JP2006294361A - Light guide plate and display device - Google Patents

Light guide plate and display device Download PDF

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JP2006294361A
JP2006294361A JP2005111750A JP2005111750A JP2006294361A JP 2006294361 A JP2006294361 A JP 2006294361A JP 2005111750 A JP2005111750 A JP 2005111750A JP 2005111750 A JP2005111750 A JP 2005111750A JP 2006294361 A JP2006294361 A JP 2006294361A
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light
guide plate
light guide
diffraction grating
surface
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JP4556749B2 (en
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Eri Miyamoto
恵理 宮本
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Toppan Printing Co Ltd
凸版印刷株式会社
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide such a light guide plate as is capable of restraining generation of noise light, raising utilization factor of light, and obtaining high-brightness display light through appropriate control of reflection at its terminal face, as well as a backlight unit (a display device) using the same.
SOLUTION: In the light guide plate used for the backlight unit of an edge-lighting system arranging a light source at its one end face and reflecting light incident on it uniformly toward its top face to make it a plane light source, a reflective diffraction grating is arranged at a terminal face as an end face opposite to the light source.
COPYRIGHT: (C)2007,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、液晶表示装置に代表される表示装置に主として採用されるエッジライト方式のバックライト・ユニットに用いられる導光板の改良に関する。 The present invention relates to an improvement of the light guide plate used in a backlight unit of an edge light type is mainly employed in a display device typified by a liquid crystal display device.

現在、広く普及している携帯電話や携帯情報端末では、照明装置として主にバックライト方式の照明装置(以下、背面照明装置とも称する)が用いられている。 Currently, mobile phones and portable information terminals that are widely used, mainly illumination device of a backlight system (hereinafter, referred to as backlight unit) is used as a lighting device.
このような背面照明装置としての光源は、高輝度でしかも輝度ムラがなく平面全体を照明する必要がある。 Such a light source as backlight device, it is necessary to illuminate the entire plane without high brightness, yet uneven brightness.
さらに、表示装置の大型化・薄型化の要求に伴って、導光板にも大型化・薄型化が求められている。 Moreover, with the demand for larger and thinner display devices, large and thinner it is also required on the light guide plate.

図1に一般的な背面照明装置の構成を示す。 It shows a configuration of a typical backlight device in FIG.
この背面照明装置は、主に光源1,導光板2,反射シート4,拡散シート5,プリズムシート6からなっている。 The backlight device is mainly a light source 1, the light guide plate 2, a reflective sheet 4, a diffusion sheet 5, which is a prism sheet 6.

光源としては、消費電力や実装スペースなどの点から主に発光ダイオード(LED)や冷陰極管ランプ(CCFL)が用いられ、これを透明樹脂からなる導光板の端面に配し、導光板に光を入射させることで、薄型化を実現している。 As the light source, mainly a light emitting diode (LED) or a cold-cathode tube lamp (CCFL) is used in view of power consumption and installation space, which placed on the end face of the light guide plate made of a transparent resin, light guide plate be to incident realizes a thinner.

光源1からの光は、導光板2の端面から導光板2に入射する。 Light from the light source 1 is incident from the end face of the light guide plate 2 to the light guide plate 2.
導光板2は、端面から入射した光を平面に広げて射出するための透明な板であり、主としてアクリル樹脂もしくはポリカーボネートが用いられる。 The light guide plate 2 is a transparent plate for injecting spreading light incident from the end surface in a plane, an acrylic resin or polycarbonate is mainly used.
導光板2の裏面(もしくは、反対側の前面。あるいは、裏面・前面の双方。以下、裏面で代表して説明する。)には、ドットパターンもしくはプリズムパターンもしくは回折格子パターン3が形成されている。 The rear surface of the light guide plate 2 (or the front surface of the opposite side. Alternatively, both the back-front. Below. Which will be described as a representative on the back), the dot pattern or a prism pattern or a diffraction grating pattern 3 is formed .
導光板2に入射した光は、内部で全反射を繰り返して伝播していき、裏面のパターン3により、散乱もしくは反射もしくは回折して、導光板2の上面から射出される。 The light incident on the light guide plate 2, continue to propagate while repeating total internal reflection, the back surface of the pattern 3, the scattering or reflecting or diffracting, it is emitted from the upper surface of the light guide plate 2.
この際、導光板2に入射した光を均一に上面へ反射させて、導光板2の上面から射出する(画面内での輝度分布を均一化する)ための各種工夫が、裏面のパターン3には施されることが一般的である。 In this case, the light incident on the light guide plate 2 uniformly reflected to the upper surface, is emitted from the upper surface of the light guide plate 2 (uniformizing the luminance distribution in the screen) Various ideas for the, to the back surface of the pattern 3 it is general that are applied.

