JP2008298186A - Hydraulic driving device - Google Patents

Hydraulic driving device Download PDF

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JP2008298186A
JP2008298186A JP2007145072A JP2007145072A JP2008298186A JP 2008298186 A JP2008298186 A JP 2008298186A JP 2007145072 A JP2007145072 A JP 2007145072A JP 2007145072 A JP2007145072 A JP 2007145072A JP 2008298186 A JP2008298186 A JP 2008298186A
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pressure
variable pump
valve
spool
operation switching
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JP5092550B2 (en
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Koji Okazaki
康治 岡崎
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Nachi Fujikoshi Corp
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Nachi Fujikoshi Corp
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an unload valve for setting the discharge pressure of a variable pump in advance to improve the responsiveness of an actuator to an operation of an actual machine operation lever. <P>SOLUTION: This hydraulic driving device 10 has an unload valve 14 for introducing pressure oil discharged from a variable pump 11 according to a differential pressure reduction valve 25 detecting differential pressure between the discharge pressure P of the variable pump 11 and the maximum load pressure of one actuator 17 to a tank 18. The unload valve 14 actuates in a direction where the discharge pressure P of the variable pump 11 acting on a first pressure receiving part 21 is made to be communicative via a discharge line 13, actuates in a blocking direction by the maximum load pressure received by a second pressure receiving part 22, and actuates in a blocking direction where control pressure Pu acts on a third pressure receiving part 23. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2009,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、可変容量形油圧ポンプ(以下、可変ポンプとする)の吐出圧と複数のアクチュエータの最高負荷圧との差圧に応じて作動し、可変ポンプの吐出圧油をタンクに連通・遮断するアンロード弁を有する油圧駆動装置に関する。   The present invention operates according to the differential pressure between the discharge pressure of a variable displacement hydraulic pump (hereinafter referred to as a variable pump) and the maximum load pressure of a plurality of actuators, and communicates and shuts off the discharge pressure oil of the variable pump to the tank. The present invention relates to a hydraulic drive device having an unloading valve.

従来技術、この種のアンロード弁にはポンプ圧と、複数のアクチュエータの最高負荷圧力を導くとともに、電磁比例減圧弁で制御する制御圧力を導いている。実機において、操作レバー(操作用バルブ)の操作に対しアクチュエータの応答性をよくするため、この電磁比例減圧弁の制御圧力によって予めアンロード開始圧を設定することができるようにしている。アンロード開始圧を希望の値に設定することで、予め可変ポンプの吐出流量を多くして、アクチュエータの応答性を高めている(例えば、特許文献1参照)。
特開平11−315805号公報
In the prior art, this type of unload valve introduces the pump pressure and the maximum load pressure of a plurality of actuators, as well as the control pressure controlled by the electromagnetic proportional pressure reducing valve. In an actual machine, in order to improve the response of the actuator to the operation of the operation lever (operation valve), the unload start pressure can be set in advance by the control pressure of the electromagnetic proportional pressure reducing valve. By setting the unload start pressure to a desired value, the discharge flow rate of the variable pump is increased in advance to enhance the response of the actuator (see, for example, Patent Document 1).
JP-A-11-315805

しかしながら、特許文献1では可変ポンプの吐出圧を設定するために、電磁比例減圧弁を余分に使用しており、該電磁比例減圧弁を制御するコントローラも必要であるのでコスト高になってしまう。
本発明は、電磁比例減圧弁等のバルブを追加することなく、実機操作レバーの操作に対してアクチュエータ毎に要求される特性(応答性、スピード、微操作性など)を向上させるため、予め可変ポンプの吐出圧を設定するアンロード弁を有する油圧駆動装置を提供することを目的とする。
However, in Patent Document 1, an extra electromagnetic proportional pressure reducing valve is used to set the discharge pressure of the variable pump, and a controller for controlling the electromagnetic proportional pressure reducing valve is also required, resulting in an increase in cost.
The present invention is variable in advance to improve the characteristics (responsiveness, speed, fine operability, etc.) required for each actuator for the operation of the actual operation lever without adding a valve such as an electromagnetic proportional pressure reducing valve. An object of the present invention is to provide a hydraulic drive device having an unload valve for setting a discharge pressure of a pump.

