JP2009537870A - Method for manufacturing light guide with extraction structure and light guide manufactured by the method - Google Patents

Method for manufacturing light guide with extraction structure and light guide manufactured by the method Download PDF

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JP2009537870A
JP2009537870A JP2009511229A JP2009511229A JP2009537870A JP 2009537870 A JP2009537870 A JP 2009537870A JP 2009511229 A JP2009511229 A JP 2009511229A JP 2009511229 A JP2009511229 A JP 2009511229A JP 2009537870 A JP2009537870 A JP 2009537870A
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Prior art keywords
light extraction
method
array
light
composition
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ビー. ウィロビー,ジェイム
エー. エンダー,デイビッド
ジェイ. デボエ,ロバート
ディー. ホイル,チャールズ
エー. マーティラ,チャールズ
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スリーエム イノベイティブ プロパティズ カンパニー
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Priority to PCT/US2007/069095 priority patent/WO2007137102A2/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0033Means for improving the coupling-out of light from the light guide
    • G02B6/0035Means for improving the coupling-out of light from the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it
    • G02B6/004Scattering dots or dot-like elements, e.g. microbeads, scattering particles, nanoparticles
    • G02B6/0041Scattering dots or dot-like elements, e.g. microbeads, scattering particles, nanoparticles provided in the bulk of the light guide
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29DPRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE
    • B29D11/00Producing optical elements, e.g. lenses or prisms
    • B29D11/00663Production of light guides
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0065Manufacturing aspects; Material aspects

Abstract

  A method comprising imagewise exposing at least a portion of a photoreactive composition to light sufficient to simultaneously absorb at least two photons, whereby at least one at a location where the composition is exposed Induces acid or radical initiated chemical reactions. The imagewise exposure is performed in a pattern effective to define at least the surface of the plurality of light extraction structures. Each array of light extraction structures has at least one form factor, which may vary across the array. The at least one light extraction structure may have a truncated aspheric geometry.

Description

(Claiming priority)
This application claims priority from US Provisional Application No. 60 / 747,609 filed on May 18, 2006, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

(Field of Invention)
The present invention relates to a light extraction structure, a light extraction structure array, and / or a method for manufacturing a master mold of a light extraction structure array. In another aspect, the present invention relates to a light extraction structure manufactured by this method, and a light extraction. The present invention relates to a structure array and / or a master type of a light extraction structure array. The present invention also relates to a light guide comprising a light extraction structure array and an article comprising the light guide.

  Various devices have been proposed for lighting electronic displays and keypads. These devices include rear lighting panels, front lighting panels, concentrators, reflectors, structured surface films, and other optical devices for redirecting, collimating, distributing, or otherwise manipulating light Is mentioned. Passive optical components (eg, lenses, prisms, mirrors, and light extraction structures) are known and used in optical systems to collect, distribute, or modify optical radiation.

  Efficient use of light is particularly important in battery powered electronic displays and keypads such as those used in cell phones, personal digital assistants, and laptop computers. By improving the illumination efficiency, it is possible to extend the useful life of the battery and / or reduce the size of the battery. In order to improve illumination efficiency and increase the apparent brightness of a backlit liquid crystal display, prismatic films are generally used. Keypads typically use multiple light sources (eg, light emitting diodes (LEDs)) for this purpose.

  Lighting quality is also an important consideration in electronic displays and keypads. One measure of illumination quality in a backlit display or keypad includes brightness uniformity. Since the display (and, to a lesser extent, the keypad) is generally closely watched or used for a long time, relatively small brightness differences may be easily recognized. Such models with varying brightness may annoy or frustrate users. A light scattering element (eg, a diffuser) may be used to mitigate or hide the non-uniformity. However, such scattering elements can adversely affect the overall brightness of the display or keypad.

  To achieve brightness uniformity, multiple light sources can be used as another option, but this method has the disadvantage of shortening the battery life. Accordingly, there is some interest in developing various means for efficiently distributing light from a limited number of light sources, including the development of light guides with multiple light extraction structures. ing. Such light extraction structures and light extraction structure arrays are manufactured with many different technologies, but each technology has different advantages and disadvantages.

  Accordingly, the inventors have recognized that there is a need for a method that can be used to produce a light guide that can meet the quality, cost and / or performance requirements of a variety of different applications. In particular, the inventors have disclosed light extraction structures and light extraction structure arrays that can be used to provide efficient light guides that enable brightness uniformity and long battery life (or battery miniaturization). Recognizes the need for a method that can produce

  Briefly, in one aspect, the present invention provides a method of manufacturing a light extraction structure array or a master mold of a light extraction structure array. The method includes providing a photoreactive composition, the photoreactive composition comprising: (a) at least one reactive species capable of performing an acid or radical initiated chemical reaction; and (b) at least One multiphoton photoinitiator system. Preferably, the reactive species is a curable species (more preferably a curable species selected from the group consisting of monomers, oligomers and reactive polymers).

  At least a portion of the composition can be imagewise exposed to sufficient light to simultaneously absorb at least two photons, thereby inducing at least one acid or radical-initiated chemical reaction, causing the composition to light. Exposed.

  The imaging exposure can be performed in a pattern effective to define at least a surface of the array of light extraction structures, each of the light extraction structures having at least one form factor, the array of light extraction structures The distribution may be uniform or non-uniform. In general, the distribution may be non-uniform and / or the shape factor of at least one light extraction structure may be different from the shape factor of another at least one light extraction structure.

  The composition can optionally be developed by removing the resulting exposed or non-exposed portions of the composition. Optionally, after at least a portion of the composition is imagewise exposed, at least a portion of the composition is not exposed to sufficient light to react at least a portion of any of the remaining unreacted photoreactive composition. Exposure can be performed in an imaging manner.

  Preferably, the distribution of the array is non-uniform and at least one form factor (preferably height) is at least partially (preferably depending on the arrangement within the array) over the entire array of light extraction structures. Are regularly different). The height (or another dimension) and / or geometric shape of at least one light extraction structure is different from the height and / or geometric shape of at least one other light extraction structure in the array. It can be said that the form factors are different. If the two light extraction structures in the array cannot be scaled to be superposable, it can be said that the geometric shapes are different. Preferably, the surface density of the array of light extraction structures varies across the array and / or at least one form factor varies across the array (more preferably, the surface density and at least one of the Both form factors are different across the array, more preferably both areal density and height are different across the array, and most preferably the height of the light extraction structure is across the array. The surface density increases as it increases).

  It is known that the multi-photon light manufacturing method is sufficiently applicable to the manufacture of light extraction structure arrays having different optical properties (eg, arrays that exhibit spatial variations in light extraction). Surprisingly, the method of the present invention can provide flexibility and control in producing a variety of individual light extraction structure properties in a single array, and preferably achieves a low level of average surface roughness. While maintaining industry acceptable manufacturing speeds or “capacity”. Such flexibility and control can also facilitate the production of arrays with different fill factors and / or different distribution uniformity.

  The methods of the present invention involve the use of relatively low cost materials (eg, polymers) and can be integrated into manufacturing methods used in the manufacture of optoelectronic devices relatively easily. The method also allows for economical replication (e.g., by manufacturing a master mold). Furthermore, the method is flexible for light extraction structures with different geometric shapes and heights (ie, different form factors) and arrays with different symmetries (or asymmetries) and fill factors. And each controllable manufacturable so that each such type of light extraction structure and light extraction structure array has separate controlled optical properties.

  Thus, at least some embodiments of the method of the present invention can meet the quality, cost, and / or performance requirements of a variety of different applications, and more particularly, brightness uniformity and long battery life (or It meets the above-mentioned demand for a method of manufacturing a light extraction structure array, which can provide an efficient light guide that allows for battery miniaturization. The light extraction structure array produced by the method of the present invention can be suitable for use in many optical applications, such as, for example, a backlit display and a backlit keypad.

In another aspect, the present invention also provides:
A light extraction structure array comprising a plurality of light extraction structures having a non-uniform distribution, wherein each of the light extraction structures has a main axis and at least one form factor, wherein the plurality of light extraction structures A light extraction structure array in which changes in areal density, at least one form factor, and principal axis throughout
A light extraction structure array comprising a plurality of light extraction structures having a non-uniform distribution, wherein each of the light extraction structures has a geometric shape, and the geometry of the at least one light extraction structure A light extraction structure array having a truncated aspherical shape;
A light guide comprising an array; and an optical device comprising a light guide (eg, a backlit display or a backlit keypad).

Definition For use in this patent application:
“Average surface roughness” means the average deviation of the actual surface properties of the light extraction structure and its average surface properties.

  “Curing” means causing polymerization and / or crosslinking.

“Electron excited state” means an electronic state having higher energy than the electronic ground state of the molecule. The electronically excited state can be achieved by absorption of electromagnetic radiation and has a lifetime exceeding 10-13 seconds.

  “Exposure system” means an optical system with a light source added.

  “Fill factor” (with respect to the light extraction structure array) means the portion or percentage of the area of the array that modifies the incident actinic radiation.

  “Light extraction structure” means a microstructure that has the ability to direct or distribute light (having a length, width, and height of at least about 1 micrometer) (eg, distribute light within a light guide). Or a convex or concave microstructure that guides light from the light guide.

  "Master type" means an original manufactured article that can be used to manufacture a replication tool.

  “Multiphoton absorption” means that two or more photons are absorbed simultaneously so as to reach a reactive electronically excited state that cannot be energetically achieved by absorbing one photon of the same energy.

  “Optical system” means a system for controlling light. The optical system includes at least one element selected from a refractive optical element such as a lens, a reflective optical element such as a mirror, and a diffractive optical element such as a diffraction grating. Optical elements may include diffusers, waveguides, and other elements known in the optical field.

  A “photochemically effective amount” (of a photoinitiator system component) is known by changes in selected exposure conditions (eg, density, viscosity, color, pH, refractive index, or other physicochemical properties). And so on) means an amount sufficient to allow the reactive species to react at least partially.

  A “photosensitizer” absorbs light of energy lower than that required for activation of the photoinitiator and interacts with the photoinitiator to produce a photoinitiating species, thereby It means a molecule that reduces the energy required for conversion.

  “Form factor” (with respect to the light extraction structure) means the size (length, width, or height) or geometric shape of the structure.

“Simultaneous” means two events that occur within a time period of 10 −14 seconds or less.

  “Sufficient light” means light of an appropriate wavelength with sufficient intensity to cause multiphoton absorption.

  “Three-dimensional light pattern” means an optical image in which the light energy distribution exists as a volume or on multiple planes rather than a single plane.

Reactive species Suitable reactive species for use in the photoreactive composition include both curable and non-curable species. Curable species are generally preferred, and curable species include, for example, radical polymerization, including addition polymerizable monomers and oligomers and addition crosslinkable polymers (eg, specific vinyl compounds such as acrylates, methacrylates, and styrene). Or cationically polymerizable monomers and oligomers and cationically crosslinkable polymers (this species is most commonly acid-initiated, and For example, epoxy, vinyl ether, cyanate ester, and the like), and the like, and mixtures thereof.

