# JP2005165422A - Collision probability determination device - Google Patents

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JP2005165422A
JP2005165422A JP2003400186A JP2003400186A JP2005165422A JP 2005165422 A JP2005165422 A JP 2005165422A JP 2003400186 A JP2003400186 A JP 2003400186A JP 2003400186 A JP2003400186 A JP 2003400186A JP 2005165422 A JP2005165422 A JP 2005165422A
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vehicle
means
driver
direction
bicycle
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JP2003400186A
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JP4134891B2 (en )
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Kazumi Isaji
Hiroshi Kaneko
Naohiko Tsuru

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Denso Corp

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## Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a collision probability determination device which adequately determines a probability of colliding with its own vehicle.
SOLUTION: The collision probability determination device recognizes objects of pedestrians, bicycles, other vehicles and so on ahead of its own vehicle (S10) and specifies the directions of lines of sight of the recognized pedestrians, drivers of the recognized bicycles, drivers of other recognized vehicles and so on (S20). Then, the above determination device gives the alarm from its own vehicle to arouse the attention of pedestrians, drivers of the bicycles, or drivers of other vehicles, who do not direct their lines of sight toward its own vehicle (S40) when it is determined that the specified lines of sight are not directed toward its own vehicle (S30).

## Description

このように、本発明は、自車両に視線を向けている歩行者、自転車の運転者、他車両の運転者等は、自車両の存在を認識しているものと想定できることに着目したもので、すなわち、歩行者、自転車の運転者、及び、他車両の運転者等の視線方向が自車両の存在する方向であるか否かの判定を行う。 Thus, the present invention provides pedestrians towards a line of sight to the vehicle, the driver of the bicycle, a driver or the like of the other vehicle, attention is paid to be assumed to be aware of the presence of the vehicle , i.e., a pedestrian, a driver of the bicycle, and the viewing direction of the driver or the like of the other vehicle makes a determination of whether the direction in which the presence of the vehicle. これにより、自車両との衝突可能性を判定することができる。 This makes it possible to determine the possibility of collision with the vehicle.

また、運転支援装置２００は、スロットル駆動器９０、ブレーキ駆動器１００、ステアリング駆動器１１０、自動変速機制御器１２０、表示装置１３０、入力装置１４０、警報装置１５０、及び通信装置１６０をさらに備え、各々コンピュータ８０に接続される。 Further, the driving support device 200, the throttle actuator 90, the brake actuator 100, steering actuator 110, an automatic transmission controller 120, display device 130 further includes an input device 140, an alarm unit 150, and a communication device 160, each is connected to the computer 80.

コンピュータ８０は、図示しない入出力インターフェース（Ｉ／Ｏ）および各種の駆動回路を備えている。 Computer 80 includes input and output interface (I / O) and various drive circuits (not shown). これらのハード構成は一般的なものであるので、その構成に関する詳細な説明については省略する。 These hardware configurations are common ones, detailed description thereof will be omitted about the configuration. このコンピュータ８０は、自車両の周囲に存在する歩行者、自転車、及び他車両との衝突可能性を判定し、この判定の結果、衝突する可能性があると判定される場合に、その衝突する可能性のある歩行者や他車両に対して警報を発生する警報発生処理を実行する。 The computer 80, a pedestrian existing around the vehicle, determines a bicycle, and a possibility of collision with another vehicle, if the result of this determination, it is determined that there is a possibility of a collision, to the collision possible to generate an alarm to the pedestrians and other vehicles running the alarm generating process.

また、コンピュータ８０は、各センサからの情報に基づいて、スロットル駆動器９０、ブレーキ駆動器１００、ステアリング駆動器１１０、自動変速機制御器１２０等を駆動して、自車両の走行車線を維持して走行させる車線維持走行制御や、先行車両との車間時間を適切な車間時間となるように維持して走行させる車間距離制御等の運転操作を支援する運転支援処理も実行する。 The computer 80, based on information from the sensors, the throttle actuator 90, the brake actuator 100, steering actuator 110, and drives the automatic transmission control unit 120, etc., to maintain a driving lane of the vehicle and lane keeping running control for running Te, also performs driving support processing that support the driving operation of the adaptive cruise control or the like maintained to be run to the inter-vehicle time becomes an appropriate inter-vehicle time between the preceding vehicle.