前記の目的を達成するために、本発明は、可変ポンプの吐出圧と少なくとも1つのアクチュエータの最高負荷圧との差圧に応じて可変ポンプの吐出圧油をタンクに導くアンロード弁とを有する油圧駆動装置において、
前記アンロード弁は、第一受圧部に作用する可変ポンプの吐出圧によって連通方向に作動し、第二受圧部に受ける最高負荷圧によって遮断方向に作動するように構成され、さらにパイロットポンプの下流に第一の固定絞りを設け、該第一の固定絞りの下流のタンクに
連通する操作切換弁のストロークとの変化とともに回路の面積が連続して変化することで制御される制御圧が第三受圧部に作用して、前記操作切換弁の切換方向毎の回路の面積及び面積変化のゲインの設定により、操作切換弁の切換方向位置によって制御圧が連続して変化して可変ポンプの吐出圧の高さの度合が連続して変化することを特徴とする。
本発明によれば、操作切換弁の変位により回路の面積が連続して徐々に変化するので、制御圧とポンプ圧も徐々に高くすることができる。よって、アクチュエータ毎にあるいは、アクチュエータの作動方向毎に適した可変ポンプの吐出圧に設定でき、アクチュエータに要求される特性(応答性、スピード、微操作性など)を向上させることができる。
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention includes an unload valve that guides the discharge pressure oil of the variable pump to the tank according to the differential pressure between the discharge pressure of the variable pump and the maximum load pressure of the at least one actuator. In hydraulic drive,
The unload valve is configured to operate in the communication direction by the discharge pressure of the variable pump acting on the first pressure receiving portion, and to operate in the cutoff direction by the maximum load pressure received by the second pressure receiving portion, and further downstream of the pilot pump. The control pressure controlled by continuously changing the area of the circuit along with the change in the stroke of the operation switching valve communicating with the tank downstream of the first fixed throttle is provided in the third fixed throttle. Acting on the pressure receiving portion, the control pressure continuously changes according to the switching direction position of the operation switching valve by setting the area of the circuit for each switching direction of the operation switching valve and the gain of the area change, and the discharge pressure of the variable pump It is characterized in that the degree of height changes continuously.
According to the present invention, the circuit area continuously and gradually changes due to the displacement of the operation switching valve, so that the control pressure and the pump pressure can be gradually increased. Therefore, it is possible to set the discharge pressure of the variable pump suitable for each actuator or each operating direction of the actuator, and it is possible to improve the characteristics (responsiveness, speed, fine operability, etc.) required for the actuator.

本発明は、作動させるアクチュエータに合わせて可変ポンプの吐出圧が設定できる。このためアクチュエータの負荷に合わせ適切な可変ポンプの吐出圧を設定できるので、該アクチュエータに要求される特性(応答性、スピード、微操作性など)を向上することができる。   In the present invention, the discharge pressure of the variable pump can be set according to the actuator to be operated. For this reason, it is possible to set an appropriate discharge pressure of the variable pump in accordance with the load of the actuator, so that characteristics (responsiveness, speed, fine operability, etc.) required for the actuator can be improved.

以下、本発明に係る油圧駆動装置につき好適の実施の形態を挙げ、添付図面を参照して詳細に説明する。
図1は、本発明の第一の実施の形態に係る油圧駆動装置10の油圧回路図である。図1に示す油圧駆動装置10は、可変ポンプ11の吐出圧Pと1つのアクチュエータ17の最高負荷圧との差圧を検出する差圧減圧弁25に応じ可変ポンプ11の吐出圧油をタンク18に導くアンロード弁14を有する。
前記アンロード弁14は、第一受圧部21に作用する可変ポンプ11の吐出圧Pが吐出ライン13を経て連通方向(図1で左位置)に作動し、第二受圧部22に受ける最高負荷圧PLmaxによって遮断方向(図1で右位置)に作動するように構成されている。図1中、参照符号24はリリーフ弁を示す。さらに、参照符号26は圧力補償弁を示し、操作切換弁19の前後の差圧を補償する機能を有する。
Preferred embodiments of the hydraulic drive apparatus according to the present invention will now be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a hydraulic circuit diagram of a hydraulic drive apparatus 10 according to the first embodiment of the present invention. The hydraulic drive device 10 shown in FIG. 1 supplies the discharge pressure oil of the variable pump 11 to the tank 18 in accordance with the differential pressure reducing valve 25 that detects the differential pressure between the discharge pressure P of the variable pump 11 and the maximum load pressure of one actuator 17. An unloading valve 14 leading to
The unload valve 14 is operated by the discharge pressure P of the variable pump 11 acting on the first pressure receiving portion 21 via the discharge line 13 in the communication direction (left position in FIG. 1), and the maximum load received by the second pressure receiving portion 22. It is configured to operate in the blocking direction (right position in FIG. 1) by the pressure PLmax. In FIG. 1, reference numeral 24 indicates a relief valve. Further, reference numeral 26 denotes a pressure compensation valve, which has a function of compensating for the differential pressure before and after the operation switching valve 19.

