JP2005323316A - Gateway apparatus - Google Patents

Gateway apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2005323316A
JP2005323316A JP2004141723A JP2004141723A JP2005323316A JP 2005323316 A JP2005323316 A JP 2005323316A JP 2004141723 A JP2004141723 A JP 2004141723A JP 2004141723 A JP2004141723 A JP 2004141723A JP 2005323316 A JP2005323316 A JP 2005323316A
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wan
lan
mac address
gateway device
packet
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Japanese (ja)
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Kenji Kawai
健治 川合
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Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt>
日本電信電話株式会社
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a gateway apparatus capable of reducing the number of MAC addresses to be managed by a switch unit used in a WAN. <P>SOLUTION: The gateway apparatus for applying prescribed LAN-WAN gateway processing to a packet received from a LAN, transferring the processed packet to a WAN, applying prescribed WAN-LAN gateway processing to a packet received from the WAN and transferring the processed packet to the LAN, uses a sender source address value of a data link layer included in the packet received from the LAN and a destination address value of the data link layer for a MAC address value set by the WAN for each gateway apparatus in the LAN-WAN gateway processing. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

Description

The present invention relates to a gateway device that connects a WAN and a LAN and transfers packets between the LAN and the WAN, and more particularly, a gateway that transfers packets to the WAN using a data link layer protocol usually used in the LAN. Relates to the device.

  As a data link layer protocol used in a home or company LAN (Local Area Network), an Ethernet (registered trademark) protocol normally defined by IEEE 802.3 is used. The Ethernet (registered trademark) is one of protocols between the physical layer and the data link layer.

  On the other hand, a WAN (Wide Area Network) constructed by a telecommunications carrier to connect LANs uses a data link layer protocol that is different from the data link layer protocol used in the LAN (for example, non-wireless network). Patent Document 1).

  Therefore, in order to connect the LAN and the WAN, it is necessary to convert the data link layer protocol. For this reason, there is a problem that the gateway device is expensive.

  In addition, the data link layer protocol used in such a WAN is premised on application to a large-scale network. However, the data link layer protocol used in the WAN is not general and is used in the WAN. The switch device is expensive.

Against the backdrop of these problems, the Ethernet (registered trademark) protocol is adopted as the data link layer protocol of the WAN, thereby using a low-cost gateway device and switch device, and reducing the cost required for WAN construction. A WAN technology called (registered trademark) is becoming widespread (for example, see Non-Patent Document 2).
"Technical Reference Materials for ATM Dedicated Services <ATM Megalink Service, ATM Share Link Service> Fourth Edition" East Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, April 1, 2003 (URL: http://www.ntt-east.co. jp / senyo / pdf_gijutu / atm.pdf) "Technical Reference Material for LAN-type Communication Network Services (Metro Ether) 1st Edition" East Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, May 2003 (URL: http://www.ntt-east.co.jp/senyo/pdf_gijutu/ether .pdf)

  However, the wide-area Ethernet (registered trademark) employs the Ethernet (registered trademark) protocol that is premised on a relatively small-scale network, and thus a problem occurs when the scale is increased.

  In wide-area Ethernet (registered trademark), it is common to employ an extended VLAN technology. “VLAN” is a Virtual Local Area Network, which is a technology for adding a VLAN tag to a packet and setting a virtual group, and “Extended VLAN technology” is a VLAN function for wide area Ethernet (registered trademark). ) Is a technique used for user identification.

  In other words, since the path control is performed using the MAC address of the terminal device, the switch device that constructs the wide area Ethernet (registered trademark) needs an extremely large MAC address table for the maximum number of terminal devices. There is. The “MAC address” is an address used for packet routing in Ethernet (registered trademark), and is usually a unique ID assigned to each terminal.

  And, when constructing wide area Ethernet (registered trademark), it is necessary to have an extremely large MAC address table for the number of terminal devices at the maximum. Responsible.

An object of this invention is to provide the gateway apparatus which can reduce the MAC address which the switch apparatus used within WAN should manage.