反射シート4は導光板3の裏面側に設けられ、導光板2の裏面から漏れた光を導光板2の方へ戻す働きをしている。 Reflecting sheet 4 has the function to return provided on the back side of the light guide plate 3, light leaked from the rear surface of the light guide plate 2 toward the light guide plate 2.

拡散シート5は、導光板2の射出面側に設けられ、輝度の面内分布を均一化する役割を持っている。 The diffusion sheet 5 is provided on the exit surface side of the light guide plate 2 has a role of uniformizing the in-plane distribution of luminance. 導光板2の上面にも拡散パターンが設けられていることが多く、拡散シート5とあわせて輝度ムラを低減させている。 Also on the upper surface of the light guide plate 2 often it is provided diffusion pattern, thereby reducing the uneven brightness in conjunction with the diffusion sheet 5.

プリズムシート6は、拡散シート5の上側に設けられ、拡散シート5から射出された光に指向性を持たせて射出面のピーク輝度を上げる働きをしている。 Prism sheet 6 is provided on the upper side of the diffusion sheet 5, which serve to increase the peak intensity of the exit surface to have a directivity to the light emitted from the diffusion sheet 5. また、拡散シート5から射出される光の進行方向を導光板の表面にほぼ垂直な方向へ揃える役割を果たしている。 Also plays a role of aligning in a direction substantially perpendicular to the surface of the traveling direction of the light guide plate of the light emitted from the diffusion sheet 5.

導光板2に入射した光を均一に上面へ反射させるための、導光板2の裏面に形成されるパターン3には、上述のように、ドットパターン,プリズムパターン,回折格子パターンなど各種形態があり、導光板の裏面にホログラムが形成されたタイプとして、特許文献1の提案が知られている。 For uniformly reflected to the upper surface of the light incident on the light guide plate 2, the pattern 3 is formed on the rear surface of the light guide plate 2, as described above, the dot pattern, a prism pattern, there are various forms such as a diffraction grating pattern as type hologram is formed on the rear surface of the light guide plate it is known proposal of Patent Document 1.
特許文献1による導光板は、 The light guide plate according to Patent Document 1,
透明板状体を備え、その一面にホログラムが設けられ、その板状体の一端の近傍に配置された光源から導入された光がその板状体中を繰り返し全反射しながら伝搬し、その伝搬される光の一部が前記ホログラムにより前記板状体の外部へ回折されるように構成されているホログラム導光板において、前記板状体の前記光源とは反対側の端部に前記の伝搬される光を吸収する吸収層が設けられていることを特徴とするホログラム導光板(請求項1)である。 Comprising a transparent plate-shaped body, the hologram is provided on one surface thereof, one end light introduced from a light source disposed in the vicinity of the plate-like body is propagated while being totally reflected repeatedly the plate body during its propagation in the plate-like body hologram light guide plate configured to be diffracted to the outside of the part of the light by the hologram, the being propagated in the end opposite to the light source of the plate-like body that the hologram light guide plate absorbing layer for absorbing light and being provided is (claim 1).

