JP2003241227A - Electrochemical display element and electrochemical display device - Google Patents

Electrochemical display element and electrochemical display device

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Publication number
JP2003241227A
JP2003241227A JP2002037373A JP2002037373A JP2003241227A JP 2003241227 A JP2003241227 A JP 2003241227A JP 2002037373 A JP2002037373 A JP 2002037373A JP 2002037373 A JP2002037373 A JP 2002037373A JP 2003241227 A JP2003241227 A JP 2003241227A
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
electrode
transparent
display element
electrochemical display
electrolyte layer
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Pending
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JP2002037373A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Kenichi Takahashi
賢一 高橋
Original Assignee
Sony Corp
ソニー株式会社
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Application filed by Sony Corp, ソニー株式会社 filed Critical Sony Corp
Priority to JP2002037373A priority Critical patent/JP2003241227A/en
Publication of JP2003241227A publication Critical patent/JP2003241227A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on an electrochromic effect
    • G02F1/1506Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on an electrochromic effect caused by electrodeposition, e.g. electrolytic deposition of an inorganic material on or close to an electrode
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on an electrochromic effect
    • G02F1/153Constructional details
    • G02F1/155Electrodes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on an electrochromic effect
    • G02F1/153Constructional details
    • G02F1/155Electrodes
    • G02F2001/1557Side by side arrangements of working and counter electrodes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on an electrochromic effect
    • G02F1/163Operation of electrochromic cells, e.g. electrodeposition cells; Circuit arrangements therefor
    • G02F2001/1635Operation of electrochromic cells, e.g. electrodeposition cells; Circuit arrangements therefor the pixel comprises active switching elements, e.g. TFT
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on an electrochromic effect
    • G02F2001/164Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on an electrochromic effect the electrolyte is made of polymers

Abstract

(57) [Problem] To provide an electrochemical display element and an electrochemical display device which are excellent in cycle characteristics and display quality, and a method of manufacturing the same. SOLUTION: The electrochemical display element according to the present invention has a first aspect.
A transparent electrode, an electrolyte layer containing a coloring material and a coloring material which develops a color by electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution, and the electrolyte layer sandwiched between the first transparent electrode , And a third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode.

Description

Detailed Description of the Invention

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an electrochemical display element whose principle is to discolor a material by utilizing electrochemical oxidation and reduction.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, with the spread of networks, documents that were conventionally distributed in the form of printed matter are now distributed as so-called electronic documents. Furthermore, books and magazines are often provided in the form of so-called electronic publishing.

To view this information, the conventional practice is to read it from a computer CRT or liquid crystal display. However, it has been pointed out that the light-emitting display is very fatigued for ergonomic reasons and cannot withstand long-time reading. Another problem is that the place to read is limited to the place where the computer is installed.

With the recent widespread use of notebook computers, there are some that can be used as portable displays, but due to the power consumption in addition to the light emission by the backlight, this can also be used for reading for several hours or more. Can not.
In recent years, a reflective liquid crystal display has also been developed, and if it is used, it can be driven with low power consumption, but the reflectance of the liquid crystal without display (white display) is 30%, which is higher than that of printed matter on paper. Remarkably poor visibility and easy to get tired, which also cannot withstand long reading.

[0005]

In order to solve these problems, a so-called paper-like display or electronic paper is being developed recently. These are colored mainly by moving colored particles between electrodes by an electrophoretic method or by rotating particles having dichroism in an electric field. However, in these methods, the gap between particles absorbs light, resulting in poor contrast, and the practical writing speed (within 1 second) cannot be obtained unless the driving voltage is 100 V or more. There is.

An electrochromic display device (ECD) that develops a color based on an electrochemical action is superior to the electrophoretic system and the like in terms of high contrast, and has already been used in a light control glass or a watch display. It has been put to practical use. However, since there is no need for matrix driving in the first place for light control glass and watch displays, it cannot be applied to display applications such as electronic paper, and in general, it has poor black quality and low reflectance. Stays

In addition, in a display such as an electronic paper, it is continuously exposed to light such as sunlight and room light for its application, but it is practically used in a light control glass and a display for a clock. Electrochromic display devices use the required organic materials to form the black portion. However, in general, organic materials are poor in light resistance, and when used for a long time, they are discolored and the black density is lowered. Further, as a display device, a matrix drive device described in Japanese Patent Publication No. 4-73764 is known, but the drive element only constitutes a part of the liquid crystal display device.

In order to solve such a technical problem, a metal ion is used as a material that changes color by electrochemical oxidation and reduction, and a white-colored polymer electrolyte is used to dissolve the metal ion. There has been proposed an electrochemical display element and an electrochemical display device which can be driven in a matrix and which can increase the contrast and the black density. However, in terms of characteristics, in particular, cycle characteristics are still insufficient, and improvement of cycle characteristics is desired. In addition, there is a problem in that the redox reaction is not adequately controlled and an unerased image, that is, an afterimage may occur when the display is switched, which leads to deterioration of image quality.

Therefore, the present invention was devised in view of the above-mentioned conventional problems, and has an excellent electrochemical characteristic and an excellent electrochemical quality, and a manufacturing method thereof. The purpose is to provide.

[0010]

An electrochemical display element according to the present invention which achieves the above-mentioned object comprises a first transparent electrode,
A second transparent electrode in which an electrolyte layer is sandwiched between a first transparent electrode and an electrolyte layer containing a coloring material and a coloring material that develops color by electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution.
The electrode and the third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode
And an electrode.

The electrochemical display element according to the present invention having the above-described structure has the third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode, so that the reaction state during precipitation and dissolution of the coloring material Is accurately detected without being affected by the first transparent electrode and the second electrode. As a result, the time when sufficient deposition or electrochemical reaction is carried out at the electrode is accurately detected, and the drive is controlled appropriately by controlling the drive based on the detection result. Further, by controlling the drive accurately, the excessive progress of the reaction is prevented, and the occurrence of side reactions due to the excessive progress of the reaction is prevented.

Further, the electrochemical display device according to the present invention which achieves the above-mentioned object, is a color-developed by the first transparent electrode, coloring means and electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution. Electrochemical display having an electrolyte layer containing a material, a second electrode having an electrolyte layer sandwiched between a first transparent electrode, and a third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode A plurality of elements are arranged in a plane.

In the electrochemical display device according to the present invention configured as described above, the electrochemical display element forming the electrochemical display device includes the third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode. By having it, the reaction state at the time of precipitation dissolution of the color forming material can be accurately detected without being affected by the first transparent electrode and the second electrode. As a result, the time when sufficient deposition or electrochemical reaction is carried out at the electrode is accurately detected, and the drive is controlled appropriately by controlling the drive based on the detection result. Further, by controlling the drive accurately, the excessive progress of the reaction is prevented, and the occurrence of side reactions due to the excessive progress of the reaction is prevented.

The method for manufacturing an electrochemical display element according to the present invention, which achieves the above-mentioned object, comprises a first step on a transparent support.
Forming a transparent electrode, and forming an electrolyte layer containing a coloring means and a coloring material that develops color due to electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution;
And a transparent electrode sandwiching an electrolyte layer between the transparent electrode and the transparent electrode, and a step of forming a third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode.

In the method for producing an electrochemical display element according to the present invention as described above, since the third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode is produced, the reaction state during precipitation and dissolution of the coloring material A device is manufactured in which is accurately detected without being affected by the first transparent electrode and the second electrode. As a result, the electrochemical display device is manufactured in which the driving is accurately controlled and the occurrence of side reactions due to the excessive progress of the reaction is prevented.

The method of manufacturing an electrochemical display device according to the present invention, which achieves the above-mentioned object, includes the first method on a transparent support.
Forming a transparent electrode, and forming an electrolyte layer containing a coloring means and a coloring material that develops color due to electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution;
And a transparent electrode sandwiching an electrolyte layer between the transparent electrode and the transparent electrode, and a step of forming a third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode.

In the method of manufacturing an electrochemical display device according to the present invention as described above, when manufacturing an electrochemical display element,
Since the third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode is formed, the reaction state during deposition and dissolution of the coloring material can be accurately detected without being affected by the first transparent electrode and the second electrode. A display device is manufactured. Thereby, the electrochemical display device is manufactured in which the driving is accurately controlled and the occurrence of side reactions due to the excessive progress of the reaction is prevented.

[0018]

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings. It should be noted that the present invention is not limited to the following description, and can be appropriately modified without departing from the scope of the present invention.

The electrochemical display element according to the present invention comprises a first transparent electrode, an electrolyte layer containing a coloring means and a coloring material which is colored by electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution. It is characterized by having a second electrode having an electrolyte layer sandwiched between the first transparent electrode and a third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode. The electrochemical display device according to the present invention is characterized by comprising a plurality of electrochemical display elements having such a configuration and arranged in a plane.

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an essential part of an electro deposition type display device 1 which is an electrochemical display device constructed by applying the present invention. 2 is a sectional view taken along the line AA ′ in FIG. 1, and FIG. 3 is a plan view. As shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, the electro-deposition display device 1 includes a TFT (Thin Film Transistor) which is a driving element.
r) a transparent pixel electrode 3 which is a first transparent electrode controlled by 4, and an electrolyte layer 5 containing metal ions and a colorant.
And a plurality of electrodeposition type display elements each having a common electrode 6 as a second electrode facing the first transparent electrode and common to each pixel. And
It is characterized in that the third electrode 8 is provided in the same plane as the transparent pixel electrode 3.

In the electro-deposition display device 1, transparent pixel electrodes 3 and TFTs 4 are formed one by one to form one pixel, and each pixel is formed in a matrix on the transparent support 2. Are arranged in.

As the transparent support 2, a transparent glass substrate such as a quartz glass plate or a white glass plate can be used, but not limited to this, an ester such as polyethylene naphthalate or polyethylene terephthalate, a polyamide, a polycarbonate. , Cellulose ester such as cellulose acetate, polyvinylidene fluoride, fluoropolymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene-cohexafluoropropylene, polyether such as polyoxymethylene, polyacetal, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyolefin such as methylpentene polymer, and Polyimides such as polyimide-amide and polyetherimide can be mentioned as examples. When these synthetic resins are used as a support, it is possible to form a rigid substrate that does not easily bend, but it is also possible to form a film-like structure having flexibility.

The transparent pixel electrode 3 has a substantially rectangular or square shape.
A transparent conductive film formed in a pattern,
As shown in FIG. 3, each pixel is separated, and a part of it is
A TFT 4 is provided for each pixel. Transparent pixel
In pole 3, In2O3And SnO 2Or a mixture of these
A so-called ITO film or SnO containing2Or I
nTwoO3It is preferable to use a thin film coated with
Yes. In addition, these ITO films and SnO2Or InTwoO3To
Coated film doped with Sn or Sb
However, it is also possible to use MgO, ZnO, or the like.
It

The TFT 4 formed in each pixel is selected by a wiring (not shown) and controls the corresponding transparent pixel electrode 3. The TFT 4 is extremely effective in preventing crosstalk between pixels. The TFT 4 is formed so as to occupy one corner of the transparent pixel electrode 3, for example.
May overlap the TFT 4 in the stacking direction. Further, in FIG. 1 to FIG. 3, the TFT 4 is formed so as to occupy a corner of the transparent pixel electrode 3.
May be formed so as to occupy one corner of the second electrode as described later. In this case also, the second electrode is the TFT 4
It may have a structure overlapping with the stacking direction in the stacking direction, and when the TFT 4 is arranged at one corner of the second electrode, such a structure is general.

Specifically, a gate line and a data line are connected to the TFT 4, the gate electrode of each TFT 4 is connected to each gate line, and one of the source and drain of each TFT 4 is connected to the data line. The other of the source and the drain is electrically connected to the transparent pixel electrode 3. In addition, TFT4
Is wired to the second electrode, the other of the source and the drain is electrically connected to the second electrode. The driving element other than the TFT 4 such as the driving driver IC is a matrix driving circuit used in the flat panel display, and other materials may be used as long as they can be formed on the transparent substrate.