  Suitable ethylenically unsaturated species are described, for example, by Palazzotto et al. In US Pat. No. 5,545,676, column 1, line 65 to column 2, line 26, monoacrylate, Diacrylates, polyacrylates and methacrylates (e.g. methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, isopropyl methacrylate, n-hexyl acrylate, stearyl acrylate, allyl acrylate, glycerol diacrylate, glycerol triacrylate, ethylene glycol diacrylate, diethylene glycol diacrylate, Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,3-propanediol diacrylate, 1,3-propanediol dimethacrylate, trimethylo Rutriacrylate, 1,2,4-butanetriol trimethacrylate, 1,4-cyclohexanediol diacrylate, pentaerythritol triacrylate, pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, pentaerythritol tetramethacrylate, sorbitol hexaacrylate, bis [1- (2-acrylic Oxy)]-p-ethoxyphenyldimethylmethane, bis [1- (3-acryloxy-2-hydroxy)]-p-propoxyphenyldimethylmethane, trishydroxyethyl-isocyanurate trimethacrylate, having a molecular weight of about 200-500. Acrylic monomers such as polyethylene glycol bisacrylates and bismethacrylates, those of US Pat. No. 4,652,274, and US Pat. No. 4,642,12. Copolymerizable mixtures with acrylated oligomers such as those of No.), unsaturated acid amides (eg methylene bisacrylate, methylene bismethacrylamide, 1,6-hexamethylenebisacrylamide, diethylenetriamine, trisacrylamide and beta methacrylaminoethyl) Methacrylate), vinyl compounds (eg, styrene, diallyl phthalate, divinyl succinate, divinyl adipate, and divinyl phthalate), the like, and mixtures thereof. Suitable reactive polymers include polymers having pendant acrylate (methacrylate) groups, for example, having from 1 to about 50 acrylic (methacrylate) groups per polymer chain. Examples of such polymers include aromatic acid (methacrylate) acrylates such as Sarbox ™ resins (eg, Sarbox ™ 400, 401, 402, 404, and 405) available from Sartomer. A half-ester resin is mentioned. Other useful reactive polymers that are curable by free radical chemistry include radically polymerizable such as those described in US Pat. No. 5,235,015 (Ali et al.) And hydrocarbyl backbones. And polymers having pendant peptide groups that are functionalized. Mixtures of two or more monomers, oligomers, and / or reactive polymers can be used as desired. Preferred ethylenically unsaturated species include acrylates, aromatic acid (methacrylate) acrylate half-ester resins, and polymers having hydrocarbyl backbones and pendant peptide groups that are functionalized with radical polymerization. Can be mentioned.

  Suitable cationic reactive species are described, for example, by Oxman et al. In US Pat. Nos. 5,998,495 and 6,025,406, and these species include epoxy resins. Yes. Such materials are generally referred to as epoxides, including low molecular weight epoxy compounds and high molecular weight epoxides, which can be aliphatic, alicyclic, aromatic, or heterocyclic. These materials generally have, on average, at least 1 (preferably at least about 1.5, more preferably at least about 2) polymerizable epoxy groups per molecule. Polymer epoxides include linear polymers having terminal epoxy groups (eg, diglycidyl ether of polyoxyalkylene glycol), polymers having backbone oxirane units (eg, polybutadiene polyepoxide), polymers having pendant epoxy groups (eg, glycidyl methacrylate). Polymer or copolymer). The epoxide can be a pure compound or a mixture of compounds containing one, two, or more epoxy groups per molecule. These epoxy-containing materials can vary greatly in the type of backbone and substituents. For example, the main chain can be of any type and the substituents on the main chain can be any group that does not substantially interfere with cationic curing at room temperature. Illustrative examples of acceptable substituents include halogens, ester groups, ethers, sulfonate groups, siloxane groups, nitro groups, phosphate groups, and the like. The molecular weight of the epoxy-containing material can vary from about 58 to about 100,000 or more.

  Other useful epoxy-containing materials include glycidyl ether monomers of the following formula:

  In the above formula, R 'is alkyl or aryl, and n is an integer of 1 to 8. Illustrative examples are glycidyl ethers of polyhydric phenols (eg, 2,2-bis- (2,3-epoxypropoxyphenol)-, obtained by reacting polyhydric phenols with excess chlorohydrin such as epichlorohydrin. Glycidyl ether of propane). Further examples of this type of epoxide are given in US Pat. No. 3,018,262, also “Handbook of Epoxy Resins”, by Lee and Neville, McGraw-Hill Book Co . , New York (1967).

  A number of commercially available epoxy monomers or resins can be used. Easily available epoxides include octadecylene oxide, epichlorohydrin, styrene oxide, vinylcyclohexene oxide, glycol, glycidyl methacrylate, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (eg, hexion specialty from Columbus, Ohio). Of "EPON 815C", "EPON 813", "EPON 828", "EPON 1004F" and "EPON 1001F") from Hexion Specialty Chemicals, Inc., and bisphenol F Diglycidyl ethers (eg CARD Specialty Chemicals Holding Company, Basel, Switzerland) under the trademark designation “ALALDITE GY281” Such as, but not limited to, “EPON 862” trademark designation from Hexion Specialty Chemicals, Inc. of Columbus, Ohio. Other aromatic epoxy resins include SU-8 resin available from MicroChem Corp. of Newton, Massachusetts.

  Other exemplary epoxy monomers include vinylcyclohexene dioxide (available from SPI Supplies, West Chester, PA), 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene dioxide diepoxide (Wisconsin). Available from Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee), 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexene (eg, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan). Available under the trade designation “CYRACURE UVR-6110”), 3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxy-6-methyl-cyclohexane carbonate, 2- (3,4- Epoxy cyclohexyl −5,5-spiro-3,4-epoxy) cyclohexane-metadioxane, bis (3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl) adipate (eg, “CYRACURE UVR-6128” from Dow Chemical Co.) Bis (3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexylmethyl) adipate, 3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate, and dipentene dioxide.

  Still other exemplary epoxy resins include epoxidized polybutadiene (eg, available under the trade designation “POLY BD605E” from Sartomer Co., Inc., Exton, Pa.), Epoxy silane ( For example, 3,4-epoxycyclohexylethyltrimethoxysilane and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane, commercially available from Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, Wis., Flame retardant Epoxy monomers (e.g., brominated bisphenol type epoxy monomers available from Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan, available under the trade designation "DER-542"), 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl -Tel (for example, available from Ciba Specialty Chemicals under the trade designation “ALALDITE RD-2”), brominated bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin epoxy monomer (for example, Hexion Specialty Chemicals ( Available from Hexion Specialty Chemicals, Inc.) under the trade designation "EPONEX 1510"), polyglycidyl ethers of phenol-formaldehyde novolac (e.g. the trade designation "DEN-431" from Dow Chemical Co.) Available as “DEN-438”) and the trademark designations “VIKOLOX” and “VIKOFLEX” from Atofina Chemicals (Philadelphia, Pa.), And epoxidized vegetable oils such as epoxidized linseed oil and soybean oil.

Further suitable epoxy resins include alkyl glycidyl ethers commercially available from Hexion Specialty Chemicals, Inc. (Columbus, Ohio) under the trademark designation “HELOXY”. Exemplary monomers include “HELOXY MODFIER 7” (C 8 -C 10 alkyl glycidyl ether), “HELOXY MODFIER 8” (C 12 -C 14 alkyl glycidyl ether), “HELOXY MODFIER 61” (butyl glycidyl ether), “HELOXY MODIFER 62” (cresyl glycidyl ether), “HELOXY MODFIER 65” (pt-butylphenylglycidyl ether), “HELLOXY MODFIER 67” (diglycidyl ether of 1,4-butanediol), “HELOXY 68” (Diglycidyl ether of neopentyl glycol), “HELOXY MODIFER 107” (diglycidyl ether of cyclohexanedimethanol), “HELOXY MODF IER 44 "(trimethylol ethane triglycidyl ether)," HELLOXY MODFIER 48 "(trimethylol propane triglycidyl ether)," HELLOXY MODFIER 84 "(polyglycidyl ether of aliphatic polyols), and" HELOXY MODFIER 32 "(poly Glycol diepoxide).

  Other useful epoxy resins include copolymers of glycidol acrylate ethers (such as glycidyl acrylate and glycidyl methacrylate) with one or more copolymerizable vinyl compounds. Examples of such copolymers are 1: 1 styrene-glycidyl methacrylate and 1: 1 methyl methacrylate-glycidyl acrylate. Other useful epoxy resins are well known and are epichlorohydrins, alkylene oxides (eg, propylene oxide), styrene oxide, alkenyl oxides (eg, butadiene oxide) and glycidyl esters (eg, ethyl glycidyl). Includes epoxides such as glycidate.

  Useful epoxy functional polymers include epoxies such as those described in US Pat. No. 4,279,717 (Eckberg et al.), Commercially available from General Electric Company. Examples include functional silicones. These are those in which 1 mol% to 20 mol% of silicon atoms are epoxyalkyl groups (preferably epoxycyclohexylethyl as described in US Pat. No. 5,753,346 (Leir et al.)). Substituted polydimethylsiloxane.

  It is also possible to use blends of various epoxy-containing materials. Such formulations have two or more weight average molecular weight distributions of epoxy-containing compounds (such as low molecular weight (less than 200), medium molecular weight (about 200 to 1000), and high molecular weight (greater than about 1000)). Also good. Alternatively or additionally, the epoxy resin can include a blend of epoxy-containing materials having different chemical properties (such as aliphatic and aromatic) or functionalities (such as polar and nonpolar). Other cationic reactive polymers (such as vinyl ethers and the like) can be further blended if desired.

  Preferred epoxies include aromatic glycidyl epoxies (eg, EPON resin available from Hexion Specialty Chemicals, Inc., and MicroChem Corp. (Newton, Mass.)). XP KMPR1050 strippable SU-8 (SU-8 resins such as XP KMPR 1050 strippable SU-8)), and mixtures thereof. More preferred are SU-8 resins and mixtures thereof.

  Suitable cationic reactive species also include vinyl ether monomers, oligomers, and reactive polymers (eg, methyl vinyl ether, ethyl vinyl ether, t-butyl vinyl ether, isobutyl vinyl ether, triethylene glycol divinyl ether (Wayne, NJ) RAPI-CURE DVE-3), trimethylolpropane trivinyl ether, available from International Specialty Products, and VECTOMER by Morflex, Inc., Greensboro, NC Vinyl ether resins (eg, VECTOMER 1312, VECTOMER 4010, VECTOMER 4051, and VECTOMER 4 060, and their equivalents available from other manufacturers), and mixtures thereof, and blends (in any ratio) of one or more vinyl ethers and / or one or more epoxy resins. Alternatively, polyhydroxy functional materials (such as those described in US Pat. No. 5,856,373 (Kaisaki et al.)) Can be used with epoxy- and / or vinyl ether functionalities. It can also be used with materials.