また、導光板の裏面に回折格子が形成されたタイプとして、 Further, as the type of diffraction grating is formed on the rear surface of the light guide plate,
透明な板状体の少なくとも一端面から入射する光源からの光を、上記板状体の裏面に設けられた回折格子によって板状体の表面側へ回折させる導光板であって、 The light from a light source incident from at least one end face of the transparent plate-shaped body, a light guide plate for diffracting the surface side of the plate-like body by a diffraction grating provided on the back surface of the plate-like body,
上記回折格子の断面形状または単位幅における格子部幅/非格子部幅の比の少なくとも1つが、上記導光板の表面における輝度が増大し、かつ均一化されるように変化せしめられていることを特徴とする導光板(特許文献2)のような提案も知られている。 At least one of the ratio of the grating section width / non-grid unit width in the cross-sectional shape or unit width of the diffraction grating, that are made to change so that the brightness is increased, and uniform on the surface of the light guide plate a light guide plate, wherein known proposed, such as (Patent Document 2).
特開2002−131551号公報 JP 2002-131551 JP 特開平9−325218号公報 JP-9-325218 discloses

背面照明装置(バックライト・ユニット)に要求される特性として、導光板の表面にほぼ垂直な方向から観察した際に、高輝度でしかも輝度ムラがなく導光板表面全体が光っていること、および薄型軽量であることが求められている。 As characteristics required for the backlight device (backlight unit), when observed from a direction substantially perpendicular to the surface of the light guide plate, that moreover luminance unevenness and high luminance glowing entire surface of the light guide plate without and it has been required to be thin and light.
しかしながら、従来の背面照明装置における導光板では、光源から導光板に入射する光のうちで最も強い成分である直進成分が終端面から抜けることによる正面方向における光の射出効率の低下、および端面における望ましくない反射によるノイズ光の発生が問題となることがある。 However, in the light guide plate in the conventional backlight device, a reduction in emission efficiency of the light straight component is the strongest component of the light incident from the light source to the light guide plate in the front direction by passing from the end face, and in the end face generation of noise light can be problematic due to unwanted reflections.
正面方向における光の射出効率は、背面照明装置としての光の利用効率であり、その低下は暗い照明装置を意味し、大きな問題である。 Injection efficiency of light in the front direction, a light use efficiency as backlight device, the decrease means dark lighting device, a major problem.

また、導光板の形状として、断面楔型のもの(光源に近い始端箇所から、光源に遠い終端箇所にかけて、徐々に厚みがテーパ状に減少する構造)とフラット構造のものがあり、従来は断面楔型が主流であったが、現在はフラット構造に主流が移りつつある。 Further, as the shape of the light guide plate, section one wedge (from the starting position close to the light source, toward the far end portion in the light source, gradually thickness structure decreases tapered) has as the flat structure, conventionally cross Although wedge-type has been mainly, is shifting the mainstream in the flat structure is now.
断面楔形では、入射した光を端部まで比較的効率よく利用することができたが、フラット構造では、特に上記のような入射光の直進成分のロスが問題となる。 In the cross-sectional wedge-shaped, but could be utilized relatively effectively incident light to an end, in a flat structure, in particular the loss of the rectilinear component of the incident light as described above is problematic.

上記特許文献2では、この問題を解決することが考慮されており、終端面に黒色の吸収層を設ける手法に係る記載がある。 In Patent Document 2, it has been considered to solve this problem, is described according to the method of providing the absorbing layer of the black end face.

<特許文献2 段落0033> <Patent Document 2 paragraph 0033>
図1に示したように、透明板状体2の光源4側と反対の他端2bに黒色塗料等からなる吸収層7を設けてこの他端2bに達する照明光5を吸収させて上記のような好ましくない戻り光5nの発生を防止するようにする。 As shown in FIG. 1, by providing an absorbing layer 7 made of a black paint or the like to the opposite other end 2b and the transparent plate-shaped object 2 of the light source 4 side to absorb the illumination light 5 reaches the other end 2b and the the occurrence of undesirable return light 5n as to be prevented.

