JP2007007600A - Water cleaning facility utilizing energy of wave - Google Patents

Water cleaning facility utilizing energy of wave Download PDF

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JP2007007600A
JP2007007600A JP2005193667A JP2005193667A JP2007007600A JP 2007007600 A JP2007007600 A JP 2007007600A JP 2005193667 A JP2005193667 A JP 2005193667A JP 2005193667 A JP2005193667 A JP 2005193667A JP 2007007600 A JP2007007600 A JP 2007007600A
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water
wave
purification
overflow
dike
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JP4746362B2 (en
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Yoshito Oshimura
嘉人 押村
Kyoichi Nagase
恭一 永瀬
Yoshihiko Shimada
義彦 島多
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Fujita Corp
株式会社フジタ
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A10/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE at coastal zones; at river basins
    • Y02A10/11Hard structures, e.g. dams, dykes or breakwaters
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a water cleaning facility in which a flow passing through a cleaning means is generated without using artificial energy such as electric power to clean water efficiently. <P>SOLUTION: Two or more stages of submerged banks 1, 2<SB>1</SB>-2<SB>4</SB>for breaking wave W<SB>1</SB>an inflow wave W to generate an overflow Fa in the running direction of the wave are arranged at predetermined intervals in the running direction of the wave so that the water depth at the top end of one of adjacent submerged banks is narrower than that at the top end of the other as it goes to the running direction of the wave. Each of submerged banks 1, 2<SB>1</SB>-2<SB>4</SB>is formed by packing gravel, crushed stones, shells or crushed shells in a basket or a net to have a porous structure, water permeability and a function of removing turbid media by its filtration, sedimentation or adsorption. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2007,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、海洋、湖沼、ため池などの水域における水質浄化を図るための技術に関する。   The present invention relates to a technique for purifying water quality in water areas such as the ocean, lakes, and ponds.
従来から、海洋や湖沼、ため池などの水域における水質を浄化する技術としては、
(1)干潟の造成や植生の確保などによる自然浄化能を利用した浄化工法
(2)汚濁した底泥を浚渫して汚濁物質を除去する浚渫法
(3)底泥の表層に対して汚濁物質を含有しない海砂、川砂又は山砂等で覆砂して、汚濁物質の溶出を抑制し、底泥の酸素消化速度を低減する覆砂法
(4)水質浄化施設や浄化装置を設置し、ポンプにより強制的に循環流を発生させることで水質循環を図り水質を浄化する方法
などが挙げられる。
Traditionally, as a technology to purify the water quality in the ocean, lakes, ponds and other water areas,
(1) Purification method using natural purification ability by creating tidal flats and securing vegetation
(2) A dredging method that removes pollutants by pouring contaminated bottom mud
(3) Sand cover method that covers the surface layer of the bottom mud with sea sand, river sand, mountain sand, etc. that does not contain pollutants, suppresses the elution of pollutants, and reduces the oxygen digestion rate of the bottom mud.
(4) A method of purifying water quality by installing a water purification facility and a purification device and forcibly generating a circulating flow with a pump to purify the water quality.
このうち、(1)の干潟の造成や植生による自然浄化能を利用した浄化工法が、近年、数多く提案されている(例えば特許文献1,2参照)。この浄化技術は、動植物がもつ栄養塩吸収能力や有機物分解能力を活用したもので、電力などのエネルギや化学物質などを使用しないため二次的な環境負荷が小さく、環境問題を解決する上では優れた方法である。   Among these, a number of purification methods using the natural purification ability by the creation of tidal flats and vegetation of (1) have been proposed in recent years (see, for example, Patent Documents 1 and 2). This purification technology utilizes the ability of animals and plants to absorb nutrient salts and decompose organic matter, and because it does not use energy such as electricity or chemical substances, it has a low secondary environmental impact, and it is necessary to solve environmental problems. It is an excellent method.
しかし、強制的に未浄化水を供給したり既浄化水を施設外へ排水する機能がないため、たとえ浄化能力に余裕があったとしても、自然の水交換だけではその能力を十分に発揮できない場合も考えられる。また、干潟は潮汐により干出を繰り返すような地形であるため、設置場所が沿岸付近に限られるという問題が指摘される。   However, since there is no function for forcibly supplying unpurified water or draining the purified water outside the facility, even if there is room for purification capacity, natural water exchange alone cannot fully demonstrate that capacity. Cases are also conceivable. In addition, since the tidal flat is a landform that repeats drying due to tides, the problem is that the installation location is limited to the vicinity of the coast.