  Non-curable chemical species include, for example, reactive polymers that can increase solubility during acid or radical induced reactions. Such reactive polymers include, for example, water insoluble polymers (eg, poly (4-tert-butoxycarbonyloxystyrene)) having ester groups that can be converted to soluble acid groups by photogenerated acid. It is done. Non-curable chemical species include R.I. D. R. D. Allen, G. M.M. Warm (G. M. Wallraff), W. D. H. D. Hinsberg, and L. L. L. L. Simpson, “High Performance Acrylic Polymers for Chemically Amplified Photoresist Applications”, J. Am. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 9, 3357 (1991). The concept of chemically amplified photoresist is now widely used, especially for microchip manufacturing with 0.5 submicron (or even 0.2 submicron) features. In such photoresist systems, catalytic species (typically hydrogen ions) can be generated by irradiation, which induces an avalanche of chemical reaction. This avalanche occurs when a hydrogen ion initiates a reaction that produces more hydrogen ions or other acidic species, thereby amplifying the reaction rate. Examples of typical acid-catalyzed chemically amplified photoresist systems include deprotection (eg, the t-butoxycarbonyloxystyrene resist described in US Pat. No. 4,491,628, tetrahydropyran ( THP) methacrylate based materials, THP phenolic materials such as those described in US Pat. No. 3,779,778, R. D Allen et al., Proc. SPIE 2438, 474 (1995). T-butyl methacrylate based materials such as those described, and the like), depolymerization (eg, polyphthalaldehyde based materials), and rearrangements (eg, materials based on pinacol rearrangement).

  If desired, a mixture of different types of reactive species may be utilized in the photoreactive composition. For example, mixtures of radical and cation reactive species are also useful.

Photoinitiator system This photoinitiator system is a multi-photon photoinitiator system, which can limit or limit the polymerization action to the focal region of the focused beam of light by using such a system. This is because it becomes possible. Such a system is preferably a two or three component comprising at least one multiphoton photosensitizer, at least one photoinitiator (or electron acceptor), and optionally at least one electron donor. It is a system. Such multi-component systems can result in increased sensitivity and the photoreaction can be accomplished in a shorter period of time, thereby resulting in movement of one or more components of the sample and / or exposure system. The potential for problems is reduced.

  Preferably, the multiphoton photoinitiator system is capable of simultaneously absorbing a photochemically effective amount of (a) at least two photons and is optionally but preferably larger than fluorescein At least one multiphoton photosensitizer having a two-photon absorption cross section and (b) a multiphoton photosensitizer are different and can donate electrons to the photosensitizer in an electronically excited state. And optionally photosensitizing by accepting electrons from at least one electron donor compound and (c) an electronically excited photosensitizer, resulting in at least one radical and And / or at least one photoinitiator that forms an acid.

  Alternatively, the multiphoton photoinitiator system can be a one-component system that includes at least one photoinitiator. Photoinitiators useful as a one-component multiphoton photoinitiator system include acylphosphine oxides (such as those sold under the trade name Irgacure ™ 819 by Ciba) and BASF Corporation. 2,4,6 trimethylbenzoylethoxyphenyl phosphine oxide sold under the trade name Lucirin ™ TPO-L) and stilbene derivatives having a covalently bound sulfonium salt moiety (eg W. Zhou) Et al., As described in Science 296, 1106 (2002)). Other conventional ultraviolet (UV) photoinitiators such as benzyl ketal can also be utilized, but their multiphoton photoinitiation sensitivity is generally relatively low.

  Multiphoton photosensitizers, electron donors, and photoinitiators (or electron acceptors) useful in two-component and three-component multiphoton photoinitiator systems are described below.

(1) Multiphoton photosensitizer A multiphoton photosensitizer suitable for use in a multiphoton photoinitiator system of a photoreaction composition can simultaneously absorb at least two photons when exposed to sufficient light. Is. Preferably, the photosensitizer is larger than fluorescein (ie, larger than 3 ′, 6′-dihydroxyspiro [isobenzofuran-1 (3H), 9 ′-[9H] xanthen] 3-one) It has an absorption cross section. In general, the preferred cross section is C.I. Xu and W. W. According to the web (WW Webb) Opt. Soc. Am. B, 13, 481 (1996) (cited by Marder and Perry in PCT International Publication No. WO 98/21521, page 85, columns 18-22). About 50 × 10 −50 cm 4 seconds / photon measured can be exceeded.

More preferably, the two-photon absorption cross section of the photosensitizer is greater than about 1.5 times that of fluorescein (or alternatively, greater than about 75 × 10 −50 cm 4 seconds / photon as measured by the above method); Even more preferably more than about 2 times fluorescein (or alternatively more than about 100 × 10 −50 cm 4 sec / photon); most preferably more than about 3 times fluorescein (or alternatively about 200 × 10 −50 cm 4 seconds / photon).

  Preferably, the photosensitizer has solubility in the reactive species (if the reactive species is a liquid), or any binder that is included with the reactive species and in the composition (described below). )). Most preferably, the photosensitizer is also used to photosensitize 2-methyl-4,6-bis (trichloromethyl) -s-triazine using the procedure described in US Pat. No. 3,729,313. Sensitization can also be performed under continuous irradiation in a wavelength range (one-photon absorption condition) overlapping with the one-photon absorption spectrum of the sensitizer.

  Preferably, the photosensitizer can also be selected based in part on storage considerations. Thus, the choice of a particular photosensitizer can depend to some extent on the particular reactive species utilized (and further on the choice of electron donor composition and / or photoinitiator).

  Particularly preferred multiphoton photosensitizers include rhodamine B (ie, N- [9- (2-carboxyphenyl) -6- (diethylamino) -3H-xanthen-3-ylidene] -N-ethylethaneaminium chloride). Or hexafluoroantimonate) and large multiphoton absorption such as, for example, four types of photosensitizers described in International Patent Publications WO 98/21521 and WO 99/53242 by Marder and Perry et al. The thing which exhibits a cross-sectional area is mentioned. The four types can be described as follows: (a) a molecule in which two donors are linked to a conjugated π (pi) electron bridge, (b) two donors having one or more A molecule linked to a conjugated π (pi) -electron bridge substituted with an electron accepting group, (c) a molecule in which two acceptors are linked to a conjugated π (pi) -electron bridge, and (d) A molecule in which two acceptors are linked to a conjugated π (pi) -electron bridge substituted with one or more electron donating groups (where a “bridge” connects two or more chemical groups “Donor” means an atom or group of atoms having a low ionization potential that can be bound to a conjugated π (pi) -electron bridge, and “acceptor” is high Atom or atomic group with electron affinity and conjugated π (pi) —means something that can be coupled to an electronic bridge).

  The above four types of photosensitizers are prepared by reacting an aldehyde with an ylide under standard Wittig conditions or by using the McMurry reaction detailed in International Patent Publication WO 98/21521. Can do.

  Other compounds have been described by Reinhardt et al. As having large multiphoton absorption cross sections (eg, US Pat. Nos. 6,100,405, 5,859,251, and No. 5,770,737) and their cross-sectional areas are determined by methods other than those described above.

  Preferred photosensitizers include the following compounds (and mixtures thereof):

(2) Electron donor compounds Electron donor compounds useful in the multiphoton photoinitiator system of the photoreactive composition are those compounds that can donate electrons to the electronically excited state of the photosensitizer (photosensitizers themselves). Except). Such compounds can optionally be used to increase the multiphoton photosensitivity of the photoinitiator system and thereby reduce the exposure required to effect the photoreaction of the photoreactive composition. . The electron donor compound preferably has an oxidation potential that is greater than zero and less than or equal to the oxidation potential of p-dimethoxybenzene. Preferably, the oxidation potential is between about 0.3 volts and 1 volt relative to a standard saturated calomel electrode (“SCEE”).

  The electron donor compound also preferably has solubility in the reactive species, and some (as described above) is selected based on storability considerations. Suitable donors are generally capable of increasing the cure rate or image density of the photoreactive composition when exposed to light of the desired wavelength.

Those skilled in the art will appreciate that when dealing with cationically reactive species, the electron donor compound can adversely affect the cationic reaction if its basicity is substantial. (See, for example, the discussion in column 7, line 62 to column 8, line 49 of US Pat. No. 6,025,406 (Oxman et al.).)
In general, electron donor compounds suitable for use with certain photosensitizers and photoinitiators are described in (eg, US Pat. No. 4,859,572 (Farid et al.)). Selection can be made by comparing the oxidation potential and reduction potential of the three components. Such potentials are determined experimentally (eg, by RJ Cox, Chapter 15 of “Photographic Sensitivity”, Academic Press (1973). ) And N. L. Supervised by Weinburg, Technical Part II of Organic Electrosynthesis, Chemistry Technology, Volume 5 (1975), and C.I. K. Mann and K.M. K. It can be obtained from an electrochemical reaction (1970) in a Barnes non-aqueous system. These potentials reflect a relative energy relationship and can be used as a guide for selecting an electron donor compound.

Suitable electron donor compounds include, for example, D.I. F. According to Eaton, “Advances in Photochemistry”, B.C. Edited by Voman et al., Volume 13 (pages 427-488), John Wiley and Sons, New York (1986), Oxman et al. In US Pat. No. 6,025,406 Columns 42-61, and those described by Palazzotto et al. In US Pat. No. 5,545,676, columns 4-14 to 5-18. Such electron donor compounds include amines (triethanolamine, hydrazine, 1,4-diazobicyclo [2.2.2] octane, triphenylamine (and its analogs of triphenylphosphine and triphenylarsine). , Including amino aldehydes and amino silanes), amides (including phosphoramides), ethers (including thioethers), ureas (including thioureas), sulfinic acids and their salts, hexacyanoiron II salts, ascorbic acids and their salts, Dithiocarbamic acid and its salt, xanthate, salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, salt of (alkyl) n (aryl) m borate (n + m = 4) (preferably tetraalkylammonium salt), SnR 4 compound (where each R Individually represents an alkyl group, an aralkyl (especially benzyl) group, Various organometallic compounds such as n-C 3 H 7 Sn (CH 3 ) 3 , (allyl) Sn (CH 3 ) 3 , and (benzyl) Sn ( compounds such as n-C 3 H 7) 3 ), ferrocene, others like, and mixtures thereof. The electron donor compound can be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more non-interfering substituents. Particularly preferred electron donor compounds are electron donor atoms (such as nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, or sulfur atoms) and removal bonded to a carbon or silicon atom that is alpha to the electron donor atom. Containing possible hydrogen atoms.

  Preferred amine electron donor compounds include alkylamines, arylamines, alkarylamines, aralkylamines (eg, methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, butylamine, triethanolamine, amylamine, hexylamine, 2,4-dimethylaniline, 2 , 3-dimethylaniline, o-toluidine, m-toluidine, p-toluidine, benzylamine, aminopyridine, N, N'-dimethylethylenediamine, N, N'-diethylethylenediamine, N, N'-dibenzylethylenediamine, N , N′-diethyl-1,3-propanediamine, N, N′-diethyl-2-butene-1,4-diamine, N, N′-dimethyl-1,6-hexanediamine, piperazine, 4,4 ′ -Trimethylenedipiperidine, 4,4'-E Range piperidine, p-N, N-dimethyl-aminophenetanol and p-N-dimethylaminobenzonitrile), aminoaldehydes (eg, p-N, N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, p-N, N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde, 9 -Julolidinecarboxaldehyde and 4-morpholinobenzaldehyde) and aminosilanes (e.g. trimethylsilylmorpholine, trimethylsilylpiperidine, bis (dimethylamino) diphenylsilane, tris (dimethylamino) methylsilane, N, N-diethylaminotrimethylsilane, tris ( Dimethylamino) phenylsilane, tris (methylsilyl) amine, tris (dimethylsilyl) amine, bis (dimethylsilyl) amine, N, N-bis (dimethylsilyl) anily , N- phenyl -N- butyldimethylsilyl aniline, and N, N- dimethyl -N- dimethylsilyl amine), and mixtures thereof. It has been found that tertiary aromatic alkyl amines, particularly those having at least one electron withdrawing group on the aromatic ring, provide particularly good storage properties. Good storage properties are also obtained using amines that are solid at room temperature. Good photographic speed has been obtained using amines that contain one or more julolidinyl moieties.