特許文献2に記載の上記手法によれば、光の抜けおよび端面反射を防ぎ、ノイズの発生を抑制することができるが、光源からの照明光の利用効率は低下してしまうことに他ならず、表示装置による表示光の輝度向上には寄与しない。 According to the method described in Patent Document 2, to prevent leakage and end reflection of light, but the generation of noise can be suppressed, the use efficiency of illumination light from the light source is nothing but that decreases , it does not contribute to brightness improvement of the display light by the display device.

また、それを改善するために、単純に反射光量を増加させるべく、終端面に金属板もしくは金属蒸着を配置することによって、終端面からの光を反射させる手法も考えられるが、反射角を意図的に制御することは難しく、十分に光の利用効率を上げることができず、またノイズ光やムラの発生に起因するだけとなってしまう。 Furthermore, intended to improve it, in order to increase simply reflected light, by placing a metal plate or a metal deposited on the end face, but also conceivable technique for reflecting light from the end surface, the reflection angle it is difficult, it can not be increased efficiency sufficiently light and becomes simply due to the generation of the noise light and unevenness controlled.

本発明は、導光板の終端面における端面反射を適切に制御することで、ノイズ光の発生を抑えつつ、光の利用効率を上げ、高輝度の表示光を得ることを目的としている。 The present invention is an edge-reflection at the end surface of the light guide plate by appropriately controlling, while suppressing the occurrence of noise light, increasing the light use efficiency, it is an object to obtain a display light of high luminance.

上記の目的を達成するために、本発明による導光板は、 To achieve the above object, a light guide plate according to the present invention,
導光板の一方の端面に光源を配し、前記導光板に入射した光を均一に上面へ反射させて面光源とするエッジライト方式のバックライト・ユニットに用いられる導光板において、 Arrange the light source on one end face of the light guide plate, the light guide plate used in a backlight unit of an edge light type uniformly reflected to the upper surface of the light incident on the light guide plate and with a surface light source,
光源と反対側の端面である終端面に、反射型回折格子を配置したことを特徴とする。 The end surface is an end surface of the light source opposite, characterized in that a reflection type diffraction grating.

本発明の導光板を用いたバックライト・ユニット(背面照明装置)では、導光板の終端面に回折格子パターンを配置することにより、導光板に入射した光の直進成分を導光板内の全反射光に変換することによって有効に利用することができ、光の利用効率を向上することが出来、高輝度の表示光が視覚可能な表示装置が得られる。 In the backlight unit using the light guide plate of the present invention (backlight device), by placing a diffraction grating pattern at the end face of the light guide plate, the total reflection of the light guide plate of rectilinear wave of light incident on the light guide plate can be effectively utilized by converting the light, it is possible to improve the utilization efficiency of light, high brightness of the display light is viewable display is obtained.

以下、本発明による導光板の実施形態を、図面を用いて詳細に説明する。 Hereinafter, the embodiments of the light guide plate according to the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
図2に示すように、光源1から導光板2に光が入射し伝播していくとき、伝播する光は、全反射条件を満たす角度で反射を繰り返して進んでいく。 As shown in FIG. 2, when the light from the light source 1 to the light guide plate 2 is gradually incident propagation, light propagation, advances repeatedly reflected by the total reflection condition is satisfied angle.

導光板2がアクリル樹脂からなる場合、その屈折率を約1.5とすると臨界角は41.8°(≒42°)であり、導光板の上面21aおよび下面21bに42°以上の角度で入射した光は全反射によって導光板内に閉じ込められ、伝播していく。 If the light guide plate 2 is made of acrylic resin, the critical angle is 41.8 ° (≒ 42 °) when the refractive index of about 1.5, at an angle of 42 ° or more to the upper surface 21a and lower surface 21b of the light guide plate the incident light is confined in the light guide plate by total reflection, it propagates.

