JP2006174540A - Autonomous distributed control type electric storage system - Google Patents

Autonomous distributed control type electric storage system Download PDF

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JP2006174540A
JP2006174540A JP2004360258A JP2004360258A JP2006174540A JP 2006174540 A JP2006174540 A JP 2006174540A JP 2004360258 A JP2004360258 A JP 2004360258A JP 2004360258 A JP2004360258 A JP 2004360258A JP 2006174540 A JP2006174540 A JP 2006174540A
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power storage
power
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storage unit
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JP4293367B2 (en
JP2006174540A5 (en
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Kazuyoshi Yamanaka
一克 山中
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Takenaka Komuten Co Ltd
株式会社竹中工務店
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/12Battery technologies with an indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an autonomous distributed control electric storage system, in which a plurality of electric storage units and individual power supplies can be controlled distributedly and efficiently, and can be modified flexibly. <P>SOLUTION: A heat storage system for supplying power from a group of electricity accumulators, distributed to predetermined regions to a plurality of loads comprises a plurality of electricity accumulating units 2 for supplying power stored in electricity accumulators 6 from external individual power supplies 30 through a main input section 4 to external loads from a main output section 8. The electricity accumulator 6 in each electricity accumulating unit 2 is connected to the electricity accumulators 6 of all electricity accumulating units, through the electricity accumulator of at least one electricity accumulating unit connected directly to that electricity accumulation unit 2. Each electricity accumulating unit 2 has a sub-I/O section 16, controlled so as to supply power, from one of the electricity accumulator and the directly connected electricity accumulating unit accumulating a larger quantity of electricity, to the other accumulating a smaller quantity of electricity. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

Description

  The present invention relates to an autonomous distributed control power storage system.

  Along with the advancement and miniaturization of computers, a large number of electronic devices with built-in computers such as wireless communication, security, equipment control, etc. and sensors are used, and a society where computer chips are ubiquitous everywhere in the living environment ( A ubiquitous computing society is being realized. In such a society, how to supply power to a load distributed over a wide range becomes a problem.

  Ubiquitous electronic devices that operate with built-in batteries without external power supply have existed in the past, but the battery life is usually 2 to 3 years, and batteries such as a large number of sensors that are dispersed in various places each time. Replacing it will incur significant maintenance costs. Further, when using a commercial power source, even if the power consumption of each electronic device is small, if the number of devices becomes enormous, a considerable amount of power is always consumed as a whole.

  For this purpose, it is desired to use natural energy such as sunlight and wind power. Since the power generation method using natural energy varies in the amount of power generation depending on the time of day, power storage means are indispensable for averaging this. For example, it is collected from a large number of generators such as solar cells. It is necessary to devise such means that the stored power is temporarily stored in a power storage facility, converted into AC by an inverter, and supplied to the power system of each home / building via a distribution board. However, since natural energy such as solar energy has a characteristic that energy density is low and ubiquitous in space, a solar cell must have a large light receiving area. Therefore, when the method of storing the thinly and widely collected energy in one place and supplying power to a large number of loads again is compared between the generator and the storage facility and between the storage facility and the power generation amount of each generator. The transmission loss between the load and the load is too large, resulting in an extremely inefficient system as a whole.

  Therefore, in order to distribute the power generation source and the load in a balanced manner, a DC power source (distributed power source device) such as a solar cell, a commercial AC power source with a DC / AC converter, and a plurality of loads are connected to the DC current wiring. Systems connected in parallel have been proposed (Patent Documents 1 and 2). The commercial power supply is used in combination to compensate for the instability of natural energy supply.

In addition, since it is difficult to make a large power storage device space in a general house, a residential power storage system configured to supply power to a plurality of loads from a commercial power supply via a power storage device arranged in each room (Patent Document 3) ) Is also known. Further, there is a device (Patent Document 4) that performs overall control of each power storage device via a network server in a similar configuration in which the power storage devices are distributed.
JP 2002-271997 JP2003-339118 JP 2001-16805 JP2003-299251 JP-A-6-108762 JP-A-10-248174

    The systems of Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2 are arranged by distributing a DC power source such as a solar battery and a load. However, how to incorporate a power storage device becomes a problem. For example, FIG. 6 of Patent Document 1 shows a configuration in which a power storage device is incorporated in a DC power supply device itself, which can serve the purpose of averaging supplied power, but each load when a commercial power supply fails, for example. This causes a problem in the function as a backup power source for supplying power to the power source. In other words, these power storage devices supply power to the entire system, but in such a power distribution system, it is assumed that a user will add a load later, and if that happens, individual loads (especially computer chips) The amount of electricity stored cannot be set according to the amount of power consumed, and it is impossible to guarantee that the function of the chip can be maintained even if a power failure occurs for a predetermined time.

    On the other hand, the system of Patent Document 3 is connected to a plurality of loads from a single power source via a power storage device, and since the load and the power storage device are connected in a one-to-one relationship, it is easy to take a backup function. Since the power storage device is operated separately, when power is consumed in a specific place at the time of a power failure, the power stored in another place cannot be used effectively.

  Furthermore, when managing and controlling a plurality of power storage devices in one place as in Patent Document 4, if a power storage device or the like is added later, the program or data must be rewritten, which is troublesome. Possible mistakes.

  Therefore, the present invention provides a power storage system that can control a plurality of power storage devices and individual power sources in a distributed and efficient manner, and can flexibly change the power stored in the power storage device from the individual power source from the power supply port. Consists of a plurality of power storage units provided to supply to an external load, and the power storage device of each power storage unit is electrically connected to the power storage devices of all power storage units via the power storage device of the direct connection power storage unit directly connected to the device An object of the present invention is to provide an electrical storage system.