The electrolyte layer 5 containing metal ions can be composed of an electrolytic solution or a polymer electrolyte.
Here, as the electrolytic solution, an electrolytic solution containing a metal salt or an alkyl quaternary ammonium salt in a solvent can be used. Here, as the solvent of the electrolytic solution, water, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, γ-butyrolactone, acetonitrile, sulfolane, dimethoxyethane, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, or these What consists of a mixture can be used.

As the matrix (matrix) polymer used for the polymer electrolyte, a polymer material having a repeating unit of alkylene oxide, alkyleneimine, or alkylene sulfide in the main skeleton unit, the side chain unit, or both. Or a copolymer containing a plurality of these different units, or a polymethylmethacrylate derivative, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyvinylidene chloride, polyacrylonitrile, a polycarbonate derivative, or a mixture thereof. When the electrolyte layer is made of a polymer electrolyte, the electrolyte layer made of a polymer electrolyte may be a single layer or may have a laminated structure in which a plurality of polymer electrolyte layers are laminated.

The matrix polymer as described above can be used by swelling them by adding water or an organic solvent. Especially when a response speed is required, the addition of these plasticizers makes it easier for the ions contained therein. Therefore, it is necessary to add water or an organic solvent to the matrix polymer. It is preferable to use.

When hydrophilicity is required depending on the characteristics of the matrix polymer and the desired electrochemical reaction,
Water, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and mixtures thereof are preferably added, and when hydrophobicity is required, propylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, γ-butyrolactone, acetonitrile, sulfolane, dimethoxyethane, ethyl alcohol, It is preferred to add isopropyl alcohol, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylacetamide, n-methylpyrrolidone and mixtures thereof.

In the electro-deposition display device 1 according to the present invention, the electrolyte layer 5 contains a metal ion as a coloring material which develops a color by electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution. . Then, the electrochemical deposition and dissolution reaction of the metal ions causes color development and decolorization, and display is performed. In other words, the main purpose is to reversibly cause so-called electrolytic plating and its elution reaction. In this way, the metal ions that can realize coloring and decoloring by electrochemical deposition / dissolution include:
Although not particularly limited, bismuth, copper, silver, sodium, lithium, iron, chromium, nickel, cadmium ions, or ions composed of a combination thereof can be exemplified. Among them, particularly preferable metal ions are bismuth and silver. This is because bismuth and silver can easily promote a reversible reaction and have a high degree of discoloration during precipitation.

Further, a salt containing an ion species different from the metal ion species to be deposited and dissolved is added to the electrolyte layer 5 as a supporting electrolyte salt, whereby the electrochemical deposition and dissolution reaction can be more effectively and It can be performed stably. Examples of such a supporting electrolyte include lithium salts such as Li
Cl, LiBr, LiI, LiBF 4 , LiClO 4 , L
iPF 6 , LiCF 3 SO 3, etc., potassium salts such as KCl, KI and KBr, sodium salts such as N
aCl, NaI, NaBr, or a tetraalkyl quaternary ammonium salt such as tetrafluoroammonium tetrafluoride ammonium salt, tetraethylammonium perchlorate tetrabutylammonium fluoride, tetrabutylammonium perchlorate, tetrabutylammonium halide Examples thereof include salt. The alkyl chain length of the above-mentioned quaternary ammonium salt may be irregular.

The electrolyte layer 5 contains a coloring agent such as an inorganic pigment or an organic pigment as a coloring means for improving the contrast. As described above, when the color of the metal ion is black, a white material having a high hiding property is introduced as the background color. As such a material, for example,
White particles for coloring are used, and as the white particles for coloring, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, silica, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide can be used. Further, a coloring agent for coloring can also be used.

In the case of using inorganic particles, the mixing ratio of this coloring agent is preferably 1% by weight to 20% by weight, more preferably 1% by weight to 10% by weight, and further preferably 5% by weight to 10% by weight. In this case, if the mixing ratio of the colorant is small, the desired coloring cannot be obtained, and conversely, if the mixing ratio of the colorant is large, the amount of contained ions decreases,
Furthermore, the conductivity of the electrolyte is lowered. Therefore, by mixing the coloring agents in the above proportions, it is possible to realize a good coloring state without causing these problems.

The electrolyte layer 5 composed of a polymer electrolyte layer
When inorganic particles are mixed as a colorant, the thickness of the electrolyte layer is preferably 20 μm to 200 μm, more preferably 50 μm to 150 μm, and further preferably 70 μm to 150 μm. It is preferable that the thickness of the electrolyte layer is thinner, because the resistance between the electrodes is smaller, which leads to a reduction in coloring / decoloring time and a reduction in power consumption. However, when the thickness of the electrolyte layer is 20 μm or less, mechanical strength is lowered and pinholes and cracks are generated, which is not preferable. Further, when the thickness of the electrolyte layer is too thin, the amount of white particles mixed is small, so that the whiteness (optical density) becomes insufficient.

In the case of using a dye-based coloring means, the mixing ratio may be about 10 wt%. This is because the coloring efficiency of the dye is much higher than that of the inorganic particles. Therefore, if the dye is electrochemically stable, the contrast can be obtained even with a small amount.
Usually, it is preferable to use an oil-soluble dye as a pigment.

When the electrolyte layer 5 is made of a polymer electrolyte, the electrolyte layer 5 made of a polymer electrolyte may have a laminated structure in which a plurality of polymer electrolyte layers are laminated.
In this case, the above-mentioned effect can be obtained by incorporating the coloring means only in a part of the layers.

Further, in the electrolyte layer 5, a growth inhibitor, a stress suppressor, a brightening agent, a complexing agent, and a reducing agent are added in order to reversibly and efficiently carry out an electrochemical reaction, particularly a metal precipitation and dissolution. It is preferable to add at least one kind of additive among the agents. As such an additive, an organic compound having a group having an oxygen atom or a sulfur atom is preferable,
For example, thiourea, 1-allyl-2-thiourea, mercaptobenzimidazole, coumarin, phthalic acid, succinic acid, salicylic acid, glycolic acid, dimethylamineborane (DMAB), trimethylamineborane (TMAB),
At least one selected from the group consisting of tartaric acid, oxalic acid and D-glucono-1,5-lactone can be added. In particular, in the present invention, by adding a mercaptobenzimidazole similar to the mercaptoalkylimidazole represented by the following chemical formula 1, reversibility is improved and excellent effects are obtained in long-term storage property and high-temperature storage property. It is preferable because it can

[0038]

[Chemical 1]

Then, in the electro-deposition type display device of the system having the above-mentioned structure, side reactions other than a predetermined reaction may occur during the electrochemical reaction. For example, when the electrolyte layer 5 contains a salt containing a halide, these are oxidized from the ionic state by the reaction shown in Chemical formula 2 below depending on the potential. As a result, a color other than the desired color is generated.

[0040]

[Chemical 2]

Therefore, in order to eliminate the occurrence of this unnecessary color development, it is necessary to suppress the above-mentioned side reaction and reduce the oxidized halogen. In this case, a general reducing agent can be used as the reducing agent, and the reducing agent is added to the electrolyte layer 5 as an additive. As such a reducing agent,
For example, ascorbic acid compounds and trialkyl alcohol amines represented by the following general formula 3 are suitable.

[0042]

[Chemical 3]

In particular, in the present invention, triethanolamine, which is a trialkylalcoholamine species and is represented by the following chemical formula 4, has excellent effects in long-term storability and high-temperature storability when added to the electrolyte layer 5. It is preferable because it can be obtained.

When the reduction reaction is caused by a side reaction other than the predetermined reaction, an oxidizing agent is added. Therefore, when the coloring material is deposited, a reducing agent or an oxidizing agent for suppressing a side reaction mainly caused by an anion species which may occur in both the first transparent electrode and the second electrode is added to the electrolyte layer. It is preferable to contain it.

[0045]

[Chemical 4]

A common electrode 6 is formed as a second electrode arranged on the side facing the first transparent electrode. The common electrode 6 may be any electrochemically stable metal,
Preferred are platinum, chromium, aluminum, cobalt,
Palladium, bismuth, silver, etc., which can be prepared by forming a film of a good conductor such as a metal thin film on the support 7. Further, carbon can be used as the common electrode if the metal used for the main reaction can be sufficiently supplemented in advance or at any time. By using carbon, the cost of the electrode can be reduced. As a method for supporting carbon on the electrode for this purpose, for example, there is a method of forming carbon into an ink using a resin and printing the ink on the substrate surface.

In the case of the above-mentioned system in which bismuth or silver is precipitated and dissolved, by using the same metal species as those for precipitation and dissolution as the second electrode,
Electrochemically stable electrode reaction can be realized.

The support 7 does not have to be transparent, and a substrate, a film or the like which can surely hold the common electrode 6 and the electrolyte layer 5 can be used. For example, a quartz glass plate, a white glass plate, a ceramics substrate, a paper substrate, a wood substrate, or the like can be used, but is not limited to this.
As synthetic resin substrates, esters such as polyethylene naphthalate and polyethylene terephthalate, polyamides,
Polycarbonate, cellulose ester such as cellulose acetate, polyvinylidene fluoride, fluoropolymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene-cohexafluoropropylene, polyether such as polyoxymethylene, polyacetal, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyolefin such as methylpentene polymer, Also, polyimide such as polyimide-amide or polyetherimide can be used.

When these synthetic resins are used as the support 7, it is possible to form a rigid substrate that does not easily bend, but it is also possible to form a flexible film-like structure. It is possible. In addition, when the second electrode itself is integrally configured as a common electrode and has sufficient rigidity, the support 7 may not be provided.

Further, as shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, a sealing resin portion 9 for holding both the supports 2 and 7 is formed around the first transparent electrode side and the second electrode so as to face each other. To be done. The sealing resin portion 9 reliably holds both the supports 2 and 7, and the transparent pixel electrode 3, the TFT 4, the electrolyte layer 5, and the common electrode 6 disposed between them.

The third electrode 8 is independently formed as a member electrically insulated from the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the common electrode 6. The third electrode 8 is independently formed as a member electrically insulated from the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the common electrode 6, so that the progress of the reaction at the time of deposition and dissolution of the color forming material is common to the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the common electrode 6. It is possible to detect accurately without being affected by the electrode 6.

As a material for the third electrode 8 as described above, a stable metal material that does not spontaneously elute into a medium that does not participate in the reaction is selected. For example, platinum similar to the common electrode 6,
Chromium, aluminum, cobalt, palladium, silver, etc. can be selected.

FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of the electro-deposition display device 1. Pixels composed of TFTs 4 and transparent pixel electrodes 3 are arranged in a matrix, and the counter electrode side of the capacitor serves as a common electrode. Data line drive circuits 12 and 12a for selecting each pixel and a gate line drive circuit 13 are provided, and predetermined data lines 15 and gate lines 14 are selected by signals from the signal control unit 11, respectively. The signal controller 11 is configured to be connected to the third electrode 8, and the potential of the pixel portion can be monitored by the signal from the third electrode 8. This makes it possible to accurately detect the progress of the reaction when the metal is deposited and dissolved, without being affected by the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the common electrode 6.

In the electro-deposition type display device 1 according to the present invention configured as described above, matrix driving is possible using the TFT 4. Further, by using the metal ions and the colorant contained in the electrolyte layer 5, it is possible to perform a display having a good contrast and a high black density, a high display quality, and an excellent visibility. Electrodeposition type display devices have been realized.

Then, in the electro-deposition display device according to the present invention having the above-mentioned structure, by energizing the transparent pixel electrode 3 which is the first transparent electrode and the second electrode 8, the transparent pixel With the migration of ions in the electrolyte layer existing between the electrode 3 and the second electrode 8, a metal is deposited and dissolved by an electrochemical reaction, causing a color change and color development. Since the electrolyte layer 5 contains a colorant as a coloring means, it is possible to enhance the contrast when the color-developing material changes in color, and to improve the contrast.