さらに、アクチュエータ(シリンダ)17を作動する操作切換弁19の上流に第一の固定絞り16を設け、該第一の固定絞り16の下流が操作切換弁19によってタンク18へ連通・遮断して、制御される制御圧Puがアンロード弁14の第三受圧部23に作用することで遮断方向に作動することを特徴としている。
図2は、操作切換弁19の拡大回路図を示す。図2において、図2は、操作切換弁19の拡大回路図を示す。図2において、操作切換弁19はスプール(図示しない)の切換位置、例えば左位置19a及び右位置19bには、油路面積が調整される回路27a乃至27c及び27d乃至27eが構成されている。前記左位置19a、右位置19bでは、第一の固定絞り16の下流とタンク18を遮断する回路27e,27eを有し、中立位置では第一の固定絞り16の下流とタンク18を連通する回路27aとなっている。また、中立位置から前記左位置19a、右位置19bになる過渡期(ストローク中間領域)は第一の固定絞り16の下流とタンク18の流路面積を絞る回路27b、27dとなっている。これによって、操作切換弁19が中立のとき第一の固定絞り16の上流側の圧力20が一定ならアンロード弁14の第三受圧部23に作用する制御圧Puが操作切換弁19の中立位置の回路27aから切換位置19aの回路27b乃至27c及び切換位置19bの回路27d乃至27eの流路断面積(図示せず)が連続して変化することになる。
よって、シリンダ17を作動させる操作切換弁19の中立位置から切換位置19a,19bまでストロークするとき、第三受圧部23に作用する制御圧Puが連続して徐々に高くなり、可変ポンプ11の吐出圧も徐々に高く設定でき、シリンダ17に要求される特性(応答性、スピード、微操作性など)を向上することができる。
Further, a first fixed throttle 16 is provided upstream of the operation switching valve 19 that operates the actuator (cylinder) 17, and the downstream of the first fixed throttle 16 is communicated / blocked to the tank 18 by the operation switching valve 19, The control pressure Pu to be controlled acts on the third pressure receiving portion 23 of the unload valve 14 to operate in the shut-off direction.
FIG. 2 shows an enlarged circuit diagram of the operation switching valve 19. 2 shows an enlarged circuit diagram of the operation switching valve 19. In FIG. 2, the operation switching valve 19 has circuits 27a to 27c and 27d to 27e for adjusting the oil passage area at switching positions of a spool (not shown), for example, a left position 19a and a right position 19b. The left position 19a and the right position 19b have circuits 27e and 27e that shut off the tank 18 and the downstream of the first fixed throttle 16, and the circuit that communicates the tank 18 and the downstream of the first fixed throttle 16 at the neutral position. 27a. Further, in the transition period (stroke intermediate region) from the neutral position to the left position 19a and the right position 19b, there are circuits 27b and 27d for reducing the flow area of the tank 18 downstream of the first fixed throttle 16. As a result, if the pressure 20 upstream of the first fixed throttle 16 is constant when the operation switching valve 19 is neutral, the control pressure Pu acting on the third pressure receiving portion 23 of the unload valve 14 is set to the neutral position of the operation switching valve 19. From the circuit 27a, the flow path cross-sectional areas (not shown) of the circuits 27b to 27c at the switching position 19a and the circuits 27d to 27e at the switching position 19b change continuously.
Therefore, when the stroke from the neutral position of the operation switching valve 19 that operates the cylinder 17 to the switching positions 19a and 19b is performed, the control pressure Pu acting on the third pressure receiving unit 23 continuously increases gradually, and the discharge of the variable pump 11 The pressure can also be set gradually higher, and the characteristics required for the cylinder 17 (responsiveness, speed, fine operability, etc.) can be improved.

図3は、アンロード弁14を模写的に示した構造図である。図3おいてアンロード弁14は弁本体32にスプール33が摺動自在に嵌挿され、弁本体32の両端は栓34,35によって液密的に封止されている。スプール33の一側(図3で左側)には、接触子36がばね部材37を介して当接している。前記ばね部材37は栓34と接触子36との間に設けられている。スプール33の他側(図3で右側)にはピストン38が摺動自在に嵌挿されている。   FIG. 3 is a structural diagram schematically showing the unload valve 14. In FIG. 3, the unload valve 14 has a spool 33 slidably inserted into a valve body 32, and both ends of the valve body 32 are sealed fluid-tightly by plugs 34 and 35. A contact 36 is in contact with one side of the spool 33 (left side in FIG. 3) via a spring member 37. The spring member 37 is provided between the stopper 34 and the contact 36. A piston 38 is slidably fitted on the other side of the spool 33 (right side in FIG. 3).

図3において、ピストン38の断面積、すなわちアンロード弁14の第一受圧部21の断面積をA1、スプール33の第二受圧部22の断面積をA2,第三受圧部23の断面積をA3、ばね部材37の弾発力Wspとすると、
アンロード弁14の圧力ポート13とタンクポート28とを連通させる方向に作用する力は、 P×A1・・・式1 で表わせる。
また、アンロード弁14の圧力ポート13とタンクポート28とを遮断させる方向に作用する力は、(Pu×A3)+(PL×A2)+Wsp・・・式2 で表わせる。
従って、アンロード弁14のスプール33における圧力バランスは、
Wsp+(Pu×A3)+(PL×A2)=P×A1・・・式3 となるように、アンロード弁14が制御される。なお、PLは負荷圧力、Puは制御圧を表わす。
ここで、A1=A2=A3とすると、
操作切換弁19が中立時(シリンダ17に圧油の供給がない)は、PL=0であることより、 式3は、P=Pu+Wsp/A1・・・式4 となる。
よって、アンロード状態の可変ポンプ11のポンプ圧Pは、制御圧Puによって、変化することがわかる。
In FIG. 3, the cross-sectional area of the piston 38, that is, the cross-sectional area of the first pressure receiving portion 21 of the unload valve 14 is A1, the cross-sectional area of the second pressure receiving portion 22 of the spool 33 is A2, and the cross-sectional area of the third pressure receiving portion 23. Assuming that the elastic force Wsp of the spring member 37 is A3,
The force acting in the direction in which the pressure port 13 of the unload valve 14 and the tank port 28 communicate with each other can be expressed by P × A1.
Further, the force acting in the direction to shut off the pressure port 13 and the tank port 28 of the unload valve 14 can be expressed by (Pu × A3) + (PL × A2) + Wsp (Equation 2).
Therefore, the pressure balance in the spool 33 of the unload valve 14 is
The unload valve 14 is controlled so that Wsp + (Pu × A3) + (PL × A2) = P × A1 (Equation 3). Note that PL represents a load pressure and Pu represents a control pressure.
Here, if A1 = A2 = A3,
When the operation switching valve 19 is neutral (no pressure oil is supplied to the cylinder 17), since PL = 0, Equation 3 becomes P = Pu + Wsp / A1.
Therefore, it can be seen that the pump pressure P of the variable pump 11 in the unloaded state changes depending on the control pressure Pu.

