JP2006042059A - Radio communication apparatus and impedance controlling method thereof - Google Patents

Radio communication apparatus and impedance controlling method thereof Download PDF

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JP2006042059A
JP2006042059A JP2004220696A JP2004220696A JP2006042059A JP 2006042059 A JP2006042059 A JP 2006042059A JP 2004220696 A JP2004220696 A JP 2004220696A JP 2004220696 A JP2004220696 A JP 2004220696A JP 2006042059 A JP2006042059 A JP 2006042059A
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communication apparatus
impedance
tag
radio communication
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Yasumasa Harihara
康正 張原
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Tdk Corp
Tdk株式会社
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a radio communication apparatus for RFID, with which the transmitting/receiving characteristics can be improved, the design and manufacture of which is facilitated, and the manufacturing cost of which can be reduced, as regards a radio communication apparatus suitable for a radio tag to be attached to various objects in an RFID (moving body identification) system. <P>SOLUTION: The radio communication apparatus is provided with a case body 5 that stores a substrate 2, a radiation conductor 3 disposed on the substrate 2 and a communication control module (tag IC) 4 electrically joined on the radiation conductor 3 and consists of a dielectric substance, and a parasitic element 6 is disposed on the surface of the case body 5. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

Description

本発明は、RFID(移動体識別)システムにおいて、種々の物体に装着する無線タグとして好適な無線通信装置に関する。 The present invention provides a RFID (mobile identification) system, of a preferred wireless communication device as a wireless tag to be attached to various objects.

無線通信システムの1つに、RFID(電波方式認識:Radio Frequency−Identification)システムがある。 One of the wireless communication system, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification: Radio Frequency-Identification) is a system. このRFIDシステムは、読出し・書き込み機能を有するシステムであって、質問器と無線タグを備える。 The RFID system is a system having a read-write function comprises interrogator and the wireless tag. 無線タグは、質問器の指示に従い情報を蓄え、また蓄えられた情報を送信する。 Wireless tag stored information in accordance with instructions of the interrogator, also transmits the stored obtained information.

RFIDシステムで用いられる無線タグとして、特にマイクロ領域では、バッテリを内蔵した無線タグがファクトリーオートメーション(Factory Automation;略称FA)分野でよく利用されているが、半導体技術を用いた無線通信回路の技術の進展によって、質問器に基づく信号から駆動電力を得るバッテリを持たない無線タグが開発され、多くの分野でさまざまな活用が検討されている。 As a wireless tag used in an RFID system, in particular in the micro region, the radio tag having a built-in battery factory automation; has been well utilized in (Factory Automation abbreviation FA) field of a wireless communication circuit using a semiconductor technology techniques advances, the wireless tag does not have a battery to obtain driving power from a signal based on the interrogator has been developed, a variety of use in many fields has been studied. この無線タグは、特に物流、流通関連において、さらなる活用が期待されている。 The wireless tag, especially logistics, in the distribution-related additional advantage is expected.

図4は、RFIDシステム11の基本構成を示す図である。 Figure 4 is a diagram showing a basic configuration of the RFID system 11. RFIDシステム11は、質問器13と無線タグ12とから構成される。 RFID system 11 consists of the interrogator 13 and the wireless tag 12. このRFIDシステムは基本的に次のように動作する。 The RFID system basically operates as follows.

先ず、質問器13から発せられた信号が無線タグ12内のアンテナ素子(図示しない)で受信され、同じく無線タグ12内のタグIC(図示しない)に導かれる。 First, the signal emitted from the interrogator 13 is received by the antenna element of the wireless tag 12 (not shown), is also guided to the tag IC of the RFID tag 12 (not shown). 導かれた信号は、タグIC内で処理され、例えば質問器13の読み出し指示の場合には、タグIC内の蓄積情報によって入力信号が変調を受け、再度アンテナ素子から放射される。 Led signal is processed in the tag IC, for example, in the case of a read instruction of the interrogator 13, an input signal by accumulating information in the tag IC is being modulated, radiated from the antenna element again. 質問器13側に放射された信号は、質問器13のアンテナ素子で受信され、RFIDとしての機能が実現される。 The signal radiated to the interrogator 13 side is received by the antenna elements of the interrogator 13, the function as RFID is realized.