  In a heat storage system that feeds power to a plurality of loads from a group of power storage devices distributed in a predetermined area, the first means outputs the power stored in the power storage device 6 from the external individual power supply 30 via the main input unit 4, respectively. The power storage device 6 of each power storage unit 2 includes a plurality of power storage units 2 that are supplied from the unit 8 to an external load, and the power storage devices 6 of all the power storage units are connected via the power storage device of at least one power storage unit directly connected to the unit. The sub-input / output connected to the device 6 and controlled so that each power storage unit 2 transmits power from the power storage device and the power storage device of the direct-coupled power storage unit to the one with the larger amount of power that can be supplied. Part 16 is included.

  The “power storage unit” is a unit that constitutes the present system, and includes at least elements of a main input unit, a power storage device, a control unit, and a main output unit. However, as will be described later, the power storage unit can be configured by adding individual power supplies to these elements. The amount of electricity stored in the electricity storage device of each electricity storage unit (and the amount of power supplied to the individual power source connected to the device) can be changed according to the power consumption and nature of the load, but basically each electricity storage system has the same function. And each power storage unit is added as needed to form a highly variable power storage system. Each power storage unit may be connected in series. However, in order to support the above-described ubiquitous computing, a power storage / power supply network in which each power storage unit is connected to three or more power storage units may be configured. .

  Regarding "individual power supply", commercial AC power may be used, but power generation means using natural energy (photovoltaic cells such as solar cells, wind power generation / thermoelectric conversion / piezoelectric conversion, etc.), and further power generation means using secondary use of artificial energy (Thermoelectric conversion using waste heat from buildings and photovoltaic power generation using illumination light), distributed power generators such as fuel cells and micro gas turbines, and large-capacity batteries external to lead storage batteries and lithium ion batteries.

  In addition, various generators such as solar cells can be dedicated equipment installed on the rooftop, etc. However, as described above, various building materials and solar cells are integrated to collect energy widely and thinly. You can also Examples of building materials that can be integrated with solar cells include window glass, blinds, roofing materials, outer wall exterior materials, inner wall interior materials, flooring materials, curtain walls, partitions, shutters, and interior / exterior building materials. In addition, a building material integrated solar cell module suitable for the design of the entire building can be configured using a dye-sensitized solar cell that absorbs visible light and generates power.

  In addition, it is basically desirable to output the individual power supply with a direct current from the point of input to the battery. A commercial AC power supply can also be used, but in this case, it is necessary to convert AC to DC using a rectifier (AC adapter).

  The “main input unit” and “main output unit” may be simple input / output terminals, but are provided to monitor the state of the power storage device and prevent overdischarge, overcharge, or overcurrent. And good.

 The “power storage device” stores the power output from the individual power source in each power storage unit, supplies power to an external load as needed, and stores the power of all other power storage units via the power storage device of the directly connected power storage unit. It is electrically connected to the apparatus, and is configured so that even if the individual power supply of one power storage unit is damaged, the entire system can be backed up. The directly connected power storage units are not necessarily limited to spatially adjacent power storage units, but it is more advantageous to connect to nearby power storage units in order to reduce power transmission loss.

  The allowable storage amount of a power storage device stores not only the minimum storage amount that can supply power as a backup power supply for the load connected to that storage unit, but also the surplus storage amount that can supply power to other storage units. It is desirable to set it as possible.

  Further, basic characteristics of the power storage device include durability against repeated use of a charge / discharge cycle for a long period of time, no inclusion of environmentally hazardous substances such as heavy metal ions, and easy measurement of the remaining power storage amount. From such a viewpoint, the electric double layer capacitor is most preferable as the power storage device. However, secondary batteries that can be charged and discharged, such as lithium ion batteries, lithium polymer batteries, lead storage batteries, and nickel metal hydride batteries, can also be used.

  The “sub input / output unit” has a function of controlling power transmission / reception with the power storage devices of other power storage units. The control may be performed so that the amount of stored electricity increases or decreases within the range of the upper limit storage amount and the lower limit storage amount of the storage device. The sub input / output unit can be provided for each other power storage unit directly connected to the power storage unit.

  Note that “transmitting power from the larger power supply amount to the smaller power supply amount” simply means that power is transmitted from the larger power storage amount in the power storage device to the smaller power storage amount. Of these, power may be transmitted from the larger surplus power storage amount to the smaller power storage amount except for the minimum power storage amount for backup to the load connected to the power storage device.

  Regarding "load", this system is a system that stores power widely and thinly, and is suitable for continuously supplying small power, so the load is also sensor, electronic terminal, LED lighting, small PC, etc. Low power electronic devices are suitable. However, electric power can be supplied to general electric equipment as a temporary substitute for a commercial AC power supply, for example.

  The second means includes the first means, and each power storage unit 2 further includes a control unit 10 for monitoring and controlling at least the amount of power stored in the power storage device 6 of the power storage unit, In addition, the information storage means 18 exchanges information on the amount of stored electricity with other power storage units that exchange power, and the control unit 10 of each power storage unit is configured as a sub input / output unit based on the other power storage amount. 16 is set up to issue a power transmission command.

  The “control unit” is a storage unit having the performance of the power storage device (lower limit storage amount / upper limit storage amount / allowable energization amount, etc.), at least an arithmetic processing unit for issuing a command to the sub input / output unit, and the state of the storage device What is necessary is just to have a state measurement means for measuring (the amount of electric current and the amount of electric storage in an electrical storage apparatus). The control unit can be formed by a control IC or the like.