次に制御圧Puの設定方法を図2により説明する。第一の固定絞り16の上流側の圧力20をPpとし、第一の固定絞り16の面積をa1、操作切換弁19における該第一の固定絞り16側の下流とタンク18間の回路27a乃至27eの面積をa2、タンク18の圧力をPtとすると、面積a1,a2の流量はオリフィスの式より、
Q=c×a1×√(Pp−Pu)・・・式5
Q=c×a2×√(Pu−Pt)・・・式6で表わせる。
Pt=0とすると、 a1×√(Pp−Pu)=a2×√(Pu)
整理すると、Pu=(a1)/(a1+a2)Pp・・・式7で表わせる。
よって、第一の固定絞り16の上流側の圧力20をPpの値と第一の固定絞り16の面積a1と、操作切換弁19における該第一の固定絞り16の下流とタンク18間の回路27a乃至27eの面積との関係で、制御圧Puは決まる。
Next, a method for setting the control pressure Pu will be described with reference to FIG. The pressure 20 on the upstream side of the first fixed throttle 16 is Pp, the area of the first fixed throttle 16 is a1, the circuit 27a to the circuit 18a between the downstream of the first fixed throttle 16 side of the operation switching valve 19 and the tank 18. Assuming that the area of 27e is a2 and the pressure of the tank 18 is Pt, the flow rates of the areas a1 and a2 are calculated from the orifice equation
Q = c × a1 × √ (Pp−Pu) Equation 5
Q = c × a2 × √ (Pu−Pt) (6)
When Pt = 0, a1 × √ (Pp−Pu) = a2 × √ (Pu)
In summary, Pu = (a1 2 ) / (a1 2 + a2 2 ) Pp (7)
Therefore, the pressure 20 on the upstream side of the first fixed throttle 16 is the value of Pp, the area a1 of the first fixed throttle 16, and the circuit between the downstream of the first fixed throttle 16 and the tank 18 in the operation switching valve 19. The control pressure Pu is determined by the relationship with the areas 27a to 27e.

図4は操作切換弁19(図1参照)の構造を示す要部拡大縦断面図で、該操作切換弁19は弁本体39のスプール穴43にスプール40が摺動自在に嵌挿されている。前記スプール40には、第一の固定絞り16側の下流とタンク18(図1参照)の間の回路27a乃至27eの形状が例えば、図6及び図7のように形成されている。
図5では、第一の固定絞り16側、タンク18側の連通孔41、42が間隔をおいて弁本体39に設けられ、これらの連通孔41、42に連通する内部環状溝44、45がスプール40の外周面に臨んでスプール穴43に設けられている。スプール40の軸心方向には間隔をおいて対向する円錐部46、47が形成されている。前記円錐部46、47は、その最小径部が共に同径で軸部48により接続しており、最大径部はスプール40に形成された段付面49、50に接続している。
さらに、スプール40の軸心方向には内部環状溝44、45の幅の一側端面(図5で内部環状溝44の右側及び内部環状溝45の左側を指す)に対して距離X1なる位置に円錐部46、47の最小径部が配設するようにされている。
前記段付面46、47はそれぞれスプール40の軸径よりも若干小さい軸部49、50を形成している。
FIG. 4 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view showing a main part of the structure of the operation switching valve 19 (see FIG. 1). The operation switching valve 19 has a spool 40 slidably inserted into a spool hole 43 of the valve body 39. . In the spool 40, the shapes of the circuits 27a to 27e between the downstream on the first fixed throttle 16 side and the tank 18 (see FIG. 1) are formed as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, for example.
In FIG. 5, communication holes 41, 42 on the first fixed throttle 16 side and tank 18 side are provided in the valve body 39 at intervals, and internal annular grooves 44, 45 communicating with these communication holes 41, 42 are formed. The spool hole 43 is provided facing the outer peripheral surface of the spool 40. Conical portions 46 and 47 are formed in the axial direction of the spool 40 so as to face each other at an interval. The conical portions 46 and 47 have the same minimum diameter and are connected by a shaft portion 48, and the maximum diameter portion is connected to stepped surfaces 49 and 50 formed on the spool 40.
Further, in the axial direction of the spool 40, the inner annular grooves 44, 45 are positioned at a distance X 1 with respect to one end face of the width of the inner annular grooves 44 (referring to the right side of the inner annular groove 44 and the left side of the inner annular groove 45 in FIG. 5). The minimum diameter portions of the conical portions 46 and 47 are arranged.
The stepped surfaces 46 and 47 form shaft portions 49 and 50 that are slightly smaller than the shaft diameter of the spool 40, respectively.