Here, in an electro deposition type display device having a structure having only the first transparent electrode and the second electrode and not including the third electrode, for example, in the case of controlling by a voltage waveform, Due to the chemical reaction, not only the potential of the first transparent electrode but also the potential of the second electrode is changed, and the potential difference between the two electrodes in the changed state is controlled by the external voltage waveform. When such control is performed, the potential that the first transparent electrode should originally maintain is lost, and desired control cannot be performed. This means that the color forming material cannot be controlled to a desired dissolved or precipitated state. Therefore, control of the potential difference between the two electrodes with the external voltage waveform is unreliable control, except for the system in which the potential variation on the second electrode side hardly occurs.

On the other hand, in the electro-deposition display device 1, when a display is made by changing the color by energizing the transparent pixel electrode 3 which is the first transparent electrode and the common electrode 6, The third electrode 8 as a pole is insulated from the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the common electrode 6 and provided independently, and therefore does not directly participate in the electrochemical reaction.

This makes it possible to accurately detect the progress of the reaction when the coloring material is deposited and dissolved, without being affected by the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the common electrode 6. That is,
Since the reaction state at the time of deposition and dissolution of the coloring material can be detected and swept with reference to the potential of the third electrode 8 which does not change, the time point at which sufficient deposition or electrochemical reaction is performed at the electrode can be accurately performed. It is possible to detect. Then, by controlling driving based on this detection result, that is, controlling energization between the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the second electrode 8, highly reliable electrochemical reaction control becomes possible.

This means that it is possible to control the color forming material to a desired dissolved or precipitated state,
This controls the coloring and erasing of the coloring material, that is,
This means that the display can be controlled properly and the display can be controlled with high reliability. As a result, it is possible to prevent a phenomenon such as a residual image at the time of erasing, that is, an afterimage, from occurring, and it is possible to configure an electro-deposition display device having excellent visibility.
Therefore, it can be said that the electro-deposition display device 1 realizes an electro-deposition display device having good display quality.

Further, in the electro-deposition type display device, if accurate drive control is not performed, a side reaction occurs due to excessive progress of the reaction, which causes deterioration of cycle characteristics.

However, in the electro-deposition display device 1, as described above, the third electrode 8
Is independently formed as a member electrically insulated from the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the common electrode 6, and it is possible to accurately detect the time when sufficient deposition or electrochemical reaction takes place in the electrode. There is. Then, by controlling the drive, that is, the energization between the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the second electrode 8 based on this detection result, the further progress of the reaction can be stopped. That is, by performing such control, it becomes possible to prevent the occurrence of side reactions due to excessive progress of the precipitation dissolution reaction of the color forming material, and as a result, cycle characteristics due to side reactions other than the predetermined reaction Can be prevented and the cycle characteristics can be significantly improved. Therefore, in the electro-deposition display device 1, it can be said that the provision of the third electrode 8 realizes the electro-deposition display device having good cycle characteristics.

Next, a method of manufacturing the above-mentioned electro deposition type display device 1 will be described. In order to manufacture this electro-deposition display device 1, first, as shown in FIG. 5, a transparent support 2 such as a glass substrate is
The transparent pixel electrode 3 made of an ITO film and the TFT 4 are formed. The ITO film can be formed by a conventionally known method such as vapor deposition and sputtering, and the TFT 4 can also be formed by using a known semiconductor manufacturing technique. At this time, prior to forming the transparent pixel electrode 3, the transparent support 2 may be subjected to a treatment for improving the bondability. The transparent pixel electrode 3 and the TFT 4 are formed for each pixel,
The pixels are arranged in a matrix on the transparent support 2.
Further, the third electrode 8 made of silver is formed between each pixel by a conventionally known method such as vapor deposition, sputtering, or plating. Note that a lead portion (not shown) that can be connected to the drive circuit is also formed in a later step. In the case of the passive matrix structure, a desired thin film can be formed on the entire surface and then patterned by a known resist technique to form a desired stripe shape.

Next, the electrolyte layer 5 is formed on the transparent support 2. When forming, for example, a polymer electrolyte layer as the electrolyte layer 5, first, a synthetic resin serving as a polymer for a matrix (matrix) of a polymer solid electrolyte, and a salt containing a metal species that constitutes the electrolyte and is deposited and dissolved. And a supporting electrolyte salt are mixed, and white particles as a colorant are dispersed in a state of containing a plasticizer to be adjusted.

In parallel with this, as shown in FIG.
As a pre-process of applying the polymer electrolyte material, the transparent support 2 is subjected to UV ozone treatment for cleaning and surface modification.

Then, as shown in FIG. 7, a polymer electrolyte material is applied on the transparent support 2 after UV ozone treatment to form an electrolyte layer 5. Here, as the salt containing a metal species that constitutes the electrolyte and is deposited and dissolved, for example, a silver salt or a bismuth salt can be used, and as the supporting electrolyte salt, for example, a lithium salt, a potassium salt, a sodium salt, or tetra Materials such as alkyl ammonium salts can be used. Then, as the colorant, for example, titanium oxide or aluminum oxide can be used.

Next, as shown in FIG. 8, a common electrode 6 made of a palladium film having a required film thickness is formed on a support 7 made of polyethylene terephthalate, for example. The common electrode 6 is formed by subjecting the support 7 to a treatment for improving the binding property.
It is formed by a conventionally known method such as vapor deposition, sputtering, or plating.

Next, as shown in FIG. 9, an electrolyte layer 5 made of a polymer electrolyte is formed, and then a support 7 having a common electrode 6 formed thereon is attached so as to face each other. Then, as shown in FIG. 10, a sealing resin portion 9 is formed at the end portion of the bonding with a general-purpose sealing agent to seal the display portion, and the electrodeposition display device 1 is completed.

After that, the matrix polymer may be gelated by crosslinking reaction of the polymer electrolyte having high fluidity by heating or irradiation of ultraviolet light. In this case, gelation can be efficiently promoted by using a crosslinking aid and a photosensitizer together.

Before forming the electrolyte layer 5 made of the polymer electrolyte, a partition wall or the like is used to obtain a desired interelectrode thickness and a fluid polymer electrolyte solution injection port is secured. The transparent support 2 and the support 7 may be bonded together. Then, as in the liquid crystal process, a liquid polymer electrolyte solution is injected by an injection method utilizing a capillary phenomenon, and then the injection port is sealed to manufacture the electrodeposition display device 1. You can also do it. By using such an injection method, it becomes possible to configure the electrodeposition display device 1 by injecting an electrolyte solution containing no resin and a solution containing a colorant.

Further, in order to keep the distance between the transparent support 2 and the support 7 which are laminated facing each other constant in the in-plane direction, a resin or an inorganic material is provided on the outer peripheral edge of the transparent support 2 and the support 7. A frame-shaped gap forming member made of, for example, may be arranged, or a desired interval can be formed by dispersing a true ball as used in a liquid crystal device in the polymer electrolyte. It is also possible to use the non-woven fabric or porous film containing the polymer electrolyte as a gap forming member itself.

In the above description, the case of the active matrix type in which the third electrode 8 is arranged on the first transparent electrode side, that is, the transparent pixel electrode side has been described, but the present invention is not limited to this. . The electrochemical display element as described above is roughly classified into an active matrix type and a passive matrix type (simple matrix type). In the active matrix type, as described above, there are a type in which a TFT is incorporated on the side of the first transparent electrode as a working electrode and a type in which a TFT is incorporated on the side of a second electrode which is the counter electrode.

In the active matrix type, when the aperture ratio of the display pixel is taken into consideration, the type in which the TFT is incorporated on the second electrode side of the latter is preferable because the aperture area is not reduced by the TFT. Further, in order to make more effective use of the effectiveness of the third electrode provided on the first transparent electrode side as the reference electrode, it is preferable that the third electrode be close to the working electrode. In this case, the former first transparent electrode is used. A type in which a TFT is incorporated on the side is preferable. Further, the arrangement structure of the third electrode can be a structure arranged on the first transparent electrode side and a structure arranged on the second electrode side which is the counter electrode.

FIG. 11 is a sectional view showing an example of the construction of an electro-deposition type display element of the type in which a TFT is incorporated on the second electrode side which is the opposite electrode of the latter. This electro-deposition type display element includes a second electrode 25 formed on a support 27 and controlled by a TFT 26 which is a driving element, an electrolyte layer 24, and a first electrode facing the second electrode 25.
The transparent electrode 22 and the third electrode 23 are included. Then, the first transparent electrode 22 is formed in a stripe shape on the transparent support 21, and the third electrode 23 is provided on each transparent stripe of the first transparent electrode 22.
It is located above 1. The electrolyte layer 24 is composed of an electrolytic solution or a polymer electrolyte containing metal ions and a colorant, and is filled in the space between the first transparent electrode 22 and the second electrode 25.

The third electrode can also be formed by weaving a thin metal wire into a mesh shape, and the third electrode thus formed is placed between the first transparent electrode and the second electrode. It is also possible to adopt a structure in which the electrodes are sandwiched and arranged so as not to short-circuit with each electrode.

FIG. 12 shows the third configuration in the configuration shown in FIG.
It is sectional drawing which shows one structural example of the electro deposition type display element which formed and arrange | positioned the electrode in which the metal wire was woven in the shape of a mesh. This electro-deposition type display element includes a transparent pixel electrode 3 which is a first transparent electrode controlled by a TFT 4 which is a driving element, an electrolyte layer 5, and
The common electrode 6 common to each pixel as a second electrode facing the first transparent electrode and the third electrode 31 are provided. The third electrode 31 is formed by weaving a thin metal wire into a mesh shape, and is disposed between the transparent pixel electrode 3 and the common electrode 6 while being sandwiched between the non-woven fabrics 32 so as not to short-circuit with other electrodes. There is. In addition, the electrolyte layer 5
Is composed of an electrolytic solution or a polymer electrolyte containing metal ions and a colorant, and includes a first transparent electrode 3 and a common electrode 6.
It is the one that is filled in the space between them.

Also in the passive matrix type,
There are a type in which the third electrode is arranged on the side of the first transparent electrode as the working electrode, and a type in which the third electrode is arranged on the side of the second electrode which is the counter electrode.

FIG. 13 is a perspective view showing a structural example of an electro-deposition type display element of the type in which the former third electrode is arranged on the side of the first transparent electrode. This electro-deposition type display device includes a transparent pixel electrode 42 formed in a stripe shape on a transparent support 41, an electrolyte layer 46,
The second electrode 45 and the third electrode 43 are formed in stripes on the support 44 facing the transparent pixel electrode 42. As shown in FIG. 14, the transparent pixel electrode 42 and the second electrode 45 are arranged so that their stripe structures are orthogonal to each other, and the intersections of the stripe structures are display active areas. The third electrodes 43 are arranged on the same base material as the transparent pixel electrodes 42 formed in a stripe shape, that is, on the transparent support 41 in parallel and in the same number as the stripe shapes. The electrolyte layer 46 is made of an electrolytic solution or a polymer electrolyte containing metal ions and a colorant, and is filled in the space between the first transparent electrode 42 and the second electrode 45.

FIG. 15 is a perspective view showing one structural example of the latter type of electrodeposition type display element in which a third electrode is arranged on the second electrode side. This electro-deposition type display device includes a transparent pixel electrode 42 formed in a stripe shape on a transparent support 41, an electrolyte layer 46, a second electrode 45 formed in a stripe shape on a support 44, And three electrodes 43. As shown in FIG. 16, the transparent pixel electrode 42 and the second electrode 45 are arranged so that their stripe structures are orthogonal to each other, and the intersections of the stripe structures become the display active regions. Then, the third electrodes 43 are arranged on the same base material as the second electrodes 45 formed in a stripe shape, that is, on the support body 44 in parallel with the second electrodes 45 and in the same number of stripe shapes. The electrolyte layer 46 is composed of an electrolytic solution or a polymer electrolyte containing metal ions and a colorant, and is filled in a space between the first transparent electrode 42 and the second electrode 45.

