JP2003010726A - Method and apparatus for manufacturing crushed sand - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for manufacturing crushed sand

Info

Publication number
JP2003010726A
JP2003010726A JP2001202222A JP2001202222A JP2003010726A JP 2003010726 A JP2003010726 A JP 2003010726A JP 2001202222 A JP2001202222 A JP 2001202222A JP 2001202222 A JP2001202222 A JP 2001202222A JP 2003010726 A JP2003010726 A JP 2003010726A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
sand
particle size
raw
crushed sand
size distribution
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2001202222A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Takumi Hashimoto
巧 橋本
Akitsugu Nakayama
明嗣 中山
Masaaki Nishi
政明 西
Original Assignee
Osaka Saiseki Kogyosho Co Ltd
株式会社大阪砕石工業所
Asahi Kasei Corp
旭化成株式会社
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Osaka Saiseki Kogyosho Co Ltd, 株式会社大阪砕石工業所, Asahi Kasei Corp, 旭化成株式会社 filed Critical Osaka Saiseki Kogyosho Co Ltd
Priority to JP2001202222A priority Critical patent/JP2003010726A/en
Publication of JP2003010726A publication Critical patent/JP2003010726A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method and an apparatus for manufacturing crushed sand for concrete or the like by which the crushed sand corresponding to a dam aggregate standard can be manufactured by keeping the apparatus under control according to the particle size of the manufactured crushed sand while grasping the particle size distribution precisely. SOLUTION: The crushed sand having the prescribed coarse particle rate (FM value) is manufacture in a sand manufacturing factory by controlling a raw material storing means 1, a raw material supplying means 2 or a crushing means 3 for crushing the mined ore so that the particle size distribution or particle weight distribution of the crushed sand stands within the predetermined allowable range. The particle size and the particle size distribution or particle weight distribution are obtained by imaging the whole or part of the crushed sand discharged from the means 3 by an optical means 5 to obtain image information and measuring the projected area of each of the sand particles on the basis of the image information by using an image analyzing means incorporated in a central processing unit 6 and performing calculations by using the measured projected area.

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】Detailed Description of the Invention
【0001】[0001]
【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は採掘原石を破砕して
所定の粗粒率(FM値)を有する砕砂を製造するに際
し、粒度のみではなく粒度分布もセンシングして制御す
る技術を導入したコンクリート用又はアスファルトや水
道配管等に用いられる砕砂の製造方法及び製造装置に関
する。ここで、砕砂とは、細かな粒子状の砂だけでなく
ある程度大きな破砕岩石を含む。
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention is a concrete which is introduced with a technique for sensing and controlling not only particle size but also particle size distribution when crushing raw ore to produce crushed sand having a predetermined coarse particle ratio (FM value). TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for producing crushed sand used for industrial use, asphalt, water pipes and the like. Here, the crushed sand includes not only fine-grained sand but also crushed rock of a certain size.
【0002】[0002]
【従来の技術】採掘原石を破砕して砕砂を製造する場
合、所定の粗粒率を有するよう篩分けして、製砂機にか
けて小割りする技術は知られている。例えば、特開平8
−173835号公報で開示されている通りである。
2. Description of the Related Art When crushing raw mined stones to produce crushed sand, it is known that the crushed sand is sieved so as to have a predetermined coarse grain ratio and then crushed by a sand maker. For example, JP-A-8
This is as disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication No. 173835.
【0003】このような従来例では、製砂機から排出さ
れたプロダクトを、或る一定の網の目(例えば2.5m
m)で選別して+2.5と−2.5mmの比率でFM値
を推定する方式である。従って、細部の粒度分布のコン
トロールはできていない。
In such a conventional example, the product discharged from the sand maker is made into a certain mesh (for example, 2.5 m).
This is a method of estimating the FM value at a ratio of +2.5 and -2.5 mm by selecting in m). Therefore, the particle size distribution of details cannot be controlled.
【0004】また、一般にFM値を変化させコントロー
ルする場合、例えばロッドミルでは原料供給量と供給水
量及びロッドの量で制御しているが、運転中にロッド量
を調整することは不可能であり、また供給水量でコント
ロールできる職人と呼ばれる熟練工は現在殆どいない。
従って、原料供給量だけをコントロールしているのが現
状である。
In general, when the FM value is changed and controlled, for example, in a rod mill, the raw material supply amount, the supply water amount and the rod amount are controlled, but it is impossible to adjust the rod amount during operation. At present, there are few skilled workers called craftsmen who can control the amount of water supplied.
Therefore, the current situation is to control only the raw material supply amount.