前記円錐部46の最大径部は円錐部47よりも小さく、円錐部46に形成されるスプール40に対する傾斜角は円錐部47より小さく形成されている。このため、例えばスプール40が図5の右方向にストロークした場合は、スプール穴48と円錐部46で流路面積が形成され、ストロークの変化とともに流路面積は小さくなりかつ図6で示す中立位置のスプール穴48とスプール軸心最小径部との隙間より面積が小さいため連通孔41より連通孔42に流れる圧油の流量は徐々に絞られている。逆にスプール40が図5の左方向にストロークした場合は、スプール穴48と円錐部47で流路面積が形成され、ストロークの変化とともに流路面積は小さくなりかつ図5で示す中立位置のスプール穴48とスプール軸心最小径部との隙間より面積が小さいため連通孔41より連通孔42に流れる圧油の流量は徐々に絞られている。また、スプール穴48と円錐部46で形成される流路面積よりスプール穴48と円錐部47で形成される流路面積の方が小さく、スプール40が左方向にストロークした方が、連通孔41より連通孔42に流れる圧油の流量はより絞られていることになる。   The maximum diameter portion of the conical portion 46 is smaller than the conical portion 47, and the inclination angle with respect to the spool 40 formed in the conical portion 46 is smaller than that of the conical portion 47. For this reason, for example, when the spool 40 strokes in the right direction in FIG. 5, the flow path area is formed by the spool hole 48 and the conical portion 46, and the flow path area becomes smaller as the stroke changes, and the neutral position shown in FIG. Since the area is smaller than the clearance between the spool hole 48 and the spool shaft center minimum diameter portion, the flow rate of the pressure oil flowing from the communication hole 41 to the communication hole 42 is gradually reduced. On the contrary, when the spool 40 strokes in the left direction of FIG. 5, the flow path area is formed by the spool hole 48 and the conical portion 47, and the flow path area becomes smaller with the change of the stroke and the spool at the neutral position shown in FIG. Since the area is smaller than the clearance between the hole 48 and the spool shaft minimum diameter portion, the flow rate of the pressure oil flowing from the communication hole 41 to the communication hole 42 is gradually reduced. Further, the flow passage area formed by the spool hole 48 and the conical portion 47 is smaller than the flow passage area formed by the spool hole 48 and the conical portion 46, and the communication hole 41 is formed when the spool 40 strokes in the left direction. The flow rate of the pressure oil flowing through the communication hole 42 is further reduced.

図6では、連通孔41、42のそれぞれに連通し、スプール40の軸心方向に指向するノッチ53及び54が間隔おいて外周部に複数個設けられ、該ノッチ53及び54の一端面と環状溝44及び45の一側端面(図6で内部環状溝44の右側及び内部環状溝45の左側を指す)に対して距離X1を有する。
ノッチ53、54は底部が傾斜面55、56に形成され、該傾斜面55、56の下方端が互いに対向して配設され、これらの下方端が環状溝52によって接続され、該傾斜面55、56の上方端がスプール40の外周面に形成されている。なお、連通孔41、42は間隔を設けてスプール穴43、ノッチ53、54により連通している。
ノッチ54の傾斜面56はノッチ53の傾斜面55よりも傾斜角が小さく形成されている。このため、例えばスプール40が図6の右方向にストロークした場合は、スプール穴48とノッチ53の傾斜面55で流路面積が形成され、ストロークの変化とともに流路面積は小さくなりかつ図6で示す中立位置のスプール穴48とスプール軸心最小径部との隙間より面積が小さいため連通孔41より連通孔42に流れる圧油の流量は徐々に絞られている。
In FIG. 6, a plurality of notches 53 and 54 that communicate with the communication holes 41 and 42 and that are oriented in the axial direction of the spool 40 are provided on the outer peripheral portion at intervals, and are annularly connected to one end surface of the notches 53 and 54. A distance X1 is formed with respect to one end face of the grooves 44 and 45 (referring to the right side of the inner annular groove 44 and the left side of the inner annular groove 45 in FIG. 6).
The notches 53 and 54 have bottoms formed on the inclined surfaces 55 and 56, lower ends of the inclined surfaces 55 and 56 are arranged to face each other, and these lower ends are connected by the annular groove 52. , 56 are formed on the outer peripheral surface of the spool 40. The communication holes 41 and 42 communicate with each other through a spool hole 43 and notches 53 and 54 with a space therebetween.
The inclined surface 56 of the notch 54 is formed with a smaller inclination angle than the inclined surface 55 of the notch 53. For this reason, for example, when the spool 40 strokes in the right direction in FIG. 6, a flow path area is formed by the spool hole 48 and the inclined surface 55 of the notch 53, and the flow path area becomes smaller as the stroke changes and in FIG. Since the area is smaller than the gap between the spool hole 48 in the neutral position shown and the spool shaft center minimum diameter portion, the flow rate of the pressure oil flowing from the communication hole 41 to the communication hole 42 is gradually reduced.