  In order to reduce the energy loss (the product of the square of the current value and the internal resistance) in the power storage device, it is desirable to average the movement of power between the power storage units as much as possible over time. For this purpose, it is desirable to measure the amount of electricity stored in the electricity storage device and exchange information on the amount of electricity stored between the electricity storage units at any time, and always keep the amount of electricity accumulated between the electricity storage units (or surplus electricity storage amount) substantially equal.

  Further, it is desirable that the control unit controls the input at the main input unit and the output at the main output unit in order to prevent overdischarge, overcharge and overcurrent in the main input unit and the main output unit. A control unit may be provided for each of the main input unit, the main output unit, and each sub input / output unit. It is desirable to do.

  The “information communication means” is formed between each power storage unit and another power storage unit connected to exchange power with the power storage unit. The information communication means includes a communication line connecting each power storage unit, and a communication device installed at an appropriate place (preferably in the sub input / output unit) of each power storage unit, and further information between the communication device and the control unit. It is formed to transmit and receive. As information transmitted by the information communication means, in addition to information on the storage amount in the storage units connected to each other, an alarm issued by the control unit of the storage unit when the storage amount in each storage unit is no longer an appropriate value A signal can be included.

  The third means includes the second means, and the sub input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 is connected to the other power storage unit 2 directly connected to the power storage unit every one operation cycle. The control unit 10 of each power storage unit has a state measuring unit 12 that monitors the amount of power stored in the power storage device 6, and is obtained from the state measuring unit. Based on the stored power amount information of the own power storage device 6 and the stored power amount information obtained from the other power storage unit 2 via the information communication means 18, the difference in the stored power amount that can be supplied by the other power storage device is calculated. Therefore, the amount of electricity transferred is set to be less than half of the difference.

  The reason why the amount of transferred power is set to be equal to or less than half the difference in the amount of stored electricity is that the relative change in the amount of stored energy after transfer becomes twice the amount of transferred power, as will be described later. It is desirable that the operation cycle in each power storage unit is synchronized at least between the power storage units connected to each other.

  The fourth means includes any one of the first means to the third means, and each power storage unit 2 has an individual power supply built in the unit instead of being connected to the external individual power supply. Some of these individual power supplies are commercial power supplies, and the rest are power generators such as solar cells.

  In this means, the individual power supply built in the unit is not different in content from the external individual power supply according to the first means, and each power storage unit is constructed as a power supply and power storage unit including the individual power supply. That is.

  In this case, as described in the first means, the control unit of the power storage unit that uses the commercial power supply as an individual power supply replaces the control method of “transmitting power from the larger power supply that can be supplied to the smaller power supply”. When there is a surplus in the amount of power stored in the power storage device of another power storage unit connected to the unit, power is received from the device, and power is supplied from its own commercial power source only when there is no surplus in the power storage amount It can also be controlled. Furthermore, a power storage unit that uses a commercial power supply as an individual power supply may be a dedicated power transmission unit that supplies power in accordance with a power transmission command from another power storage unit connected to the power storage unit without connecting a load. it can.

  Since the commercial power source is used to back up the power storage devices of other units, it is desirable that the commercial power source be distributed throughout the system.

  The fifth means includes any one of the second means to the fourth means, and the sub input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 has an upper limit value for the amount of current or the amount of power stored in the power storage device of the power storage unit. When the value exceeds the value, acceptance of power from other power storage units is restricted, and when the amount of power storage falls below the lower limit value, power transmission to the other power storage units is restricted.

  The reason for monitoring the amount of power storage is not only the stable supply of power to the external load, but also depending on the type of power storage device, if the amount of power storage is not appropriate, the function of the power storage device is impaired. For example, when a lead storage battery generates a discharge exceeding the lower limit storage capacity, sulfation occurs and the life is remarkably shortened. Moreover, in the lithium ion battery, overdischarge and overcharge cause failure. In the present invention, since the power storage devices are distributed and arranged in various places corresponding to ubiquitous electronic devices, it is necessary to avoid replacement of the power storage devices as much as possible. In this means, the terms “upper limit value” and “lower limit value” mean the upper limit and lower limit of the range of the appropriate power storage amount, and should be set with some margin from the limit of the power storage amount that causes a failure of the power storage device. Is desirable.

  However, when a group of solar cells installed on the rooftop, etc., are connected to the power storage unit, the entire installation location becomes sunny or shaded, and the amount of power stored in adjacent power storage devices increases. May approach a lower limit value or an upper limit value, and in such a case, damage to the power storage device cannot be avoided only by transferring power between adjacent units. In this way, as an emergency standby power storage means when the power storage amount of the entire system approaches the upper limit or the lower limit, power storage dedicated to emergency input controlled so that power is input only during emergency and only output is performed at all times A unit or a power storage unit dedicated to emergency output that is connected to a commercial power source and controlled to output only in an emergency can be connected to a part of the system.

  The sixth means includes any one of the second means, the third means, and the fifth means, and the sub input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 is directly connected in a normal state using a voltage converter. A small current is allowed to flow between the other power storage units, and the power storage unit is connected to the power storage unit according to the degree of the decrease in the power storage amount of the power storage device 6 of the other power storage units obtained through the information communication unit 18. And can supply a large current.

  “According to the degree of decrease in the storage amount” means that the storage amount of the storage device 6 of another storage unit approaches the lower limit value, or the decrease rate of the storage amount is larger than a predetermined reference value. In the case.

  The seventh means includes any one of the first means to the sixth means, and the sub input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 monitors the quality of electrical connection with other power storage units, When it is determined that the connection is poor, the power transmission to the power storage unit is stopped.