Hereinafter, as a specific embodiment of the present invention, an arrangement example of the third electrode in the electrodeposition type display element according to the present invention will be shown.

First, a configuration example in which the third electrode is arranged on the transparent pixel electrode side in the passive matrix type electro-deposition type display element will be described. First below
The structure of the electro-deposition display element that is the basis of the embodiments to the seventh embodiments is the structure of a standard passive matrix-type electro-deposition display element in which the conventional third electrode is not arranged. , FIG.
And the configuration shown in FIG. That is, the transparent support 5
A transparent pixel electrode 52 formed in a stripe shape on 1;
Electrolyte layer 55 and support 5 facing transparent pixel electrode 52
3 and a second electrode 54 formed in a stripe shape on the third electrode 3. Then, as shown in FIG. 19, both ends of the transparent pixel electrode 52 are connected to a transparent pixel electrode lead-out portion 56 and a transparent pixel electrode lead-out portion 57. Further, as shown in FIG. 20, an insulating layer 58 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode 52 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 52.
Are formed. Here, FIG. 19 shows a transparent support 51.
FIG. 20 is a plan view seen from the counter electrode side, and FIG. 20 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow B in FIG. In the following, a description will be given with reference to a plan view of a transparent support 51 (hereinafter also referred to as a transparent pixel electrode substrate) on which a transparent pixel electrode 52 is formed, viewed from the counter electrode side and an enlarged view of its main part.

[First Embodiment] In the first embodiment, as shown in FIG. 21, a transparent pixel electrode substrate is formed into a linear third structure.
This is an arrangement example in which the electrode 59 is arranged so as to surround all the effective pixels on the transparent pixel electrode 52 side. The third electrode 59 is connected to the third electrode lead-out parts 60, 61, 62, 63.
Then, as shown in FIG. 22, on the transparent pixel electrode 52,
An insulating layer 58 is formed so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 52. In addition, in the portion where the third electrode 59 is arranged, the third electrode 59 is formed on the insulating layer 58 as shown in FIG. As described above, the aperture ratio can be increased by disposing the third electrode so as to surround all effective pixels, so that the electro-deposition display element having good light extraction efficiency can be configured.

[Second Embodiment] In the second embodiment, as shown in FIG. 24, two linear lines are provided on the transparent pixel electrode substrate in a direction parallel to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrodes 52. This is an arrangement example in which all effective pixels are sandwiched between the third electrodes 59 of FIG. The two upper and lower third electrodes 59 are respectively connected to the third electrode lead-out portions 60 and 61 and the third electrode lead-out portion 6
It is connected to 2, 63. Then, as shown in FIG. 25, an insulating layer 58 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode 52 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 52. As described above, the aperture ratio can be increased by disposing the third electrode so that all effective pixels are vertically sandwiched, so that an electro-deposition display element having a good light extraction efficiency can be configured.

[Third Embodiment] In the third embodiment, as shown in FIG. 26, two linear lines are formed on the transparent pixel electrode substrate in a direction orthogonal to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrodes 52. This is an arrangement example in which all effective pixels are sandwiched between the third electrodes 59 of FIG. The left and right two third electrodes 59 are respectively connected to the third electrode lead-out portions 60 and 63 and the third electrode lead-out portion 6.
1 and 62 are connected. Then, as shown in FIG. 27, an insulating layer 58 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode 52 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 52. Also, the third
In the portion where the electrode 59 is arranged, the third electrode 59 is formed on the insulating layer 58 as shown in FIG. 28. As described above, the aperture ratio can be increased by disposing the third electrode so as to sandwich all the effective pixels on the left and right, so that an electro-deposition display element having a good light extraction efficiency can be configured.

[Fourth Embodiment] In the fourth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 29, stripes of transparent pixel electrodes 52 are arranged on a transparent pixel electrode substrate in a direction parallel to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrodes 52. This is an arrangement example in which the same number of linear third electrodes 59 are formed between them. The third electrode 59 is connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 60 and the third electrode lead-out portion 61, respectively. Then, as shown in FIG. 30, the transparent pixel electrode 5
An insulating layer 58 is formed on the second electrode 3 and the third electrode 59 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 52 and the third electrode 59.

[Fifth Embodiment] In the fifth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 31, lines are formed on a transparent pixel electrode substrate in a direction parallel to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrodes 52 and at predetermined intervals. It is an example of an arrangement in which a striped third electrode 59 is formed. The third electrode 59 is connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 60 and the third electrode lead-out portion 61, respectively. And FIG.
As shown in 2, an insulating layer 58 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode 52 and the third electrode 59 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 52 and the third electrode 59.

[Sixth Embodiment] As shown in FIG. 33, the sixth embodiment has a structure in which the transparent pixel electrode substrate is provided with a vertical direction between pixels in a direction orthogonal to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrodes 52. This is an arrangement example in which a linear third electrode 59 is formed.
The third electrode 59 is connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 60 and the third electrode lead-out portion 61, respectively. The third electrode 59 is an insulating layer 58 formed in a direction orthogonal to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrode 52 as shown in FIG.
The same number as the insulating layer 58 is formed on the upper surface.

[Seventh Embodiment] As shown in FIG. 35, the seventh embodiment has a structure in which a transparent pixel electrode substrate is arranged in a direction orthogonal to a stripe structure of transparent pixel electrodes 52 and between vertical pixels. This is an arrangement example in which the linear third electrodes 59 are formed at a constant interval. The third electrode 59 is connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 60 and the third electrode lead-out portion 61, respectively. Then, as shown in FIG. 36, the third electrodes 59 are formed on the insulating layer 58 formed in the direction orthogonal to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrode 52 at a predetermined number.

Next, an example of the structure in which the third electrode is arranged on the second electrode side in the passive matrix type electro-deposition type display element will be described. The structure of the electro-deposition display element which is the basis of the following eighth to twelfth embodiments is the same as that of the first to seventh embodiments, and FIG. It is the configuration shown in FIG. That is, the transparent pixel electrode 52 is formed in a stripe shape on the transparent support 51, the electrolyte layer 55, and the second electrode 54 is formed in a stripe shape on the support 53 facing the transparent pixel electrode. It is composed. Then, as shown in FIG. 37, both ends of the second electrode 54 are connected to the second electrode lead-out portion 71 and the second electrode lead-out portion 72. Further, as shown in FIG. 38, an insulating layer 73 is formed on the second electrode 54 so as to be orthogonal to the second electrode 54. Here, FIG.
38 is a plan view of the support body 53 as seen from the counter electrode side, and FIG.
FIG. 38 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow L in FIG. 37. In the following, a description will be given with reference to a plan view of the support body 53 having the second electrode formed thereon (hereinafter, also referred to as a second electrode substrate) viewed from the counter electrode side and an enlarged view of a main part thereof.

[Eighth Embodiment] In the eighth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 39, a linear third electrode 74 is provided on the second electrode substrate so as to surround all effective pixels on the second electrode 54 side. It is an example of arrangement arranged in. The third electrode 74 is connected to the third electrode extraction portions 75, 76, 77, 78. And
As shown in FIG. 40, an insulating layer 73 is formed on the second electrode 54 so as to be orthogonal to the second electrode 54. Further, in the portion where the third electrode 74 is arranged, as shown in FIG.
As shown in, the third electrode 74 is formed on the insulating layer 73.

[Ninth Embodiment] In the ninth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 42, a second electrode 54 is formed on a second electrode substrate.
3 is an arrangement example in which the third electrode 74 is formed so as to sandwich all effective pixels between two linear third electrodes 74 on the left and right in a direction parallel to the stripe structure. The two left and right third electrodes 74 are connected to the third electrode lead-out portions 75 and 78 and the third electrode lead-out portions 76 and 77, respectively. Then, as shown in FIG. 43, an insulating layer 73 is formed on the second electrode 54 so as to be orthogonal to the second electrode 54.

[Tenth Embodiment] In the tenth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 44, the second electrode 5 is formed on the second electrode substrate.
This is an arrangement example in which all effective pixels are sandwiched by two linear upper and lower third electrodes 74 in a direction orthogonal to the stripe structure of No. 4. The upper and lower third electrodes 74 are respectively provided with the third electrode lead-out portions 75 and 76 and the third electrode lead-out portions 77 and 7.
8 is connected. Then, as shown in FIG.
An insulating layer 73 is formed on the electrode 54 so as to be orthogonal to the second electrode 54. Also, in the portion where the third electrode 74 is arranged, as shown in FIG.
The third electrode 74 is formed thereon.

[Eleventh Embodiment] In the eleventh embodiment, as shown in FIG. 47, the second electrode 54 is formed on the second electrode substrate.
This is an arrangement example in which the same number of linear third electrodes 74 are formed between the stripes of the second electrodes 54 in a direction parallel to the stripe structure of. The third electrode 74 is connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 75 and the third electrode lead-out portion 76, respectively. Then, as shown in FIG. 48, an insulating layer 73 is formed on the second electrode 54 and the third electrode 74 so as to be orthogonal to the second electrode 54 and the third electrode 74.

[Twelfth Embodiment] In the twelfth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 49, the second electrode 5 is formed on the second electrode substrate.
This is an arrangement example in which linear third electrodes 74 are formed every predetermined number in a direction parallel to the stripe structure of No. 4. The third electrode 74 is connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 75 and the third electrode lead-out portion 76, respectively. Then, as shown in FIG. 50, an insulating layer 73 is formed on the second electrode 54 and the third electrode 74 so as to be orthogonal to the second electrode 54 and the third electrode 74.

Next, an example of the structure in which the third electrode is arranged between the first transparent electrode and the second electrode in the passive matrix type electro-deposition type display element will be described.

[Thirteenth Embodiment] In the thirteenth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 51, a transparent pixel electrode 52 formed in a stripe shape on a transparent support 51, and an electrolyte layer 55.
And a second electrode 54 formed in a stripe shape on the support 53 facing the transparent pixel electrode. In addition, the third electrode 81 is arranged between the transparent pixel electrode 52 and the second electrode 54. Here, the first transparent electrode side, that is, the transparent pixel electrode 52 side has the configuration shown in FIGS. 19 and 20, and the second electrode side has the configuration shown in FIG.
And the configuration shown in FIG. 38. And the third electrode 8
1 is a twill weave type silver mesh having a mesh structure with one side of about 30 μm, and the transparent pixel electrode 52 is sandwiched between the third electrode 81 and the non-woven fabric 82 so as not to short-circuit with other electrodes.
And the second electrode 54.

Next, in the active matrix type electro-deposition type display element, a constitutional example in which a driving TFT is attached to the transparent pixel electrode side and a third electrode is further arranged will be described. In the following fourteenth to twentieth embodiments, the basic structure of the electro-deposition display element is the standard active matrix electro-deposition display element in which the third electrode is not arranged. And the configuration shown in FIGS. 52 and 53. That is, the first formed on the transparent support 91 and controlled by the TFT 94 which is a driving element.
Of the transparent pixel electrode 92 and the electrolyte layer 95.
And a common electrode 96 common to each pixel as a second electrode formed on the support 93 facing the transparent pixel electrode 92. Then, the transparent pixel electrode 92
And the TFTs 94 are formed so as to be combined with each other to form a pixel 99, and the pixels are arranged in a matrix on the transparent support 91. Here, FIG.
Is a cross-sectional view of the electro-deposition display element, and FIG. 53 is a plan view of FIG. 52 seen from above.

Then, as shown in FIG. 54, the transparent pixel electrode 92 is connected to the transparent pixel electrode lead-out portion 97 and the transparent pixel electrode lead-out portion 98. Further, as shown in FIG. 55, an insulating layer 100 is formed between each pixel. Here, FIG. 54 is a plan view of the transparent support 91 viewed from the counter electrode side, and FIG. 55 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow T in FIG. 54. In the following, the transparent pixel electrode 92
A transparent support 91 (hereinafter, also referred to as a transparent pixel electrode substrate) on which is formed a plan view viewed from the counter electrode side and an enlarged view of a main part thereof are shown for each embodiment, and a configuration example of the third electrode explain.