ところで、このRFIDシステムは、電磁誘導方式、電磁結合方式、電波方式の各種の方式があるが、いずれの場合においてもRFIDシステムは、質問器と無線タグから構成され、無線タグは、基板と放射導体からなるアンテナ部を有する。 Incidentally, the RFID system, an electromagnetic induction method, an electromagnetic coupling method, there are various methods of radio wave system, the RFID system in either case is composed of the interrogator and the wireless tag, a wireless tag, the substrate and the radiation an antenna portion comprising a conductor. 一般に普及し始めている電波方式のRFIDシステムでは、周波数が2.45GHzもしくはUHF帯の915MHzの信号が用いられている。 The RFID system of the radio wave method which is generally begun to spread, the frequency is used is 915MHz signal of 2.45GHz or UHF band. これら双方の使用周波数帯域における無線タグのタグICは、使用周波数に拘わらず、共通のタグICを用いることができる。 Tag IC of the RFID tag in these both use frequency band, regardless of the used frequency, it is possible to use a common tag IC.

一方、アンテナ部は、使用周波数に応じて、それぞれ設計・製造しなければならない。 On the other hand, the antenna unit in accordance with the use frequency, must be designed and manufactured, respectively. また、設計・製造された無線タグは、回路側との整合を図るため、無線タグのインピーダンス調整を行う必要がある。 The radio tag is designed and manufactured, in order to ensure consistency with the circuit side, it is necessary to perform impedance adjustment of the wireless tag.

このように、従来の無線タグにおいては使用周波数に応じてアンテナ部を別々に設計・製造しなければならず、製造コストが高くなっていた。 Thus, must be designed and manufactured separately antenna unit according to a use frequency in conventional wireless tag, manufacturing cost was high. また、無線タグのアンテナ部の設計・製造を正確に管理していたとしても、アンテナ部の僅かな形状の差異により、無線タグのインピーダンスがばらついてしまうため、回路側との整合を図る手段がなく、送受信特性の劣化を招いていた。 Further, even though correctly manage the design and manufacture of the antenna of the wireless tag, by the difference of a small shape of the antenna unit, because the result varies the impedance of the radio tag, the means to achieve matching between the circuit side rather, it had led to a deterioration of the transmission and reception characteristics.

特許文献1、2には、放射効率が高く、かつ用途が広く、さらに製造が容易で、製造コストが低い無線通信装置が開示されているが、回路側とのインピーダンスの整合を図る手段は、アンテナ長そのものを調整するものであった(下記特許文献1、特許文献2参照)。 Patent Documents 1 and 2, the radiation efficiency is high and versatile, easy to further manufacturing, but manufacturing cost is low wireless communication device is disclosed, the means for achieving impedance matching with the circuit side, It was to adjust the antenna length itself (Patent Document 1, Patent Document 2). しかしながら、従来の製造工程においては、アンテナ部がケース体に覆われた後は、インピーダンスを調整する手段はなかった。 However, in the conventional manufacturing process, after the antenna portion is covered by the case body was not means for adjusting the impedance. 無線タグと回路側のインピーダンス調整を正確に行わない場合、回路側のアンテナ入力端に反射が生じ、結果的にアンテナ部に電力が供給できなくなり、送受信特性を著しく劣化させていた。 If you do not want the impedance adjustment of the wireless tag circuit side accurately reflected to the antenna input terminal of the circuit side occurs, resulting in can no longer supply power to the antenna unit, had significantly degrade the transmission and reception characteristics.
特開2003−298464 Patent 2003-298464 特開2002−353735 Patent 2002-353735

本発明の目的は、送受信特性が向上すると共に、設計・製造が容易であり、さらには製造コストの低減を可能にするRFID用無線通信装置を提供することにある。 An object of the present invention, with transmission and reception characteristics are improved, it is easy to design and manufacture, further to provide a wireless communication device for RFID which allows a reduction in manufacturing cost.