  The method for determining the quality of the connection may be a known method. For example, a method for determining the quality of the connection by measuring the voltage of the output terminal (Patent Document 6) is known.

  The eighth means includes any one of the first to seventh means, and each power storage unit 2 includes at least three sub input / output units 16... Via these sub input / output units. It is possible to configure a network for power transfer between power storage units.

    This network is composed of a large number of power storage units that are controlled so that power is exchanged from one with the larger amount of power storage to the other with no special centralized management control mechanism. The function of this network can be easily understood by replacing it with a water tank model consisting of a large number of water tanks in which the bottoms are connected by water pipes. This model is configured so that when a large amount of rainwater flows into one tank and the water level rises, the water in the tank flows into the adjacent tank through the water pipe, and eventually the water levels in all the tanks are averaged. System. Similarly, the power storage system of the present invention is also controlled so that the amount of power stored in the power storage system as a whole is averaged by transferring power between the power storage units. The minimum information necessary for this control method is only information on the amount of electricity stored in each electricity storage unit and the amount of electricity stored in an adjacent electricity storage unit directly connected to the electricity storage unit. Each electricity storage unit is based on that information. Therefore, a network of power storage units can be freely constructed simply by adding a new power storage unit to a group of existing power storage units. It should be noted that the preferred usage state of this network is that the amount of electricity stored in the entire system gradually increases as power is input from each individual power supply, and the amount of electricity stored in the entire system gradually decreases due to output to each external load. is there. Therefore, this network is particularly suitable for supplying power to a large number of electronic devices (such as microcomputers) whose individual power consumption is relatively small.

  The ninth means includes any one of the second means, the third means, the fifth means, the sixth means, the seventh means, and the eighth means, and the power storage device of each power storage unit 2 6 has two or more sub-input / output units 16 and is bypassed between at least an arbitrary pair of these sub-input / output units by a command from the control unit 10 without passing through its own power storage device 6. When the line 20 is wired and the control unit 10 of each power storage unit 2 receives a power transmission command from one of the other two power storage units 2 connected to the sub input / output units, Instead of transmitting power from its own power storage device 6, the power transmission command is transferred to the control unit 10 of another power storage unit 2, and the one of the power storage devices 6 of the other power storage unit 2 is connected via the bypass line 20. Power can be transmitted to the power storage device 6 of the power storage unit 2 Forms.

  “Bypass line” means that power is supplied to a single power storage unit from a remote power storage unit through a bypass power line of a neighboring power storage unit with less power transmission loss without going through the power storage device of the neighboring power storage unit. It is. For example, it is effective when a group of solar cells juxtaposed as individual power supplies are completely shaded, causing a shortage of power in a fairly wide range of the system, and it is necessary to supply power from a distant power storage unit in a short time It is.

  The control unit switches between an original operation state where power is gradually transmitted between the directly connected power storage devices and a shortcut state via the bypass line. The switching condition may be that a switching signal issued by another power storage unit has been received. The signal can be, for example, a transmission command (warning signal) issued by a power storage unit whose power storage amount is below a reference value, or a power transmission signal from another power storage unit that supplies power in response to this command. Also, instead of completely switching between the original operating state and the shortcut state, a part of the transmitted power is supplied to its own power storage device, and the rest is connected to another power storage unit via a bypass line. It can also be configured to transmit power to.

  As described above, this means is advantageous when a part of the power storage unit is distributed as a commercial power source at an appropriate position in the system, and is used when a natural energy-based power source such as a solar cell simultaneously stops power generation. Efficient power supply from the power supply is possible. Furthermore, this means is advantageously introduced in a configuration in which the power storage units are connected in a network. For example, when two power storage units are connected to one power storage unit, the number of power storage units connected to a certain power storage unit in a secondary, tertiary, etc. via two directly connected units is Since it becomes enormous, it is possible to quickly supply power from the periphery to the system portion where power shortage has occurred even during a power failure.

The invention according to the first means has the following effects.
○ Each power storage unit basically has a one-to-one correspondence between the individual power supply and the power storage device for each load. It can be designed, so energy can be supplied efficiently and backup power at the time of power failure can be secured.
○ Since power is exchanged between power storage units, even if an individual power supply of one power storage unit fails, the entire system can be backed up, and a system that is not easily affected by the failure (high robustness) can be configured.
○ Since it is a distributed control type system consisting of multiple storage units that are equal and equivalent to each other, when it is desired to increase the load, it is sufficient to add the storage unit corresponding to the load to the system, and the control device that controls the entire system. Since there is no need to rewrite data, the system can be easily expanded.
In addition, since power storage units such as solar cells are relatively expensive, it is easy to install economically because the system is initially operated with a small number of units and can be easily expanded as needed.

  According to the invention relating to the second means, since the control unit 10 performs charging / discharging based on the power storage amount information of the self and other power storage units, the power storage amount can be accurately controlled.

  According to the invention relating to the third means, it is configured to take the difference in the amount of electricity that can be supplied by the other electricity storage device, and to determine the amount of transferred electricity for each operation cycle at half or less of the difference. It is possible to prevent a power catch ball phenomenon from occurring by alternately reversing the amount of electricity stored between the other power storage devices every one operation cycle.

  According to the fourth aspect of the invention, a part of the individual power source of each power storage unit 2 is a commercial power source and the rest is a power generator such as a solar cell. Both can be used effectively by supplementing with a power source.

  According to the fifth aspect of the invention, since it is provided so as to prevent excessive discharge and overcurrent, damage to the power storage device is avoided and maintenance labor is minimized.