  In the present invention, a packet input from a LAN is subjected to a predetermined LAN-WAN gateway process and transferred to the WAN, and a packet input from the WAN is subjected to a predetermined WAN-LAN gateway process and transferred to the LAN. In the gateway device, in the LAN-WAN gateway processing, the source address value of the data link layer and the destination address value of the data link layer included in the packet input from the LAN are set for each gateway device. This is a gateway device used as a MAC address value set by the WAN.

  As a result, the number of MAC addresses used in the WAN can be reduced to the number of gateway devices, not the number of terminal devices, and the number of MAC address tables required by the switch device can be greatly reduced.

Further, in packet transfer within the WAN, dynamic control processing for routing such as address learning is not required, and it is possible to cope with an increase in scale.

According to the present invention, it is possible to reduce the number of MAC addresses used in the WAN to the number of gateway devices, not the number of terminal devices, and greatly reduce the number of MAC address tables required by the switch device. There is an effect that a gateway device can be provided.

  The best mode for carrying out the invention is the following examples.

  FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a network configuration 100 including gateway devices GWi and GWj that are Embodiment 1 of the present invention.

  The network configuration 100 includes a LAN 10 and a WAN 20, and n LANs 10 are provided. The gateway apparatus GWi connects the LAN 10i and the WAN 20, and the gateway apparatus GWj connects the LAN 10j and the WAN 20. Note that i is any one of 1 to n, and j is any one of 1 to n other than i. Further, the terminal device Tp is connected to the LAN 10i, and the terminal device Tq is connected to the LAN 10j.

  FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating an example of packet communication on the LAN 10i side according to the first embodiment.

  The example illustrated in FIG. 2 is an example in which the LAN 10i and the LAN 10j belong to different data links.

  The terminal device Tp transmits a packet: LAN10i packet Tp-Tq toward the terminal device Tq. The Ethernet (registered trademark) protocol is employed in the data link layer of the LAN 10j packet Tp-Tq. The data link layer header includes a destination address: MAC-Gi (MAC address assigned to the LAN side port of the gateway device GWi) and a source address: MAC-Tp (MAC address attached to the port of the terminal device Tp). including.

  Further, the IP protocol is adopted for the network layer, and the network layer header includes a destination address: IP-Tq (IP address of the terminal device Tq) and a source address: IP-Tp (IP address of the terminal device Tp). .

  The gateway device GWi outputs to the WAN 20 side as a WAN packet Tp-Tq in which the data link layer header of the LAN 10i packet Tp-Tq is rewritten.

  The destination address of the data link layer is rewritten to MAC-Nj (the MAC address of the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWj), and the source address is rewritten to MAC-Ni (the MAC address of the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWi). In addition, it is necessary to correct the FCS (Frame Check Sequence) of Ethernet (registered trademark) with the rewriting.

  FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating an example of packet communication on the LAN 10j side according to the first embodiment.

  The example illustrated in FIG. 3 is an example in which the LAN 10i and the LAN 10j belong to different data links.

  The gateway device GWj outputs a LAN10j packet Tp-Tq in which the data link layer header of the WAN packet Tp-Tq is rewritten to the LAN10j side. The destination address of the data link layer is rewritten to MAC-Gj (the MAC address of the LAN side port of the gateway device GWj), and the source address is rewritten to MAC-Ni (the MAC address of the port of the terminal device Tq).

  In addition, it is necessary to correct the FCS (Frame Check Sequence) of Ethernet (registered trademark) with the rewriting.

  FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating an operation in which a data link layer address is set in the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device according to the first embodiment.

  The WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWn is connected to the edge port EPn of the edge device Em in the WAN 20 via the access network. The edge device Em is connected to the authentication server via the core network.

  During the period when the connection is not performed, the MAC address of the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWn is not set, and the MAC address: MAC-Nn is set through the edge port EPn by the connection. At the time of the connection, the authentication server authenticates the gateway device GWn, and IEEE 802.1x can be applied as the authentication protocol.

  FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a signal when a MAC address is set to the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWn according to the first embodiment via the edge port EPn of the edge device Em.

