too small, the stationary bottom member 14 will be greatly shaken during the lowering work, and the risk of an accident will increase.

この降下時には、固定用着底部材14をウインチ20で支持索21を繰り出して降下させつつ、圧縮空気を送入する。図3及び図4のような開口部14aを持つ場合には、開口部14aから常時空気が漏出するように、空気量を供給する。圧縮空気は空気室14bの開口部14aから漏出して、空気容積及び水中重量の設定値が保たれる。   At the time of this descent, compressed air is fed while the fixing bottom member 14 is lowered by the winch 20 with the support line 21 being drawn out. In the case of having the opening 14a as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the amount of air is supplied so that air constantly leaks from the opening 14a. The compressed air leaks from the opening 14a of the air chamber 14b, and the set values of the air volume and the weight in water are maintained.

また、図5及び図6のように水位検出センサ17を設けている場合には、各空気室14bの空気量を水位検出センサ17により空気室14b内の水位の検出値に基づいて調整する。また、必要に応じて、支持索21の張力の検出値に基づいて空気量を調整する。これらの調整により、降下作業が容易となり、降下作業中の事故リスクの低減とコストダウンを図ることができる。   When the water level detection sensor 17 is provided as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, the air amount of each air chamber 14b is adjusted by the water level detection sensor 17 based on the detected value of the water level in the air chamber 14b. Further, the air amount is adjusted based on the detected value of the tension of the support rope 21 as necessary. These adjustments facilitate the descent work, and can reduce the risk of accidents during the descent work and reduce the cost.

この降下の場合には、固定用着底部材14の水深が深くなるほど、水圧が大きくなり、空気室14b内の空気は圧縮されるので、浮体12又は作業用台船上(図示しない)の空気圧縮機(図示しない)や圧縮空気タンク(図示しない)等から制御用のバルブを介して、空気受給装置14d経由で空気を十分に空気室14bに送る必要がある。いずれかの計測情報を元に調整する場合には、これらの計測情報から、圧縮機の作動やバルブの開閉を制御することにより、空気室14bの内部の空気量を好適な状態に調整・制御することができる。   In the case of this descent, as the water depth of the fixing bottom member 14 increases, the water pressure increases and the air in the air chamber 14b is compressed, so that the air compression on the floating body 12 or the work platform (not shown) is performed. It is necessary to sufficiently send air to the air chamber 14b from the machine (not shown), compressed air tank (not shown) or the like via the control valve via the air receiving device 14d. When adjusting based on any measurement information, the air amount in the air chamber 14b is adjusted and controlled to a suitable state by controlling the operation of the compressor and the opening / closing of the valve from the measurement information. can do.

この時には、固定用着底部材14の空気室14bの内部の空気圧は、固定用着底部材14の水面からの深度に応じた水圧とバランスする。従って、構造体としての固定用着底部材14の空気室14b等は、外側から大きな圧力を受けず、その部材の板厚を小さくすることができ、補強材も殆ど不要となり、コストを下げることができる。   At this time, the air pressure inside the air chamber 14 b of the fixing bottom member 14 is balanced with the water pressure corresponding to the depth from the water surface of the fixing bottom member 14. Therefore, the air chamber 14b and the like of the fixing bottom member 14 as a structure does not receive a large pressure from the outside, the thickness of the member can be reduced, a reinforcing material is almost unnecessary, and the cost is reduced. Can do.

図9に示すように、固定用着底部材14が着底したら、空気室14bの空気を抜いて、浮力を無くし、固定用着底部材14を設置水域の水底に固定用着底部材14の重量で固定する。この場合に、図5及び図6のように、空気室14bの底面が開口して形成されている場合には、固定用着底部材14が設置水域に着底した後に、空気室14bの内部の空気を抜くと共に、更に内部の水を抜くことにより、外部に加わる水圧に加えて内部の圧力を小さくできる。そのため、固定用着底部材14を水底2に食い込ませることができ、より固定を確実にできる。つまり、水底2に設置した固定用着底部材14を更に安定化し、係留対象の浮体12を固定する機能を向上することができる。   As shown in FIG. 9, when the fixing bottom member 14 is settled, the air in the air chamber 14b is removed to eliminate buoyancy, and the fixing bottom member 14 is placed on the bottom of the installation water area. Fix with weight. In this case, as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, when the bottom surface of the air chamber 14b is formed to be open, the inside of the air chamber 14b is fixed after the fixing bottom member 14 settles in the installation water area. The internal pressure can be reduced in addition to the water pressure applied to the outside by removing the internal air and further removing the internal water. Therefore, the fixing bottom member 14 can be made to bite into the water bottom 2, and the fixing can be ensured more reliably. That is, it is possible to further stabilize the fixing landing member 14 installed on the water bottom 2 and improve the function of fixing the floating body 12 to be moored.