  Preferred amide electron donor compounds include N, N-dimethylacetamide, N, N-diethylacetamide, N-methyl-N-phenylacetamide, hexamethylphosphoramide, hexaethylphosphoramide, hexapropylphosphoramide, Trimorpholinophosphine oxide, tripiperidinophosphine oxide, and mixtures thereof.

  Preferred alkylaryl borate salts include the following:

Ar 3 B - (n-C 4 H 9) N + (C 2 H 5) 4
Ar 3 B - (n-C 4 H 9) N + (CH 3) 4
Ar 3 B - (n-C 4 H 9) N + (n-C 4 H 9) 4
Ar 3 B (nC 4 H 9 ) Li +
Ar 3 B - (n-C 4 H 9) N + (C 6 H 13) 4
Ar 3 B (C 4 H 9 ) N + (CH 3 ) 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CO 2 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3
Ar 3 B - - (C 4 H 9) N + (CH 3) 3 (CH 2) 2 OCO (CH 2) 2 CH 3
Ar 3 B - - (sec- C 4 H 9) N + (CH 3) 3 (CH 2) 2 CO 2 (CH 2) 2 CH 3
Ar 3 B - - (sec- C 4 H 9) N + (C 6 H 13) 4
Ar 3 B — (C 4 H 9 ) N + (C 8 H 17 ) 4
Ar 3 B — (C 4 H 9 ) N + (CH 3 ) 4
(P-CH 3 O-C 6 H 4) 3 B - (n-C 4 H 9) N + (n-C 4 H 9) 4
Ar 3 B — (C 4 H 9 ) N + (CH 3 ) 3 (CH 2 ) 2 OH
ArB - (n-C 4 H 9) 3 N + (CH 3) 4
ArB (C 2 H 5 ) 3 N + (CH 3 ) 4
Ar 2 B - (n-C 4 H 9) 2 N + (CH 3) 4
Ar 3 B (C 4 H 9 ) N + (C 4 H 9 ) 4
Ar 4 B N + (C 4 H 9 ) 4
ArB (CH 3 ) 3 N + (CH 3 ) 4
(N-C 4 H 9) 4 B - N + (CH 3) 4
Ar 3 B (C 4 H 9 ) P + (C 4 H 9 ) 4
(Wherein Ar is phenyl, naphthyl, substituted (preferably fluorine-substituted) phenyl, substituted naphthyl and the like groups having multiple condensed aromatic rings) and tetramethylammonium n-butyltriphenylborate and Tetrabutylammonium n-hexyl-tris (3-fluorophenyl) borate, as well as mixtures thereof.

  Suitable ether electron donor compounds include 4,4′-dimethoxybiphenyl, 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene, and the like, and mixtures thereof. Is mentioned. Suitable urea-based electron donor compounds include N, N′-dimethylurea, N, N-dimethylurea, N, N′-diphenylurea, tetramethylthiourea, tetraethylthiourea, tetra-n-butylthiourea, N , N-di-n-butylthiourea, N, N′-di-n-butylthiourea, N, N-diphenylthiourea, N, N′-diphenyl-N, N′-diethylthiourea, and the like And mixtures thereof.

  Preferred electron donor compounds for radical-induced reactions include amines containing one or more julolidinyl moieties, alkylaryl borate salts, and salts of aromatic sulfinic acids. However, in such reactions, the electron donor compound is optionally excluded (eg, to improve the shelf life of the photoreactive composition or to correct resolution, contrast, and reciprocity). You can also Preferred electron donor compounds for acid-induced reactions include 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, 4-dimethylaminobenzoin, 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, 4- Examples include dimethylaminobenzonitrile, 4-dimethylaminophenethyl alcohol, and 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene.

(3) Photoinitiator A photoinitiator (ie, an electron acceptor compound) suitable for the reactive species of the photoreactive composition accepts electrons from an electronically excited multiphoton photosensitizer, resulting in at least Photoinitiators that can be sensitized by the formation of one free radical and / or acid. Such photoinitiators include iodonium salts (eg, diaryl iodonium salts), sulfonium salts (eg, optionally substituted with alkyl or alkoxy groups, and optionally bridge adjacent aryl moieties). Triarylsulfonium salts having 2,2′oxy groups), the like, and mixtures thereof.

  The photoinitiator preferably has solubility in the reactive species and preferably has storability (ie, dissolved in the reactive species in the presence of the photosensitizer and electron donor compound). Does not spontaneously promote the reaction of the reactive species). Accordingly, the selection of a particular photoinitiator can depend to some extent on the particular reactive species, photosensitizer, and electron donor compound selected, as described above. If the reactive species can undergo an acid-initiated chemical reaction, the photoinitiator is an onium salt (eg, an iodonium salt or a sulfonium salt).

Suitable iodonium salts include the iodonium salts described by Palazzotto et al. In US Pat. No. 5,545,676 at column 2, lines 28-46. Suitable iodonium salts are also disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,729,313, 3,741,769, 3,808,006, 4,250,053 and 4,394,403. Are listed. The iodonium salt is a simple salt (for example, containing an anion such as Cl , Br , I or C 4 H 5 SO 3 ) or a metal complex salt (for example, SbF 6 , PF 6 , BF 4 −). , tetrakis (perfluorophenyl) borate, SbF 5 OH - or AsF 6 - may be a contained). If desired, a mixture of iodonium salts can be used.

  Useful aromatic iodonium complex photoinitiators include diphenyliodonium tetrafluoroborate, di (4-methylphenyl) iodonium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-4-methylphenyliodonium tetrafluoroborate, di (4-heptylphenyl) iodonium tetra Fluoroborate, di (3-nitrophenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (4-chlorophenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (naphthyl) iodonium tetrafluoroborate, di (4-trifluoromethylphenyl) iodonium tetrafluoroborate, diphenyl Iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (4-methylphenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, diphenyliodonium hexa Fluoroarsenate, di (4-phenoxyphenyl) iodonium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-2-thienyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, 3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl-4-phenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, diphenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate, 2 , 2′-diphenyliodonium tetrafluoroborate, di (2,4-dichlorophenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (4-bromophenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (4-methoxyphenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (3 -Carboxyphenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (3-methoxycarbonylphenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate Di (3-methoxysulfonylphenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (4-acetamidophenyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di (2-benzothienyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate, diphenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate, etc. The same kind, and a mixture thereof are mentioned. Aromatic iodonium complex salts are described in Beringer et al. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 342 (1959) can be prepared by metathesis of the corresponding aromatic iodonium monosalt (such as diphenyliodonium bisulfate, for example).

  Preferred iodonium salts include diphenyl iodonium salts (such as diphenyl iodonium chloride, diphenyl iodonium hexafluorophosphate, and diphenyl iodonium tetrafluoroborate), diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonates (eg, from Sartomer Co., Inc.). SarCat ™ SR 1012) available, and mixtures thereof.

  Useful sulfonium salts include the sulfonium salts described in US Pat. No. 4,250,053 (Smith), column 1, line 66 to column 4, line 2; It can be expressed by the following formula.

Wherein R 1 , R 2 and R 3 are each independently an aromatic group having about C4 to about C20 carbon atoms (eg, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, naphthyl, thienyl and furanyl, where the substitution reaction is Selected from alkyl groups having from C1 to about C20 carbon atoms, which may be accompanied by groups such as, alkoxy, alkylthio, arylthio, halogen, and the like. As used herein, the term “alkyl” includes substituted alkyl (eg, substituted with a group such as halogen, hydroxy, alkoxy, or aryl). At least one of R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 is aromatic, and preferably each is aromatic. Z is selected from the group consisting of a covalent bond, oxygen, sulfur, -S (= O)-, -C (= O)-,-(O =) S (= O)-, and -N (R)-. R is aryl (such as phenyl, from about 6 to about 20 carbons), acyl (acetyl, benzoyl, etc., from about 2 to about 20 carbons), carbon-carbon bond, or- (R 4 —) C (—R 5 ) —, wherein R 4 and R 5 are independently hydrogen, an alkyl group having 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, and about 2 to about 4 Selected from the group consisting of alkenyl groups having carbon atoms. X is an anion as described below.

Suitable anions X for sulfonium salts (and for any other type of photoinitiator) include, for example, imide, methide, boron center, phosphorus center, antimony center, arsenic center, and aluminum center anions, There are various types of anions.

Illustrative and non-limiting examples of suitable imide and methide anions include (C 2 F 5 SO 2 ) 2 N , (C 4 F 9 SO 2 ) 2 N , (C 8 F 17 SO 2) 3 C -, (CF 3 SO 2) 3 C -, (CF 3 SO 2) 2 N -, (C 4 F 9 SO 2) 3 C -, (CF 3 SO 2) 2 (C 4 F 9 SO 2) C -, (CF 3 SO 2) (C 4 F 9 SO 2) N -, ((CF 3) 2 NC 2 F 4 SO 2) 2 N -, (CF 3) 2 NC 2 F 4 SO 2 C - (SO 2 CF 3 ) 2, (3,5- bis (CF 3) C 6 H 3 ) SO 2 N - SO 2 CF 3, C 6 H 5 SO 2 C - (SO 2 CF 3) 2 , C 6 H 5 SO 2 N SO 2 CF 3 , and the like. This type of preferred anions include those of the formula (R f SO 2) 3 C - and the like, wherein the R f, is a perfluoroalkyl radical having 1 to about 4 carbon atoms.

Without limitation as examples, examples of suitable boron-centered anions, F 4 B -, (3,5- bis (CF 3) C 6 H 3 ) 4 B -, (C 6 F 5) 4 B -, (p-CF 3 C 6 H 4) 4 B -, (m-CF 3 C 6 H 4) 4 B -, (p-FC 6 H 4) 4 B -, (C 6 F 5) 3 (CH 3) B -, (C 6 F 5) 3 (n-C 4 H 9) B -, (p-CH 3 C 6 H 4) 3 (C 6 F 5) B -, (C 6 F 5) 3 FB -, (C 6 H 5) 3 (C 6 F 5) B -, (CH 3) 2 (p-CF 3 C 6 H 4) 2 B -, (C 6 F 5) 3 (n -C 18 H 37 O) B - , and the kind thereof. Preferred boron-centered anions generally contain three or more halogen-substituted aromatic hydrocarbon radicals associated with boron, with fluorine being the most preferred halogen. Illustrative and non-limiting examples of preferred anions include (3,5-bis (CF 3 ) C 6 H 3 ) 4 B , (C 6 F 5 ) 4 B , (C 6 F 5 ). 3 (n-C 4 H 9 ) B -, (C 6 F 5) 3 FB -, and (C 6 F 5) 3 ( CH 3) B - , and the like.

Suitable anions containing other metal or metalloid centers include, for example, (3,5-bis (CF 3 ) C 6 H 3 ) 4 Al , (C 6 F 5 ) 4 Al , (C 6 F 5) 2 F 4 P -, (C 6 F 5) F 5 P -, F 6 P -, (C 6 F 5) F 5 Sb -, F 6 Sb -, (HO) F 5 Sb - , and F 6 As can be mentioned. Since other useful boron-centered non-nucleophilic salts, as well as other useful anions, including other metals or metalloids, will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art (from the general formula above), Is not meant to be exhaustive.