  When the gateway device GWn connects to the edge device Em, the authentication server authenticates the gateway device GWn, and IEEE 802.1x is applied as the authentication protocol. When this authentication is successful, the MAC address is set in the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWn.

  That is, first, the edge device Em transmits an ID request packet to the gateway device GWn. When the gateway device GWn receives the ID request packet, the gateway device GWn transmits an ID notification packet including an ID unique to the gateway device GWn to the edge device Em.

  Then, an ID notification packet including the ID of the gateway device GWn and the ID of the edge port EPn is transmitted to the authentication server, and the authentication server authenticates the gateway device GWn by a predetermined procedure.

  When this authentication is successful, the authentication server transmits an access permission packet. At this time, the MAC address MAC_Nn to be set in the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWn is determined, and MAC_Nn is entered in the access permission packet.

  Then, the access permission packet is transferred to the gateway device GWn. At this time, transfer to the core network is permitted for a packet that is input from the edge port EPn and whose source MAC address value is MAC_Nn. The edge device Em gives access permission. Note that the MAC address of the transmission packet sent by the gateway device GWn is MAC_Gn.

  Thereafter, when the gateway device GWn receives the access permission packet, the MAC address of the WAN 20 side port is set to MAC_Nn, and an operation of transferring the packet from the LAN 10n to the WAN 20 is started.

  Then, when the edge device Em detects a link disconnection of the access network, among the packets input from the edge port EPn, the transfer to the core network is prohibited for the packet whose source MAC address value is MAC_Nn. . The logoff packet including the ID of the edge port EPn is transferred to the authentication server.

  FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating the operation of the authentication server when the MAC address is set in the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWn according to the first embodiment.

  The MAC address to be paid out to the gateway device is designated in advance by the edge port to which the gateway device is connected. The correspondence between the gateway device ID and the issued MAC address is recorded in the gateway device ID-MAC address management table shown in FIG.

  First, it waits for the reception of an ID notification packet / logoff packet (S1). Upon receiving the ID notification of the gateway device GWn, the gateway device GWn is authenticated according to a predetermined procedure (S2). -The ID of the edge port EPn included in the ID notification packet is searched from the MAC address management table, and the value of MAC_Nn to be paid out to the gateway device GWn is determined (S3).

  Then, in the gateway device ID-MAC address management table, the correspondence between the ID of the gateway device GWn included in the ID notification packet and the issued MAC_Nn is recorded (S4), and the access permission packet including the MAC_Nn value is recorded. It transmits to gateway apparatus GWn (S5).

  On the other hand, if authentication fails in S2, an access non-permission packet is transmitted to the gateway device GWn (S6).

  When the logoff packet of the edge port EPn is received (S1), the ID of the edge port EPn included in the ID notification packet is searched from the edge port ID-MAC address management table, and the MAC_Nn assigned to the gateway device GWn is retrieved. A value is obtained (S7). Then, the record indicating the correspondence between the MAC_Nn and the ID of the gateway device GWn is deleted from the gateway device ID-MAC address management table (S8), and an access permission packet including the MAC_Nn value is transmitted to the gateway device GWn (S5). ).

  Note that the edge port ID-MAC address management table and the gateway device ID-MAC address management table do not need to be managed in the authentication server, but are managed by another server, and according to an instruction from the authentication server, You may make it access each table.

  FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating a system configuration example of the WAN 20 according to the first embodiment.

  A list of MAC addresses is set in advance for each port of the switch device and edge device in the WAN 20. This list of MAC addresses is not obtained by general MAC address learning, but is statically set from the outside.

  When the destination address included in the data link layer header of each packet matches the MAC address assigned to each port of the edge device or the switch device, each packet is output from that port.

  The MAC address assigned to each edge port matches the MAC address assigned to the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device connected to each edge port. By setting in this way, as shown in FIG. 7, the packet transmitted from the gateway device GWi to the gateway device GWj (MAC_Nj = A5) is transferred.

  In this way, the system does not dynamically determine the route by MAC address learning, but statically determines the route, thereby suppressing broadcast packets until learning, and a system caused by the restriction on the number of MAC addresses that can be stored. Instability is eliminated.