スロットル開度センサ１０は、スロットルバルブの開度を検出するものである。 Throttle opening sensor 10 is for detecting the opening degree of the throttle valve. この検出したスロットルバルブの開度信号は、コンピュータ８０に送られる。 Opening signal of the detected throttle valve is transmitted to the computer 80. ステアリングセンサ２０は、ハンドルの操舵角の変更量を検出するものであり、その値から相対的な操舵角が検出される。 Steering sensor 20 is to detect the change amount of the steering angle of the steering wheel, the relative steering angle is detected from the value.

レーザレーダセンサ３０は、レーザ光を車両前方の所定範囲に照射することにより、そのレーザ光を反射する反射物体との距離、相対速度、及び自車両に対する反射物体の方位等を検出する。 Laser radar sensor 30, by applying a laser beam to a predetermined range ahead of the vehicle and detects the distance to the reflecting object for reflecting the laser beam, relative velocity, and azimuth, etc. of the reflecting object with respect to the vehicle. この検出結果から構成される物体情報は、電気信号に変換されたのちコンピュータ８０へ出力される。 Object information composed of the detection result is outputted to the computer 80 after being converted into an electric signal. なお、このレーザレーダセンサ３０は、レーザ光を用いて物体を検出するものであるが、ミリ波やマイクロ波等の電波や超音波等を用いて車両周囲の物体を検出するものであってもよい。 Incidentally, the laser radar sensor 30 is detects a object by using a laser beam, be one that detects an object around the vehicle using radio waves or ultrasonic waves such as a millimeter wave or microwave good.

ヨーレートセンサ４０は、車両の鉛直方向周りの角速度を検出する。 Yaw rate sensor 40 detects an angular velocity around the vertical direction of the vehicle. 車速センサ５０は、車輪の回転速度に対応した信号を検出するセンサである。 The vehicle speed sensor 50 is a sensor which detects a signal corresponding to the rotational speed of the wheel. 可視カメラ６２は、自車両前方の所定範囲内を撮影する撮像手段として用いられる光学式のカメラであり、撮影画像を電気信号に変換してコンピュータ８０へ出力する。 Visible light camera 62 is an optical camera is used as an imaging means for photographing a predetermined range ahead of the vehicle, and outputs to the computer 80 converts the photographed image into an electrical signal.

ナビゲーション装置７０は、周知のごとく、自車両の現在位置周辺の地図を表示する地図表示機能等の各種機能を実行するものであり、ＧＰＳ（Global Positioning System）衛星からの電波に基づいて自車両の位置（緯度、経度）を検出するＧＰＳ受信機や自車両の進行方向の絶対方位を検出する地磁気センサを備える。 The navigation device 70, as is well known, is intended to perform various functions such as a map display function for displaying a map around the present position of the vehicle, the vehicle based on radio waves from GPS (Global Positioning System) position (latitude, longitude) comprises a geomagnetic sensor that detects the absolute direction in the traveling direction of the GPS receiver and the vehicle for detecting a. また、地図を表示するための地図データ等を入力する地図データ入力器等も備える。 Also it comprises map data input device for inputting map data for displaying a map.

スロットル駆動器９０、ブレーキ駆動器１００、ステアリング駆動器１１０、及び自動変速機制御器１２０は、いずれもコンピュータ８０からの指示に応じて駆動するものである。 Throttle actuator 90, the brake actuator 100, the steering actuator 110 and the automatic transmission controller 120, are both intended to drive in accordance with an instruction from the computer 80. スロットル駆動器９０は、スロットルバルブの開度を調節し、内燃機関の出力を制御する。 Throttle actuator 90 adjusts the opening degree of the throttle valve, to control the output of the internal combustion engine. ブレーキ駆動器１００はブレーキ圧力を調節し、ステアリング駆動器１１０はステアリングに回転トルクを発生させることで、ステアリングを駆動する。 Brake actuator 100 adjusts the brake pressure, steering driver 110 by generating a rotational torque to the steering, to drive the steering. 自動変速機制御器１２０は、車両の速度を制御する上で必要な、自動変速機のギヤ位置を選択するものである。 Automatic transmission controller 120 necessary for controlling the speed of the vehicle, and selects the gear position of the automatic transmission.