しかし、光源から導光板に入射する光のうち最も強い直進成分7は、大部分がそのまま終端面から抜けてしまい、終端面近辺での輝度ムラの原因となる。 However, the strongest linear component 7 of the light incident from the light source to the light guide plate, mostly will as it exits from the end surface, causing uneven brightness in the vicinity of end surfaces.
この直進成分7を有効に利用し輝度ムラを低減させるためには、図3に示すように直進成分7を終端面22で回折させ、導光板下面21bもしくは上面21aに全反射の条件を満たすよう臨界角42°以上で入射させると良い。 In order to reduce the effective use and luminance unevenness this rectilinear wave 7, the rectilinear wave 7 is diffracted by the end face 22 as shown in FIG. 3, the total reflection condition is satisfied in the light guide plate lower face 21b or the upper surface 21a it may be incident at the critical angle 42 ° or more.
そうすれば、直進成分7は内部で全反射を繰り返して伝播していくため、入射光と同様に導光板内に閉じ込めることができる。 That way, the straight component 7 since propagated by repeating total reflection inside, can be confined in the same manner as the incident light into the light guide plate.

このように伝播していく際に、図4のように裏面のパターン3により散乱もしくは反射もしくは回折して導光板2の上面から適宜射出される。 When going this way propagates, it is emitted as appropriate from the scattering or reflecting or diffracting to the upper surface of the light guide plate 2 by the rear surface of the pattern 3 as shown in FIG.
このように、終端面から抜けてしまっていた直進成分を導光板上面からの射出光として利用することで、光の利用効率を向上させることができる。 Thus, by using the straight component had gotten exit from the end face as the light emitted from the light guide plate top surface, thereby improving the utilization efficiency of light.

ここで、終端面22に垂直に達する光の波長として、633nm(R)の光を想定する。 Here, as the wavelength of light reaching the normal to the end face 22, assume the light of 633 nm (R).
この光を終端面22で回折した後、下面21bで全反射させるためには、下面21bに42°以上の角度で入射しなくてはならない。 After diffracting the light at the end face 22, in order to totally reflected by the lower surface 21b is must be incident at an angle of 42 ° or more to the lower surface 21b.
その際、終端面22では48°以下で回折させる必要がある。 At that time, it is necessary to diffract the following end surface 22 at 48 °.
このような条件を満たす回折格子パターンの空間周波数は、例えば48°に回折させるときは約1200本/mmである。 Spatial frequency satisfying the above conditions the diffraction grating pattern, for example when for diffracting the 48 ° about 1200 / mm.
空間周波数は以下の式で算出される。 Spatial frequency is calculated by the following equation.
d=λ/sinθ d = λ / sinθ
x=1/d x = 1 / d
d;回折格子のピッチ幅 λ;光の波長 θ;回折格子への光の入射角度 x;回折格子の空間周波数 d; spatial frequency of the diffraction grating; incidence angle x of the light to the diffraction grating; pitch width of the diffraction grating lambda; the wavelength of light θ

同様に、終端面22に入射する光の波長として、532nm(G)の光を想定すると、48°に回折させるのに必要な空間周波数は約1400本/mmである。 Similarly, as the wavelength of light incident on the end surface 22, assuming a light 532 nm (G), the spatial frequency required to diffract the 48 ° is about 1,400 / mm.
また同様に、終端面22に入射する光の波長として、442nm(B)の光を想定すると、48°に回折させるのに必要な空間周波数は約1700本/mmである。 Similarly, as the wavelength of light incident on the end surface 22, assuming a light 442 nm (B), the spatial frequency required to diffract the 48 ° is about 1,700 / mm.

図7に示すように、上記の3種類の空間周波数を持つ回折格子セルをマトリクス状に配置することにより、R,G,B成分から成る白色光を目的の角度で回折させることができる。 As shown in FIG. 7, by arranging the diffraction grating cell with three spatial frequency of the in matrix, can be diffracted R, G, white light consisting of B component in the desired position.
また、光源からの光の主成分が青と黄色の二種類の場合は二種類の回折格子セル、広い波長領域を有する光にはそれに含まれる波長成分に対応する回折格子セルを複数種類設けてもよい。 In the case the main component of the light from the light source of the two kinds of blue and yellow two types of diffraction grating cell, the light having a wide wavelength region by providing a plurality of types of diffraction grating cells corresponding to the wavelength component contained therein it may be.