また、(2)の浚渫による浄化工法(例えば特許文献3参照)によれば、浚渫した底泥の処分場所の確保が困難であり、底泥の運搬・処理方法(脱水、薬品固化等)に高度な技術と膨大な処理費用が必要になる問題がある。また、浚渫跡に窪地ができるため、汚濁物質が堆積しやすくなったり水の交換が行われにくくなって、底層の溶存酸素濃度が低くなりやすく、生物の生息が困難になったり、堆積した汚濁物質から栄養塩類が溶出しやすくなる問題も指摘される。   In addition, according to the purification method using dredging (2) (see, for example, Patent Document 3), it is difficult to secure a disposal site for dredged bottom mud, and the bottom mud is transported and treated (dehydration, chemical solidification, etc.). There is a problem that requires high technology and enormous processing costs. In addition, the formation of depressions in the ruins makes it easier for pollutants to accumulate, makes it difficult for water to be exchanged, and tends to lower the dissolved oxygen concentration in the bottom layer, making it difficult for organisms to inhabit, There is also a problem that nutrients are easily eluted from substances.
また、(3)の覆砂法(例えば特許文献4,5参照)では、石炭灰などの廃棄物を覆砂として利用した場合、低コストではあるが、天然のものではないため、生態系への悪影響が懸念される。   In addition, in the sand-capping method (3) (see, for example, Patent Documents 4 and 5), when waste such as coal ash is used as sand-capping, it is low-cost but not natural, There are concerns about the adverse effects of
更に、(4)の浄化工法(例えば特許文献6,7参照)は、未浄化水の供給及び既浄化水の排出のために、ポンプで揚水したり、攪拌させて浄化装置への循環流を発生させるため、電力を要するとともに設備の設置費や保守点検管理費がかかるといった問題が指摘される。   Furthermore, the purification method (4) (see, for example, Patent Documents 6 and 7) uses a pump to pump or stir the circulated flow to the purification device in order to supply unpurified water and discharge the purified water. In order to generate this, it is pointed out that there is a problem that it requires electric power as well as equipment installation costs and maintenance inspection management costs.
特開2003−001285JP 2003-001285 A 特開2003−268745JP 2003-268745 A 特開平7−313996JP-A-7-313996 特開2004−305971JP-A-2004-305971 特開2004−113885JP2004-113858A 特開2004−181440JP2004-181440 特開2003−175394JP 2003-175394 A
本発明は、以上のような問題に鑑みてなされたもので、その技術的課題とするところは、電力などの人工エネルギを用いることなく、浄化手段を通過する強制循環流を惹起させ、水質の浄化を効率良く行うことのできる水質浄化施設を提供することにある。   The present invention has been made in view of the above problems, and its technical problem is to induce a forced circulation flow that passes through the purification means without using artificial energy such as electric power, and to improve the water quality. The object is to provide a water purification facility that can efficiently purify water.
上述した技術的課題を有効に解決するための手段として、請求項1の発明に係る波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設は、入射する波浪を砕波させることにより波浪進行方向への越流を発生させる潜堤と、この潜堤の波浪進行方向側に設置された水質浄化手段とを備えるものである。この構成によれば、潜堤を波浪エネルギが発生しやすい水域内に設置することによって、例えば沖側から入射する波浪が砕波され、砕波によって、波浪のエネルギが流れのエネルギに変換されて、潜堤の上を波浪進行方向(例えば岸側)へ向かう越流を誘発する。そしてこれによって、死水域の解消を図ると共に、潜堤の波浪進行方向側(例えば岸側)の水位を上昇させ、その水位差により水質浄化手段を通る流れを発生させると共に、自然のもつ浄化機能を手助けすることができる。さらに、施設内に静穏域を創出することができる。   As means for effectively solving the technical problem described above, the water purification facility using wave energy according to the invention of claim 1 generates an overflow in the wave traveling direction by breaking the incident wave. A submerged dike and water purification means installed on the wave traveling direction side of the submerged dike are provided. According to this configuration, by installing the submarine in a water area where wave energy is likely to be generated, for example, waves incident from the offshore side are broken, and the wave energy is converted into flow energy by breaking waves, and the It induces overflow on the bank in the direction of wave travel (for example, on the shore side). As a result, the dead water area is eliminated, the water level of the submerged dike is increased (for example, on the shore side), and the flow through the water purification means is generated by the difference in water level. Can help. Furthermore, a quiet area can be created in the facility.