なお、歩行者、自転車、他車両等の物体を認識する際、可視カメラ６２の撮影画像に対しては、縦横比や形状等の特徴量の抽出を行い、赤外カメラ６４の撮影画像に対しては、温度の高低、温度分布等の特徴量の抽出を行う。 Incidentally, pedestrians, bicycles, when recognizing an object such as another vehicle, for capturing images of the visible light camera 62, performs feature amount extraction, such as aspect ratio, shape, relative to the captured image of the infrared camera 64 Te performs high and low temperatures, the extraction of the feature quantity such as temperature distribution. そして、各々の画像から抽出された特徴量から総合して、その物体が歩行者、自転車、他車両のいずれかに該当する物体であるかを認識する。 Then, comprehensively from the feature quantity extracted from each image, recognize the object is a pedestrian, a bicycle, whether an object corresponding to one of the other vehicles.

すなわち、上述したように、一般に、人の視野は、目で見たときに注目している領域（中心視）とその周辺（周辺視）とに大別され、この中心視と周辺視とでは認知能力が異なる。 That is, as described above, generally, the field of view of the person is divided into regions of interest when viewed by the eye (the central vision) and around (peripheral vision) in this central vision and peripheral vision cognitive ability is different. すなわち、人は、中心視で見ている対象が何であるかを認識することができるものの、周辺視では、何であるのかを認識することが難しくなり、その傾向は、中心視から離れるほど強くなる。 In other words, the people, although it is possible that the subjects found in the central vision to recognize what, in the peripheral vision, it is difficult to recognize what a is whether, this tendency becomes stronger with increasing distance from the central vision .

そのため、人は、物体を認識する際、その物体が中心視内に位置するように、その認識すべき物体の方向へ顔を向ける。 Therefore, a person in recognizing objects, as the object is located in the central vision directs the face to the direction of the object to be recognition. 本発明は、この点に着目し、歩行者の顔面の向く方向から視線方向を特定する。 The present invention focuses on this point, to identify the line-of-sight direction from the direction facing the face of the pedestrian. これにより、歩行者、自転車を運転する運転者の視線方向を特定することができる。 This makes it possible to pedestrians, identifying a viewing direction of a driver who drives a bicycle. なお、画像上における顔面の向けられている方向は、座標変換等を行って絶対方位に変換しておき、自車両の存在する位置（緯度、経度）対応付けができるようにしておく。 The direction which is directed a facial on image leave converted to an absolute azimuth by performing coordinate transformation or the like, present position of the vehicle (latitude, longitude) keep to allow association.

また、他車両の運転者の視線方向については、通信機１６０を介して、自車両周囲の他車両に対して、運転者の視線方向の情報を自車両に送信する送信依頼信号を送信し、この送信依頼信号を受けた他車両からその車両の運転者の視線方向の情報を取得する。 As for the line-of-sight direction of the driver of the other vehicle, via the communication device 160, to the other vehicles around the vehicle, it transmits a transmission request signal for transmitting a line-of-sight direction information of the driver in the vehicle, obtaining line of sight information of the driver of the vehicle from the other vehicle that has received the transmission request signal. 自車両からの送信依頼信号を受信した他車両は、運転者の現在の視線方向を取得し、絶対方位に変換する。 Another vehicle receives the transmission request signal from the vehicle obtains the current viewing direction of the driver, is converted to an absolute orientation. そして、この絶対方位に変換した視線方向に関する情報を送信依頼信号を送信した自車両に対して送信する。 Then, it transmitted to the vehicle which has transmitted the transmission request signal information on viewing direction converted into the absolute direction. これにより、自車両において、他車両の運転者の視線方向を取得することができる。 Thus, it is possible in the vehicle to acquire the viewing direction of the driver of the other vehicle.