[Fourteenth Embodiment] In the fourteenth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 56, a linear third electrode 101 is formed on a transparent pixel electrode substrate so as to surround all effective pixels on the transparent pixel electrode 92 side. It is an arrangement example in which is arranged. The third electrode 101 is connected to the third electrode extraction portions 102, 103, 104, 105. Then, as shown in FIG. 57, an insulating layer 100 is formed between each pixel. As described above, the aperture ratio can be increased by disposing the third electrode 101 so as to surround all effective pixels, so that an electro-deposition type display element having good light extraction efficiency can be configured.

[Fifteenth Embodiment] In the fifteenth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 58, all the effective pixels on the transparent pixel electrode 92 side are sandwiched by two linear upper and lower electrodes 101. Is an arrangement example in which the linear third electrode 101 is arranged on the transparent pixel electrode substrate. The upper and lower two third electrodes 101 are connected to the third electrode lead-out portions 102 and 103 and the third electrode lead-out portions 104 and 105, respectively. Then, as shown in FIG. 59, an insulating layer 100 is formed between each pixel. As described above, the aperture ratio can be increased by disposing the third electrodes 101 so as to sandwich all the effective pixels between the upper and lower sides, and thus an electro-deposition display element having a good light extraction efficiency can be configured.

[Sixteenth Embodiment] In the sixteenth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 60, two third electrodes 101 intersect at substantially the central portion of all effective pixels on the transparent pixel electrode 92 side. This is an example of arrangement in which the linear third electrodes 101 are arranged in a cross pattern on the transparent pixel electrode substrate. The third electrode 101 is
It is connected to the third electrode lead-out parts 102, 103, 104, 105. Then, as shown in FIG. 61, an insulating layer 100 is formed between each pixel.

[Seventeenth Embodiment] In the seventeenth embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 62 and 63, between the pixel lines arranged in a certain direction on the effective pixel surface on the transparent pixel electrode side. This is an arrangement example in which the third electrode 101 is formed on all of them. The third electrodes 101 are the third electrode lead-out portions 1 respectively.
02 and 103 are connected. Then, as shown in FIG. 63, an insulating layer 100 is formed between each pixel.

[Eighteenth Embodiment] In the eighteenth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 64 and FIG. 65, every fixed line of pixel lines arranged in a fixed direction on the effective pixel surface on the transparent pixel electrode side. That is, this is an arrangement example in which the third electrode 101 is formed for each of a plurality of pixel lines. The third electrode 101 is
Each is connected to the third electrode lead-out portions 102 and 103. Then, as shown in FIG. 65, an insulating layer 100 is formed between each pixel.

[Nineteenth Embodiment] In the nineteenth embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 66 and 67, a third electrode point 106 is formed for each pixel on the effective pixel surface on the transparent pixel electrode side. It is an example of arrangement. The third electrode point 106 is connected by a wiring (not shown), and the third electrode extraction portion 102, 1
It is connected to 03. Then, as shown in FIG. 67, an insulating layer 100 is formed between each pixel.

[Twentieth Embodiment] In the twentieth embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 68 and 69, the third electrode point 106 is provided for every fixed plurality of pixels on the effective pixel surface on the transparent pixel electrode side. It is the example of arrangement formed. The third electrode point 106 is
The third electrode lead-out portion 1 is connected by wiring not shown.
02 and 103 are connected. Then, as shown in FIG. 69, an insulating layer 100 is formed between each pixel.

Next, in the active matrix type electro-deposition type display element, a driving TFT is attached to the transparent pixel electrode side, and a third electrode is placed on the second electrode side which is the counter electrode side. To do. Second below
In the first to twenty-fifth embodiments, the basic structure of the electro-deposition display element is the second embodiment.
The fourteenth to twentieth embodiments described above, except that the electrodes are not common electrodes but are formed in stripes.
The configuration is the same as that of the above embodiment and has the configuration shown in FIGS. 70 and 71. That is, it is formed on the transparent support 111,
A transparent pixel electrode 112 which is a first transparent electrode controlled by a TFT 114 which is a driving element, and an electrolyte layer 115.
And a second electrode 116 formed on the support 113 facing the transparent pixel electrode 112. The transparent pixel electrode 112 and the TFT 114 are 1
The pixels are formed by combining them one by one, and the pixels are arranged in a matrix on the transparent support 111.

In the following, a plan view of the state in which the third electrode is arranged on the support body 113 having the second electrode 116 formed thereon (hereinafter, also referred to as the second electrode substrate) and its essential point are shown. Part enlarged views are shown for each embodiment, and
A configuration example of the electrode will be described.

[Twenty-first Embodiment] The twenty-first embodiment uses a second electrode substrate having a structure similar to that of the second electrode substrate in the above-described eighth embodiment. As shown in FIG. 3, the linear third electrode 117 is arranged on the second electrode substrate so as to surround all effective pixels on the second electrode 116 side. Both ends of the second electrode 116 are connected to the second electrode lead-out portions 118 and 119,
The third electrode 117 includes third electrode take-out portions 120, 121,
It is connected to 122 and 123.

[Twenty-second Embodiment] The twenty-second embodiment uses a second electrode substrate having the same structure as the second electrode substrate in the ninth embodiment described above, and FIG. As shown in FIG. 6, the linear third electrode 117 is arranged on the second electrode substrate so that all the effective pixels on the second electrode 116 side are sandwiched by the two linear right and left third electrodes 117. Then, both ends of the second electrode 116 are connected to the second electrode lead-out portion 11
8 and 119, and the third electrode 117 is connected to the third electrode lead-out parts 120, 121, 122 and 123.

[Twenty-third Embodiment] The twenty-third embodiment uses a second electrode substrate having the same structure as the second electrode substrate in the tenth embodiment described above.
As shown in FIG. 74, in the arrangement example in which the linear third electrode 117 is arranged on the second electrode substrate so that all the effective pixels on the second electrode 116 side are sandwiched by the upper and lower linear third electrodes 117. is there.
Then, both ends of the second electrode 116 are connected to the second electrode lead-out portion 11
8 and 119, and the third electrode 117 is connected to the third electrode lead-out parts 120, 121, 122 and 123.

[Twenty-fourth Embodiment] A twenty-fourth embodiment uses the second electrode substrate of the eleventh embodiment described above as the second electrode substrate, and is shown in FIGS. 75 and 76. Thus, it is an example of an arrangement in which the same number of linear third electrodes 117 are formed between the stripes of the second electrodes 116 in the direction parallel to the stripe structure of the second electrodes 116 on the second electrode substrate.
Then, both ends of the second electrode 116 are connected to the second electrode lead-out portion 11
8 and 119, and the third electrode 117 is connected to the third electrode lead-out parts 120 and 121. Also,
As shown in FIG. 76, on the second electrode 116 and the third electrode 11
An insulating layer 124 is formed on the electrode 7 so as to be orthogonal to the second electrode 116 and the third electrode 117.

[Twenty-fifth Embodiment] A twenty-fifth embodiment uses the second electrode substrate of the twelfth embodiment described above as the second electrode substrate, and is shown in FIGS. 77 and 78. As described above, this is an arrangement example in which the linear third electrodes 117 are formed on the second electrode substrate in a direction parallel to the stripe structure of the second electrodes 116 at predetermined intervals. Then, the second electrode 11
Both ends of 6 are connected to the second electrode lead-out portions 118 and 119, and the third electrode 117 is connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 120,
It is connected to 121. As shown in FIG. 78, the insulating layer 1 is formed on the second electrode 116 and the third electrode 117 so as to be orthogonal to the second electrode 116 and the third electrode 117.
24 are formed.

Next, an example of the constitution in which the third electrode is arranged between the first transparent electrode and the second electrode in the active matrix type electro-deposition type display element will be described.

[Twenty-sixth Embodiment] As shown in FIG. 79, the twenty-sixth embodiment is a first transparent electrode formed on a transparent support 131 and controlled by a TFT 134 which is a driving element. A transparent pixel electrode 132, an electrolyte layer 135, and a support 133 facing the transparent pixel electrode 132.
And a second electrode 136 made of an Ag substrate formed on the upper surface. Here, the transparent pixel substrate is
It has the structure shown in FIG. 54 and FIG. 55 described above, and the pixels formed by combining one transparent pixel electrode 132 and one TFT 134 are arranged in a matrix on the transparent support 131.

In addition, the transparent pixel electrode 132 and the second electrode 13
The third electrode 137 is disposed between the third electrode 137 and the third electrode 137. here,
For the third electrode 137, a twill weave type Ag mesh having one side of a mesh structure of about 30 μm is used, and the third pixel 137 and the transparent pixel electrode 132 are sandwiched between the non-woven fabrics 138 so as not to short-circuit with other electrodes. It is arranged between the second electrode 136 and the second electrode 136.

[Twenty-seventh Embodiment] In the twenty-seventh embodiment, as shown in FIG. 80, a transparent pixel electrode 132 which is a first transparent electrode formed on a transparent support 131, and an electrolyte layer. 135 and a second electrode 136 formed on the support 133 facing the transparent pixel electrode 132 and controlled by the TFT 134 which is a driving element. The second electrodes 136 and the TFTs 134 are formed so as to be combined one by one to form pixels, and the pixels are arranged in a matrix on the support 133.

In addition, the transparent pixel electrode 132 and the second electrode 13
The third electrode 137 is disposed between the third electrode 137 and the third electrode 137. here,
For the third electrode 137, a twill weave type Ag mesh having one side of a mesh structure of about 30 μm is used, and the third pixel 137 and the transparent pixel electrode 132 are sandwiched between the non-woven fabrics 138 so as not to short-circuit with other electrodes. It is arranged between the second electrode 136 and the second electrode 136.

Next, in the active matrix type electro-deposition type display element, a constitutional example in which a driving TFT is provided on the second electrode side and a third electrode is arranged on the transparent pixel electrode side will be described. The electrodeposition type display element which is the basis of the following 28th to 34th embodiments is a metal thin film formed on a support 143 and controlled by a TFT 144 which is a driving element as shown in FIG. The second electrode 146 is formed of, the electrolyte layer 145, and the first transparent electrode 142 facing the second electrode 146. Then, the first transparent electrode 142 is formed on the transparent support 141 in a stripe shape. The electrolyte layer 145 is made of an electrolytic solution or a polymer electrolyte containing metal ions and a colorant, and has a first transparent electrode 142 and a second electrode 146.
It is the one that is filled in the space between them.

[Twenty-eighth Embodiment] In the twenty-eighth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 82, a transparent pixel electrode substrate is formed so that the linear third electrode 147 surrounds all effective pixels on the transparent pixel electrode 142 side. It is an example of arrangement formed in. Transparent pixel electrode 14
Both ends of 2 are connected to transparent pixel electrode lead-out portions 148 and 149, and the third electrode 147 is connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 15
0, 151, 152, 153. Then, as shown in FIG. 83, an insulating layer 154 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode 142 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 142. Further, in the portion where the third electrode 147 is arranged, the third electrode 147 is formed on the insulating layer 154 as shown in FIG. As described above, the aperture ratio can be increased by disposing the third electrode so as to surround all effective pixels, so that the electro-deposition display element having good light extraction efficiency can be configured.

[Twenty-ninth Embodiment] In the twenty-ninth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 85, two linear third electrodes 147 on the left and right in a direction parallel to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrode 142. Is an example of arrangement in which the third electrode 147 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode substrate so as to sandwich all effective pixels. Transparent pixel electrode 1
Both ends of 42 are connected to transparent pixel electrode lead-out portions 148 and 149, and the two left and right third electrodes 147 are connected to third electrode lead-out portions 150 and 153 and third electrode lead-out portions 151 and 152, respectively. ing. Then, as shown in FIG. 86, an insulating layer 154 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode 142 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 142.