  According to the sixth aspect of the invention, since current is gradually passed between the respective power storage units in normal times, the power collected widely and thinly can be most effectively used while minimizing power transmission loss. At the same time, the amount of supplied power can be flexibly increased when another adjacent power storage unit falls short of power.

 According to the seventh aspect of the invention, the sub input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 monitors the quality of the electrical connection with other power storage units, and when it is determined that the connection is poor, power transmission to that power storage unit is performed. Therefore, it is possible to prevent power leakage and avoid unnecessary power loss.

  According to the eighth aspect of the invention, since it is possible to configure a power distribution network between the power storage units, when there is a shortage of power in one power storage unit compared to a case where the power storage units are connected linearly Therefore, it is possible to take a backup system with a power storage unit from the surrounding area, and to improve the safety of the system.

The invention according to the ninth means has the following effects.
○ Since the bypass line 20 that conducts according to the command of the control unit 10 without passing through the own power storage device 6 is wired between at least an arbitrary pair of the two or more sub input / output units 16, one power storage unit On the other hand, when power is supplied from a remote power storage unit, it is possible to directly transmit power while avoiding a power transmission loss caused by passing through the power storage device of the intermediate power storage unit, and the power transmission efficiency is good.
When the control unit 10 of each power storage unit 2 receives a power transmission command from one control unit 10 of the other two power storage units 2 connected to both the sub-input / output units, Instead of transmitting power, the power transmission command is transferred to the control unit 10 of the other power storage unit 2, and the power storage device of the one power storage unit 2 is connected from the power storage device 6 of the other power storage unit 2 via the bypass line 20. Since power can be transmitted to 6, it is possible to appropriately supply power from a distance in the distributed control system without placing a control device that controls the entire system.

  1 to 6 show a first embodiment of the system.

  The system includes a plurality of power storage units 2 having equivalent functions as shown in FIG. 1, and each power storage unit 2 includes a main input unit 4, a power storage device 6, and a main output unit 8, as shown in FIG. The sub input / output unit 16 and the control unit 10 are formed. Each power storage unit is connected to one individual power supply 30 and one external load 32. First, a conventionally known part of the configuration of each power storage unit will be described.

  The main input unit 4 controls the power from the individual power source 30 according to the amount of current flowing through the power storage device and the amount of stored power according to a command from the control unit 10 so as not to cause overcharge / overdischarge / overcurrent. . The main input unit 4 controls the charging voltage and charging current in the storage battery in order to obtain the maximum charging efficiency, and controls the input voltage and input current in the power source in order to obtain the maximum drawing efficiency of power. is doing. The main input unit 4 preferably has reverse current / reverse voltage prevention means.

  The power storage device 6 stores electric power supplied from the individual power supply 30 via the main input unit 4 and supplies an external load from the main output unit 8. When an electric double layer capacitor is used as a power storage device, it is preferable because durability against repeated use is better than that of a lead storage battery or a lithium ion battery.

  The main output unit 8 controls the power supplied to the external load in accordance with a command from the control unit, and is configured to function as a constant voltage DC stabilized power supply in accordance with the load specifications. The main output unit 8 is configured to prevent an overcurrent from the power storage device to the load and a reverse current from the load to the power storage device. Further, the main output unit 8 is provided with means for monitoring the appropriateness of connection to the external load by measuring the voltage of the output terminal as conventionally known, and outputs power in the case of poor connection. It is good to form so as not to. The main output unit may have one or more output terminals, and the output voltage of each output terminal may be variable or fixed.

  The control unit 10 includes a state measurement unit 12 that monitors the amount of current and the amount of power stored in the power storage device 6, and issues a control command to the main input unit 4 and the main output unit 8 according to the measured values.

  In the present invention, a sub input / output unit 16 is provided for each power storage unit.

  The sub input / output unit 16 is for transferring power to and from other adjacent power storage units, and stores information on the power storage amount and current amount in the self power storage unit obtained by the state measuring means 12 adjacent to each other. Information communication means 18 for exchanging with other power storage units, and voltage / current control means using a step-up DC-DC converter such as a step-up chopper or switched capacitor, and these means are used. Thus, electric power can be supplied from the one with the larger amount of electricity stored between the adjacent electricity storage units to the one with the smaller amount. Instead of the total amount of power storage, the backup power storage amount for each external load may be subtracted from this total amount, and power may be transferred according to the amount of surplus power storage. Further, the sub input / output unit 16 is formed so as to be able to increase / decrease the power transmission amount for each operation cycle, which will be described later, based on a command from the control unit. Both the information communication means 18 are connected to other power storage units directly connected to the power storage unit by wire or wirelessly.

  The sub input / output unit 16 has a connection terminal with another power storage unit. It is preferable that the standard of the connection terminal of each power storage unit is constant, and the connection terminal with any arbitrary power storage unit can be connected directly or indirectly. Similarly to the main input unit 4 and the main output unit 8, the sub input / output unit 16 monitors whether the connection terminals between the two units are correctly connected. It is preferable to have a function of controlling the amount of power transmission so that overdischarge, overcharge, and overcurrent do not occur between the storage units.

  In addition, the control unit 10 stores the upper limit storage amount and the lower limit storage amount determined according to the type of the storage device in the storage unit, and monitors the storage amount through the state measurement unit 12 to store the storage amount. When the power approaches the upper limit, the input is limited to the main input unit 4 to the sub input / output unit 16, and when the storage amount approaches the lower limit, the output is output to the main output unit 8 to the sub input / output unit 16. It is desirable to configure each to limit the above. Further, it is desirable that an alarm installed at an appropriate position (for example, main output unit) of the power storage unit 2 emits an alarm with an alarm sound, light, display, or the like when the amount of power storage approaches the lower limit.