なお、他車両においては、運転者の視線方向を検出する手段と、その検出した視線方向の情報を自車両へ送信する通信手段を備える必要があるが、運転者の視線方向を検出する手段としては、例えば、特開２００１−３５７４９８号公報に開示されている注視点検出センサ、赤外投光ランプ、赤外領域撮像カメラ等を採用することができる。 Note that in other vehicles, and means for detecting the viewing direction of the driver, the although the detected line-of-sight direction information is necessary to provide a communication means for transmitting to the vehicle, as a means for detecting the viewing direction of the driver , for example, it can be adopted gaze point detection sensor disclosed in JP 2001-357498, infrared ray projecting lamp, the infrared imaging camera.

すなわち、上述したように、人は、視覚によって物体を認識する際、その物体の存在する方向へ視線を向けるが、人の視線が向けられている車両からみれば、その視線を向けている人は、車両の存在を認識するために視線を向けているものと判断できる。 That is, as described above, one, when recognizing an object by vision, but directs the line of sight in the direction of presence of the object, and when viewed from a vehicle being directed human gaze, towards the line of sight person , it can be determined that those towards the line of sight to recognize the presence of the vehicle. そして、その存在を認識した車両と今後接触したり、衝突したりすることが無いように、例えば、自ら進む方向を変更したり、車両に対して自身の存在を気付かせるようにしたりする。 Then, or contact vehicle and future recognized its existence, so as not to collide, for example, to change the direction of travel itself, or to remind its presence to the vehicle.

このように、本発明は、自車両に視線を向けている歩行者、自転車の運転者、他車両の運転者等は、自車両の存在を認識しているものと想定できることに着目したもので、すなわち、歩行者、自転車の運転者、及び、他車両の運転者等の視線方向が自車両の存在する方向であるか否かを判定することで、自車両との衝突可能性の有無を判定する。 Thus, the present invention provides pedestrians towards a line of sight to the vehicle, the driver of the bicycle, a driver or the like of the other vehicle, attention is paid to be assumed to be aware of the presence of the vehicle , i.e., a pedestrian, a driver of the bicycle, and that the viewing direction of the driver or the like of the other vehicle to determine whether the direction in which the presence of the vehicle, the presence or absence of possibility of collision between the own vehicle judge. なお、この衝突可能性の有無の判定結果は、警報発生部８５へ送られる。 The determination result of the presence or absence of the collision possibility is sent to the alarm generating section 85.

Ｓ３０では、この特定された視線方向が自車両の存在する方向へ向けられているか否かを判定する。 In S30, a decision is made as to whether the specified viewing direction is directed in the direction of presence of the vehicle. ここで、肯定判定される場合にはＳ１０へ処理を移行し、上述した処理を繰り返し行う。 Here, the process proceeds to S10 if an affirmative decision is made, the above processing is repeatedly performed. 一方、否定判定される場合には、自車両の存在する方向へ視線を向けていない運転者の運転する自転車や他車両、あるいは、歩行者と自車両とが衝突する可能性が有ると判定して、Ｓ４０へ処理を進める。 On the other hand, if the determination is negative, it is determined that the bicycle or other vehicle driving of the driver is not facing the line of sight in the direction of presence of the vehicle, or may pedestrians and the subject vehicle collides there Te, and the process proceeds to S40.

Ｓ４０では、自車両から警報を発生して、自車両の位置する方向へ視線を向けていない歩行者、自転車の運転者、あるいは、他車両の運転者に対して注意を喚起する。 In S40, generates a warning from the vehicle, arouse pedestrians not towards the line of sight in the direction of the position of the vehicle, the driver of the bicycle, or attention to drivers of other vehicles.