[Thirtieth Embodiment] As shown in FIG. 87, the thirtieth embodiment has two linear upper and lower third electrodes 147 in a direction orthogonal to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrode 142. Is an example of an arrangement in which the third electrode 147 is formed on a transparent pixel electrode so as to sandwich all effective pixels. Transparent pixel electrode 14
Both ends of 2 are connected to transparent pixel electrode lead-out portions 148 and 149, and the upper and lower third electrodes 147 are connected to third electrode lead-out portions 150 and 151 and third electrode lead-out portions 152 and 153, respectively. ing. Then, as shown in FIG. 88, an insulating layer 154 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode 142 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 142. Further, in the portion where the third electrode 147 is arranged, as shown in FIG. 89, the third electrode 14 is formed on the insulating layer 154.
7 is formed.

[Thirty-First Embodiment] As shown in FIG. 90, the thirty-first embodiment has the same number of lines between the stripes of the transparent pixel electrodes 142 in the direction parallel to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrodes 142. It is an example of arrangement in which a striped third electrode 147 is formed. Both ends of the transparent pixel electrode 142 are connected to the transparent pixel electrode projecting portions 148 and 149, and the third electrode 14
7 are connected to the third electrode lead-out portion 150 and the third electrode lead-out portion 151, respectively. Then, as shown in FIG. 91, an insulating layer 154 is formed on the transparent pixel electrode 142 and the third electrode 147 so as to be orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 142 and the third electrode 147.

[Thirty-second Embodiment] In the thirty-second embodiment, as shown in FIG. 92, linear third electrodes are arranged every predetermined number in a direction parallel to the stripe structure of the transparent pixel electrodes 142. It is an example of arrangement in which 147 is formed. Transparent pixel electrode 1
Both ends of 42 are connected to transparent pixel electrode lead-out portions 148 and 149, and the third electrode 147 is connected to third electrode lead-out portion 150 and third electrode lead-out portion 151, respectively. Then, as shown in FIG. 93, the transparent pixel electrode 1
42 and the third electrode 147, the transparent pixel electrode 1
42 and the insulating layer 154 so as to be orthogonal to the third electrode 147.
Are formed.

In the present invention, when the transparent pixel electrode, the second electrode, and the third electrode are formed, only the electrode line may be formed and the insulating layer may not be provided. That is, for example, as shown in FIG. 94, it is possible to form a structure in which only the third electrode 163 is formed in parallel with the transparent pixel electrode 162 on the transparent support 161, and no insulating layer is provided.

Further, the electrode line may be patterned so as to be orthogonal to the electrode line, and an insulating layer may be provided on the electrode line. That is, for example, as shown in FIG. 95, a third electrode 163 is formed in parallel with the transparent pixel electrode 162 on the transparent support 161, and is further orthogonal to the transparent pixel electrode 162 and the third electrode 163. The insulating layer 164 patterned as described above may be provided. With such a structure, the insulating layer 164
Thus, a pixel can be formed.

Further, the insulating layer patterned so as to expose only the pixel portion and the third electrode portion may be provided. That is, for example, as shown in FIG. 96, a third pixel is formed on the transparent support 161 in parallel with the transparent pixel electrode 162.
An electrode 163 is formed, and a gap between the transparent pixel electrode 162 and the third electrode 163, and an insulating layer that is patterned in a direction parallel to these and covering the transparent pixel electrode 161 and excluding the third electrode 162. It is also possible to adopt a configuration including 164. With such a structure, a pixel can be formed with the insulating layer 164 while protecting the transparent electrode.

Although the transparent pixel electrode substrate is described here, the second electrode substrate can be similarly configured.

[0127]

The present invention will be described in more detail below with reference to specific examples. The present invention is not limited to the examples below.

Example 1 (Fabrication of Display Electrode) First, a thickness of 1.5 mm and a size of 10 cm × 1.
1 as a transparent pixel electrode 201 on a 0 cm glass substrate
An ITO film arranged in a line at a pitch of 50 μm was formed by a known method. Then, one third electrode 202 was formed in the center of the line of the ITO film so as to be parallel to it. Here, the third electrode 202 is made of Ag and has a width of 1
formed to a thickness of μm. Further, in the effective pixel portion and its peripheral portion, the insulating layer 20 is formed so as to be orthogonal to the line of the ITO film.
3 was formed by coating and patterning. Then, a lead portion connected to a drive circuit is formed from this substrate by a known method, the transparent pixel electrode 201 is connected to the transparent pixel electrode extraction portions 204 and 205, and the third electrode 202 is a third electrode.
It was connected to the electrode lead-out parts 206 and 207. As described above, the display electrode shown in FIGS. 97 and 98 was produced.

(Preparation of Counter Electrode) 8 cm × 1.5 mm in thickness
A Cr film was vapor-deposited by a known method on a glass substrate having a size of 12 cm, and a 1000 nm-thick Ag film arranged in a line at a pitch of 150 μm was formed on the Cr film by a known method. Next, in the effective pixel portion and its peripheral portion, an insulating layer was formed by patterning on the ITO film so as to be orthogonal to the line of the ITO film. The counter electrode was produced as described above.

(Preparation of Polymer Electrolyte Layer) 1 part by weight of polyether having a molecular weight of about 350,000 and dimethylformamide (D
MSO) 10 parts by weight, sodium iodide 1.7 parts by weight, and silver iodide 1.7 parts by weight were mixed and heated to 120 ° C. to prepare a uniform solution. Next, the triethanolamine represented by the following chemical formula 5, the coumarin represented by the following chemical formula 6, and the benzimidazole represented by the following chemical formula 7 were added to this homogeneous solution to 10 g / l, 5 g / l, 5 g / l. Was added.

[0131]

[Chemical 5]

[0132]

[Chemical 6]

[0133]

[Chemical 7]

Further, 0.2 part by weight of titanium dioxide having an average particle size of 0.5 μm was added thereto, and the mixture was uniformly dispersed with a homogenizer. This was applied on the glass substrate of the display electrode with a doctor blade to a thickness of 100 μm, and then the second electrode, the counter electrode, was immediately attached to form a gelled polymer electrolyte between the two electrodes. Next, the bonded end faces were sealed with an adhesive. As described above, the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to Example 1 was manufactured.

(Evaluation of Driving and Display Characteristics) By a known passive matrix driving circuit, one pixel is used for each color development.
Color reduction display and colorless (white) display were switched by causing a reduction reaction on the display electrode side with an electric quantity of 0 mC / cm 2 and oxidizing with the same electric quantity when decoloring. In driving, the controlled input waveform may be current or voltage.

Then, in order to confirm the effectiveness of the third electrode as the reference electrode, the cyclic voltammogram measurement was performed for each predetermined pixel while changing the distance from the third electrode to the transparent pixel electrode to be selected. In addition, the cyclic voltammogram measurement is performed in two patterns, that is, a counter pixel line A (35 mm from the center of the effective pixel portion) and a counter electrode pixel line B (5 mm from the center of the effective pixel portion). , Distance from the third electrode is 50
The measurement was performed in each case of μm, 500 μm, 2 mm, 10 mm, and 40 mm. As the input waveform, a voltage triangular wave of 50 mV / sec was applied to the potential of Ag which is the reference electrode of the third electrode, and the reduction side was -1.0 V to -1.5 V.
The voltage was applied in the range of + 1.0V to + 1.4V for V and the oxidation side. The result in the case of the counter pixel line A is shown in FIG. 99, and the result in the case of the counter pixel line B is shown in FIG.

As can be seen from FIGS. 99 and 100, the third
Similar results were obtained from the transparent pixel electrode immediately adjacent to the electrode to the farthest transparent pixel electrode. Generally, it is preferable that the transparent pixel electrode serving as the working electrode and the third electrode are as close to each other as possible, but from the results of FIGS. 99 and 100, the third pixel is the transparent pixel electrode serving as the working electrode. It was confirmed that it works effectively without depending on the distance between and.

In other words, considering the reliability of the arrangement of the third electrodes that operate more effectively, it can be said that it is preferable to arrange the same number of the third electrodes between the stripes of the transparent pixel electrodes. However, in consideration of the trade-off with the aperture ratio on the transparent pixel electrode side, there is no problem even if the third electrode is arranged in one line in the central portion of the effective pixel portion as in the present embodiment. It is considered that it is possible to effectively operate the third electrode and effectively utilize the effect.

From the above results, as a pixel display method, it is not necessary to separately provide the third electrode when driven according to the line-sequential method or the like, and it is in a non-selected state.
It can be said that a part of the counter electrode, which is inactive as an electric signal, can be made to have a pseudo function as the third electrode.

[Example 2] (Production of display electrode) First, 10 cm x 1 with a thickness of 1.5 mm.
150μ as a transparent pixel electrode on a 0cm glass substrate
ITO film and TFT (Thin
Filmtransistor) was formed by a known method to form the pixel portion 211. Then, the third electrodes 212 are arranged in a cross shape so that the two third electrodes intersect in the substantially central portion of the effective pixel portion. Here, the third electrode 212 was formed of silver to a width of 1 μm. Further, the pixel portion 211 and the third
In the effective pixel portion excluding the electrode 212 and its peripheral portion, the insulating layer 21 is formed so as to be orthogonal to the pixel line of the ITO film.
3 was formed by coating and patterning. From this substrate by a known method to form a lead portion connected to the drive circuit,
Each pixel portion 211 includes transparent pixel electrode extraction portions 214, 2
15, and the third electrode 212 was connected to the third electrode extraction portions 216, 217, 218, 219. As described above, the display electrode shown in FIGS. 101 and 102 was manufactured.

(Fabrication of Counter Electrode) Thickness of 1.5 mm and 8 cm ×
A Cr film was vapor-deposited on a glass substrate having a size of 12 cm by a known method, and an Ag alloy thin film having a film thickness of 1000 nm was formed on the Cr film by a known method to prepare a counter electrode.

(Preparation of Polymer Electrolyte Layer) A polymer electrolyte was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 described above, and the resulting polymer electrolyte layer was formed on the glass substrate of the display electrode with a doctor blade to a thickness of 10
After coating at 0 μm, the second electrode, the counter electrode, was immediately attached to form a gelled polymer electrolyte between the two electrodes. Next, the bonded end faces were sealed with an adhesive. As described above, the active matrix type electro-deposition display device according to Example 2 was manufactured.

(Evaluation of Driving and Display Characteristics) In the same manner as in Example 1, the counter pixel line A (35 from the center of the effective pixel portion).
mm) and the counter pixel line B (5 mm from the center of the effective pixel portion) in two patterns, the distance between the transparent pixel electrode to be selected and the third electrode is changed and the cyclic voltammogram measurement is performed in a predetermined manner. This was done for each pixel.
The result in the case of the counter pixel line A is shown in FIG. 103, and the result in the case of the counter pixel line B is shown in FIG.

As can be seen from FIGS. 103 and 104, almost the same results were obtained from the transparent pixel electrode immediately adjacent to the third electrode to the farthest transparent pixel electrode. Generally, it is preferable that the transparent pixel electrode serving as the working electrode and the third electrode are as close as possible to each other, but from the results of FIGS. 103 and 104, the third electrode is the transparent pixel electrode serving as the working electrode. It turns out that it works effectively without depending on the distance between and.

That is, considering the reliability of the arrangement of the third electrode that operates more effectively, it can be said that it is preferable to arrange the third electrode for each pixel portion. However, in consideration of the trade-off with the aperture ratio on the transparent pixel electrode side, a structure in which two third electrodes are arranged so as to intersect at substantially the central portion of the effective pixel portion as in the present embodiment. It is considered that there is no problem and it is possible to effectively operate the third electrode and effectively utilize the effect.

[Example 3] (Production of display electrode) A display electrode was produced in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the third electrode was not formed.

(Preparation of Counter Electrode) Except that the third electrode having a width of 1 μm was formed of Ag only in the central portion of the effective pixel portion.
The counter electrode shown in FIGS. 105 and 106 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 described above. That is, 1 is arranged in parallel with the second electrodes 221 arranged in a line in the central portion of the effective pixel portion.
The third electrode 222 of the book is arranged, and the second electrode 221
Is connected to the second electrode take-out portions 224 and 225,
The electrode 222 is connected to the third electrode extraction portions 226 and 227. Further, in the effective pixel portion and its peripheral portion, an insulating layer 223 is formed by patterning on the ITO film so as to be orthogonal to the line of the ITO film.