上記の目的は、基板、該基板上に設けた放射導体及び該放射導体上に電気的に接合された通信制御モジュールを収納する誘電体からなるケース体を備えた無線通信装置であって、該ケース体の表面に無給電素子を設けることにより達成される。 The above objects, a substrate, a radio communication apparatus having a case body made of a dielectric material for accommodating electrically connected communication control module on the radiation conductor and the radiation conductor is provided on the substrate, wherein It is achieved by providing a parasitic element on the surface of the case body. なお、本発明における誘電体からなるケース体とは、誘電体のみから構成されるケース体に限らず、本発明の効果を逸脱しない範囲で、その一部が誘電体以外の材質から構成されていてもよい。 Note that the case body made of a dielectric material in the present invention is not limited to the case body composed of only the dielectric, without departing from the effects of the present invention, a portion of is composed of a material other than the dielectric it may be.

本発明の無線タグにおいては、ケース体の表面に設けた無給電素子が一つの場合には、その面積を変えることにより無線タグのインピーダンスの調整を行うことができ、また無給電素子が2つ以上設けられる場合には、それらの間隔を大きくしたり小さくしたりすることによって、無線タグのインピーダンスの調整を行うことができる。 In the wireless tag of the present invention, when the parasitic element provided on the surface of the case body is one, the radio adjusts the tag impedance can be performed, also two parasitic elements by varying the area or if provided, by increase or decrease their spacing, it is possible to adjust the impedance of the wireless tag.

本発明によれば、ケース体上の無給電素子が一つの場合、その面積を小さくすることによって、インピーダンスを高くすることができ、逆にその無給電素子の面積を大きくすることによって、インピーダンスを低くすることができる。 According to the present invention, when the parasitic element on the case body is one, by reducing the area, the impedance can be increased, by increasing the area of ​​the parasitic elements Conversely, the impedance it can be lowered.

また、ケース体の無給電素子が2つの場合、それらの間隔の距離を小さくすることによって、インピーダンスを低くすることができ、逆にそれらの間隔の距離を大きくすることによって、インピーダンスを高くすることができる。 Also, if the parasitic element of the case body is two, by reducing the distance of those intervals, it is possible to lower the impedance, by increasing the distance of their spacing Conversely, increasing the impedance can.

これは、ケース体上に設けた無給電素子が、インピーダンス調整素子としての役割を果たすため、無線タグのインピーダンスを変化させることができるからである。 This parasitic element provided on the case body, to serve as an impedance adjusting element, it is because it is possible to change the impedance of the wireless tag.

以下、本発明について詳細に説明する。 Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail. 本発明は、無線通信装置の通信周波数が2.45GHz又はUHF帯の915MHzの信号が用いられる無線通信装置に対応したものである。 The present invention communication frequency of the wireless communication device corresponding to the wireless communication devices used signal of 915MHz of 2.45GHz or UHF band.

図1は、本発明の第1の実施形態である無線通信装置の斜視図である。 Figure 1 is a perspective view of a wireless communication apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention. 無線タグ1に用いられる基板2は、高周波特性にすぐれた、すなわち誘電損失の低い材料、例えば、ガラスエポキシ樹脂基板(FR−4)が用いられる。 Substrate 2 used in the wireless tag 1 has excellent high-frequency characteristics, i.e. a low dielectric loss material, for example, a glass epoxy resin substrate (FR-4) is used. この基板は、略直方体形状を有し、比誘電率が4から5、誘電損失が0.021程度の誘電体である。 The substrate has a substantially rectangular parallelepiped shape, the dielectric constant of 4 5, the dielectric loss is a dielectric of about 0.021.

放射導体3は、その形状に特に制限はないが、製造上の利点を考慮すれば、矩形状であることが望ましい。 Radiation conductor 3 is not particularly limited in its shape, considering the manufacturing advantages, it is desirable that the rectangular shape. この放射導体は、金、銀、銅、その他導電性の金属が用いられ、本発明においては、銀で作製される。 The radiation conductor, gold, silver, copper, other conductive metal is used, in the present invention are made of silver.