また、請求項2の発明に係る波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設は、請求項1に記載の構成において、潜堤が、波浪進行方向に対して所定間隔で、かつ波浪進行方向側ほど天端の水深が浅くなるように複数段設置されたものである。この構成によれば、広域にわたって波浪進行方向への流れを惹起することができる。   The water purification facility using wave energy according to the invention of claim 2 is the structure according to claim 1, wherein the submerged ridges are at a predetermined interval with respect to the wave traveling direction and toward the wave traveling direction. It is installed in multiple stages so that the depth of water is shallow. According to this configuration, it is possible to induce a flow in the wave traveling direction over a wide area.
また、請求項3の発明に係る波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設は、請求項1に記載の構成において、水質浄化手段が、透水性を有すると共に、濾過、沈降又は吸着作用による汚濁物質除去機能を有する水質浄化構造体であって、潜堤が、この水質浄化構造体からなるものである。   The water purification facility using wave energy according to the invention of claim 3 is the structure according to claim 1, wherein the water purification means has water permeability and a contaminant removal function by filtration, sedimentation or adsorption action. The submerged dike consists of this water purification structure.
また、請求項4の発明に係る波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設は、請求項3に記載の構成において、水質浄化構造体が、礫、砕石、貝殻、又は貝殻粉砕物をかご又はネットに中詰めした多孔質構造をなすものである。この構成によれば、礫や砕石に付着して生息する生物のもつ栄養塩吸収能力や有機物分解能力を利用して、あるいは貝殻又は貝殻粉砕物によるリン、アンモニア態窒素、硫化物イオン、あるいは重金属に対する吸着能力によって、水中の浮遊物質や汚濁物質を有効に濾過、吸着あるいは沈降させることができる。   The water purification facility using wave energy according to the invention of claim 4 is the structure according to claim 3, wherein the water purification structure includes gravel, crushed stone, shells or ground shells in a cage or net. It has a packed porous structure. According to this configuration, it is possible to use the nutrient absorption ability and organic matter decomposition ability of living organisms attached to gravel and crushed stone, or to phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, sulfide ions, or heavy metals by shells or shell pulverized products. It is possible to effectively filter, adsorb, or settle suspended substances and pollutants in the water by the adsorption capacity against water.
請求項1〜4の発明に係る波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設によれば、波浪のエネルギを流れのエネルギに変換することによって、電力などの人工エネルギや化学物質を用いることなく、浄化構造体を通過する流れを発生させるものであるため、浄化構造体による水質浄化を効率良く行うと共に水質の循環を行い、しかも砕波によって水中に空気が取り込まれるので、曝気効果による浄化作用も期待できる。また、潜堤の消波機能によって、静穏水域を創出することができるので、懸濁物質の沈降による水質浄化も期待できる。   According to the water purification facility using wave energy according to the inventions of claims 1 to 4, the purification structure is obtained without converting artificial energy such as electric power or chemical substances by converting the energy of the wave into the energy of the flow. Therefore, the purification structure can efficiently purify the water quality and circulate the water quality. Moreover, since air is taken into the water by breaking waves, a purification action by the aeration effect can be expected. In addition, since the calm water area can be created by the wave-dissipating function of the submerged dike, water quality purification by sedimentation of suspended matter can be expected.
以下、本発明に係る波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設の好ましい実施の形態について、図面を参照しながら説明する。図1は、本発明の実施の形態による水質浄化施設の平面配置図、図2は、図1におけるII−II断面図、図3は、図2における越流潜堤1の作用を、水面よりも高い堤体1’と比較して示す説明図、図4は、高水位時の状態を図1におけるII−II線で切断して示す断面図である。   Hereinafter, a preferred embodiment of a water purification facility using wave energy according to the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a plan view of a water purification facility according to an embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along II-II in FIG. 1, and FIG. FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view showing a state at a high water level cut along the line II-II in FIG. 1.
まず図1及び図2において、参照符号Gは水域の底部地盤、参照符号1,2(2〜2)は底部地盤G上に設置された潜堤である。これらの潜堤1,2(2〜2)は、天端の高さが、通常の水位の変動において最も低水位となった時の水面より低いものとなっている。 First, in FIGS. 1 and 2, reference numeral G is a bottom ground of a water area, and reference numerals 1 and 2 (2 1 to 2 4 ) are submerged banks installed on the bottom ground G. In these submerged dikes 1 and 2 (2 1 to 2 4 ), the height of the top is lower than the water surface when the water level becomes the lowest in the normal fluctuation of the water level.