(Preparation of Polymer Electrolyte Layer) A polymer electrolyte was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 described above, and the thickness of the polymer electrolyte was adjusted to 10 on a glass substrate of the display electrode by a doctor blade.
After coating at 0 μm, the second electrode, the counter electrode, was immediately attached to form a gelled polymer electrolyte between the two electrodes. Next, the bonded end faces were sealed with an adhesive. As described above, the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to Example 3 was manufactured.

(Evaluation of Driving and Display Characteristics) In the same manner as in Example 1, the counter pixel line A (35 from the center of the effective pixel portion).
mm) and the counter pixel line B (5 mm from the center of the effective pixel portion) in two patterns, the distance between the transparent pixel electrode to be selected and the third electrode is changed and the cyclic voltammogram measurement is performed in a predetermined manner. This was done for each pixel.
The result in the case of the counter pixel line A is shown in FIG. 107, and the result in the case of the counter pixel line B is shown in FIG.

As can be seen from FIGS. 107 and 108, almost the same results were obtained from the transparent pixel electrode immediately adjacent to the third electrode to the transparent pixel electrode farthest away. In general, it is preferable that the transparent pixel electrode serving as the working electrode and the third electrode be as close as possible and also in the depth direction, preferably on the same plane. However, it is understood from the results of FIGS. 107 and 108 that the third electrode does not substantially depend on the distance from the transparent pixel electrode that is the working electrode, and that the third electrode operates effectively even if it is arranged on the counter electrode side.

That is, considering the reliability and the arrangement of the third electrode that operates more effectively, the structure as in the above-described first embodiment is preferable, but the third electrode is provided on the transparent pixel electrode side.
It can be said that the structure without the electrodes as in the present embodiment is preferable because there is no particular problem and the maximum aperture ratio on the transparent pixel electrode side can be secured.

Example 4 (Production of Electrodeposition Type Display Device) Passive matrix type electrodeposition type display was carried out in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the third electrode was formed of ITO instead of Ag. The device was made.

(Evaluation of driving and display characteristics) In the same manner as in Example 1, the distance between the transparent pixel electrode to be selected and the third electrode is changed and the counter pixel line A (3 from the center of the effective pixel portion is selected).
5 mm), cyclic voltammogram measurement was performed for each predetermined pixel. The result is shown in FIG.

As can be seen from FIG. 109, the result is such that the whole shifts according to the distance from the transparent pixel electrode immediately adjacent to the third electrode to the farthest transparent pixel electrode. From this, it can be seen that the effect of the third electrode depends on the distance from the transparent pixel electrode, which is the working electrode, and does not operate effectively. However, by correcting the shift amount at each distance for each pixel line, it is possible to effectively operate the third electrode as in the first embodiment. Further, by increasing the number of the third electrodes, it is possible to effectively operate the third electrodes as in the above-described first embodiment. However, in order to make the drive circuit simpler, it is preferable to adopt the structure as in the first embodiment.

[Embodiment 5] An actual display waveform is applied to the active matrix type electro-deposition display device manufactured in Embodiment 2 in the same manner as in Embodiment 1,
The cycle of coloring and erasing was repeated. Further, in the device, the cycle of coloring and erasing is similarly performed when the waveform is applied between the two electrodes of the display electrode and the counter electrode as a system in which the third electrode is not effective, that is, a system without the third electrode. This was repeated and the results were compared. The initial characteristics of this electro-deposition display device are that the reflectance when it is colorless (white) is 70%, and the optical density (OD) of the display portion when it is colored (black) is about 0.8 (reflectance. Thirteen
%)Met. Therefore, a reflectance contrast of 1: 5 was obtained.

As a comparison, when the third electrode is operated by the bipolar method without being effective, the black density at the time of color development is 1.
The number of repetition cycles until it becomes 0 or less is about 8000
While it was ten thousand times, when the third electrode was enabled,
Even when the number of cycles twice that was repeated, the black density at the time of color development did not decrease to 1.0 or less, and the phenomenon such as unerased residue did not occur at the time of color erasing. From this, it can be said that by using the third electrode, the cycle characteristics can be significantly improved as compared with the conventional device that does not include the third electrode. Further, by using the third electrode, it can be said that it is possible to appropriately control the display switching, as compared with the conventional device that does not include the third electrode. That is, it can be said that the provision of the third electrode makes it possible to realize an electro-deposition display device having good cycle characteristics and good display quality.

[Embodiment 6] A display electrode in which the third electrode is not formed, which is manufactured in Embodiment 3, and a third electrode, which is manufactured in Embodiment 1.
A counter electrode having no electrode is used, and a twill weave type silver mesh having a mesh structure with one side of about 30 μm is used as a third electrode, and the third electrode is sandwiched between non-woven fabrics so as not to short-circuit with other electrodes. In this state, it was arranged between the display electrode and the counter electrode to fabricate an electrodeposition display device. In addition,
The polymer electrolyte layer was formed in the same manner as in Example 1.

Cyclic voltammogram measurement was performed in the same manner as in Example 1 with respect to the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to Example 6 produced as described above. As a result, almost the same result as in Example 1 was obtained. As a result, in the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device,
It was confirmed that the third electrode worked effectively even when the electrode was arranged between the display electrode and the counter electrode as a mesh structure, and the effectiveness of using the third electrode was confirmed.

[Embodiment 7] A display electrode was prepared in the same manner as in Embodiment 2 except that the third electrode was not formed, and was formed on a glass substrate having a thickness of 1.5 mm and a size of 8 cm × 12 cm. A counter electrode was prepared by forming a second electrode having a stripe structure with an Ag thin film by a known method without forming the third electrode. Lead portions connected to the drive circuit were formed from these substrates by a known method. Then, a twill weave type silver mesh having a mesh structure of about 30 μm on one side is used as the third electrode, and the third electrode is sandwiched between the display electrodes and the counter electrode in a state of being sandwiched by a non-woven fabric so as not to short-circuit with other electrodes. By arranging them, an active matrix type electro-deposition display device was manufactured. The polymer electrolyte layer was formed in the same manner as in Example 1.

Example 2 is applied to the electrodeposition type display device according to Example 7 produced as described above.
Cyclic voltammogram measurement was performed in the same manner as in. As a result, almost the same results as in Example 2 were obtained.
Thus, in the active matrix type electro-deposition display device, it is confirmed that the third electrode operates effectively even when the third electrode is arranged between the display electrode and the counter electrode as a mesh structure. The effectiveness of using electrodes was confirmed.

[Embodiment 8] (Production of Display Electrode) First, the thickness is 1.5 mm, and 10 cm × 1.
An ITO film was formed as a transparent pixel electrode on a 0 cm glass substrate by a known method to prepare a display electrode.

(Preparation of Counter Electrode) Thickness of 1.5 mm: 8 cm ×
On a glass substrate having a size of 12 cm, an Ag alloy film and a T alloy were arranged in a plane at a pitch of 150 μm by a known method.
An FT (Thin Film Transistor) was manufactured by a known method to form pixels. Then, the three third electrodes are cross-shaped so that the two third electrodes intersect in the substantially central portion of the effective pixel portion.
An electrode was arranged to produce a counter electrode. Here, the third electrode was formed of silver to a width of 1 μm. After that, an active matrix type electro-deposition display device was manufactured in the same manner as in Example 2.

Example 2 is applied to the electro-deposition type display device according to Example 8 produced as described above.
Cyclic voltammogram measurement was performed in the same manner as in. As a result, almost the same results as in Example 2 were obtained, and almost the same results were obtained from the element electrode immediately adjacent to the third electrode to the farthest element electrode. From this, it is generally preferable that the transparent pixel electrode serving as the working electrode and the third electrode are as close to each other as possible.
It can be seen that even when the electrode is arranged on the counter electrode side, the third electrode operates effectively without substantially depending on the distance from the transparent pixel electrode which is the working electrode.

[Example 9] (Production of display electrode) First, 10 cm x 1 with a thickness of 1.5 mm.
150μ as a transparent pixel electrode on a 0cm glass substrate
An ITO film arranged in a line at m pitch was formed by a known method. Then, one third electrode was formed in the center of the line of the ITO film so as to be parallel to it.
Here, the third electrode was formed of Ag with a width of 1 μm.
Further, in the effective pixel portion and its peripheral portion, an insulating layer was formed by coating and patterning so as to be orthogonal to the line of the ITO film. Then, a lead portion connected to the drive circuit was formed from this substrate by a known method. The display electrode was produced as described above.

(Preparation of Counter Electrode) A counter electrode was prepared in the same manner as in Example 8 except that the third electrode was not formed.
After that, an active matrix type electro-deposition display device was manufactured in the same manner as in Example 2.

Example 2 is applied to the electro-deposition display device according to Example 9 produced as described above.
Cyclic voltammogram measurement was performed in the same manner as in. As a result, almost the same results as in Example 2 were obtained, and almost the same results were obtained from the element electrode immediately adjacent to the third electrode to the farthest element electrode. From this, in general, it is preferable that the transparent pixel electrode serving as the working electrode and the third electrode are as close to each other as possible, but the third electrode substantially depends on the distance from the transparent pixel electrode serving as the working electrode. It was confirmed that it works effectively without it.

[0167]

In the electrochemical display element and the electrochemical display device according to the present invention, matrix driving can be performed for each pixel, the coloring material and coloring means contained in the electrolyte layer are used, and the first transparent A third electrode provided independently of the electrode and the second electrode is provided.

Therefore, according to the electrochemical display element and the electrochemical display device of the present invention, the electro-deposition type which is excellent in the cycle characteristics and is capable of performing the display with the high contrast and the black density and which has the high display quality. A display element and an electro-deposition display device can be provided.

Further, according to the method of manufacturing the electrochemical display element and the method of manufacturing the electrochemical display device of the present invention, the electrochemical display device and the electrochemical display device having the above-described structures can be easily manufactured.

[Brief description of drawings]

FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a configuration example of an electro deposition type display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view showing a configuration example of an electro-deposition type display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a plan view showing a configuration example of an electro deposition type display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of an electro deposition type display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a manufacturing process of the electro-deposition display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a manufacturing process of the electro-deposition display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating a manufacturing process of the electro-deposition display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating a manufacturing process of the electro-deposition display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating a manufacturing process of the electro-deposition display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 10 is a diagram illustrating a manufacturing process of the electro-deposition display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view showing another configuration example of the electro deposition type display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view showing another configuration example of the electro deposition type display device according to the present invention.

FIG. 13 is a perspective view showing a configuration example of an electro-deposition display element in which a third electrode is arranged on the first transparent pixel electrode side.

FIG. 14 is a plan view of the electro-deposition display element shown in FIG. 13 viewed from above.

FIG. 15 is a perspective view showing a configuration example of an electro-deposition type display element in which a third electrode is arranged on the second electrode side.

16 is a plan view of the electro-deposition display element shown in FIG. 15 as seen from above.

FIG. 17 is a perspective view showing a configuration example of a conventional passive matrix type electro deposition type display device.

FIG. 18 is a plan view of the electro-deposition display element shown in FIG. 17 viewed from above.

19 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the electro-deposition display device shown in FIG. 17, viewed from the counter electrode side.

20 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow B in FIG.

FIG. 21 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to the first embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

22 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow C in FIG.

23 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow D in FIG.

FIG. 24 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to the second embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 25 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow E in FIG.

FIG. 26 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to the third embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 27 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow F in FIG.

28 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow G in FIG.

FIG. 29 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to the fourth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

30 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow H in FIG.

FIG. 31 is a plan view of a transparent pixel electrode substrate of a passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to a fifth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

32 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow I in FIG.

FIG. 33 is a plan view of a transparent pixel electrode substrate of a passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to a sixth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 34 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow J in FIG.