Preferably, the anion X is selected from tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, hexafluoroarsenate, hexafluoroantimonate, and hydroxypentafluoroantimonate (eg, cationically reactive such as epoxy resin) For use with chemical species).

  Examples of suitable sulfonium salt photoinitiators include the following:

Triphenylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate methyldiphenylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate dimethylphenylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate triphenylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate triphenylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate diphenylnaphthylsulfonium hexafluoroarsenate tritolysulfonium hexafluorophosphate ani Sildiphenylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate 4-butoxyphenyldiphenylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate 4-chlorophenyldiphenylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate tri (4-phenoxyphenyl) sulfonium hexafluorophosphate di (4-ethoxyphenyl) methylsulfo Hexafluoroarsenate 4-acetonylphenyldiphenylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate 4-thiomethoxyphenyldiphenylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate di (methoxysulfonylphenyl) methylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate di (nitrophenyl) phenylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonic acid Salt di (carbomethoxyphenyl) methylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate 4-acetamidophenyldiphenylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate dimethylnaphthylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate trifluoromethyldiphenylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate p- (phenylthiophenyl) diphenylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate 10 -Methylfe Xanthinium hexafluorophosphate 5-methylthienesleninium hexafluorophosphate 10-phenyl-9,9-dimethylthioxanthenium hexafluorophosphate 10-phenyl-9-oxothioxanthenium tetrafluoroborate 5-methyl-10 -Oxothianthrenium tetrafluoroborate 5-methyl-10,10-dioxothianthrenium hexafluorophosphate Preferred sulfonium salts include triarylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (eg, available from Sartomer Company) SarCat ™ SR1010), triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate (eg, SarCat ™ S available from Sartomer Company) R1011), and triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphates (eg, SarCat ™ KI85 available from Sartomer Company).

  Preferred photoinitiators include iodonium salts (more preferably aryl iodonium salts), sulfonium salts, and mixtures thereof. More preferred are aryl iodonium salts and mixtures thereof.

Preparation of Photoreactive Composition The reactive species, multiphoton photosensitizer, electron donor compound, and photoinitiator can be prepared by the methods described above or by other methods known in the art, and Many are commercially available. These four components can be mixed using any order and method of mixing (optionally with agitation or agitation) under “safe light” conditions, but sometimes ( It is preferred to add the photoinitiator last (and after the heating step optionally used to promote dissolution of the other components) from the standpoint of shelf life and thermal stability. A solvent can be used as desired, provided that the solvent is selected such that it does not react significantly with the components of the composition. Suitable solvents include, for example, acetone, dichloromethane, and acetonitrile. Also, the reactive species itself can sometimes act as a solvent for other components.

  The three components of the photoinitiator system are present in a photochemically effective amount (defined above). Generally, the composition is at least about 5 wt.% (Preferably at least about 10 wt.%, More preferably at least about 20 wt.%) Based on the total weight of the solid (ie, the total weight of components other than the solvent). %) To about 99.79% by weight (preferably up to about 95% by weight, more preferably up to about 80% by weight) and at least about 0.01% by weight (preferably at least about 0%). One or more photosensitizers from 1% by weight, more preferably at least about 0.2% by weight) to about 10% by weight (preferably up to about 5% by weight, more preferably up to about 2% by weight); Optionally up to about 10 wt% (preferably up to about 5 wt%) of one or more electron donor compounds (preferably at least about 0.1 wt%, more preferably from about 0.1 wt% to about 5 wt%). Weight%) and One or more electron acceptor compounds from about 0.1% to about 10 wt% (preferably from about 0.1% to about 5 wt%) can be included therein.

  A wide variety of adjuvants can be included in the photoreactive composition depending on the desired end use. Suitable adjuvants include solvents, diluents, resins, binders, plasticizers, pigments, dyes, inorganic or organic reinforcing or extending fillers (about 10% to 90% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition). Preferred amount), thixotropic agents, indicators, inhibitors, stabilizers, ultraviolet absorbers, and the like. The amount and type of such adjuvants and the manner in which they are added to the composition will be well known to those skilled in the art.

  It is within the scope of the present invention to include non-reactive polymeric binders in the composition, for example, to control viscosity and to provide film forming ability. Such polymeric binders can generally be selected to be compatible with the reactive species. For example, a polymeric binder that is soluble in the same solvent used for the reactive species and has no functional groups that can adversely affect the reaction process of the reactive species can be utilized. The binder should have a molecular weight suitable for achieving the desired film-forming properties and solution rheology (eg, about 8.3E-21 g (5,000 Daltons) to 1.6E-18 g (1,000,000 Daltons), preferably From about 1.7E-20g (10,000 Daltons) to 8.3E-19g (500,000 Daltons), more preferably from about 2.5E-20g (15,000 Daltons) to 4.2E-19g (250, 000 Dalton) molecular weight). Suitable polymeric binders include, for example, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), poly (styrene) -co- (acrylonitrile), cellulose acetobutyrate, and the like.

  Prior to exposure, the resulting photoreactive composition is optionally deposited on the substrate using any of a variety of coating methods known to those skilled in the art, including, for example, knife coating and spin coating. Can be coated. The substrate can be selected from a wide variety of films, sheets, and other surface materials (including silicon wafers and glass plates) depending on the particular application and the method of exposure utilized. Preferred substrates are generally sufficiently flat so that a layer of photoreactive composition having a uniform thickness can be prepared. For applications where coating is less desirable, the photoreactive composition can alternatively be exposed in bulk form.

EXPOSURE SYSTEM AND USE THEREOF In carrying out the method of the invention, the photoreactive composition is exposed to light under conditions where multiphoton absorption takes place, thereby having different solubility characteristics compared to the photoreactive composition before exposure ( For example, resulting in a region of less or greater solubility in a particular solvent. Said exposure can be achieved by any known means capable of obtaining sufficient light intensity.

  One representative type of system that can be used is shown in FIG. Referring to FIG. 1, a manufacturing system 10 includes an optical system 14 and a movable stage 16 comprising a light source 12, a final optical element 15 (optionally including a galvo-mirror and a telescope that controls the opening of the beam). Including. Stage 16 can move in one, two, or typically three dimensions. The substrate 18 mounted on the stage 16 has a layer 20 of the photoreactive composition 24 thereon. The light beam 26 originating from the light source 12 passes through the optical system 14 and leaves through the final optical element 15 and concentrates it at a point P in the layer 20, thereby creating a three-dimensional spatial distribution of light intensity within the composition. To make at least a portion of the photoreactive composition 24 near point P more or less soluble in at least one solvent than in the light 26 just prior to exposure.

  Moving the stage 16 in combination with the movement of one or more elements of the optical system 14 or directing the light beam 26 (e.g., using a galvo-mirror and a telescope to move the laser beam), the focus P The shape can be scanned or changed to a three-dimensional pattern corresponding to the desired shape. The resulting reaction or partially reacted portion of the photoreactive composition 24 then produces a three dimensional structure of the desired shape. For example, the surface contour of one or more light extraction structures (corresponding to about one volume pixel or voxel thickness) can be exposed or imaged in a single pass, and development thereof can form the surface of the light extraction structure. .

  Imagewise exposure of the surface contour can be performed by scanning at least the periphery of a planar slice of the desired three-dimensional structure and then scanning a plurality of preferably parallel planar slices to finish the structure. The slice thickness can be controlled to achieve a sufficiently low level of surface roughness to provide an optical quality light extraction structure. For example, a smaller slice thickness is desirable in areas of larger structural taper and can help achieve high structural fidelity, but a larger slice thickness is utilized and useful in areas of smaller structural taper. Can help maintain manufacturing time. Thus, the surface roughness below the slice thickness (preferably less than about ½ of the slice thickness, more preferably less than about ¼ of the slice thickness) is the production rate (capacity or per unit time). This can be achieved without sacrificing the number of manufactured structures).

  When coating a photoreactive composition on a substrate that exhibits some degree of non-planarity at a dimensional scale equal to or greater than the voxel height, compensation for non-planarity to avoid optically or physically poor structures It may be desirable to do this. This locates the interface between the substrate and the portion of the photoreactive composition to be exposed (eg, using a confocal interface locator system, interferometry or a fluorescent interface locator system) This can then be achieved by appropriately adjusting the position of the optical system 14 and concentrating the light beam 26 on the boundary surface. (Such a method is described in detail in co-pending and co-pending patent application, Attorney Docket No. 61438 US002, the specification of which is incorporated herein by reference.) At least one structure out of every 20 structures in the array may be followed (more preferably at least 1 out of every 10 in the array, most preferably per structure).

The light source 12 may be any light source that produces sufficient light intensity to perform multiphoton absorption. Suitable light sources include, for example, a femtosecond near-infrared titanium sapphire oscillator (e.g., California) excited by an argon ion laser (e.g., available from Coherent under the trade designation "INNOVA"). A product name "MIRA OPTIMA 900-F" from Coherent of Santa Clara. This laser operating at 76 MHz has a pulse width of less than 200 femtoseconds, is tunable from 700 to 980 nanometers, and has an average power of up to 1.4 watts. Another useful laser is available from Spectra-Physics of Mountain View, California under the trade name “MAI TAI” and is tunable within the range of 750-850 nanometers. Yes, with a repetition frequency of 80 megahertz, a pulse width of about 100 femtoseconds (1 × 10 −13 seconds) and an average power up to 1 watt.

However, any light source (eg, a laser) with sufficient intensity to perform multiphoton absorption at a wavelength suitable for the multiphoton absorber used in the photoreactive composition can be utilized. The wavelength is generally in the range of about 300 to about 1500 nanometers, preferably about 400 to about 1100 nanometers, more preferably about 600 to about 900 nanometers, more preferably about 750 to about 850 nanometers. It's okay. Typically, the light fluence (e.g., the peak intensity of the pulsed laser) is more than about 10 6 W / cm 2. The upper limit of light fluence is generally defined by the ablation threshold of the photoreactive composition. For example, a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (eg, available from Spectra-Physics under the trade name “QUANTA-RAY PRO”), a visible wavelength dye laser (eg, Spectra Product name “SIRAH” from Spectra-Physics powered by Q-switch Nd: YAG laser with product name “QUANTA-RAY PRO” As well as laser-excited Q-switched diodes (eg, those available under the trade designation “FCBAR” from Spectra-Physics) may also be utilized.

A preferred light source is a near infrared pulsed laser having a pulse length of less than about 10 −8 seconds (more preferably less than about 10 −9 seconds, most preferably less than about 10 −11 seconds). Other pulse lengths may be used as long as the above peak intensity and ablation threshold are met. For example, the pulsed radiation has a pulse frequency from about 1 kilohertz to about 50 megahertz or even higher. A continuous wave laser may also be used.