固定用着底部材14が水底2に固定された後に、図10に示すように、ウインチ20又は別のウインチで緊張係留索13を巻き取ったり、浮体12のバラスト状態を変更したりして緊張係留索13に予め設定された張力を与えて、この張力を維持するように緊張係留索13の上部を上側係留部15cに固定する。   After the fixing bottom member 14 is fixed to the water bottom 2, as shown in FIG. 10, the tension mooring line 13 is wound up by the winch 20 or another winch, or the ballast state of the floating body 12 is changed to be in tension. A predetermined tension is applied to the mooring line 13, and the upper part of the tension mooring line 13 is fixed to the upper mooring part 15c so as to maintain this tension.

緊張係留索13の張力が予め設定された張力になったら、曳航及び係留作業に使用した設置用艤装品を撤去して、図11に示す設置状態にする。これにより、設置状態で、各緊張係留索13の張力が設置用張力になっている否かを確認し、なっていない場合には、浮体12のバラスト状態を調整したり、緊張係留索13の取り付け位置の調整により設置用張力とする。各緊張係留索13の張力が設置用張力となり、浮体12の傾斜も設置基準を満たせば、これで設置を完了する。   When the tension of the tension mooring line 13 reaches a preset tension, the installation equipment used for towing and mooring work is removed to obtain the installation state shown in FIG. Thereby, in the installed state, it is confirmed whether the tension of each tension mooring line 13 is the tension for installation. If not, the ballast state of the floating body 12 is adjusted or the tension mooring line 13 The installation tension is adjusted by adjusting the mounting position. If the tension of each tension mooring line 13 becomes the installation tension, and the inclination of the floating body 12 also satisfies the installation standard, the installation is completed.

上記の固定用着底部材14によれば、水深に関わらず、空気室14bと外部の水中とが開口部14aにより連通しているので、同じ圧力となり、空気室14bを形成する壁は内外の圧力が同じとなる。そのため、空気室14bの形状を維持するための構造的な強度が小さくて済むので、構造強度を低減化して固定用着底部材14を軽量化でき、コストダウンを図ることができる。   According to the fixing bottom member 14, the air chamber 14b and the outside water communicate with each other through the opening 14a regardless of the water depth. The pressure is the same. Therefore, since the structural strength for maintaining the shape of the air chamber 14b is small, the structural strength can be reduced, the weight of the fixing bottom member 14 can be reduced, and the cost can be reduced.

更に、空気室14bの内部の空気量で浮力を調整できるので、重量と浮力の差である水中重量を調整して、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材14を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、各空気室14bの空気量の調整により、固定用着底部材14の姿勢の制御も容易にできるようになる。従って、従来技術で移動時と着底作業時に用いていたクレーン船が不要となり、移動作業と着底作業の容易化と、高信頼化を図ることができる。   Furthermore, since the buoyancy can be adjusted by the amount of air inside the air chamber 14b, the underwater weight, which is the difference between the weight and the buoyancy, is adjusted so that the fixed bottoming member 14 is made to have a substantially neutral buoyancy during the movement and the bottoming work. In addition to the adjustment, the posture of the fixing bottom member 14 can be easily controlled by adjusting the amount of air in each air chamber 14b. Therefore, the crane ship used during the movement and the bottoming work in the prior art becomes unnecessary, and the moving work and the bottoming work can be facilitated and highly reliable.

また、上記の緊張係留浮体システム1及びその設置方法によれば、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材14を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、固定用着底部材14の姿勢の制御も容易にできるので、クレーン船が不要となり、移動作業と着底作業の容易化と、高信頼化を図ることができる。   Further, according to the above-described tension mooring floating body system 1 and its installation method, not only can the fixing bottom member 14 be adjusted to substantially neutral buoyancy during movement and bottoming work, but also the posture of the fixing bottom member 14 can be adjusted. Since the control can be easily performed, a crane ship is not necessary, and the moving work and the landing work can be facilitated and highly reliable.