潜堤1,2(2〜2)のうち、最も沖側に位置する潜堤1(以下、越流潜堤という)は、好ましくは石積みや、蛇かご、あるいはコンクリート構造物などからなるものであって、沖側から移動して来る波浪Wを強制的に砕波Wさせ、波浪エネルギを、流れのエネルギに変換して越流潜堤1上の岸向きの越流Faを発生させる作用を有する。 Of the submerged dikes 1 and 2 (2 1 to 2 4 ), the most submerged submerged dike 1 (hereinafter referred to as the overflow dike) is preferably made of masonry, a snakecage, or a concrete structure. The wave W moving from the offshore side is forced to break the wave W 1 , and the wave energy is converted into the flow energy to generate a shore-facing overflow Fa 1 on the overflow submerged dike 1 Have the effect of
ここで、図3(B)に示されるように、波浪Wが最も大きい沖側に、透水性がなく天端が水面上に露出した堤体1’を設置した場合は、波浪Wを完全に反射してしまうので、衝撃が大きく、しかも堤体1’の前面側の地盤に洗掘Hを生じることによって不安定になるおそれもあるが、越流潜堤1は、図3(A)に示されるように、波浪Wを完全に反射してしまうのではなく、施設内への越流及び(又は)透過を許容しているため、施設へ作用する波力を低減し、かつ洗掘を抑制することが可能である。   Here, as shown in FIG. 3 (B), when the levee body 1 ′ having no water permeability and the top end exposed on the water surface is installed on the offshore side where the wave W is the largest, the wave W is completely removed. Since it is reflected, the impact is large, and there is a risk that it will become unstable due to scouring H in the ground on the front side of the levee body 1 ′, but the overflow dike 1 is shown in FIG. As shown in the figure, the wave W is not completely reflected but allowed to overflow and / or penetrate into the facility, so that the wave force acting on the facility is reduced and scouring is performed. It is possible to suppress.
図1及び図2に示されるように、潜堤2〜2(以下、第一浄化潜堤という)は、越流潜堤1の岸側に位置して、岸側へ向けて所定間隔で複数段設けられている。このうち、最も沖側(一段目)の第一浄化潜堤2は、天端の水深が越流潜堤1の天端の水深よりも浅く、二段目の第一浄化潜堤2は、天端の水深が一段目の第一浄化潜堤2の天端の水深よりも浅く、以下同様、相対的に岸側に位置するものほど、天端の水深が浅くなっている。そして、第一浄化潜堤2〜2のうち最も後段の潜堤2は、図2に一点鎖線で示す通常の静水面WLと略同等の高さとなっている。 As shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the submerged dikes 2 1 to 2 4 (hereinafter referred to as the first purification submerged dike) are located on the shore side of the overflow dike 1 and have a predetermined interval toward the shore side. A plurality of stages are provided. Of these, the first purification latent bank 2 of the most offshore (first stage) is shallower than the depth of the depth of the top end crest of overflow latent bank 1, first two-stage purification latent Tsutsumi 2 2 the depth of the top end shallower than depth of the first purification latent Tsutsumi 2 1 of the top end of the first stage, the more those same hereinafter, positioned relatively shore side, depth of the top end is shallower. Then, Sentsutsumi 2 4 most downstream of the first purification latent crest 21 to 24 has a height of a normal still water surface WL substantially equal indicated by a chain line in FIG.
また、第一浄化潜堤2〜2は、礫、砕石、貝殻、又は貝殻粉砕物をかご又はネットに中詰めした多孔質構造の浄化構造体からなるものであって、礫や砕石に付着して生息する生物のもつ栄養塩吸収能力や有機物分解能力を利用して、あるいは貝殻又は貝殻粉砕物によるリン、アンモニア態窒素、硫化物イオン、あるいは重金属に対する吸着能力によって、水中の浮遊物質や汚濁物質を有効に濾過、吸着あるいは沈降させる機能を有する。 The first purification submersibles 2 1 to 2 4 are composed of a purification structure having a porous structure in which gravel, crushed stone, shells, or crushed shells are packed in a cage or net, Utilizing the ability to absorb nutrients and decompose organic matter of living organisms that adhere to them, or the ability to adsorb phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, sulfide ions, or heavy metals by shells or shell crushed materials, It has the function of effectively filtering, adsorbing or sedimenting pollutants.
第一浄化潜堤2〜2の間には、これら第一浄化潜堤2〜2と直交する方向に延びる複数の第二浄化潜堤3が設置されている。この第二浄化潜堤3も、第一浄化潜堤2〜2と同様、礫、砕石、貝殻、又は貝殻粉砕物をかご又はネットに中詰めした多孔質構造の浄化構造体からなるものであって、その天端の水深は、第一浄化潜堤2〜2と対応して、岸側へ向けて徐々に浅くなっている。 Between the first purification latent crest 21 to 24, a plurality of second purification latent Tsutsumi 3 extending in a direction perpendicular to these first purification latent crest 21 to 24 it is installed. Similarly to the first purification submersibles 2 1 to 2 4 , the second purification submersible 3 is composed of a purification structure having a porous structure in which gravel, crushed stones, shells, or crushed shells are packed in a cage or net. a is, depth of the top end, corresponding to the first purification latent crest 21 to 24, is gradually shallower toward the shore side.