  The optical system 14 includes, for example, a refractive optical element (for example, a lens or a microlens array), a reflective optical element (for example, a retroreflector or a focusing mirror), a diffractive optical element (for example, a diffraction grating, a phase mask, and a hologram), a dispersion Shape optical elements (eg, prisms and diffraction gratings), diffusion plates, Pockels cells, waveguides, and the like can be included. The optical element is useful for focusing, beam delivery, beam / mode shaping, pulse shaping and pulse timing. In general, combinations of optical elements are available and other suitable combinations will be recognized by those skilled in the art. The final optical element 15 can include, for example, one or more refractive, reflective and / or diffractive optical elements. In certain embodiments, objective lenses (eg, as used in microscopy) are readily obtained from suppliers such as, for example, Carl Zeiss, North America (Thornwood, NY). And can be used as the final optical element 15. For example, the manufacturing system 10 includes a scanning confocal with an objective lens having a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.75 (eg, available from Carl Zeiss, North America under the trade designation “20X FLUAR”). You may have a microscope (for example, what is available from Bio-Rad Laboratories (Hercules, Calif.) Under the trade designation “MRC600”).

  In order to provide highly focused light, it may often be desirable to use an optical system with a relatively large numerical aperture. However, any combination of optical elements that provide the desired intensity characteristics (and their spatial arrangement) can be utilized.

In general, the exposure time is the type of exposure system used to cause the reaction of reactive species in the photoreactive composition (and the numerical aperture, the shape of the light intensity spatial distribution, the intensity of the peak light during the laser pulse (approximately The accompanying variables), such as higher intensity corresponding to the intensity of the peak light and shorter pulse durations) and the nature of the photoreactive composition. In general, the higher peak light intensity near the focal point allows for shorter exposure times when everything else is the same. Generally, one-dimensional imaging or “writing” speeds are about 10 −8 to 10 −15 seconds (eg, about 10 −11 to 10 −14 seconds) and about 10 2 to 10 9 pulses / second (eg, about 10 3 to By using a laser pulse duration of 10 8 pulses / second, it can be about 5-100,000 μ / second.

  To facilitate solvent development of the exposed photoreactive composition and to obtain a manufactured light extraction structure, a threshold dose of light (ie, threshold dose) can be utilized. This threshold dose is typically process specific and is used, for example, in wavelength, pulse frequency, light intensity, specific photoreactive composition, manufactured specific structure or solvent development. It can be determined by variables such as processes. Thus, each set of process parameters can typically be characterized by a threshold dose. A dose of light above the threshold may be used and may be beneficial, but higher doses (once exceeding the threshold dose) typically result in slower writing speed and / or higher light intensity conditions Can be used in

  Increasing the dose of light tends to increase the volume and aspect ratio of the voxels generated by the process. Thus, to obtain a low aspect ratio voxel, generally a light dose that is less than about 10 times the threshold dose, preferably less than about 4 times the threshold dose, more preferably less than about 3 times the threshold dose. It is preferable to use it. In order to obtain a low aspect ratio voxel, the radial intensity characteristic of the light beam 26 is preferably Gaussian.

  Due to multiphoton absorption, the light beam 26 induces a reaction within the photoreactive composition that produces a volume region of the substance that has different solubility characteristics than that of the unexposed photoreactive composition. The resulting different solubility patterns can then be realized by conventional development methods, for example by removing either exposed or unexposed areas.

  The exposed photoreactive composition can be, for example, by placing the exposed photoreactive composition in a solvent, dissolving areas of higher solvent solubility, rinsing with solvent, evaporating, oxygen plasma etching, etc. May be developed by known methods and combinations thereof. Solvents that can be used to develop the exposed photoreactive composition include, for example, water (eg, having a pH in the range of 1 to 12) water and organic solvents (eg, methanol, ethanol). , Propanol, acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, the like and mixtures thereof) and aqueous solvents such as organic solvents. Representative useful organic solvents include alcohols (eg, methanol, ethanol and propanol), ketones (eg, acetone, cyclopentanone and methyl ethyl ketone), aromatics (eg, toluene), halocarbons (eg, , Methylene chloride and chloroform), nitriles (eg acetonitrile), esters (eg ethyl acetate and propylene glycol methyl ether acetate), ethers (eg diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran), amides (eg N-methylpyrrolidone) ), The class and mixtures thereof.

  Optional baking after exposure to light under multiphoton absorption conditions but before solvent development may be useful for some photoreactive compositions such as, for example, epoxy-type reactive species. Typical baking conditions include temperatures in the range of about 40 ° C. to about 200 ° C., and times in the range of about 0.5 minutes to about 20 minutes.

  If desired, only the surface contour of the light extraction structure array is exposed, preferably followed by solvent development, followed by non-imaging exposure using actinic radiation, and reaction of the remaining unreacted photoreactive composition. Also good. The non-imaging exposure can be preferably performed using a one-photon method.

  Complex three-dimensional light extraction structures and light extraction structure arrays can be prepared in this way.

Light Extraction Structure Array The method of the present invention elastically controls an array with light extraction structures of various sizes and geometric shapes or surface contours (eg, including both convex and concave structures). Can be used to provide possible. On the other hand, the method provides a light extraction structure array in which at least one form factor varies to some extent as a function of position in the array and / or a light extraction structure array in which the distribution of light extraction structures is non-uniform. Is particularly suitable. For example, an array in which the spatial variation in the height and / or spacing of the light extraction structures throughout the array is effective in correcting the uniformity and efficiency of light extraction.

  For example, the method may be such that the height of the convex structure (or depth of the concave structure) is from about 5 microns to about 300 microns (preferably from about 50 microns to about 200 microns, more preferably from about 75 microns to about 150 microns). A light extraction structure having a range and / or a maximum length and / or a maximum width ranging from about 5 microns to about 500 microns (preferably from about 50 microns to about 300 microns, more preferably from about 100 microns to about 300 microns) It can be used to produce an array with a body. A wide range of fill factors (up to 100 percent) can be achieved. For many applications, a fill factor of about 1 percent to 100 percent (preferably about 5 percent to about 75 percent) is effective.

  Producing light extraction structures with various geometric shapes (eg, cones, aspherics, truncated aspherics, and truncated cones) with an array fill factor of up to 100 percent (Here, the “truncated” shape is a shape having another truncated surface that can form a flat top surface in addition to the bottom surface). The shape may be complex (for example, a shape having a plurality of shapes in a single structure, such as a stack of aspherical bodies and pyramids or cones). Preferred geometric shapes include truncated and symmetrical shapes (eg, truncated cones, truncated aspheric bodies, and combinations thereof).

  The geometric shape may be a bottom surface, one or more surfaces (eg, a surface forming a side wall), and a top (eg, a flat surface (such as a surface formed by a truncation) or a point), etc. May have structural elements. Such elements may be essentially any shape (eg, the bottom, sides, and top may be circular, oval, or polygonal (regular or irregular), The resulting side wall may be characterized by a longitudinal section (perpendicular to the bottom) that is essentially parabolic, hyperbolic, straight, or a combination thereof. The sidewalls are preferably not perpendicular to the bottom surface of the structure (eg, a vertical tangent angle at the bottom surface of about 10 ° to about 80 ° (preferably about 20 ° to about 70 °, more preferably about 30). In some cases, it is useful to be from about 60 ° to about 60 °). The light extraction structure may have a main axis connecting the center of the bottom surface and the center of the upper part. An inclination angle (angle between the main axis and the bottom surface) of about 80 ° or less (preferably about 25 ° or less) can be realized depending on the desired luminance and field of view.

  The method of the present invention can be used to produce a master mold of a patterned or random, heterogeneous light extraction structure array having multiple structural designs in a single writing process. An average surface roughness of λ / 2 (preferably λ / 4, more preferably λ / 10, most preferably λ / 20) can be achieved (where λ (lambda) is the light of which the structure is designed) Wavelength, hereinafter “operation wavelength”).

  The fill factor of the array may be varied to control brightness and uniformity. The mounting arrangement or distribution of structures may be regular (eg, square or hexagonal) or irregular. The form factor of the structure comprising the array may vary across the array. For example, the height may be different depending on the distance from the light source in a particular structure (so as to achieve uniform light extraction). In order to maintain a uniform light output continuously (and to minimize or eliminate bright spots), arrays with irregularly varying form factors and / or areal densities may be prepared. It is preferred that the areal density and at least one form factor both vary across the array (more preferably, both vary and at least one varies irregularly). As used herein, “regular variation” refers to a quantity (eg, linearly, exponentially, etc.) defined per unit distance (eg, mathematically defined) throughout the array. (Or according to a power series).

  The method of the present invention can also be used in the manufacture of arrays with at least two light extraction structures whose main axes are not parallel (hereinafter referred to as “tilted structure” arrays). Such arrays may vary independently of the tilt angle between structures throughout the array.

  Accordingly, a preferred light extraction structure array comprises a plurality of light extraction structures having a non-uniform distribution, each light extraction structure having a principal axis and at least one form factor, wherein the plurality of light extraction structures Changes in areal density, at least one form factor, and principal axis across the body. (More preferably, the geometric shape of the at least one light extraction structure is selected from a truncated cone, a truncated aspheric body, and combinations thereof, and / or the change indicated by the plurality is an area density, A plurality of irregularities with respect to at least one of the form factor and the main axis.) Such an array is extracted, for example, according to changes in the main axis across a plurality of light extraction structures. It is effective for guiding light in multiple directions.

  Another preferred light extraction structure array comprises a plurality of light extraction structures having a non-uniform distribution, each light extraction structure having a geometric shape, the geometry of at least one light extraction structure The target shape is a truncated aspherical body. (More preferably, the geometry of each light extraction structure in the array is selected from an aspherical body, a truncated aspherical body, and combinations thereof.) Such an array is, for example, (array To achieve a uniform extraction light output without the appearance of discrete bright spots or bright lines (which may be caused by a method involving simply reducing the density of the light extraction structure in an area relatively close to the light source) It is effective. The output uniformity can be, for example, relatively close to the light source of the array in addition to keeping the light extraction structures relatively dense (eg, spaced less than about 200 micrometers, preferably less than about 150 micrometers). By reducing the efficiency of the light extraction structure by truncation in the region, it can be realized without such bright spots.

Preparation of replication tool from master mold A replication tool such as a mold insert can be prepared by using the light extraction structure array prepared as described above as a master mold. That is, another material can be placed in the master mold to prepare a mold insert having the opposite image of the array. Thereafter, the mold insert that can be used to prepare the next array can be subsequently removed and the master mold can be removed. The mold insert will have a mold space in the shape of the inverse image of the array. A metal replication tool can be manufactured from a master mold by electroplating or electroforming a metal such as nickel onto the master mold and then removing the master mold. The silicone replication tool can be manufactured by removing the master mold after curing the silicone resin in the master mold.

Light Guides and Optical Devices Light guides comprising the light extraction structure array of the present invention can be made from a wide variety of optically suitable materials such as polycarbonate, polyacrylate (such as polymethylmethacrylate), polystyrene, and glass. Manufacturable and preferred materials are of high refractive index such as polyacrylates and polycarbonates. The light guide is preferably manufactured by molding, embossing, curing, or molding a resin that can be injected into the replication tool. Most preferably, injection molding and curing techniques are used. Methods for molding, embossing, or curing the light guide will be well known to those skilled in the art. If desired, a coating (eg, a thin metal reflective coating) may be applied in a known manner to at least a portion of one or more surfaces of the light guide (eg, the inner surface or concave surface of the light extraction structure). . The design of the individual light guides can be made, if desired, by “ASAP” from Breault Research Organization, Inc., “Code V” by Optical Research Associates, Inc. V) "and" Light Tools ", i-Cyt Mission Technology, Inc. Optical Software Division" Rayica ", Lambda Research ( Manufactured using suitable ray-tracing modeling software such as “Trace Pro” from Lambda Research, Inc. and “ZEMAX” from Zemax Development Corporation Can be evaluated without having to.