回折格子を断面鋸歯状のブレーズド格子にすることで、回折光の回折角を高効率かつ厳密に制御することができ、照明装置としての光の利用効率を一層高めることができる。 A diffraction grating by a cross sawtooth blazed gratings, the diffraction angle of the diffracted light can be highly efficiently and precisely controlled, the efficiency of use of light of the illumination device can be further enhanced.

このような回折格子パターンの作成は、例えば以下のようにして行われる。 Creating such a diffraction grating pattern is carried out, for example, as follows.
ガラス基板などの上に記録材料層を形成したものに、電子ビームによって回折格子を描画することによって、任意の空間周波数の回折格子セルを描画することができる。 To those forming the recording material layer on such a glass substrate, by drawing a diffraction grating by the electron beam, it is possible to draw the diffraction grating cell of any spatial frequency.

上記のように作成した回折格子パターンを成形時に側面加工する。 Sides machining a diffraction grating pattern prepared as described above at the time of molding.
終端面22に回折格子パターンを配置することにより、光の利用効率を向上させることができるが、さらに利用効率を高めるために反射板もしくは金属蒸着層を設けてもよい。 By arranging the diffraction grating pattern to the end face 22, it can improve the utilization efficiency of light may be provided a reflection plate or a metal vapor-deposited layer in order to further enhance the efficiency.
金属反射では光吸収が若干生じるが、回折格子パターンを配置しても生じてしまう終端面における光の抜けを大幅に削減することができるため、光吸収を考慮しても全体の光の利用効率は向上する。 Is slightly generated light absorption in the metal reflector, it is possible to significantly reduce the leakage of light at the end surface occurs be disposed a diffraction grating pattern, the whole, considering the light absorption efficiency of use of light It is improved.

もしくは、さらに光の利用効率を高めるために、終端面22に傾斜角をつけてもよい。 Or, in order to further improve the use efficiency of light may be beveled angle to the end surface 22.
図5に示すように、全反射条件を満たす角度(42°以上)で直進成分7が終端面22に入射するようにすれば、終端面22からの抜けをなくすことができる。 As shown in FIG. 5, the straight component 7 by the total reflection condition is satisfied angle (42 ° or more) if so enters the end face 22, it can be eliminated missing from the end face 22.
このとき、図6に示すように、傾斜角を考慮した上で回折格子を設計し終端面に配置し、終端面での抜けを防ぐと共に、導光板下面21bもしくは上面21aに臨界角42°以上で入射させるようにすれば、光の利用効率をさらに高めることができ、望ましい。 At this time, as shown in FIG. 6, to design the diffraction grating in consideration of the inclination angle is arranged at the end face, while preventing the loss at the end surface, the critical angle 42 ° or more to the light guide plate lower face 21b or the upper surface 21a in be caused to be incident, it is possible to further improve the utilization efficiency of light, desirable.

従来技術に係るバックライト・ユニットの概要を示す断面図。 Sectional view showing an outline of a backlight unit according to the prior art. 光源からの入射光が導光板内へ入射し、導光板内で伝播する挙動を説明する概念図。 Conceptual view incident light from the light source is incident to the light guide plate within illustrating the behavior propagating in the light guide plate. 本発明による導光板の概要を示す断面図であり、導光板の終端面で伝搬した光が回折され、導光板内を戻って伝播する挙動を説明する概念図。 Is a cross-sectional view showing an outline of a light guide plate according to the present invention, light propagated at the end face of the light guide plate is diffracted, conceptual diagram illustrating the behavior propagating back in the light guide plate. 本発明による導光板で、導光板内を戻って伝播する光が回折される挙動を説明する概念図。 In the light guide plate according to the present invention, conceptual diagram light propagating back to the light guide plate will be described the behavior to be diffracted. 本発明による導光板の別実施形態に係る概要と、導光板の終端面で伝搬した光が回折される挙動を説明する概念図。 Conceptual diagram illustrating the outline according to another embodiment of the light guide plate according to the present invention, the behavior of light propagated at the end face of the light guide plate is diffracted. 本発明による導光板の別実施形態に係る概要と、導光板内を戻って伝播する挙動を説明する概念図。 Conceptual diagram illustrating the outline according to another embodiment of the light guide plate according to the present invention, the behavior propagating back in the light guide plate. 本発明における、終端面に設ける回折格子の構造例を示す平面図。 In the present invention, a plan view showing a structural example of a diffraction grating provided on the end face.