  When performing multicast, a dedicated MAC address is paid out for the multicast (different from a statically assigned MAC address). The dedicated MAC address is assigned to each port of the edge device or the switch device that relays between each gateway device that receives the multicast packet and the distribution server device that transmits the multicast packet. The above processing is dynamically performed by the multicast management server in response to the join / leave request of each gateway device.

  FIG. 8 is a diagram for explaining the operation of rewriting the MAC address in the first embodiment.

  The example shown in FIG. 8 is an example in which connection between LANs of LAN 10i, LAN 10j, and LAN 10k is performed. At this time, the gateway devices GWi, GWj, and GWk that connect each LAN and the WAN 20 have an IP route management table, a WAN-MAC address management table, and a LAN-MAC address management table. Based on these tables, The MAC address of the packet passing through the gateway device is rewritten.

  For example, in the rewriting shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, first, the gateway device GWi obtains the IP address: IP-Gj of the gateway device corresponding to the destination IP address: IP-Tq of the packet from the IP route management table. .

  Next, the MAC address: MAC-Nj of the gateway device having the IP address: IP-Gj is known from the WAN-MAC address management table. Thereby, the gateway device GWi rewrites the destination MAC address of the packet to MAC-Nj. The source MAC address is rewritten to the MAC address assigned to the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWi.

  Next, the packet is transferred by the WAN 20 to the gateway device GWj. Note that FIG. 7 may be referred to for packet transfer of the WAN 20. The gateway device GWj knows from the IP route management table that the IP address: IP-Gj of the gateway device corresponding to the destination IP address: IP-Tq of the packet is addressed to itself.

  Therefore, the MAC address: MAC-Tq of the terminal device corresponding to the destination IP address: IP-Tq is known from the LAN-MAC address management table. Thereby, the gateway device GWj rewrites the destination MAC address of the packet to MAC-Tq. The source MAC address is rewritten to the MAC address assigned to the LAN side port of the gateway device GWj.

  Thereby, the packet reaches the terminal device Tq. If there are a plurality of LAN-side ports of the gateway device, the correspondence of the port ID is added to the LAN-MAC address management table, and the packet is transmitted from the port having this port ID.

  The IP route management table and the WAN-MAC address management table are tables that are statically set when the LAN 20 connects between LANs. Gateway devices (in this case, GWi, GWj, and GWk) that perform connection between LANs are the same.

  In the example shown in FIG. 8, the IP destination address of the IP route management table is described in the form of one entry for one address, but a plurality of IP addresses are described in one entry using a subnet mask. It may be.

  Further, for the WAN-MAC address management table, only the correspondence between the IP address and the ID need be set, and the MAC address corresponding to the ID is assigned to the server that manages the gateway device ID-MAC address management table shown in FIG. It is possible to obtain the MAC address by making an inquiry.

Each gateway device creates a LAN-MAC address management table in order to manage the correspondence between the IP address and MAC address of the terminal connected to the LAN, and this LAN-MAC address management table differs for each gateway device. Yes. For example, the table may be created by ARP (Address Resolution Protocol).

  The network configuration diagram of the second embodiment of the present invention is the same as the network configuration in the first embodiment shown in FIG.

  FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating an example of packet communication on the LAN 10i side according to the second embodiment.

  The example shown in FIG. 9 is an example when the LAN 10i and the LAN 10j belong to the same data link (when the packet network layer protocol is not used).

  The terminal device Tp transmits a packet: LAN10i packet Tp-Tq to the terminal device Tq. The Ethernet (registered trademark) protocol is employed in the data link layer of the LAN 10i packet Tp-Tq, and the data link layer header includes a destination address: MAC-Tq (MAC address attached to the port of the terminal device Tq) and a source Address: MAC-Tp (MAC address assigned to the port of the terminal device Tp).