さらに、この放射導体上に通信制御モジュールとなるタグIC4が電気的に接続される。 Furthermore, the tag IC4 as a communication control module on the radiation conductor are electrically connected. 電気的な接続とは、本発明において、信号が伝達することをいう。 The electrical connection, in the present invention means that the signal is transmitted.

このタグIC4は、半導体集積回路によって実現され、復調部、変調部及び情報を蓄積するメモリ部とを有し、放射導体が形成される面内領域に配置される。 This tag IC4 is implemented by a semiconductor integrated circuit, a demodulator, and a memory unit for storing the modulation unit and the information is placed on the surface area of ​​the radiation conductor is formed. タグIC4は、放射導体3で受信した信号を復調部において復調し、復調した信号が応答命令を出す場合、タグIC4は、指定された情報をメモリ部に書き込む。 Tag IC4 is a signal received by the radiation conductor 3 demodulated in the demodulation unit, when issuing the response command demodulated signal, the tag IC4 writes the specified information in the memory unit. タグIC4は、応答命令及び書き込み命令の両方に対応する機能を有する必要はなく、応答命令に対応する機能のみを有してもよい。 Tag IC4 need not have a function corresponding to both the response command and write command may have only the function corresponding to the response command.

基板、基板上の放射導体及びこの放射導体上に電気的に接合されたタグICを収納する誘電体からなるケース体5は、誘電体のみから構成されることがより好ましい。 Substrate, casing 5 made of a dielectric for housing the radiating conductor and the tag IC electrically bonded on the radiating conductor on the substrate is more preferably composed of only the dielectric.

この誘電体は、比誘電率が5から100、誘電損失が0.001程度の、例えば、セラミックが用いられる。 The dielectric has a specific dielectric constant of 5 to 100, a dielectric loss of about 0.001, for example, ceramic is used. ケース体は、タグICには接触しないように、空気層となる間隙を設け、放射導体及びタグICの双方を覆うように形成される。 Casing, as the tag IC does not contact, the gap becomes an air layer is provided, is formed so as to cover both the radiating conductor and the tag IC.

このケース体の表面には、一つの無給電素子6が形成される。 On the surface of this case body, one of the passive element 6 is formed. 本発明において、無給電素子は、銀ペーストを厚さ10μm程度に印刷されている。 In the present invention, the parasitic element is printed with silver paste to a thickness of 10μm approximately. 無給電素子は、導体であれば特にその素材に拘らず、金、銅、アルミニウムなど導体の金属厚膜であればよい。 Parasitic element, regardless of particularly the material if the conductor, gold, copper, may be a conductor of the thick metal film such as aluminum.

この無給電素子は、その面積の大小によって、無線タグのインピーダンスを変えることができる。 The parasitic element, the magnitude of its area, it is possible to change the impedance of the wireless tag. 例えば、所望のインピーダンスよりも、無線タグのインピーダンスが大きい場合は、この無給電素子をその得ようとするインピーダンスに合わせて、その面積を大きくするとよい。 For example, than the desired impedance when the impedance of the wireless tag is large, it combined the parasitic element to the impedance to be obtained that, it is preferable to increase the surface area. また、所望のインピーダンスよりも、無線タグのインピーダンスが小さい場合は、その面積を小さくするとよい。 Moreover, than desired impedance, when the impedance of the wireless tag is small, it is preferable to reduce the area.

このように、無給電素子の面積を変えることによって、アンテナ部の形状に左右されずにインピーダンス調整ができる。 Thus, by changing the area of ​​the parasitic element, it is the impedance adjustment without being influenced by the shape of the antenna portion.

図2は、本発明の第2の実施形態である無線通信装置の斜視図である。 Figure 2 is a perspective view of a wireless communication apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention.

本実施形態においても、誘電体からなるケース体により、基板、この基板上に設けた放射導体及びこの放射導体上に電気的に接続された通信制御モジュールを覆う構成は、上記実施の形態1となんら変わるところはない。 In this embodiment, the case body made of a dielectric material, substrate, configured to cover the electrically connected communication control module to the radiating conductor and on the radiating conductor provided on the substrate, in the first embodiment there is no place where any change.