【0005】[0005]
【発明が解決しようとする課題】上記従来例の内、FM
値を推定する例では、得られた砕砂を解析してみると、
砂の粒度(粗さ)を表す粗粒率(FM値)は同じでも粒
度分布が異なる場合が多い。即ち、規格値をFM2.7
±0.1として、JIS規格のFM2.68の製品がで
きあがっても、その中身を解析すれば、粒度分布の面か
らダム用骨材規格(土木学会の規格、JIS規格より厳
しい「図7」)の範囲に収まらないFM2.68も存在
している。
Among the above-mentioned conventional examples, FM
In the example of estimating the value, when analyzing the obtained crushed sand,
Even if the coarse particle ratio (FM value) representing the particle size (roughness) of sand is the same, the particle size distribution is often different. That is, the standard value is FM2.7.
Even if a JIS standard FM2.68 product is created with a value of ± 0.1, the content of the particle can be analyzed to analyze the particle size distribution. There exists FM 2.68 which does not fall within the range of).
【0006】図7において、粒径0.60の粒度分布を
みれば、土木学会の上限値30%であるべきだが、この
範囲を逸脱しているのが判明する。
Looking at the particle size distribution of the particle size of 0.60 in FIG. 7, it should be understood that the upper limit value of 30% by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers should be exceeded, but it is out of this range.
【0007】現在の製砂方法で、規格値をFM2.7±
0.1として、上記ダム用骨材規格の範囲に入れるため
には次の様な方法が採られている。
With the current sand making method, the standard value is FM2.7 ±
The following method is adopted in order to set the value to 0.1 within the range of the above-mentioned dam aggregate standard.
【0008】(a)限度一杯のFM2.6で製造し、細
粒部を規格値一杯まで増産して規格値を越える粒度の比
率を下げる方法、または
(A) A method in which the maximum grain size of FM2.6 is used and the fine grain portion is increased to the standard value to reduce the ratio of the grain size exceeding the standard value, or
【0009】(b)生産ラインを複数にして、粒度の違
うものを生産し、それらを混合することによって規格範
囲に入れる方法である。
(B) A method in which a plurality of production lines are used to produce products having different particle sizes and they are mixed so that they fall within the standard range.
【0010】前者の(a)では、時間あたりの生産量が
抑えられ運転時間が延長されるばかりではなく、超細粒
部分(骨材として使用できない)が副産物として大量に
生産され、採掘原石の増大(自然改変範囲の拡大)や濁
水処理後の廃棄ケーキ(産業廃棄物)の増大につなが
り、また後者の(b)では、設備機械の台数が増え、設
備費が増大し、プラント(機械配置等)が複雑になり維
持管理も複雑になってコストが大きくなる、という難点
が見られた。
In the former case (a), not only the production amount per hour is suppressed and the operation time is extended, but also a large amount of ultrafine grain portions (which cannot be used as aggregates) are produced as a by-product, and This leads to an increase (expansion of natural alteration range) and an increase in waste cake (industrial waste) after turbid water treatment. In the latter (b), the number of equipment machines increases, equipment costs increase, and plant (machine arrangement) However, there is a problem that the cost becomes large due to complicated maintenance and management.
【0011】FM値を変化コントロールさせる場合、ロ
ーラーミルでは原料供給量とローラーの押しつけ圧でコ
ントロールが可能であり、衝撃破砕式ミルの場合、原料
供給量とローターの回転速度でコントロールが可能であ
る。ロッドミルのような圧縮式破砕機の場合も原料供給
量と供給水量で変化させるが、それらの量を少量変更さ
せるだけでもFM値が大きく変わってしまいコントロー
ルが難しいという難点があった。
When the FM value is changed and controlled, the roller mill can be controlled by the raw material supply amount and the pressing pressure of the roller, and the impact crushing type mill can be controlled by the raw material supply amount and the rotation speed of the rotor. . Even in the case of a compression type crusher such as a rod mill, the amount of raw material supplied and the amount of supplied water are changed, but there is a problem that even if a small amount is changed, the FM value is greatly changed and control is difficult.
【0012】本発明の目的は、上記のような従来例の難
点を解消し、規格値に対して非常に正確な(例えばFM
2.7)での生産を可能とし、一系列ラインの生産設備
で設備費や維持管理費の低減もでき、特にロッドミルの
ような圧縮式破砕機から搬出される試料の粒度分布状態
を確認し、所定の規格値を有する分布状態を制御するこ
とにより、高品質な砕砂を効率良く大量に且つ簡単に生
産できるようにし、コスト低減や自然環境保護に寄与
し、生産能力の拡大と品質の安定ができるコンクリート
用砕砂その他アスファルト用等に用いることのできる砕
砂の製造方法及び製造装置を提供しようとするものであ
る。
The object of the present invention is to solve the above-mentioned drawbacks of the conventional example and to achieve a very accurate value (for example, FM) with respect to the standard value.