このように、本実施形態における運転支援装置２００は、自車両周囲に存在する歩行者、自転車等の軽車両の運転者、他車両の運転者の視線方向を特定し、その視線方向が自車両の存在する方向に向けられていない場合、その視線を自車両に向けていない運転者の運転する自転車や他車両、あるいは、歩行者と衝突する可能性があると判定する。 Thus, the driving support device 200 according to this embodiment, a pedestrian, a driver of light vehicles such as a bicycle, to identify the line-of-sight direction of the driver of the other vehicle, the viewing direction is the vehicle that exists in the vehicle surroundings If not directed in the direction of the presence of, bicycles and other vehicles driving of the driver is not directed toward the line of sight to the vehicle, or that there is a possibility of a collision with a pedestrian or not. これにより、自車両との衝突可能性を的確に判定することができる。 This makes it possible to determine accurately the possibility of collision with the vehicle.

（変形例１） (Modification 1)

（変形例２） (Modification 2)

（変形例３） (Modification 3)

８１ 入出力部 ８２ 物体認識部 ８３ 衝突判定対象物抽出部 ８４ 視線方向特定部 ８５ 衝突可能性判定部 ８６ 警報発生部 ２００ 運転支援装置 81 output unit 82 the object recognition unit 83 collision determination object extracting portion 84 line-of-sight direction specification portion 85 collision possibility determination unit 86 warning generation unit 200 driving support device