  The gateway device GWi performs encapsulation by adding a data link layer header outside the LAN10i packet Tp-Tq. The WAN packet Tp-Tq is output to the WAN 20 side. The destination address of the data link layer header to be added is MAC-Nj (the MAC address of the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWj), and the source address is MAC-Ni (the MAC address of the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWi). With the encapsulation, it is necessary to add or modify an Ethernet (registered trademark) FCS (Frame Check Sequence) (FIG. 9 shows the case of the modification method).

  FIG. 10 is a diagram illustrating an example of packet communication on the LAN 10j side according to the second embodiment of this invention.

  The example shown in FIG. 10 is a case where the LAN 10i and the LAN 10j belong to the same data link (when the network layer protocol of the packet is not used).

  The gateway device GWj outputs to the LAN 10j side as a LAN 10j packet Tp-Tq from which the outer data link layer header of the WAN packet Tp-Tq has been deleted.

  Along with the above deletion, it is necessary to delete the Ethernet (registered trademark) FCS (Frame Check Sequence) (when the additional method is used in the encapsulation) or to correct it (the correction method is used in the encapsulation). Case: The figure shows the case of the correction method).

  FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating an encapsulation operation according to the second embodiment.

  In the example shown in FIG. 11, the LAN 10i, the LAN 10j, and the LAN 10k are connected (after the connection, each terminal behaves as belonging to one LAN). At this time, the gateway devices GWi, GWj, and GWk that connect each LAN and the WAN 20 have a MAC address list and a WAN-MAC address management table for each gateway device, and based on the WAN-MAC address management table, Encapsulates packets that pass through the gateway device.

  For example, in the encapsulation shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, first, the gateway device GWi obtains the ID: ID-Gj of the gateway device corresponding to the destination MAC address: MAC-Tq of the packet from the MAC address list.

  Next, the MAC address: MAC-Nj of the gateway device having the gateway device ID: ID-Gj is known from the WAN-MAC address management table. Thereby, the gateway device GWi sets the destination MAC address of the outer data link layer header of the packet to MAC-Nj. It is assumed that the source MAC address is a MAC address assigned to the WAN 20 side port of the gateway device GWi.

  Next, the packet is transferred by the WAN 20 to the gateway device GWj. Note that FIG. 7 may be referred to for packet transfer of the WAN 20. The gateway device GWj removes the outer data link layer header and transmits from the LAN side port. Thereby, the packet reaches the terminal device Tq. When there are a plurality of LAN-side ports of the gateway device, the port ID is added to each MAC address recorded in the MAC address list, and the packet is transmitted from the port having the port ID.

  The MAC address list for each gateway device is a list of MAC addresses of terminals connected to the LAN port of each gateway device. When creating the MAC address list for each gateway device, for example, it can be created by the same method as the MAC address learning of a normal Ethernet (registered trademark) switch device. When there are a plurality of LAN-side ports of the gateway device, it is not necessary to distinguish the ports except for the own MAC address list. A MAC address list other than the own MAC address list is obtained from each gateway device based on the WAN-MAC address management table.

The WAN-MAC address management table is a table that is statically set when the WAN 20 performs inter-LAN connection. Gateway devices (in this case, GWi, GWj, and GWk) that perform connection between LANs are the same. In setting, it is only necessary to set the ID, and the MAC address corresponding to the ID can be obtained by inquiring the MAC address corresponding to the ID from the server that manages the gateway device ID-MAC address management table shown in FIG.

  FIG. 12 is a diagram illustrating a system configuration example of the WAN 20 according to the third embodiment of the present invention.

  A list of MAC addresses is preset in each port of the switch device and edge device in the WAN 20. This list of MAC addresses is not obtained by general MAC address learning, but is statically set from the outside. Each port does not store an individual MAC address, but stores a MAC address value range specification, so that the memory capacity to be stored can be reduced.

  For example, in the first embodiment, four MAC addresses A1, A2, A3, and A4 need to be stored for the left port of the switching device SWa, but when these MAC addresses are consecutive values, A1 to A4 As described above, it is sufficient to store two MAC addresses by storing in a range. In addition, like the subnet mask of the IP address, it may be specified in the masked range. The larger this range, the greater the memory capacity reduction effect. It is also possible to set so as to increase the memory capacity reduction effect. As shown in FIG. 12, if the tree structure is specified, the effect of reducing the memory capacity is further improved.