本発明の固定用着底部材14は、構造強度を低減化できて軽量化でき、コストダウンを図ることができ、更に、重量と浮力の差である水中重量の調整だけではなく、姿勢の制御も容易にできて、従来技術で移動時と着底作業時に用いていたクレーン船を不要にすることができ、移動作業と着底作業の容易化と、高信頼化を図ることができるので、緊張係留のみならず、カテナリ係留なども含めて、浮体を係留する固定用着底部材として利用することができる。   The fixing bottom member 14 of the present invention can reduce the structural strength, reduce the weight, reduce the cost, and control not only the underwater weight, which is the difference between the weight and the buoyancy, but also the posture control. Can be made easily, the crane ship used in the prior art for moving and landing work can be eliminated, and the moving work and landing work can be facilitated and highly reliable. Not only tension mooring but also catenary mooring and the like can be used as a fixing bottoming member for mooring a floating body.

また、本発明の緊張係留浮体システム及びその設置方法は、移動時と着底作業時に固定用着底部材を略中性浮力に調整できるだけではなく、固定用着底部材の姿勢の制御も容易にできて、クレーン船が不要となり、移動作業と着底作業の容易化と、高信頼化を図ることができるので、風力発電装置、沖合い養殖システムの海上サービスステーション、海洋資源開発用プラットフォーム等の緊張係留浮体システム及びその設置方法としいて利用することができる。   In addition, the tension mooring floating body system and its installation method of the present invention can not only adjust the fixing bottom member to a substantially neutral buoyancy during movement and bottoming work, but also easily control the posture of the fixing bottom member. This eliminates the need for a crane ship, making it easier and more reliable for moving and bottoming work, so there are tensions in wind power generators, offshore aquaculture system marine service stations, marine resource development platforms, etc. It can be used as a mooring floating body system and its installation method.

1、1X、1Y 緊張係留浮体システム
2 水底
3 水面
10 風力発電装置
11 上部構造物
12 浮体
12a 中央柱状体(センターコラム)
12b 水没浮力体
12c 水面上連結体
12d 水面上係留部
13 緊張係留索(テンドン)
14 固定用着底部材
14a 開口部
14b 空気室(ガス室)
14c 下側係留部
14d 空気受給装置(ガス受給装置)
14e 水室
14f 底部材
15c 上側係留部
16 連結部材
17 水位検出センサ
20 ウインチ
21 支持索
1, 1X, 1Y Tension mooring floating body system 2 Water bottom 3 Water surface 10 Wind power generator 11 Upper structure 12 Floating body 12a Central columnar body (center column)
12b Submerged buoyancy body 12c Water surface connector 12d Water surface mooring part 13 Tension mooring line (Tendon)
14 Fixing bottom member 14a Opening 14b Air chamber (gas chamber)
14c Lower mooring part 14d Air receiving device (gas receiving device)
14e Water chamber 14f Bottom member 15c Upper mooring part 16 Connecting member 17 Water level detection sensor 20 Winch 21 Support rope

Claims (8)