FIG. 35 is a plan view of a transparent pixel electrode substrate of a passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to a seventh embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

36 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow K in FIG. 35.

FIG. 37 is a plan view of a second electrode substrate of a passive matrix type electro-deposition display device in which a third electrode is arranged on the second electrode side as seen from the counter electrode side.

38 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow L in FIG. 37.

FIG. 39 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix electro-deposition display device according to the eighth embodiment, as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 40 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow M in FIG. 39.

41 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow N in FIG. 39.

FIG. 42 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to the ninth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

43 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow O in FIG. 42.

FIG. 44 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to the tenth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

45 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow P in FIG. 44.

FIG. 46 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow Q in FIG. 44.

FIG. 47 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to the eleventh embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

48 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow R in FIG. 47.

FIG. 49 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to the twelfth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

50 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow S in FIG. 49.

FIG. 51 is a cross-sectional view of a passive matrix type electro deposition type display device according to a thirteenth embodiment.

FIG. 52 is a cross-sectional view of an active matrix type electro-deposition display device in which a driving TFT and a third electrode are arranged on the transparent pixel electrode side.

53 is a plan view of the electro-deposition display device of FIG. 52 viewed from above.

54 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode of the electro-deposition display device of FIG. 52 viewed from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 55 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow T in FIG. 54.

FIG. 56 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the fourteenth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

57 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow U in FIG. 56.

FIG. 58 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the fifteenth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 59 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow V in FIG. 58.

FIG. 60 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the sixteenth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

61 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow W in FIG. 60.

FIG. 62 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the seventeenth embodiment, as seen from the counter electrode side.

63 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow X in FIG. 62.

FIG. 64 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electrodeposition display device according to the eighteenth embodiment, as seen from the counter electrode side.

65 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow Y in FIG. 64.

FIG. 66 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electrodeposition display device according to the nineteenth embodiment, as seen from the counter electrode side.

67 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow Z in FIG. 66.

FIG. 68 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electrodeposition display device according to the twentieth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

69 is an enlarged view of a main part along arrow AA in FIG. 68.

FIG. 70 is a cross-sectional view of an active matrix type electro-deposition display device in which a driving TFT is arranged on the transparent pixel electrode side and a third electrode is arranged on the counter electrode side.

71 is a plan view of the electro-deposition display device of FIG. 70 as viewed from above.

72 is a plan view of the second electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the twenty-first embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side. FIG.

FIG. 73 is a plan view of the second electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the twenty-second embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 74 is a plan view of the second electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the twenty-third embodiment, as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 75 is a plan view of the second electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the twenty-fourth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 76 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow AB in FIG. 75.

FIG. 77 is a plan view of a second electrode substrate of an active matrix electro-deposition display device according to a twenty-fifth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

78 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow AC in FIG. 77.

FIG. 79 is a cross-sectional view of an active matrix electro-deposition display device according to a 26th embodiment.

FIG. 80 is a plan view of the second electrode substrate of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to the twenty-seventh embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 81 is a cross-sectional view of an active matrix type electro-deposition display device in which a driving TFT is arranged on the second electrode side and a third electrode is arranged on the transparent pixel electrode side.

FIG. 82 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electrodeposition display device according to the twenty-eighth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

83 is an enlarged view of a main part along arrow AD in FIG. 82.

84 is an enlarged view of a main part along arrow AE in FIG. 83.

FIG. 85 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electrodeposition display device according to the twenty-ninth embodiment, as seen from the counter electrode side.

86 is an enlarged view of a main part of an arrow AF in FIG. 85.

FIG. 87 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electrodeposition display device according to the thirtieth embodiment as seen from the counter electrode side.

88 is an enlarged view of a main part along arrow AG in FIG. 87. FIG.

89 is an enlarged view of a main part along arrow AH in FIG. 87. FIG.

FIG. 90 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electrodeposition display device according to the thirty-first embodiment, viewed from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 91 is an enlarged view of a main part along arrow AI in FIG. 90.

FIG. 92 is a plan view of the transparent pixel electrode substrate of the active matrix electrodeposition display device according to the thirty-second embodiment, as seen from the counter electrode side.

FIG. 93 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow AJ in FIG. 92.

FIG. 94 is a perspective view showing an electrode line structure having no insulating layer.

FIG. 95 is a perspective view showing an electrode line structure including an insulating layer orthogonal to the electrode line.

96 is a perspective view showing an electrode line structure including an insulating layer patterned so as to expose only a pixel portion and a third electrode portion. FIG.

FIG. 97 is a plan view of the display electrode of the passive matrix type electro-deposition display device according to Example 1, as viewed from the counter electrode side.

98 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow AK in FIG. 97.

99 is a characteristic diagram showing the results of cyclic voltammogram measurement of the electro-deposition display device of Example 1. FIG.

100 is a characteristic diagram showing the results of cyclic voltammogram measurement of the electro-deposition display device of Example 1. FIG.

101 is a plan view of the display electrode of the active matrix electro-deposition display device according to Example 2 as viewed from the counter electrode side. FIG.

102 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow AL in FIG. 101.

103 is a characteristic diagram showing the results of cyclic voltammogram measurement of the electro-deposition display device of Example 2. FIG.

FIG. 104 is a characteristic diagram showing the cyclic voltammogram measurement results of the electro-deposition display device of Example 2.

FIG. 105 is a plan view of a counter electrode of the passive matrix electro-deposition display device according to the third embodiment, as viewed from the display electrode side.

106 is an enlarged view of a main part indicated by an arrow AM in FIG. 105.

FIG. 107 is a characteristic diagram showing the cyclic voltammogram measurement results of the electro-deposition display device of Example 3.

FIG. 108 is a characteristic diagram showing the cyclic voltammogram measurement results of the electro-deposition display device of Example 3.

109 is a characteristic diagram showing the results of cyclic voltammogram measurement of the electro-deposition display device of Example 4. FIG.

[Explanation of symbols]

1 Electrodeposition type display device 2 transparent support 3 Transparent pixel electrode 4 TFT 5 Electrolyte layer 6 common electrode 7 Support 8 Third electrode 9 Sealing resin part

Claims (32)

[Claims]
1. A first transparent electrode, an electrolyte layer containing a coloring means and a coloring material that develops color by electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution, and the first transparent electrode. A second electrode sandwiching the electrolyte layer therebetween, and a third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode.
An electrochemical display element comprising an electrode.
2. The electrochemical display according to claim 1, wherein the third electrode is provided as an electrically insulated member on the substrate on which the first transparent electrode is formed. element.
3. The electrochemical display device according to claim 1, wherein the third electrode is provided as an electrically insulated member on the substrate on which the second electrode is formed.
4. The electricity according to claim 1, wherein the third electrode is provided as an electrically insulated member between the first transparent electrode and the second electrode. Chemical display element.
5. The electrochemical display element according to claim 4, wherein the third electrode is made of a metal wire or a mesh structure in which the metal wire is woven.
6. The electrochemical display element according to claim 5, wherein the third electrode is narrowed by an insulator.
7. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein the third electrode is arranged so as to surround the effective pixel portion of the first transparent electrode or the second electrode.
8. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein the third electrode is arranged so as to sandwich the effective pixel portion of the first transparent electrode or the second electrode.
9. The third electrode is characterized in that a plurality of electrodes are arranged so as to intersect with each other in the effective pixel portion of the first transparent electrode or the second electrode. Electrochemical display device.
10. The first transparent electrode is made of SnO 2 , I.
The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, which comprises n 2 O 3 or a mixture thereof as a main component.
11. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein the second electrode is a metal thin film.
12. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein the third electrode is a metal thin film.
13. The third electrode comprises SnO 2 , In 2 O
3. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, which is a transparent electrode containing 3 or a mixture thereof as a main component.
14. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein the third electrode is a part of the first transparent electrode or the second electrode in a display inactive state.
15. The electrochemical display device according to claim 1, wherein the electrolyte layer comprises an electrolyte solution or a polymer electrolyte layer.
16. The electrolytic solution or polymer electrolyte layer comprises:
16. The electrochemical display element according to claim 15, which contains a metal salt or an alkyl quaternary ammonium salt.
17. The solvent of the electrolytic solution is water, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate,
γ-butyrolactone, acetonitrile, sulfolane,
16. The electrochemical display element according to claim 15, comprising dimethoxyethane, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, or a mixture thereof.
18. The matrix polymer constituting the polymer electrolyte layer is a polymer material having a repeating unit of alkylene oxide, alkyleneimine, or alkylene sulfide in a main skeleton unit, a side chain unit, or both, or 16. A copolymer containing a plurality of these different units, or a polymethylmethacrylate derivative, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyvinylidene chloride, polyacrylonitrile, a polycarbonate derivative, or a mixture or laminate thereof. Electrochemical display device.
19. The polymer electrolyte layer comprises water, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, γ-butyrolactone, acetonitrile, sulfolane, dimethoxyethane, dimethylformamide, dimethyl on the matrix polymer. 19. The electrochemical display device according to claim 18, further comprising a solvent containing sulfoxide or a mixture thereof.
20. The electrochemical display element according to claim 15, wherein the polymer electrolyte layer is composed of a plurality of layers, and the coloring means is included only in a part of the layers.
21. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein at least one of a growth inhibitor, a stress suppressor, and a brightening agent for depositing the coloring material is contained in the electrolyte layer.
22. The growth inhibitor, stress suppressor and brightener are
22. The electrochemical display element according to claim 21, which is an organic compound having a group having an oxygen atom or a sulfur atom.
23. A reducing agent or an oxidizing agent for suppressing a side reaction mainly caused by an anion that may occur at any of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode when the coloring material is deposited. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein is included in the electrolyte layer.
24. The coloring material is bismuth, copper, silver,
2. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein each of the ions is sodium, lithium, iron, chromium, nickel, cadmium, or a combination thereof.
25. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein the coloring means is an inorganic pigment, an organic pigment or a dye.
26. The electrochemical display element according to claim 25, wherein the inorganic pigment is made of powder of titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide.
27. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, wherein the electrochemical display element is driven by detecting or sweeping a potential between the third electrode and the first transparent electrode.
28. The electrochemical display element according to claim 1, further comprising a driving element provided on either the first transparent electrode or the second electrode and driven by an active matrix method.
29. The electrochemical display device according to claim 1, wherein the first transparent electrode and the second electrode are arranged in a matrix and driven by a passive matrix system.
30. A first transparent electrode comprising: a first transparent electrode; an electrolyte layer containing a coloring means and a coloring material that develops color by electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution; and the first transparent electrode. A second electrode sandwiching the electrolyte layer between
A third independent electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode.
An electrochemical display device comprising a plurality of electrochemical display elements having electrodes and arranged in a plane.
31. A step of forming a first transparent electrode on a transparent support, and an electrolyte layer containing a coloring means and a coloring material that develops color by electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution. A step of forming and a step of forming a second electrode having the electrolyte layer sandwiched between the first transparent electrode and a third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode.
And a step of forming an electrode.
32. A step of forming a first transparent electrode on a transparent support, a coloring means and an electrolyte layer containing a coloring material that develops color by electrochemical reduction / oxidation and accompanying precipitation / dissolution. A step of forming and a step of forming a second electrode having the electrolyte layer sandwiched between the first transparent electrode and a third electrode independent of the first transparent electrode and the second electrode.
And a step of forming an electrode.
JP2002037373A 2002-02-14 2002-02-14 Electrochemical display element and electrochemical display device Pending JP2003241227A (en)

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CNA038075784A CN1646979A (en) 2002-02-14 2003-02-07 Electrochemical display element and electrochemical display
EP03703275A EP1475656A1 (en) 2002-02-14 2003-02-07 Electrochemical display element and electrochemical display
PCT/JP2003/001346 WO2003069402A1 (en) 2002-02-14 2003-02-07 Electrochemical display element and electrochemical display
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WO2003069402A1 (en) 2003-08-21
CN1646979A (en) 2005-07-27

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