第一浄化潜堤2〜2及び第二浄化潜堤3の設置領域の岸側には、堤体4が設置されている。この堤体4も、第一浄化潜堤2〜2及び第二浄化潜堤3と同様、礫、砕石、貝殻、又は貝殻粉砕物をかご又はネットに中詰めした多孔質構造の浄化構造体からなるものであって、その天端は、水面から常時露出する高さとなっている。また、この堤体4は、図1に示されるように、両端が越流潜堤1の両端と対向又は連続して構築されている。 On the shore side of the installation area of the first purification submersibles 2 1 to 2 4 and the second purification submersible 3, a bank body 4 is installed. This dam body 4 also has a porous purification structure in which gravel, crushed stone, shells, or crushed shells are packed in a cage or net in the same manner as the first purification submersibles 2 1 to 2 4 and the second purification submersible 3. It consists of a body, and its top edge is always exposed from the surface of the water. Further, as shown in FIG. 1, the dam body 4 is constructed such that both ends thereof are opposed to or continuous with both ends of the overflow overflow dike 1.
更に、越流潜堤1と、その背後にある一段目の第一浄化潜堤2の間には、底泥の巻き上げ防止や底泥からの汚濁物質溶出を抑制するための覆砂材5が敷設されている。この覆砂材5は、底部地盤G上に海砂、川砂、山砂、又は貝殻粉砕物などを適当な層厚で覆砂状に撒いて敷設したものである。 Furthermore, the overflow latent bank 1, between the first purification latent Tsutsumi 2 1 of the first stage behind it, Kutsugaesuna for suppressing contaminants eluted from hoisting prevention and bottom mud sediment material 5 Is laid. This sand-capping material 5 is constructed by laying sea sand, river sand, mountain sand, or crushed shells on the bottom ground G so as to cover the sand with an appropriate layer thickness.
なお、越流潜堤1は、先に述べたように、基本的には石積みや、蛇かご、あるいはコンクリート構造物などからなるものとするが、波浪Wの衝突時の衝撃に対する安定性が確保できれば、第一浄化潜堤2〜2、第二浄化潜堤3及び堤体4と同様、礫、砕石、貝殻、又は貝殻粉砕物をかご又はネットに中詰めした多孔質構造の浄化構造体からなるものとしても良い。また、好ましくは、最も大きな波浪エネルギを受ける越流潜堤1の前面下部には、反射波による底泥の洗掘を防止するための布団かご6を設置する。布団かご6は、礫あるいは砕石などを金属かごに中詰めしたものである。 As mentioned above, the overflow overflow dike 1 is basically made of masonry, snake basket, concrete structure, etc., but stability against impact at the time of wave W collision is ensured. If possible, a purification structure having a porous structure in which gravels, crushed stones, shells, or crushed shells are packed in a cage or net in the same manner as the first purification submersibles 2 1 to 2 4 , the second purification submersible 3 and the bank 4 It may be composed of a body. Preferably, a futon basket 6 for preventing scouring of bottom mud due to reflected waves is installed in the lower part of the front surface of the overflow dike 1 that receives the greatest wave energy. The futon basket 6 is a metal basket filled with gravel or crushed stone.
以上のように構成された水質浄化施設によれば、図2に示されるように、最も大きな波浪エネルギを受ける越流潜堤1において、砕波Wによってこの波浪エネルギの一部が流れのエネルギに変換されるので、波浪エネルギが減衰されると共に、越流潜堤1上の岸向きの越流Faが発生する。そして、越流潜堤1の岸側には、この越流潜堤1よりも天端の水深が浅い第一浄化潜堤2が設置されているので、越流潜堤1である程度減衰された波浪は、第一浄化潜堤2において再び砕波Wされる。したがって、ここでも波浪エネルギの一部が流れのエネルギに変換され、岸向きの越流Faを発生する。その後段の第一浄化潜堤2〜2でも同様の作用によって、岸向きの越流Faを発生する。 According to the thus constructed water purification facilities as described above, as shown in FIG. 2, the overflow latent bank 1 receives the greatest wave energy, the wave breaking W 1 to the energy of a part flow of the waves energy As a result of the conversion, the wave energy is attenuated and a shore-facing overflow Fa 1 on the overflow dike 1 is generated. Further, since the first purification submerged dike 21 having a shallower depth than the overflow dike 1 is installed on the shore side of the overflow dike 1, it is attenuated to some extent by the overflow dike 1. and waves are again breaking W 2 in the first purification latent Tsutsumi 2 1. Therefore, part of the wave energy is also converted into flow energy here, and a shore-facing overflow Fa 2 is generated. By the first purifying latent Tsutsumi 2 2 21 to 24, even the same effects of a subsequent stage, generating a overflow Fa shore direction.