  Further, when a control IC is used as the control unit 10, digital control for transferring a required amount of electric power in accordance with a command from the control unit is performed in the power storage unit with the larger amount of power storage for each operation cycle. In this case, as shown in FIG. 3 (1), when the amount of electricity stored between the other electricity storage units 2A and 2B is 2a, if the amount of electric power transferred per operation is 2a, the amount of electricity transferred after one operation is shown in FIG. As indicated by the imaginary line in (2), the amount of electricity stored between both units reverses, and in the next operation cycle, a power catch ball phenomenon occurs in which power is transferred in the opposite direction, resulting in power transmission loss. In order to avoid this, as shown in FIG. 3, the control unit 10 calculates the difference in the amount of stored electricity for each operation cycle, and determines the transfer power amount per operation within half of the difference. It is desirable to configure to transmit to the sub input / output unit. That is, the following equation is obtained. However, a is the amount of electric power transferred for each operation cycle, and ΔE is the difference in the amount of electricity stored between a pair of connected power storage devices.

a ≦ ΔE / 2
Of course, when a plurality of other power storage units 2B and 2C are connected to one power storage unit 2A as shown in FIG. 4 (1), the difference in power storage amount between the units 2A and 2B is expressed as ΔE ab and between the units 2A and 2C. Assuming that the difference in the storage amount is ΔE ac , if power of a 1 = ΔE ab / 2 and a 2 = ΔE ac / 2 is transferred to these two units, as shown by an imaginary line in FIG. In addition, the amount of electricity stored may be reversed between the electricity storage unit 2A and the electricity storage units 2B and 2C. In order to prevent such excessive power transmission, a positive number n greater than 1 is determined for each power storage unit 2A on the power transmission side, and the amount of power transferred from the power storage unit to each power storage unit 2B, 2C on the power reception side is It can be determined as a ≦ ΔE / (2n). At this time, n can be the number of power-receiving-side power storage units directly connected to the power-transmission-side power storage unit, thereby preventing one power storage unit from repeatedly increasing and decreasing in each operation cycle. The transition of the amount of power storage indicated by the solid line in FIGS. 4 (1) and (2) is for n = 2.

  FIG. 5 shows a flowchart of the operation of the sub input / output unit 16. Considering the two power storage units 2A and 2B that are directly connected now, the respective power storage amounts are represented by X and Y. X_max and Y_max are power storage upper limit values for preventing overcharge, and X_min and Y_min are set values of power storage lower limit values for preventing overdischarge. a represents the amount of moving power in one cycle of the flow.

  Information communication between both power storage units is triggered by a switching operation such as automatically sensing that both units are connected or manually pressing a button after connection. Next, it is checked whether the machine type and terminal polarity are correctly connected. If not correct, the communication is terminated, and if correct, the process proceeds to the next step.

  In the subsequent step, the control units 10 of both power storage units compare the power storage amounts of their own and other units, and transfer their power a if their power storage amount is greater than 2a with respect to the other power storage amount. At this time, the control unit prevents the power storage amount of the power storage device of the power storage unit on the power transmission side from falling below a lower limit set value or the power storage amount from the power reception side to exceed the upper limit set value due to the transfer of the power amount a. A determination step is provided. The reason why the power transfer amount a is halved of the power storage amount difference 2a is that the power transfer amount of the power storage side becomes -a and the power reception side of the power storage amount becomes + a. In addition, setting the amount of transferred power in one cycle of the flow as a control also has an effect of preventing an overcurrent from flowing to the connected external system. The current flowing through the external system is determined by the cycle period and the amount of power transferred a per cycle a. The transfer power amount a per cycle may be a constant value, or may be changed actively so that the power transfer efficiency is optimized depending on the state of the power storage system.

  In the present embodiment, each power storage unit 2 is connected linearly to configure a power storage system. However, the configuration can be changed at any time. For example, another power storage unit for supplying power to one power storage unit may be arranged in a radial manner. It may be connected in a network.

  In addition, the individual power supply 30 is a solar cell in the illustrated example, but may be anything that uses natural energy. Although not shown in the figure, it is desirable that a commercial power source is appropriately interposed between the natural energy-based power sources.

  The external load 32 is mainly an electronic device with a built-in computer chip such as a gas sensor or a security sensor, but on the drawing, home appliances such as a radio and a fluorescent lamp are also drawn. A power storage device with a large electrical capacity must be connected to an electronic device with the lowest power consumption and a household appliance with a large power consumption. When this power storage device is directly connected to a power storage device for an electronic device with a small electrical capacity, In a small-capacity power storage device, the amount of power storage becomes zero immediately. In order to avoid this, it is actually necessary to provide a buffer means such as a bypass circuit described later.

  In the above configuration, when sunlight strikes a solar cell that is an individual power source 30 as shown in FIG. 1, the power output from the individual power source is stored in the power storage device 6 via the main input unit 4, and the power storage device To the external load 30 from time to time. When there is no difference between the amounts of power stored in adjacent power storage devices, each power storage unit 2 works as an independent power storage / power supply system. Next, when a difference occurs in the amount of electricity stored in the electricity storage device 6 due to the shade of the individual power supply 30 in some of the electricity storage units 2, current flows from the larger amount of electricity stored to the smaller amount as shown in FIG. Even in the shaded power storage unit 2, power supply to the external load is ensured.