逆にスプール40が図6の左方向にストロークした場合は、スプール穴48とノッチ54の傾斜面56で流路面積が形成され、ストロークの変化とともに流路面積は小さくなりかつ図6で示す中立位置のスプール穴48とスプール軸心最小径部との隙間より面積が小さいため連通孔41より連通孔42に流れる圧油の流量は徐々に絞られている。また、スプール穴48とノッチ53の傾斜面55で形成される流路面積よりスプール穴48とノッチ54の傾斜面56で形成される流路面積の方が小さく、スプールが左方向にストロークした方が、連通孔41より連通孔42に流れる圧油の流量はより絞られていることになる   On the contrary, when the spool 40 strokes in the left direction of FIG. 6, the flow path area is formed by the inclined surface 56 of the spool hole 48 and the notch 54, and the flow path area becomes smaller as the stroke changes and is neutral as shown in FIG. Since the area is smaller than the gap between the spool hole 48 at the position and the spool shaft center minimum diameter portion, the flow rate of the pressure oil flowing from the communication hole 41 to the communication hole 42 is gradually reduced. Also, the flow path area formed by the inclined surface 56 of the spool hole 48 and the notch 54 is smaller than the flow path area formed by the inclined surface 55 of the spool hole 48 and the notch 53, and the spool is stroked to the left. However, the flow rate of the pressure oil flowing from the communication hole 41 to the communication hole 42 is further reduced.

図5に示す操作切換弁19のスプール40に設けた回路27a乃至27eにおいて、第一の固定絞り16の下流とタンク18への流路が絞られ始めるまでの距離をX1とする。さらに、圧力ポートPからシリンダ17(図1参照)のポート(図示しない)への開口面積が開き始めるまでのストロークをX2とする。
ここで、X1<X2の関係に設定すると、図7に示すように負荷圧力PLは操作切換弁19の開口面積が開き始めるX2から上昇し始めるのに対して、制御圧Puは操作切換弁19のスプール40(図5及び図6参照)の距離X1から連続して徐々に高くなり、それに伴い可変ポンプ11のポンプ圧Pも距離X1から徐徐に高くなる。
よって、操作切換弁19の開口面積の開き始めるストロークX2で負荷圧力PLより可変ポンプ11のポンプ圧Pが高くない範囲(ストロークの小さいX4の範囲)では、シリンダ17はゆっくり動き、可変ポンプ11のポンプ圧Pが高くなるとシリンダ17が早く作動する。
なお、図7においてストロークが小さいX4の領域では、アンロード弁14(図1参照)からの流量を逃がしてからシリンダ17への少量供給することができる。
ストロークX5の領域では、負荷圧PLに対し可変ポンプ11のポンプPが高くなりシリンダ17が早く作動するようになる。
In the circuits 27a to 27e provided on the spool 40 of the operation switching valve 19 shown in FIG. 5, the distance from the downstream of the first fixed throttle 16 and the flow path to the tank 18 to the throttle starts to be X1. Furthermore, let X2 be the stroke until the opening area from the pressure port P to the port (not shown) of the cylinder 17 (see FIG. 1) begins to open.
Here, when the relationship X1 <X2 is set, the load pressure PL starts to increase from X2 at which the opening area of the operation switching valve 19 starts to open as shown in FIG. The spool 40 (see FIGS. 5 and 6) gradually increases from the distance X1, and accordingly, the pump pressure P of the variable pump 11 gradually increases from the distance X1.
Accordingly, in the range where the pump pressure P of the variable pump 11 is not higher than the load pressure PL in the stroke X2 at which the opening area of the operation switching valve 19 begins to open (the range of X4 where the stroke is small), the cylinder 17 moves slowly and the variable pump 11 When the pump pressure P increases, the cylinder 17 operates quickly.
In the region of X4 where the stroke is small in FIG. 7, a small amount can be supplied to the cylinder 17 after the flow rate from the unload valve 14 (see FIG. 1) is released.
In the region of the stroke X5, the pump P of the variable pump 11 becomes higher than the load pressure PL, and the cylinder 17 operates quickly.