  The light guide of the present invention includes a backlit display (eg, a light source, a light gate device (such as a liquid crystal display (LCD)), and a light guide) and a keypad (eg, a light source, at least partly emitting light) It may be particularly useful for transmissive pressure sensitive switch arrays and light guides). Lightguides are point to area or line to area for micro or small displays or keypad devices that are illuminated by light emitting diodes (LEDs) powered by a small battery. It is useful as a rear light guide up to. Suitable display devices include, for example, mobile phones, pagers, personal digital assistants, watches, watches, calculators, laptop computers, color or monochrome LCD devices for vehicle displays. Other display devices include flat panel displays such as laptop computer displays or desktop flat panel displays. Suitable backlit keypad devices include, for example, cell phones, pagers, personal digital assistants, calculators, keypads for vehicle displays.

  In addition to LEDs, other suitable light sources for displays and keypads include fluorescent lamps (eg, cold cathode fluorescent lamps), incandescent lamps, electroluminescent lights, and the like. The light source can be mechanically secured to a slot, cavity, or opening that is machined, molded, or otherwise formed in the light transition region of the light guide in any suitable manner. Preferably, however, the light source is embedded, embedded or secured in the light transition region to eliminate the air gap or air interface between the light source and the surrounding light transition region, thereby reducing light loss and guiding. The light output emitted from the light body is improved. Implementation of such a light source can be achieved, for example, by securing the light source to a slot, cavity, or opening in the light transition region using a sufficient amount of suitable embedding, embedding, or anchoring material. Slots, cavities, or openings may be present at the top, bottom, sides, or back of the light transition region. Fixing can also be achieved by various methods that do not incorporate additional materials, such as thermal bonding, thermal staking, ultrasonic welding, plastic welding, and the like. Other methods of fixation include insertion molding and casting around the light source.

  The objects and advantages of this invention are further illustrated by the following examples, which, however, are not limited to the specific materials and amounts listed in these examples, as well as other conditions and details. It should not be construed as limiting. Unless otherwise specified, all procedures were performed using dry and deoxygenated solvents and reagents in a dry nitrogen environment. Unless otherwise noted, all solvents and reagents are those obtained or obtainable from Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, Wis., USA.

As used herein,
“SR1012” refers to a diaryliodonium hexafluoroantimonate salt obtained from Sartomer Co., Inc., Exton, Pa.
“Strippable SU-8” refers to an SU-8 XP KMPR epoxy negative photoresist obtained from MicroChem Corp. of Newton, Mass.
"SU-8" refers to a SU-8 2150 epoxy negative photoresist obtained from MicroChem Corp. of Newton, Massachusetts.

(Example 1)
Fabrication of Light Extraction Structure Array Circular silicon wafer (10.2 cm (4 inches) diameter, obtained from Wafer World, Inc., West Palm Beach, Florida) for about 10 minutes Washed by soaking in a 3: 1 volume / volume (v / v) mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and 30 wt% aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The wafer was then rinsed with deionized water followed by isopropanol and then dried under a stream of air. The wafer was then spin coated with XP OmniCoat primer (MicroChem Corp., Newton, Mass.) For 5 seconds at 500 revolutions per minute (RPM) followed by 25 seconds at 2700 RPM. Thereafter, the wafer was placed on a hot plate at 200 ° C. for 1 minute and dried.

  N, N, N-tris (7- (2-benzothiazolyl) -9,9-diethyl-2-fluorenyl) amine (US Pat. No. 6,300,502 (Kannan et al.) Is a photosensitizer dye. ) And a cyclopentanone solution of SR1012 (available from Lancaster Synthesis, Windham, NH) was prepared. The solution is passed through a 0.2 micrometer (μm) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cartridge with a syringe and added to strippable SU-8 (Strippable SU-8) with 0.5% photosensitizer dye and 1 A solution of 0.0% SR-1012 (based on the total weight of solids) was produced. The resulting solution was then filtered through a 1.0 μm glass fiber filter followed by a 0.7 μm glass fiber filter.

  The filtered solution was poured into a 5 cm × 5 cm (inner dimensions) area masked with a green gasket tape on a primed silicon wafer. After the wafer was dried at room temperature over the weekend, it was placed in a forced air oven and heated at 65 ° C. for 30 minutes, then at 95 ° C. for 90 minutes, and further at 65 ° C. for 30 minutes. Drying)) A coated silicon wafer with a coating thickness of about 300 μm was obtained.

  The back side of the wafer was washed with isopropyl alcohol to remove debris. Next, the wafer was mounted on a porous carbon vacuum chuck (flatness exceeding 1 μm). Subsequently, the two-photon manufacturing system was activated to generate an optical signal fixed in the vertical position (the manufacturing system did not activate the z control to move the signal in the vertical direction). The signal was used as a detection mechanism to create a reflection from the wafer surface in combination with a confocal microscope system so that the only condition that causes a confocal response occurs when the optical signal is focused on the wafer surface. The system was aligned in a direction perpendicular to the interface between the photosensitive material coating and the wafer.

  The two-photon polymerization of the dried coating was performed using a diode-pumped titanium sapphire laser (Mountain View, Calif. Spectrum) operating at a wavelength of 800 nm, a nominal pulse width of 80 fs, a pulse repetition frequency of 80 MHz, and an average power of about 1 W. -Physics (Spectra-Physics) was used in the following manner. The coated wafer was placed on a computer controlled triaxial stage (obtained from Aerotech, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA). A galvo scanner (available from Nutfield Technology, Inc., Windham, NH) with a neutral density filter to weaken the laser beam and a telescope for x, y, and z axis control; A lens (Nikon CFI Plan Achromat 50X oil objective NA 0.90, objective distance 0.400 mm, focal length 4.0 mm) applied directly to the surface of the dry coating; Was used to focus within the dry coating. Average power is measured using a wavelength calibrated photodiode (obtained from Ophir Optronics, Ltd., Wilmington, Mass.) At the output of the objective lens, and the average power is measured. Was found to be about 9 mW.

  Next, two software files were created using the CAD program (AUTODESK INVENTOR available from Autodesk, San Raphael, California) describing the truncated cone structure. Loaded into the laser scanning software of the photon production system. Scanning software sliced a given structure into a plane with vertical division small enough to obtain a final polymerized array of structures with low surface roughness. The slice thickness was selected at 500 nm by the software and each planar slice was shaded with a 2 micron shadow spacing to provide an almost fully cured structure. The system was then actuated and scanned with a laser beam to polymerize the coating of photosensitive material to define a truncated cone structure. Using a software model that automatically operates the system and optimizes the position of the structure to optimize the light extraction uniformity and efficiency, the light extraction structure (in the form of a truncated cone) is Positioned (corresponding to the position of the pressure sensitive switch (button) on the keypad of the mobile phone). In addition to the obtained array distribution, the distribution of each group of structures corresponding to the button positions was also non-uniform. After imaging with a two-photon laser scanner, the photosensitive material was cured at 95 ° C. The resulting cured array was then developed for about 90 minutes using a MicroChem SU-8 developer. FIG. 2 shows an operation electron micrograph of a part of the side surface of the obtained developing array.

(Example 2)
Fabrication of Light Extraction Structure Array Circular silicon wafer (4 inches diameter, obtained from Wafer World, Inc., West Palm Beach, Florida), XP Omnicoat An (XP OmniCoat) primer (Microchem, Newton, Mass.) Was spin coated at 500 rpm / minute (RPM) for 5 seconds, followed by 2700 RPM for 25 seconds. Thereafter, the wafer was placed on a hot plate at 200 ° C. for 1 minute and dried.

  N, N, N-tris (7- (2-benzothiazolyl) -9,9-diethyl-2-fluorenyl) amine (US Pat. No. 6,300,502 (Kannan et al.) Is a photosensitizer dye. ) And a cyclopentanone solution of SR1012 (available from Lancaster Synthesis, Windham, NH) was prepared. The solution is passed through a 0.2 micrometer (μm) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cartridge with a syringe and added to SU-8 plus a solution of 0.5% photosensitizer dye and 1.0% SR-1012. (Based on the total weight of the solid). The resulting solution was then filtered through a 1.0 μm glass fiber filter followed by a 0.7 μm glass fiber filter. After the filtered solution was coated on a silicon wafer by spin coating, the solvent was removed at 80 ° C. for 10 minutes to obtain a dry coating having a thickness of about 30 μm.

  The back side of the wafer was washed with isopropyl alcohol to remove debris. Next, the wafer was mounted on a porous carbon vacuum chuck (flatness less than 1 μm). Subsequently, the two-photon manufacturing system was activated to generate an optical signal fixed in the vertical position (the manufacturing system did not activate the z control to move the signal in the vertical direction). The signal was used as a detection mechanism to create a reflection from the wafer surface in combination with a confocal microscope system so that the only condition that causes a confocal response occurs when the optical signal is focused on the wafer surface. The system was aligned in a direction perpendicular to the interface between the photosensitive material coating and the wafer.

  The two-photon polymerization of the dried coating was performed using a diode-pumped titanium sapphire laser (Mountain View, Calif. Spectrum) operating at a wavelength of 800 nm, a nominal pulse width of 80 fs, a pulse repetition frequency of 80 MHz, and an average power of about 1 W. -Physics (Spectra-Physics) was used in the following manner. The coated wafer was placed on a computer controlled triaxial stage (obtained from Aerotech, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA). A galvo scanner (available from Nutfield Technology, Inc., Windham, NH) with a neutral density filter to weaken the laser beam and a telescope for x, y, and z axis control; A lens (Nikon CFI Plan Achromat 50X oil objective NA 0.90, objective distance 0.400 mm, focal length 4.0 mm) applied directly to the surface of the dry coating; Was used to focus within the dry coating. Average power is measured using a wavelength calibrated photodiode (obtained from Ophir Optronics, Ltd., Wilmington, Mass.) At the output of the objective lens, and the average power is measured. Was found to be about 16 mW.

  Next, a CAD program (AUTODESK INVENTOR available from Autodesk, San Raphael, California) was used to cut the area relatively close to the light emitting diode (LED) light source. A software file describing the head aspheric structure and the non-truncated aspheric structure in the region farthest from the LED light source was loaded into the laser scanning software of the two-photon manufacturing system. Scanning software sliced a given structure into a plane with vertical division small enough to obtain a final polymerized array of structures with low surface roughness. The slice thickness was selected at 500 nm by software and each planar slice was shaded with a 2 micron shadow spacing to provide an almost complete cured structure. The system was then activated and scanned with a laser beam to polymerize the coating of photosensitive material to define the structure. Using a software model that automatically operates the system and optimizes the position of the structure to optimize the light extraction uniformity and efficiency, the light extraction structure (of truncated and non-truncated aspherical bodies) In place) (in the shape). The resulting array distribution was non-uniform.