第2の実施形態においては、ケース体の表面に2つの無給電素子を設け、その互いの距離を調整することによって、無線タグのインピーダンスを調整する。 In the second embodiment, the two parasitic elements disposed on a surface of the case body, by adjusting the distance of the other, to adjust the impedance of the wireless tag. 例えば、所望のインピーダンスよりも、無線タグのインピーダンスが大きい場合は、得ようとするインピーダンスに合わせて、該2つの無給電素子間の距離を短くするとよい。 For example, than the desired impedance when the impedance of the wireless tag is large, in accordance with the impedance to be obtained, it is preferable to shorten the distance between the two parasitic elements. また、所望のインピーダンスよりも、無線タグのインピーダンスが小さい場合は、その距離を長くするとよい。 Moreover, than desired impedance, when the impedance of the wireless tag is small, it is preferable to increase the distance.

このように、無給電素子を設けることによって、アンテナ部の形状に左右されずにインピーダンス調整ができる。 Thus, by providing the parasitic element, it is the impedance adjustment without being influenced by the shape of the antenna portion.

また、実施の形態1、2のいずれにおいても、基板の下側、つまり通信制御モジュールを配置しない側に、ケース体と同じ材質の誘電体を設けてもよい。 In any embodiments 1 and 2, the lower side of the substrate, i.e. the side not arranged communication control module may be provided with a dielectric of the same material as the casing.

このとき下側の誘電体は、基板と同じ大きさとすることが望ましく、また、基板は約0.3mm以下であることが望ましい。 Lower dielectric at this time is desirably the same size as the substrate, also, it is desirable that the substrate is about 0.3mm or less.

本発明は、無線通信装置の使用周波数が2.45GHzとその使用周波数が915MHzの無線タグ双方を作製する場合に特に有用である。 The present invention is particularly useful when the use frequency of the wireless communication device is 2.45GHz and the frequency used to produce the RFID both 915 MHz.

無線タグは、その使用周波数に応じたアンテナ部を設計・製造しなければならないことは、先に述べたとおりだが、本発明に従えば、その双方の使用周波数に応じたアンテナ部を共用することができる。 Wireless tag, it must be designed and manufactured antenna unit in accordance with the use frequency is but as mentioned above, according to the present invention, sharing the antenna unit according to the frequency used for the both can.

一般に無線タグの使用周波数が小さくなると、十分なアンテナ出力を得るため、アンテナは大きくする必要がある。 In general, the use frequency of the wireless tag becomes smaller, to obtain a sufficient antenna output, the antenna needs to be increased. しかしながら、本発明によれば、アンテナの大型化を招くことなく、送受信特性に優れた無線通信装置を廉価に製造することができる。 However, according to the present invention, without increasing the size of the antenna, an excellent wireless communication apparatus to transmission and reception characteristics can be manufactured at low cost.

以下、本発明を実施例によって具体的に説明する。 The present invention will be described examples specifically.

厚さ約2mmのガラスエポキシ基板上に、乾燥後、厚さ約10μm、大きさ10mm×50mmとなるよう銀ペーストを塗布し、放射導体を形成した。 To a thickness of about 2mm glass epoxy substrate, after drying, a thickness of about 10 [mu] m, a silver paste to be the size of 10 mm × 50 mm was coated, to form a radiation conductor. その後、この放射導体上に通信制御モジュールをはんだにて接合し、ケース体を用いずに、使用周波数が2.45GHzの無線タグを作製した。 Then, the communication control module on the radiation conductor and joined with solder, without using the case body, the frequency used to produce the 2.45GHz wireless tag. このときのアンテナ長、つまり放射導体の長手方向の長さは50mmであった。 Antenna length of this time, that is the longitudinal length of the radiating conductor was 50 mm.

同様に、ケース体を用いずに、使用周波数915MHzの無線タグを作製したところ、アンテナ長は、約160mm必要となった。 Similarly, without using the case body, were manufactured wireless tag usable frequency 915 MHz, the antenna length became necessary about 160 mm.