また、海洋の場合は潮汐によって、湖沼の場合は降雨などによって、静水面WLが図2に示されるレベルより高くなった場合は、越流潜堤1の天端の水深が深くなってしまうので、この越流潜堤1では顕著な砕波が起こらなくなるが、その背後の第一浄化潜堤2〜2は、相対的に岸側に位置するものほど、天端の水深が浅くなっているので、図4に示されるように、何段目かで砕波Wされ、ここで岸向きの越流Faが発生する。そしてその後段に、更に天端の水深が浅い潜堤が存在する場合は、ここでも再び砕波Wされ、岸向きの越流Faを発生する。 In addition, when the hydrostatic surface WL becomes higher than the level shown in FIG. 2 due to tides in the case of ocean or rain in the case of lakes, the water depth at the top of the overflow dike 1 becomes deep. In this overflow dike 1, no significant breaking waves occur, but the depth of the top edge of the first purification dike 2 2 to 2 4 behind it is relatively shallower as it is located on the shore side. because there, as shown in FIG. 4, the wave breaking W 1 at what stage overflow Fa 1 shore direction occurs here. And a subsequent stage, if still water depth of the top end there is a shallow latent Tsutsumi, again is breaking W 2 again generates an overflow Fa 2 shore direction.
このため、上述のような砕波が繰り返されることによって、水面付近では、岸向きの継続的な流れが発生し、沖側へ戻ろうとする流れが拘束されるので、図2又は図4に示される静水面WLは、各潜堤1,2,2,・・・の岸側で上昇し、最も後段の第一浄化潜堤2よりも高くなる。そして、このような水位上昇によって、各潜堤1,2,2,・・・を低水位側(沖側)へ向けて透過する流れFbが発生する。 For this reason, since the breaking wave as described above is repeated, a continuous flow toward the shore is generated in the vicinity of the water surface, and the flow to return to the offshore side is restrained. still water surface WL is Kakusentsutsumi 1,2 1, 2 2, rises in the shore side of ... is higher than the first purification latent Tsutsumi 2 4 most subsequent stage. And by such a water level rise, the flow Fb which permeate | transmits each submerged dike 1 , 2 1 , 2 2 ... Toward the low water level side (offshore side) is generated.
一方、当該施設が設置されていない水域では、波浪Wは殆ど減衰しないため、水位の上昇や岸向きの流れは発生しない。したがって、施設内と施設外との間にも水位差ΔWLが発生するので、これによって、図1及び図2に示されるように、堤体4及びその付近の潜堤を、岸側へ向けて透過する流れFcが発生する。   On the other hand, in the water area where the facility is not installed, the waves W are hardly attenuated, so that the water level does not rise and the shoreward flow does not occur. Therefore, since a water level difference ΔWL also occurs between the inside of the facility and the outside of the facility, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the dam body 4 and the submerged levee in the vicinity thereof are directed toward the shore side. A permeating flow Fc is generated.
以上のような作用によって、施設内と施設外との間で、水の交換が行われる。しかもこのような流れの過程で、水が、第一浄化潜堤2〜2、第二浄化潜堤3及び堤体4を透過するので、礫や砕石に付着して生息する生物のもつ栄養塩吸収能力や有機物分解能力によって、あるいは貝殻又は貝殻粉砕物によるリン、アンモニア態窒素、硫化物イオン、あるいは重金属に対する吸着能力によって、水質が有効に浄化される。そして、浄化された水は岸側へ向けて排出(流れFc)されるため、電力などの人工エネルギを用いることなく、水質の循環(交換)を行うことができる。 With the above operation, water is exchanged between the inside and outside of the facility. Moreover, in the course of such a flow, water permeates through the first purification submergence 2 2 to 2 4 , the second purification submergence dike 3 and the levee body 4 , so that living organisms attached to gravel and crushed stones have Water quality is effectively purified by the ability to absorb nutrients and decompose organic substances, or by the ability to adsorb phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, sulfide ions, or heavy metals by shells or shells. Since the purified water is discharged (flow Fc) toward the shore side, the water quality can be circulated (exchanged) without using artificial energy such as electric power.