  If each power storage unit is separated as shown in FIG. 11, in the shaded power storage unit, power is supplied to the external load when the power storage amount of its own power storage device becomes zero as shown in black in the figure. It will stop. On the other hand, in this system, since the power storage device 6 exchanges power with each other as a whole system, other power storage units cover even if power shortage occurs in a part of the system. In contrast, power can be supplied stably. At the same time, compared with the case where a large number of individual power supplies and a large number of external loads are connected to a single large-capacity power storage device, the natural power generated at various locations is collected thinly and supplied to a large number of loads. be able to.

  FIG. 7 shows a second embodiment of the present invention. In this system, the power storage unit 2 is formed so as to be connectable to three or more other power storage units 2 and constructed as a network. In such a configuration, even if the wiring between two adjacent power storage units is disconnected, power can be supplied via other power storage units, so that a robust system that is less affected by some failures can be obtained. . For convenience of explanation, the network in the illustrated example is a regular grid network in which up to four other power storage units are connected to one power storage unit. However, the network is not flexible depending on the location of the individual power supply 30 and the external load 32. A regular network should be constructed.

  In the illustrated example, an individual power source 30 and an external load 32 are connected to the power storage unit indicated by reference numeral 2A, only the individual power source 30 is connected to the power storage unit indicated by reference numeral 2B, and the power storage unit indicated by reference numeral 2C. Only external load 32 is connected. Considering the power transmission loss due to the connection between each power storage unit, it is ideal to connect the individual power supply 30 and the external power supply 32 to all the power storage devices. The installation location of the external load 32 does not always match. For example, in a place where there is abundant solar radiation such as the rooftop or outer wall of a building, but there is no external load to be connected, it is not necessary to connect an external load like the power storage unit 2B. Thus, there is no point in connecting a solar cell or the like like the power storage unit 2C in a place that is always dark. If one power storage unit 2C that consumes most power is installed, there is a possibility of power shortage around it. Therefore, it is desirable to install a heat storage unit 2B dedicated to power supply adjacent to the power storage unit 2C. Even near the back of the ceiling or under the floor, power can be supplied from a photovoltaic cell (for example, a dye-sensitized power generation element integrated with an interior material of a building) using, for example, solar radiation or indoor lighting inserted into the room as a light source. When the power consumption of one external load is large, it can be connected to a plurality of power storage devices like a load 32A shown on the lower side of the illustrated system.

  8 and 9 show a third embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, each power storage unit 2 is provided with a bypass line 20 that energizes another power storage unit 2 to another power storage unit 2 without passing through the power storage device 6. In the illustrated example, for the sake of simplicity, a bypass line is wired between the four sub input / output units 16, and switching between a normal line including the power storage device and the bypass line can be performed by a switching device provided in the sub input / output unit. Although it is configured so that it can be performed, the configuration can be changed as appropriate. In addition, a part of the electric power input from one sub input / output unit 16 is input to the power storage device of its own power storage unit, and the rest is supplied from the other sub input / output unit 16 to another power storage unit through a bypass line. Can do.

   The reason for this configuration is as follows. When the power storage amount of a certain power storage device 6A falls below the lower limit value and the power demand cannot be covered by the peripheral power storage devices, as shown in FIG. 9, the closest power storage device 6D with a commercial power source is connected to a plurality of power storage devices. Although it is necessary to transmit electric power to the bucket relay type via 6B and 6C, since a power transmission loss of about 10 to 20% of the power transmission amount occurs in each power storage device that passes through, a large waste occurs as a whole. Such a problem does not occur if a line directly connecting the power storage devices 6A and 6D is provided in advance, but it is usually impossible to connect any pair of power storage devices in the system because there are too many wires. Therefore, a bypass line 20 that bypasses the power storage device 6 and transmits power is provided in each power storage unit.

  In each power storage unit, the procedure for switching between a normal line passing through the power storage device and a bypass line is as follows. As shown by the dotted line in FIG. 9, when a part of the system is in the shade S, the amount of electricity stored in each power storage unit decreases in the shaded part, but since the power is gradually supplied from the system outside the shade, Compared to the outer peripheral portion of S, the central portion has a greater tendency to decrease the amount of stored electricity. When the storage amount of the power storage device 6A approaches the lower limit in the central part of the shade S, the control unit 10 monitoring the device increases the power transmission amount to its own unit with respect to the surrounding power storage units. An alarm signal is issued. The alarm signal preferably includes the amount of power to be transmitted in the next one operation cycle according to the power consumption of the external load. In the surrounding power storage unit (for example, the unit of the power storage device 6B), if there is a surplus of the power storage amount sufficient to transmit the requested amount of power, the request is answered, but if there is no surplus, the alarm signal is transmitted to the farther power storage. The data is transferred to the unit of the apparatus 6C, and the same operation is repeated in the unit. The control unit of the power storage units of the power storage devices 6B, 6C... Through which the signal has passed sequentially outputs route information such as an identification number previously assigned to the unit in order to specify the route to the original power storage device 6A. It is good to add to and transfer. When the signal reaches the unit of the power storage device 6D connected to the commercial power source, the control unit of the unit increases the input from the commercial power source and sends the alarm signal from its own power storage device 6D to the power storage unit. Then, together with the power transmission command indicating the route to the original power storage device 6A, the power including the requested amount of power is output, and the units of the power storage devices 6B and 6C in the middle of receiving the transmission command Is transmitted to the power storage device 6A via the bypass line. In this way, power can be supplied directly to the central portion of the shade S where power is most scarce, and power can be supplied from the power storage device 6A to the power storage device in the shaded outer peripheral portion. Can be compensated without waste.