上部構造物を支持するための浮体を係留するための係留索を水底に固定するための固定用着底部材において、該固定用着底部材に底面又は側面に水中に連通する開口部を設けたガス室を複数設けると共に、該ガス室にガス受給装置を備え、該固定用着底部材の浮上時又は水中時の姿勢と水中重量の調整を、前記各ガス室の内部のガス量をそれぞれ調整することで行うことを特徴とする固定用着底部材。   An anchoring member for anchoring a mooring line for mooring a floating body for supporting an upper structure to a water bottom, wherein the bottom member for fixing has an opening communicating with water on a bottom surface or a side surface. A plurality of gas chambers are provided, and the gas chamber is provided with a gas receiving device, which adjusts the posture of the fixed bottom member when floating or underwater and the weight of the water, and adjusts the amount of gas inside each gas chamber. A fixing bottoming member characterized in that the fixing bottoming member is provided. 前記開口部の位置を、該開口部からガスが流出する状態で、該固定用着底部材の姿勢及び水中重量が予め設定された姿勢及び水中重量になるように設定すると共に、前記開口部を該固定用着底部材の重心から最も離れた位置に設けることを特徴とする請求項1に記載の固定用着底部材。   The position of the opening is set so that the posture and underwater weight of the fixing bottoming member are set to a preset posture and underwater weight in a state where gas flows out from the opening, and the opening is 2. The fixing bottom member according to claim 1, wherein the fixing bottom member is provided at a position farthest from the center of gravity of the fixing bottom member. 該固定用沈定部材の前記ガス室の内部のガス量を、前記ガス室の水面位置に基づいて調整すると共に、該水面位置を検出する水位検出センサを、該固定用着底部材の重心から最も離れた位置に設けることを特徴とする請求項1又は2に記載の固定用着底部材。   The amount of gas inside the gas chamber of the fixing settling member is adjusted based on the water surface position of the gas chamber, and a water level detection sensor for detecting the water surface position is provided from the center of gravity of the fixing bottoming member. The fixing bottoming member according to claim 1, wherein the fixing bottoming member is provided at a position farthest away. 該固定用沈定部材の前記ガス室の内部のガス量を、該固定用着底部材を支持する支持索の張力に基づいて調整することを特徴とする請求項1、2又は3に記載の固定用着底部材。   The amount of gas inside the gas chamber of the fixing settling member is adjusted based on the tension of a support line that supports the fixing landing member. Fixed bottom member. 該固定用沈定部材の前記ガス室の内部のガス量の調整を、該固定用着底部材を支持する各支持索の張力、各支持索の繰り出し長さ、各前記ガス室の水面位置、各前記ガス室の圧力の一つ又は幾つかの組み合わせを調整制御用の入力とし、各前記ガス室の前記ガス受給装置を通過するガス流量、又は、高圧ガスタンクから前記ガス受給装置に接続する制御弁の開度を調整制御の出力とする制御を行うことを特徴とする請求項1、2、3又は4に記載の固定用着底部材。   Adjustment of the amount of gas inside the gas chamber of the settling member for fixing, tension of each support line supporting the bottoming member for fixing, feeding length of each support line, water surface position of each gas chamber, One or some combination of the pressures of each gas chamber is used as an input for adjustment control, and the gas flow rate that passes through the gas receiving device of each gas chamber or the control that connects from the high-pressure gas tank to the gas receiving device The fixing bottoming member according to claim 1, wherein control is performed so that the opening degree of the valve is an output of the adjustment control. 上部構造物を支持するための浮体と、この浮体を係留するための緊張係留索と、請求項1、2、3、4又は5に記載の固定用着底部材を備えて構成されることを特徴とする緊張係留浮体システム。   A floating body for supporting the superstructure, a tension mooring line for mooring the floating body, and a fixing bottoming member according to claim 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5. Tension mooring floating system featuring. 上部構造物を支持するための浮体と、この浮体を係留するための緊張係留索と、請求項1、2、3、4又は5に記載の固定用着底部材を備えて構成された緊張係留浮体システムにおいて、該固定用着底部材の浮上時又は水中時の姿勢と水中重量の調整を、前記各ガス室の内部のガス量をそれぞれ調整しながら、該固定用着底部材の搬送及び着底を行うことを特徴とする緊張係留浮体システムの設置方法。   A tension mooring comprising: a floating body for supporting an upper structure; a tension mooring line for mooring the floating body; and a fixing bottoming member according to claim 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5. In the floating system, adjustment of the posture and the underwater weight of the fixing bottom member when floating or underwater, and adjusting the amount of gas inside each gas chamber, respectively, Installation method of tension mooring floating body system characterized by performing bottom. 前記固定用着底部材の前記ガス室の底面を開口して形成し、前記固定用着底部材を設置水域に着底した後に、前記ガス室の内部のガスを抜くと共に、更に内部の水を抜くことにより、前記固定用着底部材を水底に固定することを特徴とする請求項7記載の緊張係留浮体システムの設置方法。   The fixing bottom member is formed by opening the bottom surface of the gas chamber, and after the fixing bottom member has settled in the installation water area, the gas inside the gas chamber is drained, and the internal water is further drained. The installation method of the tension mooring floating body system according to claim 7, wherein the fixing bottoming member is fixed to the water bottom by pulling out.
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