そこで、この915MHzの無線タグを、比誘電率が7〜8の誘電体を用いたケース体で覆ったところ、アンテナ長を50mmにすることで、ケース体を用いない無線タグと同等の送受信特性が得られた。 Therefore, the wireless tag of the 915 MHz, where the dielectric constant is covered with the case body using a dielectric 7-8, by the antenna length 50 mm, equivalent to transmission and reception characteristics and the wireless tag without using the case body was gotten. さらにインピーダンスの調整のため、ケース体上に無給電素子を、銀ペーストを用い厚さ10μm、縦×横を3mm×3mmの大きさに印刷で作製した。 Further for adjusting the impedance, the parasitic element on the case body, thickness 10μm using a silver paste, a vertical × horizontal produced in printed to a size of 3 mm × 3 mm.

この無給電素子を利用し、回路側との整合を図るため、無線タグのインピーダンス調整を行った。 Utilizing this passive element, in order to matching the circuit side were impedance adjustment of the wireless tag.

このように本発明によれば、2.45GHzの無線タグのアンテナ及び915MHzの無線タグのアンテナを共用することができ、製造上コストを大幅に低減することができる。 Thus, according to the present invention, it is possible to share the antenna of the antenna and 915MHz radio tag 2.45GHz wireless tag, it is possible to greatly reduce the manufacturing cost.

上述の発明は、RFIDシステムに用いられる無線通信装置に利用可能である。 Above invention is applicable to a radio communication apparatus used in an RFID system.

本発明の第1の実施形態を示す斜視図である。 It is a perspective view showing a first embodiment of the present invention. 本発明の第2の実施形態を示す斜視図である。 It is a perspective view showing a second embodiment of the present invention. 本発明の第1の実施形態を示す断面図である。 It is a sectional view showing a first embodiment of the present invention. RFIDシステムの基本構成を示す図である。 It is a diagram showing a basic configuration of the RFID system.

符号の説明 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1 無線通信装置2 基板3 放射導体4 通信制御モジュール(タグIC) 1 wireless communication device 2 substrate 3 radiation conductor 4 communication control module (Tag IC)
5 ケース体6 無給電素子11 RFIDシステム12 無線タグ13 質問器 5 casing 6 passive element 11 RFID system 12 wireless tag 13 interrogator



Claims (4)

  1. 基板、該基板上に設けた放射導体及び該放射導体上に電気的に接続された通信制御モジュールを収納する誘電体からなるケース体を備えた無線通信装置であって、該ケース体の表面に無給電素子を設けたことを特徴とする無線通信装置。 Substrate, a radio communication apparatus having a case body made of a dielectric material for accommodating the communication control module electrically connected to the radiating conductor and the radiation conductor is provided on the substrate, the surface of the case body wireless communication apparatus characterized in that a passive element.
  2. 前記無給電素子は、金属導体であることを特徴とする請求項1に記載の無線通信装置。 The parasitic element, the wireless communication apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that a metal conductor.
  3. 請求項1に記載された無線通信装置のインピーダンス調整方法であって、前記無給電素子の面積を変化させることにより、無線通信装置のインピーダンスを調整することを特徴とする無線通信装置のインピーダンス調整方法。 A impedance adjustment method of the radio communication apparatus according to claim 1, wherein by changing the area of ​​the parasitic element, the impedance adjustment method of the radio communication apparatus characterized by adjusting the impedance of the wireless communication device .
  4. 請求項1に記載された無線通信装置のインピーダンス調整方法であって、複数の前記無給電素子間の距離を変化させることにより、無線通信装置のインピーダンスを調整することを特徴とする無線通信装置のインピーダンス調整方法。 A impedance adjustment method of the radio communication apparatus according to claim 1, by changing the distance between the plurality of parasitic elements, the wireless communication apparatus characterized by adjusting the impedance of the wireless communication device impedance adjustment method.

JP2004220696A 2004-07-28 2004-07-28 Radio communication apparatus and impedance controlling method thereof Withdrawn JP2006042059A (en)

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