図8は、従前の操作切換弁の開口面積と可変ポンプの吐出圧との関係を示す説明図である。図8は、操作切換弁19のスプール40(図4参照)の開口面積が開き始めるまでのストロークX2してから負荷圧力PLが上昇し、それに伴い、可変ポンプのポンプ圧Pが遅れて上昇するので、P<PLのストローク範囲X3の間は、シリンダ17(図1参照)は作動しない。
図9は本発明の第二の実施の形態に係る油圧駆動装置60の油圧回路図を示す。図9中、図1の構成要素と同一の構成要素は同一符号を付して詳細な説明を省略する。以下、同様とする。
図9の油圧駆動装置60は、パイロットポンプ12の下流に第一の固定絞り16とは別に第二の固定絞り61を設け、第二の固定絞り61の前後の差圧Prを検出する差圧減圧弁62を設け、前後の差圧Prを第一の固定絞り16へ供給し、該第一の固定絞り16の下流が操作切換弁19によって連通・遮断することで、制御される制御圧Puがアンロード弁14の第三受圧部23に作用することで遮断方向に作動することを特徴する。但し、原動機Eの回転で可変ポンプ11のポンプ圧Pが変わる。なお、参照符号63は第二の固定絞り61の上流側の圧力ラインを示す。
FIG. 8 is an explanatory diagram showing the relationship between the opening area of the conventional operation switching valve and the discharge pressure of the variable pump. In FIG. 8, the load pressure PL increases after the stroke X2 until the opening area of the spool 40 (see FIG. 4) of the operation switching valve 19 starts to open, and accordingly, the pump pressure P of the variable pump increases with a delay. Therefore, the cylinder 17 (see FIG. 1) does not operate during the stroke range X3 where P <PL.
FIG. 9 shows a hydraulic circuit diagram of a hydraulic drive device 60 according to the second embodiment of the present invention. 9, the same components as those of FIG. 1 are denoted by the same reference numerals, and detailed description thereof is omitted. The same shall apply hereinafter.
9 is provided with a second fixed throttle 61 separately from the first fixed throttle 16 downstream of the pilot pump 12, and detects a differential pressure Pr before and after the second fixed throttle 61. A pressure reducing valve 62 is provided to supply the front and rear differential pressure Pr to the first fixed throttle 16, and the control pressure Pu to be controlled is controlled by the operation switching valve 19 communicating and shutting down the downstream of the first fixed throttle 16. Operates on the third pressure receiving portion 23 of the unload valve 14 to operate in the shut-off direction. However, the pump pressure P of the variable pump 11 is changed by the rotation of the prime mover E. Reference numeral 63 indicates a pressure line upstream of the second fixed throttle 61.

図10は本発明の第三の実施の形態に係る油圧駆動装置70の油圧回路図を示す。図10の油圧駆動装置70の特徴は、図1の油圧駆動装置10に油圧モータ71を付加して、該油圧モータ71の操作を行う操作切換弁72、圧力補償弁73を設けている。
この油圧駆動装置70では、操作切換弁19及び72の切換ストロークに応じて、予め可変ポンプの吐出圧を高め、シリンダ17及び油圧モータ71の要求される特性(応答性、微操作性、スピードなど)が向上する。
FIG. 10 is a hydraulic circuit diagram of a hydraulic drive device 70 according to the third embodiment of the present invention. 10 is provided with an operation switching valve 72 and a pressure compensation valve 73 for operating the hydraulic motor 71 by adding a hydraulic motor 71 to the hydraulic drive apparatus 10 of FIG.
In the hydraulic drive device 70, the discharge pressure of the variable pump is increased in advance according to the switching stroke of the operation switching valves 19 and 72, and the required characteristics (responsiveness, fine operability, speed, etc.) of the cylinder 17 and the hydraulic motor 71 are obtained. ) Will improve.

図11は本発明の第四の実施の形態に係る油圧駆動装置80の油圧回路図を示す。図12の油圧駆動装置80の特徴は、図9の油圧駆動装置60に油圧モータ81を付加して、該油圧モータ81の操作を行う操作切換弁82、圧力補償弁83を設けている。   FIG. 11 shows a hydraulic circuit diagram of a hydraulic drive unit 80 according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention. The hydraulic drive device 80 shown in FIG. 12 is characterized in that a hydraulic motor 81 is added to the hydraulic drive device 60 shown in FIG. 9 and an operation switching valve 82 and a pressure compensation valve 83 for operating the hydraulic motor 81 are provided.

図1、図9乃至図11の油圧駆動装置10、60、70及び80によれば、前記第一の固定絞りの断面積と前記操作切換弁によって制御されるタンクへの油路制御部の流路面積の設定条件によって、制御圧が選定可能であるので、操作切換弁が作動した際のタンクへの油路制御部の流路面積を任意に設定することで、制御圧が異なり、その結果、作動させるアクチュエータに合わせ可変ポンプの吐出圧を設定できる。また、前述の第一固定絞りの下流とタンクへの流路面積は、操作切換弁の変位により油路制御部の面積が連続して徐々に変化するので、制御圧とポンプ圧も徐々に高くすることができる。よって、アクチュエータ毎にあるいは、アクチュエータの作動方向毎に適した可変ポンプの吐出圧に設定でき、アクチュエータに要求される特性(応答性、スピード、微操作性など)を向上させることができる。   According to the hydraulic drive devices 10, 60, 70 and 80 of FIGS. 1 and 9 to 11, the flow of the oil passage control unit to the tank controlled by the cross-sectional area of the first fixed throttle and the operation switching valve. Since the control pressure can be selected depending on the setting conditions of the road area, the control pressure differs by arbitrarily setting the flow area of the oil path control part to the tank when the operation switching valve is activated. The discharge pressure of the variable pump can be set according to the actuator to be operated. In addition, the area of the flow path to the downstream of the first fixed throttle and the tank is gradually changed continuously due to the displacement of the operation switching valve, so that the control pressure and the pump pressure are also gradually increased. can do. Therefore, it is possible to set the discharge pressure of the variable pump suitable for each actuator or each operating direction of the actuator, and it is possible to improve the characteristics (responsiveness, speed, fine operability, etc.) required for the actuator.