2.7) production is possible, and the equipment cost and maintenance cost can be reduced with the production equipment of one series line, especially the particle size distribution state of the sample carried out from the compression type crusher such as a rod mill is confirmed. By controlling the distribution state with a specified standard value, it is possible to efficiently and easily produce high-quality crushed sand in large quantities, contributing to cost reduction and protection of the natural environment, expanding production capacity and stabilizing quality. It is intended to provide a method and an apparatus for producing crushed sand that can be used for concrete and other asphalt.
【0013】[0013]
【課題を解決するための手段】本発明者等は、鋭意検討
した結果、粒度分布状態を確認する手段として画像解析
手段を用いることによって上記目的を達成し得ることを
見出し、本発明を完成するに至った。
Means for Solving the Problems As a result of intensive studies, the present inventors have found that the above object can be achieved by using an image analysis means as means for confirming the particle size distribution state, and complete the present invention. Came to.
【0014】本発明の第1発明としての砕砂の製造方法
は、採掘原石を製砂工場で破砕して所定の粗粒率(FM
値)を有するコンクリート用等の砕砂を製造する方法に
おいて、原料貯蔵手段、原料供給手段を経て採掘原石を
破砕手段で破砕し、破砕手段から搬出される砕砂の全体
又は一部を光学系手段により撮像して画像情報とし、こ
の画像情報に対して中央処理装置に内蔵された画像解析
手段を用い、砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積を計測して粒度
及び粒度分布又は重量分布を計算し、この粒度分布又は
重量分布が予め定められた許容範囲内に納まるよう、前
記原料貯蔵手段又は原料供給手段又は破砕手段を制御す
るようにした砕砂の製造方法とした。
In the method for producing crushed sand according to the first aspect of the present invention, a raw ore is crushed in a sand factory to obtain a predetermined coarse grain ratio (FM).
In the method for producing crushed sand for concrete or the like having the value), the raw ore is crushed by the crushing means through the raw material storing means and the raw material supplying means, and the whole or a part of the crushed sand carried out from the crushing means is used by the optical system means. The image information is picked up and image information is obtained, and the image analysis means incorporated in the central processing unit is used to measure the projected area of each sand grain to calculate the particle size and particle size distribution or weight distribution. Alternatively, the method for producing crushed sand is such that the raw material storage means, the raw material supply means, or the crushing means is controlled so that the weight distribution falls within a predetermined allowable range.
【0015】第2発明は、砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積の
計測を、白黒又は濃淡等による2値化処理によって行う
ようにした。
According to the second aspect of the present invention, each projected area of the sand grains is measured by binarization processing such as black and white or shading.
【0016】第3発明では、砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積
の計測を、画像上で砂粒のそれぞれの輪郭を再現して表
される大小様々な閉じた曲線の面積として行うようにし
た。
In the third aspect of the invention, the projected area of each sand grain is measured as the area of a closed curved line of various sizes represented by reproducing each contour of the sand grain on the image.
【0017】第4発明では、粒度分布又は重量分布の計
算を、砂粒のそれぞれの寸法を投影面積の円相当径に変
換して行うこととした。
In the fourth invention, the particle size distribution or the weight distribution is calculated by converting each size of the sand grains into the circle equivalent diameter of the projected area.
【0018】第5発明では、粒度分布又は重量分布の計
算を、砂粒のそれぞれの形状を球や直方体等の幾何学的
に単純な立方体に変換して行うこととした。
In the fifth invention, the particle size distribution or the weight distribution is calculated by converting each shape of the sand grains into a geometrically simple cube such as a sphere or a rectangular parallelepiped.
【0019】第6発明では、粒度分布又は重量分布を、
曲線、ヒストグラム等のグラフで表示して行うこととし
た。
In the sixth invention, the particle size distribution or the weight distribution is
It was decided to display it as a graph such as a curve or histogram.