  The light extraction structure array was composed of an aspherical body (a paraboloid with a base radius of 40 microns and a height of 8 microns) and a truncated aspherical body. There were three regions in the light extraction structure, each region having a different surface density (the surface density increased with increasing distance from the LED) and shape factor (height and / or geometric shape). Each area was 10 millimeters (mm) square. Using the (X, Y) coordinate space on the global coordinate system, the lower right corner of region 1 is (15 mm, -5 mm), the lower right corner of region 2 is (5 mm, -5 mm), and the lower right corner of region 3 (-5 mm, -5 mm). The light source LEDs were arranged (20 mm, 0 mm) so as to emit light in the direction opposite to the X direction.

  The height of the light extraction structure in region 1 (the truncated aspherical body) was 5 microns, and the height of the light extraction structure in region 2 was 6 microns. The light extraction structure (aspherical body) in region 3 was non-truncated.

The areal density of each region of the resulting array is a uniform spacing (s y ) between the light extraction structures in the Y direction and a non-uniform spacing (s) in the light extraction structures (i + 1) and (i) in the X direction. s xi ). This non-uniform spacing varies according to the formula s x (i) = s y ((i + 1) p −i p ), where i is the number of the light extraction structure (the number is the first in the region). The structure located on the right side is set to 0, and thereafter, it is increased by 1 for each structure on the left side). Region 1 was s y = 555 micrometers, p = 0.6542, Region 2 was s y = 263 micrometers, p = 0.7948, Region 3 was s y = 149 micrometers, p = 0.8948 .

  After imaging with a two-photon laser scanner, the photosensitive material was cured at 95 ° C. for 15 minutes. The resulting cured array was then developed for about 10 minutes using a MicroChem SU-8 developer and dried to form a prototype tool.

  Silicone (GE RTV 615 2-part silicone, General Electric Co., Waterford, NY) was replaced by a dam with a thickness of approximately 3mm, which corresponds to the outer shape of the final light guide. Was cast into a master tool in which a sandblast tape was placed around the light extraction structure array. The silicone was degassed in a vacuum oven for 15 minutes, a release liner was placed on top of the silicone, and the silicone was cured at 80 ° C. for 1.5 hours. The silicone was removed from the master tool to form a daughter tool. Sandblast tape is used to form a dam about 3 mm in height around the silicone daughter tool, and ultraviolet (UV) curable acrylate (Photomer 6210, Cognis, Cincinnati, Ohio) is silicone. It poured into the daughter tool and deaerated for 15 minutes in a 50 degreeC vacuum oven. The degassed structure is covered with a release liner and 12 cm / sec (24 ft / min) under UV light (H bulb, Fusion UV Systems, Gaithersburg, MD). ) And cured 5 times. The resulting cured acrylate was separated from the silicone to form a microreplication tool. A sand blast tape (about 2 mm) was used to form a dam around the microreplication tool and the tool was filled with silicone (GE RTV 615 2-part silicone). The silicone was degassed in a vacuum oven for 15 minutes, covered with a film, and cured at 80 ° C. for 1.5 hours. The obtained cured silicone was removed from the tool to form a silicone light guide (refractive index of 1.41) having a pattern of light extraction structures (aspherical surface and truncated aspherical surface) on one side. The end portions of the light guide were X = −20 mm, X = 20 mm, Y = −30 mm, and Y = 30 mm in the above coordinate system. The bottom surfaces of the aspherical light extraction structures were respectively positioned on the bottom surface of the light guide, and the aspherical body extended into the light guide by the height. The truncated aspherical light extraction structure was composed of an aspherical body whose extension into the light guide was cut by a plane parallel to the bottom surface of the aspherical body.

  The silicone light guide was placed on a white paper (so that light refracted downward from the light extraction structure was reflected back into the light guide) and connected to a single white LED connected to a power source. When observed from above, the light guide had essentially no bright spots over the entire area (visually) and showed a relatively uniform light intensity.

  The referenced descriptions contained in the patents, patent documents, and publications cited herein are incorporated by reference as if each were incorporated individually. Various unforeseen modifications and changes to the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. It should be understood that the present invention is not unnecessarily limited to the exemplary embodiments and examples described herein, and that such examples and embodiments are provided by way of example only. .

  These and other features, aspects and advantages of the present invention will be better understood with the following description, appended claims and accompanying drawings.

1 is a schematic diagram of a representative multiphoton light production apparatus useful for practicing the method of the invention. The scanning electron micrograph (side view) of embodiment of the light extraction structure array of this invention. This embodiment was produced by the method of the present invention and is described in Example 1 below.

Claims (38)

  1. (A) providing a photoreactive composition, wherein the photoreactive composition comprises:
    (1) at least one reactive species capable of undergoing an acid or radical initiated chemical reaction;
    (2) at least one multi-photon photoinitiator system;
    (B) imagewise exposing at least a portion of the composition to light sufficient to simultaneously absorb at least two photons, thereby inducing at least one acid or radical initiated chemical reaction; The composition is exposed to the light, and the imaging exposure is performed in a pattern effective to define at least a surface of an array of light extraction structures, each of the light extraction structures being at least one And having a form factor and the array of light extraction structures has a uniform or non-uniform distribution.
  2.   The method of claim 1, wherein the method further comprises developing the composition by removing the resulting exposed or non-exposed portions of the composition.
  3.   After the method exposes at least a portion of the composition imagewise, at least a portion of the composition is light sufficient to react with at least a portion of any remaining unreacted photoreactive composition. The method of claim 1, further comprising non-imagewise exposing to.
  4.   The method of claim 1, wherein the form factor is selected from height, length, width, and geometric shape.
  5.   The method of claim 4, wherein the geometric shape is selected from cones, aspheric bodies, truncated aspheric bodies, truncated cones, and combinations thereof.
  6.   The method of claim 4, wherein the geometric shape has a bottom surface and a sidewall, the sidewall exhibiting a perpendicular tangent angle at the bottom surface of less than 90 °.
  7.   The method of claim 1, wherein at least one of the form factors of at least one light extraction structure is different from at least one corresponding form factor of another light extraction structure.
  8.   The method of claim 1, wherein the distribution is non-uniform.
  9.   The method of claim 1, wherein the distribution is non-uniform and at least one of the form factors varies across the array.
  10.   The method of claim 9, wherein the form factor is height.
  11.   The method of claim 9, wherein the form factor varies regularly across the array.
  12.   The method of claim 1, wherein the areal density of the array of light extraction structures varies across the array and / or at least one form factor varies across the array.
  13.   The method of claim 1, wherein at least a majority of the light extraction structures have a height of less than 300 microns, a length or width of less than 500 microns, and an average surface roughness of less than half of the operating wavelength.
  14.   The method of claim 1, wherein the array has a fill factor in the range of 5 to 75%.
  15.   The method of claim 1, wherein at least two of the light extraction structures have major axes that are not parallel.
  16.   The method of claim 1, wherein the reactive species is a curable species.
  17.   The method of claim 1, wherein the reactive species is a non-curable species.
  18. The multiphoton photoinitiator system comprises a photochemically effective amount of (a) at least one multiphoton photosensitizer capable of simultaneously absorbing at least two photons;
    (B) at least one electron donor different from the multiphoton photosensitizer capable of donating electrons to the electronically excited state of the photosensitizer, if desired,
    And (c) at least one photoinitiator that is photosensitized by accepting electrons from an electronically excited state of the photosensitizer to form at least one free radical and / or acid. The method described in 1.
  19.   The method of claim 1, wherein the method comprises supplying the photoreactive composition to a substrate and positioning an interface between the composition and the substrate.
  20.   The slice thickness is such that the imaging exposure scans at least the periphery of a plurality of planar slices of the desired three-dimensional light extraction structure and simultaneously achieves a surface roughness of the light extraction structure that is less than the slice thickness. The method according to claim 1, wherein the method is carried out by changing.
  21.   The method of claim 1, wherein the method comprises non-imaging exposure performed using a one-photon method.
  22.   The method of claim 1, wherein the array comprises a master mold, the master mold being used to manufacture a tool for replication.
  23.   24. The method of claim 22, wherein the tool is used to manufacture a light guide.
  24. (A) providing a photoreactive composition, wherein the photoreactive composition comprises:
    (1) at least one curable species capable of undergoing an acid or radical initiated chemical reaction;
    (2) a photochemically effective amount of (i) a multiphoton photosensitizer having a larger two-photon absorption cross section than fluorescein,
    (Ii) optionally at least one electron donor selected from alkylaryl borates, tertiary aromatic alkyl amines and mixtures thereof; and (iii) selected from iodonium salts, sulfonium salts and mixtures thereof. At least one multi-photon photoinitiator system comprising: at least one photoinitiator;
    (B) imagewise exposing at least a portion of the composition to light sufficient to simultaneously absorb at least two photons, whereby the composition is exposed to the light, At least one acid or radical-initiated chemical reaction is triggered and the imaging exposure is performed in a pattern effective to define at least a surface of the array of light extraction structures, each of the light extraction structures Having at least one shape factor selected from length, length, width, and geometric shape, wherein the array of light extraction structures has a non-uniform distribution, wherein the array of light extraction structures comprises: Showing changes in areal density and / or at least one of the form factors across the array;
    (C) developing the composition by removing at least a portion of the non-exposed portion produced by the composition.
  25.   After at least a portion of the composition is imagewise exposed and the composition is developed, the method includes removing at least a portion of the composition from any remaining unexposed portions of the photoreactive composition. 25. The method of claim 24, comprising non-imagewise exposing to sufficient light to perform at least some reaction.
  26.   The method further includes providing the photoreactive composition to a substrate and positioning an interface between the composition and the substrate, wherein the imaging exposure comprises a desired three-dimensional 6. Scanning at least the periphery of a plurality of planar slices of the light extraction structure, and simultaneously changing the slice thickness to achieve a surface roughness of the light extraction structure that is less than the slice thickness. 24. The method according to 24.
  27.   25. The method of claim 24, wherein at least one of the form factors varies across the array.
  28.   25. The method of claim 24, wherein at least one of the form factors varies regularly across the array.
  29.   25. The method of claim 24, wherein both the areal density and the at least one form factor vary across the array.
  30.   25. The method of claim 24, wherein the geometric shape is selected from cones, aspheric bodies, truncated aspheric bodies, truncated cones, and combinations thereof.
  31.   A light extraction structure array comprising a plurality of light extraction structures having a non-uniform distribution, each of the light extraction structures having a main axis and at least one form factor, wherein the plurality of light extraction structures A light extraction structure array, wherein the extraction structures exhibit changes in areal density, at least one of the shape factors, and the main axis across the plurality.
  32.   32. The change of claim 31, wherein the change is irregular across the plurality of light extraction structures in at least one of the areal density, the shape factor, and the main axis. Light extraction structure array.
  33.   32. The light extraction structure array of claim 31, wherein at least one of the light extraction structures has a geometric shape selected from a truncated cone, a truncated aspheric body, and combinations thereof.
  34.   A light extraction structure array comprising a plurality of light extraction structures having a non-uniform distribution, each of the light extraction structures having a geometric shape, wherein at least one of the light extraction structures A light extraction structure array, wherein the geometric shape is a truncated aspherical body.
  35.   32. A light guide comprising the light extraction structure array according to claim 31.
  36.   35. A light guide comprising the light extraction structure array of claim 34.
  37.   An optical device comprising the light guide according to claim 35.
  38.   An optical device comprising the light guide according to claim 36.
JP2009511229A 2006-05-18 2007-05-17 Method for manufacturing light guide with extraction structure and light guide manufactured by the method Granted JP2009537870A (en)

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