本発明の第一の実施の形態に係る油圧駆動装置の油圧回路図である。1 is a hydraulic circuit diagram of a hydraulic drive device according to a first embodiment of the present invention. 図1に示す操作切換弁の拡大油圧回路図である。FIG. 2 is an enlarged hydraulic circuit diagram of the operation switching valve shown in FIG. 1. 図1のアンロード弁の概略構造図である。FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of the unload valve in FIG. 1. 図1の操作切換弁の要部拡大縦断面図である。FIG. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of a main part of the operation switching valve in FIG. 1. 図4のスプールの拡大詳細図である。FIG. 5 is an enlarged detail view of the spool of FIG. 4. 図4のスプールの変形例を示す拡大詳細図である。FIG. 5 is an enlarged detail view showing a modified example of the spool of FIG. 4. 図1に示す操作切換弁の開口面積とアンロード弁の可変ポンプの吐出圧との関係を示す1 shows the relationship between the opening area of the operation switching valve shown in FIG. 1 and the discharge pressure of the variable pump of the unload valve. 従前の操作切換弁の開口面積と可変ポンプの吐出圧との関係を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the relationship between the opening area of a conventional operation switching valve, and the discharge pressure of a variable pump. 本発明の第二の実施の形態に係る油圧駆動装置の油圧回路図である。FIG. 4 is a hydraulic circuit diagram of a hydraulic drive device according to a second embodiment of the present invention. 本発明の第三の実施の形態に係る油圧駆動装置の油圧回路図である。FIG. 5 is a hydraulic circuit diagram of a hydraulic drive device according to a third embodiment of the present invention. 本発明の第四の実施の形態に係る油圧駆動装置の油圧回路図である。FIG. 6 is a hydraulic circuit diagram of a hydraulic drive device according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention.

符号の説明Explanation of symbols

10、60、70,80 油圧駆動装置 11 可変ポンプ
14 アンロード弁 16、61 固定絞り
19、72、82 操作切換弁 21、22、23 受圧部
24 リリーフ弁 25、62 差圧減圧弁
26、73、83 圧力補償弁 71、81 油圧モータ
10, 60, 70, 80 Hydraulic drive device 11 Variable pump 14 Unload valve 16, 61 Fixed throttle 19, 72, 82 Operation switching valve 21, 22, 23 Pressure receiving portion 24 Relief valve 25, 62 Differential pressure reducing valve 26, 73 , 83 Pressure compensation valve 71, 81 Hydraulic motor

Claims (1)

可変ポンプの吐出圧と少なくとも1つのアクチュエータの最高負荷圧との差圧に応じて可変ポンプの吐出圧油をタンクに導くアンロード弁とを有する油圧駆動装置において、
前記アンロード弁は、第一受圧部に作用する可変ポンプの吐出圧によって連通方向に作動し、第二受圧部に受ける最高負荷圧によって遮断方向に作動するように構成され、さらにパイロットポンプの下流に第一の固定絞りを設け、該第一の固定絞りの下流のタンクに連通する操作切換弁のストロークとの変化とともに回路の面積が連続して変化することで制御される制御圧が第三受圧部に作用して、前記操作切換弁の切換方向毎の回路の面積及び面積変化のゲインの設定により、操作切換弁の切換方向位置によって制御圧が連続して変化して可変ポンプの吐出圧の高さの度合が連続して変化することを特徴とする油圧駆動装置。


In the hydraulic drive device having an unload valve that guides the discharge pressure oil of the variable pump to the tank according to the differential pressure between the discharge pressure of the variable pump and the maximum load pressure of the at least one actuator,
The unload valve is configured to operate in the communication direction by the discharge pressure of the variable pump acting on the first pressure receiving portion, and to operate in the cutoff direction by the maximum load pressure received by the second pressure receiving portion, and further downstream of the pilot pump. The control pressure controlled by continuously changing the area of the circuit along with the change in the stroke of the operation switching valve communicating with the tank downstream of the first fixed throttle is provided in the third fixed throttle. Acting on the pressure receiving portion, the control pressure continuously changes according to the switching direction position of the operation switching valve by setting the area of the circuit for each switching direction of the operation switching valve and the gain of the area change, and the discharge pressure of the variable pump A hydraulic drive device characterized in that the degree of height changes continuously.


JP2007145072A 2007-05-31 2007-05-31 Hydraulic drive Expired - Fee Related JP5092550B2 (en)

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Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH10220401A (en) * 1997-02-03 1998-08-21 Hitachi Constr Mach Co Ltd Pump control device
JP2001193704A (en) * 2000-01-12 2001-07-17 Kayaba Ind Co Ltd Hydraulic control circuit

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH10220401A (en) * 1997-02-03 1998-08-21 Hitachi Constr Mach Co Ltd Pump control device
JP2001193704A (en) * 2000-01-12 2001-07-17 Kayaba Ind Co Ltd Hydraulic control circuit

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