【0020】第7発明では、採掘原石を製砂工場で破砕
して所定の粗粒率(FM値)を有する砕砂を製造する製
造装置において、採掘原石の原料貯蔵手段と、原料供給
手段と、破砕手段と、破砕された砕砂を搬出する手段
と、砕砂を撮像する光学系手段と、得られた画像情報か
らそれぞれの砂粒の投影面積を計測する手段と、砕砂の
粒度及び粒度分布又は重量分布を計算する手段と、該粒
度分布又は重量分布と予め定められた許容範囲とを比較
する手段と、該比較結果に基づいて前記原料貯蔵手段又
は原料供給手段又は破砕手段を制御する手段とを備えた
砕砂の製造装置とした。
According to a seventh aspect of the invention, in a manufacturing apparatus for crushing raw mined stones in a sand factory to produce crushed sand having a predetermined coarse grain ratio (FM value), raw material storing means for raw mined stones, raw material supplying means, Crushing means, means for discharging the crushed crushed sand, optical system means for imaging the crushed sand, means for measuring the projected area of each sand grain from the obtained image information, and particle size and particle size distribution or weight distribution of the crushed sand And means for comparing the particle size distribution or weight distribution with a predetermined allowable range, and means for controlling the raw material storage means or raw material supply means or crushing means based on the comparison result. It was used as a crushed sand manufacturing device.
【0021】第8発明では、粒度分布又は重量分布を曲
線、ヒストグラム等のグラフで表示する手段を有するよ
うにした。
In the eighth invention, means for displaying the particle size distribution or the weight distribution in the form of a curve, a histogram or the like is provided.
【0022】(作用)第1発明では、原料貯蔵手段、原
料供給手段を経て採掘原石を破砕手段で破砕し、破砕手
段から搬出される砕砂を例えばコンベヤ上で静止又は移
動状態のまま、それぞれの砂粒を光学系手段により撮像
し画像情報としているので、中央処理装置に内蔵された
画像解析手段により砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積を計測す
ることができ、粒度及び粒度分布が計算できる。
(Operation) In the first aspect of the invention, the raw ore stone is crushed by the crushing means through the raw material storage means and the raw material supply means, and the crushed sand carried out from the crushing means is kept stationary or moving on a conveyor, for example. Since the sand grains are imaged by the optical system means and used as image information, the projected area of each sand grain can be measured by the image analysis means built in the central processing unit, and the grain size and the grain size distribution can be calculated.
【0023】測定結果に比重をかければ直ちに重量分布
に変換して粒径−累積重量百分率でプロットした粒度分
布曲線を描く事ができ、全体の粒度分布を把握すること
ができる。又粒径と粒径別重量百分率でプロットしたヒ
ストグラム(histogram)や円グラフも描くことができ
るため、それぞれの粒度区分の重量比率を把握すること
もできる。
If specific gravity is added to the measurement result, it can be immediately converted into a weight distribution and a particle size distribution curve can be drawn by plotting particle size-cumulative weight percentage, and the entire particle size distribution can be grasped. Moreover, since a histogram and a pie chart in which the particle size and the weight percentage by particle size are plotted can be drawn, it is possible to grasp the weight ratio of each particle size category.
【0024】本発明では従来のように粒度のみではな
く、粒度分布がセンシングできることにより、全体の粒
度分布を把握し、かつ不足した粒度区分や過剰な粒度区
分を見つけだすことができ、また、例えばこれを表示手
段により確認できるので、原料供給量や供給水量の制御
をしたり、破砕手段自体を変化させるようにして砕砂製
造にフィードバックさせることが出来る。
According to the present invention, not only the conventional particle size but also the particle size distribution can be sensed, so that the entire particle size distribution can be grasped and the insufficient particle size classification and the excessive particle size distribution can be found. Since it can be confirmed by the display means, it is possible to control the feed amount of the raw material and the feed water amount, or change the crushing means itself to feed back to the crushed sand production.
【0025】第2発明では、種々の汎用的な画像解析手
段により画像計測を行う場合、画像の濃淡や色から必要
とされる像と背景を分離するために2値化処理や色抽出
が行われる。本発明における砂粒の計測においては色抽
出による粒子認識は困難なため、白黒又は濃淡等による
2値化処理を行うことにした。
In the second aspect of the invention, when image measurement is performed by various general-purpose image analysis means, binarization processing and color extraction are performed in order to separate the required image and background from the shade and color of the image. Be seen. Since it is difficult to recognize particles by color extraction in the measurement of sand grains in the present invention, it was decided to perform binarization processing using black and white or shading.