  In the illustrated example, the case where a part of the system is shaded is shown. However, for example, when a household electrical product with relatively large power consumption is connected to a part of the system compared to the surrounding electronic devices, Power can be supplied within the allowable current amount range of the bypass line.

  FIG. 11 shows a known blind-integrated solar cell (for example, Patent Document 5), and such a cell can also be used in the present invention. In the illustrated example, an amorphous silicon battery 30 is arranged on both front and back surfaces of each blade of each blind juxtaposed on the window side, and a storage battery built-in storage unit 2 connected to the battery 30 is provided above the blind storage portion. These power storage units 2 are connected to construct a power storage system. Reference numeral 32 denotes an LED illumination installed as an external load.

1 is an overall view of a system according to a first embodiment of the present invention. It is a conceptual diagram of the electrical storage unit which comprises the system of FIG. It is explanatory drawing which shows the change of the electrical storage amount between 1 pair of the electrical storage units of FIG. Similarly, it is explanatory drawing which shows the change of the electrical storage amount between three electrical storage units. It is a flowchart of the operation | movement in the electrical storage unit of FIG. It is explanatory drawing of operation | movement of the electrical storage system of FIG. It is a general view of the system which concerns on the 2nd Embodiment of this invention. It is a principal part enlarged view of the system which concerns on the 3rd Embodiment of this invention. It is a whole system figure concerning the embodiment. It is one Example of this invention. In order to explain the operation of the system of the present invention, it is a diagram drawn by removing the connection between power storage units from the system.

Explanation of symbols

2 ... Power storage unit 4 ... Main input unit 6 ... Power storage device 8 ... Main output unit 10 ... Control unit
12 ... State measurement means 16 ... Sub input / output unit 18 ... Information communication means 20 ... Bypass line
30 ... Individual power supply 32 ... External load S ... Shade

Claims (9)

  1.   In a heat storage system for supplying power to a plurality of loads from a group of power storage devices distributed in a predetermined area, the power stored in the power storage device 6 from the external individual power supply 30 via the main input unit 4 is transferred from the main output unit 8 to the external load. The power storage device 6 of each power storage unit 2 is connected to the power storage devices 6 of all power storage units via the power storage device of at least one power storage unit directly connected to the unit. In addition, each power storage unit 2 has a sub input / output unit 16 that is controlled so that power is transmitted from the power storage device and the power storage device of the direct-coupled power storage unit to the one that can be supplied from the larger power supply amount. Autonomous distributed control type power storage system.
  2.   Each power storage unit 2 further includes a control unit 10 for monitoring and controlling at least the amount of power stored in the power storage device 6 of the power storage unit. It is exchanged with the power storage unit by the information communication means 18, and the control unit 10 of each power storage unit is provided to issue a power transmission command to the sub input / output unit 16 based on the other power storage amount, The autonomous distributed control power storage system according to claim 1.
  3.   The sub input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 is provided so as to determine the amount of power transferred between the power storage unit 2 and another power storage unit 2 directly connected to the power storage unit for each operation cycle, and transmit and receive power. The control unit 10 of each power storage unit has state measurement means 12 for monitoring the amount of power stored in the power storage device 6, and the information on the amount of power stored in the power storage device 6 obtained from the state measurement means and the information communication means described above. Based on the storage amount information obtained from the other storage unit 2 via 18, the difference in the storage amount that can be supplied by the other storage device is taken, and the amount of transferred electricity is set to half or less of the difference The autonomous distributed power storage system according to claim 2, wherein the system is configured.
  4.   Each power storage unit 2 has an individual power source built in the unit instead of being connected to the external individual power source. A part of the individual power source is a commercial power source, and the rest is a power generator such as a solar cell. The autonomous distributed control power storage system according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein
  5.   The sub input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 accepts power from other power storage units when the amount of current or the amount of power stored in the power storage device of the power storage unit exceeds the upper limit value, and the power storage amount falls below the lower limit value. The autonomous distributed control power storage system according to any one of claims 2 to 4, wherein power transmission to other power storage units is restricted when the power is transmitted.
  6.   The sub input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 uses a voltage converter to allow a small current to flow between other power storage units that are directly connected to each other during normal operation. The power storage device 6 of the present power storage unit is configured to be able to supply a large current to the power storage unit in accordance with the degree of decrease in the amount of power stored in the power storage device 6. 6. The autonomous decentralized power storage system according to any one of 5 above.
  7.   The secondary input / output unit 16 of each power storage unit 2 monitors the quality of electrical connection with other power storage units, and stops power transmission to the power storage unit when it is determined that the connection is poor. The autonomous distributed control power storage system according to any one of claims 1 to 6.
  8.   Each power storage unit 2 has at least three sub input / output units 16... And can form a power distribution network between the power storage units via the sub input / output units. The autonomous distributed control power storage system according to claim 7.
  9. The power storage device 6 of each power storage unit 2 has two or more sub-input / output units 16, and a control unit between at least an arbitrary pair of these sub-input / output units without passing through the own power storage device 6. The control unit 10 of each power storage unit 2 is wired from the control unit 10 of the other two power storage units 2 connected to both the sub input / output units. When the command is received, instead of transmitting power from its own power storage device 6, the power transmission command is transferred to the control unit 10 of the other power storage unit 2, and the bypass line is connected from the power storage device 6 of the other power storage unit 2. 20, wherein the power can be transmitted to the power storage device 6 of the one of the power storage units 2 through claim 20, claim 3, claim 5, claim 6, claim 7 or claim Item 9. Autonomous distributed control according to item 8 Power storage system.
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