また、これら越流潜堤1、第一浄化潜堤2〜2、第二浄化潜堤3及び堤体4が、離岸堤や人工リーフのように消波機能を奏するので、施設内および施設背後に、静穏域を創出することができ、懸濁物質などの沈降による水質浄化も期待できる。 In addition, since these overflow submerged dike 1, first purification submerged dike 2 2 to 2 4 , second purification submerged dike 3 and embankment body 4 have a wave-dissipating function like offshore dikes and artificial reefs, In addition, a quiet area can be created behind the facility, and water purification by sedimentation of suspended matter can be expected.
なお第一浄化潜堤2〜2、第二浄化潜堤3、堤体4を構成する浄化構造体としては、上述の形態で説明したような礫、砕石、貝殻、又は貝殻粉砕物をかご又はネットに中詰めした多孔質構造に限定されるものではなく、植生浮島や石積みなどの他の浄化手段に代えても良い。 Note first purification latent crest 21 to 24, the second purification latent Tsutsumi 3, the cleaning structure constituting the dam body 4, gravel as described in the above-described embodiment, crushed stone, shell, or shell pulverized to It is not limited to a porous structure packed in a cage or net, and may be replaced with other purification means such as vegetation floating islands or masonry.
また、通常、海の沿岸では波浪は沖側から入射するため、基本的には図示の形態のように構成することが好ましいが、本発明ではこれには限定しない。すなわち、波浪の進行方向は風向によっても異なるため、波浪の進行が岸向き以外の方向へ卓越している場合は、潜堤及び水質浄化手段を前記卓越方向と対応して設置しても良い。   In general, since waves enter from the offshore side on the coast of the sea, it is basically preferable to configure as illustrated, but the present invention is not limited to this. That is, since the traveling direction of the waves varies depending on the wind direction, when the traveling of the waves is dominant in a direction other than the shore direction, the submerged dike and the water quality purification means may be installed corresponding to the dominant direction.
図5は、水深1.3m程度の汚濁した調整池に本発明を適用した実施例を示す平面図、図6は、図5におけるVI−VI線で切断して示す断面図、図7は、解析結果を示す説明図である。   FIG. 5 is a plan view showing an embodiment in which the present invention is applied to a polluted pond having a water depth of about 1.3 m, FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken along line VI-VI in FIG. 5, and FIG. It is explanatory drawing which shows a result.
この実施例においては、図5及び図6に示されるように、調整池内に全長L=31m、幅L=10mの領域に、最も沖側の越流潜堤1と、二段の第一浄化潜堤2と、最も岸側の堤体4と、これら越流潜堤1、第一浄化潜堤2及び堤体4の幅方向両端間の第二浄化潜堤3からなる浄化施設を設置した。越流潜堤1、第一浄化潜堤2、第二浄化潜堤3及び堤体4は、すべて、カキ殻を金属かごに中詰めしたカキ殻フィルタによって構築した。 In this embodiment, as shown in FIG. 5 and FIG. 6, in the adjustment pond, in the region of the total length L 1 = 31 m and the width L 2 = 10 m, the most upstream overflow dike 1 and the second stage A purification facility comprising a single submersible dike 2, a shore body 4 on the most shore side, a crossover submerged dike 1, a first submersible dike 2 and a second submersible dike 3 between both widthwise ends of the dike body 4 installed. The overflow overflow dike 1, the first purification submersible 2, the second purification submersible 3, and the bank 4 were all constructed by oyster shell filters in which oyster shells were packed in a metal cage.
越流潜堤1の厚さt=3m、第一浄化潜堤2の厚さt=1m、越流潜堤1、第一浄化潜堤2及び堤体4の設置間隔P=10mとした。越流潜堤1の天端は、静水面WLからの水深D=0.2mとし、入射波浪を強制的に砕波させるようにした。また、その前面の5m程度の領域に、布団かご6を敷設した。 The thickness of the overflow latent bank 1 t 1 = 3m, the thickness of the first purification latent Tsutsumi 2 t 2 = 1 m, overflow latent bank 1, and the installation interval P = 10 m of the first purification latent bank 2 and dam 4 did. The top edge of the overflow dike 1 was set to a water depth D 1 = 0.2 m from the still water surface WL, and the incident waves were forced to break. In addition, a futon basket 6 was laid in an area of about 5 m in front of it.