That is, in the above-described embodiment, a packet input from the LAN is subjected to a predetermined LAN-WAN gateway process, transferred to the WAN, and a packet input from the WAN is subjected to a predetermined WAN-LAN gateway process. In the gateway device for forwarding to the gateway device, in the LAN-WAN gateway processing, the source address value of the data link layer and the destination address value of the data link layer included in the packet input from the LAN are converted into the gateway device. It is an example of a gateway device that is used as a MAC address value set by the WAN every time.

1 is a diagram illustrating a network configuration 100 including gateway devices GWi and GWj that are Embodiment 1 of the present invention. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an example of packet communication on the LAN 10i side in Embodiment 1. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an example of packet communication on the LAN 10j side in Embodiment 1. FIG. It is a figure explaining the operation | movement by which the address of a data link layer is set to the WAN20 side port of the gateway apparatus in Example 1. FIG. It is a figure explaining the signal when a MAC address is set to the WAN20 side port of the gateway apparatus GWn in Example 1 via the edge port EPn of the edge apparatus Em. It is a figure explaining operation | movement of an authentication server when a MAC address is set to the WAN20 side port of the gateway apparatus GWn in Example 1. FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a system configuration example of a WAN 20 in Embodiment 1. FIG. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an operation for rewriting a MAC address in the first embodiment. 10 is a diagram illustrating an example of packet communication on the LAN 10i side in Embodiment 2. FIG. It is a figure which shows the packet communication example by the side of LAN10j of Example 2 of this invention. FIG. 10 is a diagram for explaining an encapsulation operation according to the second embodiment. It is a figure which shows the system structural example of WAN20 in Example 3 of this invention.

Explanation of symbols

100: Network configuration,
10 ... LAN,
20 ... WAN,
Tp, Tq ... terminal device,
GW ... Gateway device,
E ... Edge device,
EP: Edge port,
SW: Switch device.

Claims (1)

  1. In a gateway device that performs a predetermined LAN-WAN gateway process and transfers a packet input from the LAN to the WAN, and performs a predetermined WAN-LAN gateway process and transfers the packet input from the LAN to the LAN.
    In the LAN-WAN gateway processing, the WAN sets the source address value of the data link layer and the destination address value of the data link layer included in the packet input from the LAN for each gateway device. A gateway apparatus characterized by being used as a MAC address value.
JP2004141723A 2004-05-11 2004-05-11 Gateway apparatus Pending JP2005323316A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2013042370A (en) * 2011-08-16 2013-02-28 Hitachi Ltd Communication device
JP2013535870A (en) * 2010-06-29 2013-09-12 ファーウェイ テクノロジーズ カンパニー リミテッド Asymmetric network address encapsulation
US8897303B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-11-25 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Delegate gateways and proxy for target hosts in large layer 2 and address resolution with duplicated internet protocol addresses
US9160609B2 (en) 2010-05-28 2015-10-13 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Virtual Layer 2 and mechanism to make it scalable

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9912495B2 (en) 2010-05-28 2018-03-06 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Virtual layer 2 and mechanism to make it scalable
US9160609B2 (en) 2010-05-28 2015-10-13 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Virtual Layer 2 and mechanism to make it scalable
JP2013535870A (en) * 2010-06-29 2013-09-12 ファーウェイ テクノロジーズ カンパニー リミテッド Asymmetric network address encapsulation
US8897303B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-11-25 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Delegate gateways and proxy for target hosts in large layer 2 and address resolution with duplicated internet protocol addresses
US8937950B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2015-01-20 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Asymmetric network address encapsulation
US9014054B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2015-04-21 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Layer two over multiple sites
US10367730B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2019-07-30 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Layer two over multiple sites
US10389629B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2019-08-20 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Asymmetric network address encapsulation
JP2013042370A (en) * 2011-08-16 2013-02-28 Hitachi Ltd Communication device

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