符号の説明 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1:光源2:導光板21a:導光板上面21b:導光板下面22:終端面3:ドットパターンもしくはプリズムパターンもしくは回折格子パターン4:反射シート5:拡散シート6:プリズムシート7:入射光の直進成分 1: light source 2: light guide plate 21a: light guide plate upper surface 21b: light guide plate lower surface 22: end face 3: dot pattern or a prism pattern or diffraction grating pattern 4: reflection sheet 5: Diffusion sheet 6: prism sheet 7: straight of the incident light component

Claims (8)

  1. 導光板の一方の端面に光源を配し、前記導光板に入射した光を均一に上面へ反射させて面光源とするエッジライト方式のバックライト・ユニットに用いられる導光板において、 Arrange the light source on one end face of the light guide plate, the light guide plate used in a backlight unit of an edge light type uniformly reflected to the upper surface of the light incident on the light guide plate and with a surface light source,
    光源と反対側の端面である終端面に、反射型回折格子を配置したことを特徴とする導光板。 Light source and the end face is an end opposite to the light guide plate, characterized in that a reflection type diffraction grating.
  2. 前記回折格子が、表面レリーフ型であることを特徴とする請求項1記載の導光板。 The diffraction grating, the light guide plate according to claim 1, characterized in that a surface relief.
  3. 単一の空間周波数の回折格子から成る小領域を回折格子セルとし、空間周波数の異なる複数種類の回折格子セルが、前記導光板の終端面にマトリクス状に配列された構成であることを特徴とする請求項1または2に記載の導光板。 The small region consisting of diffraction grating of a single spatial frequency and the diffraction grating cell, and wherein a plurality of types of diffraction grating cells having different spatial frequencies are arranged in a matrix form on the end face of the light guide plate the light guide plate according to claim 1 or 2.
  4. 3種類の回折格子セルが規則的に配置され、各回折格子セルの空間周波数がR,G,Bの波長に対して設計されていることを特徴とする請求項3記載の導光板。 Three diffracting grating cells are regularly arranged, the spatial frequency of the diffraction grating cell R, G, claim 3 light guide plate, wherein it is designed for the wavelength of the B.
  5. 前記回折格子が、断面が鋸歯状のブレーズド格子であることを特徴とする請求項1〜4の何れかに記載の導光板。 The diffraction grating, the light guide plate according to claim 1, wherein the cross section is a sawtooth blazed gratings.
  6. 回折格子には、少なくとも何れかの表面に光反射層を形成するか、もしくは回折格子に近接させて光反射体を配置した構成であることを特徴とする請求項1〜5の何れかに記載の導光板。 The diffraction grating, according to claim 1, wherein at least either forms a light reflective layer on either surface or in close proximity to the diffraction grating is a configuration of arranging the light reflector of the light guide plate.
  7. 光反射体を配置した導光板の終端面に、傾斜角をつけた構成であることを特徴とする請求項1〜6の何れかに記載の導光板。 The end surface of the light guide plate placing the light reflector, the light guide plate according to claim 1, characterized in that a configuration in which with the angle of inclination.
  8. 請求項1〜7の何れかに記載の導光板の一方の端面に光源を配し、前記導光板に入射した光を均一に上面へ反射させて面光源とするエッジライト方式のバックライト・ユニットを具備する構成の表示装置。 Arrange the light source on one end face of the light guide plate according to any one of claims 1 to 7, the backlight unit of the edge light type uniformly reflected to the upper surface of the light incident on the light guide plate and with a surface light source comprising a structure of a display device.
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