## Claims (9)

1. 自車両の周囲の画像を撮影する撮像手段と、 Imaging means for capturing an image around the vehicle,
前記撮像手段の撮影した画像から、歩行者、自転車、及び、他車両の少なくとも１つを認識する認識手段と、 From the captured image of the imaging unit, and a pedestrian, a bicycle, and recognition means for recognizing at least one of the other vehicles,
前記認識手段の認識する歩行者、自転車の運転者、及び、他車両の運転者の少なくとも１人の視線方向を特定する視線方向特定手段と、 Recognizing the pedestrian of said recognition means, the driver of the bicycle, and a viewing direction specifying means for specifying at least one of the viewing direction of the driver of the other vehicle,
前記視線方向特定手段によって特定される視線方向が前記自車両の存在する方向であるか否かを判定する視線方向判定手段と、 And determining the line-of-sight direction determining means for determining whether a present direction of the line of sight direction the vehicle specified by the viewing direction specifying means,
前記視線方向判定手段の判定結果に基づいて、前記視線方向を特定した歩行者、運転者の運転する自転車、及び、運転者の運転する他車両の少なくとも１つと前記自車両との衝突可能性を判定する衝突可能性判定手段とを備えることを特徴とする衝突可能性判定装置。 Based on a determination result of the visual line direction determining means, pedestrian identified the viewing direction, a bicycle operated by a driver, and a possibility of collision with at least one said vehicle of another vehicle driving of the driver collision possibility determination apparatus characterized by comprising a determining collision possibility determination means.
2. 前記視線方向特定手段は、前記撮像手段の撮影した画像から人の顔を特徴付ける特徴点を抽出する特徴点抽出手段を備え、この特徴点抽出手段によって抽出される前記歩行者、及び前記自転車の運転者の少なくとも１人の顔の特徴点に基づいて、前記歩行者、及び前記自転車の運転者の少なくとも１人の顔面の向く方向を特定することで、前記歩行者、及び前記自転車の運転者の少なくとも１人の視線方向を特定することを特徴とする請求項１記載の衝突可能性判定装置。 The gaze direction specifying means comprises a feature point extracting means for extracting feature points that characterize the human face from the captured image of the imaging means, the pedestrian is extracted by the feature point extraction unit, and the operation of the bicycle 's based on the feature point of at least one face, the pedestrian, and by identifying a direction toward the at least one facial driver of the bicycle, the pedestrian, and the driver of the bicycle collision possibility determining apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the identifying at least one of the viewing direction.
3. 前記他車両は、 The other vehicle,
前記他車両の運転者の視線方向を検出する他車視線方向検出手段と、 And other vehicles gaze direction detection means for detecting the viewing direction of the driver of the other vehicle,
前記他車視線方向検出手段の検出する運転者の視線方向に関する情報を前記自車両へ送信する他車両通信手段とを備え、 And a other vehicle communication means for transmitting information about the viewing direction of the driver detected by the other vehicle gaze direction detection means to the vehicle,
前記自車両は、 The own vehicle,
前記他車両通信手段との通信接続を行う自車両通信手段を備え、 Comprising a vehicle communication means for performing communication connection with the other vehicle communication means,
前記視線方向特定手段は、前記他車両の運転者の視線方向として、前記自車両通信手段の受信する前記他車両の運転者の視線方向に関する情報から特定することを特徴とする請求項１又は２記載の衝突可能性判定装置。 The sight line direction specifying means, said a visual line direction of the driver of the other vehicle, the claim 1 or 2, wherein the identifying from the information on the viewing direction of the driver of the other vehicle that receives the vehicle communication means collision possibility determination device according.
4. 前記衝突可能性判定手段は、前記視線方向判定手段によって、前記視線方向特定手段の特定する視線方向が前記自車両の存在する方向でないと判定される場合に、前記視線方向を特定した歩行者、運転者の運転する自転車、及び、運転者の運転する他車両の少なくとも１つと前記自車両とが衝突する可能性が有ると判定することを特徴とする請求項１〜３のいずれか１項に記載の衝突可能性判定装置。 The collision possibility determination means, by the visual line direction determining means, when said specific for viewing direction of the sight line direction specifying means is determined not to be present direction of the vehicle, pedestrian identified the viewing direction, bicycle of driving of the driver, and, in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein determining that at least one said potentially the subject vehicle collides of another vehicle driving of the driver is present collision possibility determination device according.
5. 前記衝突可能性判定手段によって、前記視線方向を特定した歩行者、運転者の運転する自転車、及び、運転者の運転する他車両の少なくとも１つと前記自車両とが衝突する可能性が有ると判定される場合、前記視線方向を特定した歩行者、運転者の運転する自転車、及び、運転者の運転する他車両の少なくとも１つに対して警報を発生する警報発生手段を備えることを特徴とする請求項４記載の衝突可能性判定装置。 Determination by the collision possibility determination means, pedestrian and specifying the viewing direction, a bicycle operated by a driver, and, at least one said potentially the subject vehicle collides of another vehicle driving of the driver is present when the pedestrian identifying the viewing direction, a bicycle operated by a driver, and characterized in that it comprises an alarm generation means for generating an alarm to at least one other vehicle driving of the driver collision possibility determining apparatus according to claim 4, wherein.
6. 前記衝突可能性判定手段によって、前記視線方向を特定した歩行者、運転者の運転する自転車、及び、運転者の運転する他車両の少なくとも１つと前記自車両とが衝突する可能性が有ると判定される場合、前記自車両の走行に制限を加える走行制限手段を備えることを特徴とする請求項４又は５記載の衝突可能性判定装置。 Determination by the collision possibility determination means, pedestrian and specifying the viewing direction, a bicycle operated by a driver, and, at least one said potentially the subject vehicle collides of another vehicle driving of the driver is present is the case, the collision possibility determining apparatus according to claim 4 or 5, wherein further comprising a travel limiting means to limit the travel of the vehicle.
7. 前記走行制限手段は、前記自車両のアクセルペダルの開閉操作における開側への操作を制限することを特徴とする請求項６記載の衝突可能性判定装置。 The travel limiting means, the collision possibility determining apparatus according to claim 6, wherein limiting the operation to the open side of the opening and closing operation of the accelerator pedal of the vehicle.
8. 前記自車両は、自動的に制動装置を駆動する自動制動手段を備え、 The vehicle is equipped with an automatic braking means for driving the automatic braking system,
前記走行制限手段は、前記自動制動手段による自動制動を行うことを特徴とする請求項６記載の衝突可能性判定装置。 The travel limiting means, the collision possibility determining apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that for automatic braking by the automatic braking means.
9. 前記請求項１〜８のいずれか１項に記載の衝突可能性判定装置は、モータを動力源として駆動する車両に適用されることを特徴とする衝突可能性判定装置。 The collision possibility determining apparatus according to any one of claims 1-8, collision possibility determination device characterized in that it is applied to a vehicle driving motor as a power source.
JP2003400186A 2003-11-28 2003-11-28 Collision possibility determination unit Expired - Fee Related JP4134891B2 (en)

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