越流潜堤1の背後に配置された一段目の第一浄化潜堤2の天端は、静水面WLからの水深D=0.1mとし、すなわち越流潜堤1より天端の水深を浅くすることで波高が減衰しても連続的に砕波を発生するようにした。更にその背後に配置された二段目の第一浄化潜堤2の天端は、静水面WLと同じ高さ(底部地盤Gから1.3m)として、一段目の第一浄化潜堤2での砕波・越流による水位の上昇に対応できるようにした。また、最も岸側の堤体4は、静水面WLからの突出高さhを0.3mとした。 The top end of the first purification submerged dike 2 placed behind the overflow submerged dike 1 has a water depth D 1 = 0.1 m from the still water surface WL. By making it shallow, even if the wave height is attenuated, the wave breaks continuously. Furthermore, the top end of the second first submersible dike 2 arranged behind it is the same height as the still water surface WL (1.3 m from the bottom ground G). Added support for rising water levels due to breaking waves and overflow. Further, the most shore-side dam body 4 has a protruding height h of 0.3 m from the still water surface WL.
上述のように、越流潜堤1と、一段目及び二段目の第一浄化潜堤2と、堤体4に、岸側ほど高くなるように互いに段差を設けた。この実施例において、波浪の周期を2秒、波高を0.3mとして解析した結果、浄化施設内で5cm程度の水位上昇があり、図7に示されるような水流が発生することが確認された。   As described above, the overflow submerged dike 1, the first and second first submersible submerged dike 2 and the dike body 4 were provided with steps so as to be higher toward the shore side. In this example, the wave period was 2 seconds and the wave height was 0.3 m. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a water level rise of about 5 cm in the purification facility, and a water flow as shown in FIG. 7 was generated.
本発明に係る波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設の好ましい実施の形態を示す平面配置図である。It is a plane layout view showing a preferred embodiment of a water purification facility using wave energy according to the present invention. 図1におけるII−II線で切断して示す断面図である。It is sectional drawing cut | disconnected and shown by the II-II line | wire in FIG. 図2における越流潜堤1の作用を、水面よりも高い堤体1’と比較して示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the effect | action of the overflow dike 1 in FIG. 2 compared with the bank body 1 'higher than a water surface. 高水位時の作用を図1におけるII−II線で切断して示す断面図である。It is sectional drawing which shows the effect | action at the time of a high water level cut | disconnected by the II-II line | wire in FIG. 水深1.3m程度の汚濁した調整池に本発明を適用した実施例を示す平面図である。It is a top view which shows the Example which applied this invention to the polluted adjustment pond with a water depth of about 1.3 m. 図5におけるVI−VI線で切断して示す断面図である。It is sectional drawing cut | disconnected and shown by the VI-VI line in FIG. 実施例による解析結果を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the analysis result by an Example.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1 越流潜堤(潜堤)
2(2〜2) 第一浄化潜堤(潜堤)
3 第二浄化潜堤3(潜堤)
4 堤体
5 覆砂材
6 布団かご
1 Overflow dike (submarine)
2 (2 1 to 2 4 ) First purification submerged dike
3 Second purification submarine 3 (submarine)
4 Dyke body 5 Sand covering material 6 Duvet basket

Claims (4)

  1. 入射する波浪を砕波させることにより波浪進行方向への越流を発生させる潜堤と、この潜堤の波浪進行方向側に設置された水質浄化手段とを備えることを特徴とする波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設。   Utilizing wave energy characterized by comprising a submerged dike that breaks incident waves and generating overflow in the wave traveling direction, and water purification means installed on the wave traveling direction side of this submerged dike Water purification facility.
  2. 潜堤が、波浪進行方向に対して所定間隔で、かつ波浪進行方向側ほど天端の水深が浅くなるように複数段設置されたことを特徴とする請求項1に記載の波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設。   2. The wave energy according to claim 1, wherein the submerged dike is installed in a plurality of stages at a predetermined interval with respect to the wave traveling direction and so that the water depth at the top of the wave becomes shallower toward the wave traveling direction side. Water purification facility.
  3. 水質浄化手段が、透水性を有すると共に、濾過、沈降又は吸着作用による汚濁物質除去機能を有する水質浄化構造体であって、潜堤が、この水質浄化構造体からなることを特徴とする請求項1に記載の波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設。   The water quality purification means is a water quality purification structure having water permeability and a function of removing contaminants by filtration, sedimentation or adsorption action, and the submerged dike consists of this water quality purification structure. A water purification facility using wave energy as described in 1.
  4. 水質浄化構造体が、礫、砕石、貝殻、又は貝殻粉砕物をかご又はネットに中詰めした多孔質構造をなすことを特徴とする請求項3に記載の波浪エネルギを利用した水質浄化施設。   4. The water purification facility using wave energy according to claim 3, wherein the water purification structure has a porous structure in which gravel, crushed stone, shells, or crushed shells are packed in a basket or net.
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CN104310591A (en) * 2014-11-07 2015-01-28 广州太和水生态科技有限公司 Method for establishing urban landscape water body ecological system

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