【0026】第3発明では、通常の2値化処理方法では
光の当たった部分と影となった部分が別々の粒子として
認識される恐れや、白黒又は濃淡部分のそれぞれがつな
がった状態で隣り合った多くの粒子が1つの領域として
認識される恐れがあるため、破砕岩石や砂粒等の不定形
粒子を解析する2値化処理においては、照度やコントラ
スト等の画像調整や、ノイズ除去や陵線、谷線、エッジ
の検出等のフィルタ処理等、不定形粒子解析に適切な前
処理を処置した後に、それぞれの輪郭を再現して表され
る大小様々な閉じた曲線で粒子認識させるようにした。
According to the third aspect of the invention, in a normal binarization method, there is a fear that a light-exposed portion and a shaded portion may be recognized as different particles, and black and white or shaded portions are connected to each other. Since many matched particles may be recognized as one area, in the binarization process for analyzing irregular particles such as crushed rocks and sand grains, image adjustment such as illuminance and contrast, noise removal and After processing appropriate pre-processing for irregular particle analysis such as filter processing such as line, valley line, and edge detection, each contour is reproduced so that particles can be recognized with various large and small closed curves. did.
【0027】第4発明では、粒度分布又は重量分布の計
算を、砂粒のそれぞれの寸法を投影面積の円相当径に変
換して行うことにより、より簡潔に計算できるようにな
った。
In the fourth aspect of the invention, the particle size distribution or the weight distribution is calculated by converting each size of the sand grains into a circle-equivalent diameter of the projected area, so that the calculation can be simplified.
【0028】第5発明では、本発明の砂粒の粒度計測に
おける粒子径については、破砕岩石や砂粒等の不定形粒
子は非常に複雑な形状を有するため、その形状を球や直
方体など幾何学的に単純な立方体に変換して寸法を表現
するようにした。例えば画像情報等によって平面上の投
影図から測定する場合は、長軸の長さや長短軸の平均長
さ、又は一定方向における最大長さを代表寸法とする方
法や、投影面積に相当する円の直径等で粒子径を表現す
る投影面積円相当径などが用いられる。
In the fifth invention, regarding the particle size in the particle size measurement of the sand particles of the present invention, since irregularly shaped particles such as crushed rocks and sand particles have a very complicated shape, the shape can be a geometrical shape such as a sphere or a rectangular parallelepiped. I converted it to a simple cube and expressed the dimensions. For example, when measuring from a projected view on a plane by image information or the like, a method in which the length of the long axis, the average length of the long and short axes, or the maximum length in a certain direction is used as a representative dimension, or a circle corresponding to the projected area A projected area circle equivalent diameter that expresses a particle diameter by a diameter or the like is used.
【0029】このうち本発明における砂粒の粒度計測に
ついては、測定結果から粒度分布又は重量分布を計算し
て利用するため、投影面積円相当径を用いる。更に、砂
粒等不定形粒子でかつ細かな粒子の粒度分布を測定する
場合や、平面上の一部の画像情報から奥行き方向や全体
の粒度分布を把握するためには、2次元粒度情報から3
次元粒度分布に変換するために、幾何学的な確率論を用
いた立体解析学等を用いることも可能である。
Among these, in the particle size measurement of the sand grains in the present invention, the projected area circle equivalent diameter is used in order to calculate and use the particle size distribution or the weight distribution from the measurement results. Furthermore, in order to measure the particle size distribution of irregular and fine particles such as sand particles, or to grasp the depth direction and the entire particle size distribution from a part of image information on a plane, it is necessary to use 3D from the two-dimensional particle size information.
It is also possible to use stereoanalysis or the like using geometric probability theory in order to convert into a dimensional particle size distribution.
【0030】第6発明では、粒度分布又は重量分布を、
曲線、ヒストグラム等のグラフで表示して視覚により明
確に把握できるようにした。
In the sixth invention, the particle size distribution or the weight distribution is
Displayed in graphs such as curves and histograms so that they can be clearly grasped visually.
【0031】第7発明では、採掘原石を製砂工場で破砕
して所定の粗粒率(FM値)を有する砕石の製造装置に
おいて、採掘原石の原料貯蔵手段と、原料供給手段と、
破砕手段と、破砕された砕砂を搬出する手段と、砕砂を
撮像する光学系手段と、得られた画像情報からそれぞれ
の砂粒の投影面積を計測する手段と、砕砂の粒度及び粒
度分布又は重量分布を計算する手段と、該粒度分布又は
重量分布と予め定められた許容範囲とを比較する手段
と、該比較結果に基づいて前記原料貯蔵手段又は原料供
給手段又は破砕手段を制御する手段とを備えた。
According to a seventh aspect of the invention, in a crushed stone manufacturing apparatus that crushes a mined raw stone in a sand factory to have a predetermined coarse grain ratio (FM value), a raw material storage means for the raw mined stone, a raw material supply means,
Crushing means, means for discharging the crushed crushed sand, optical system means for imaging the crushed sand, means for measuring the projected area of each sand grain from the obtained image information, and particle size and particle size distribution or weight distribution of the crushed sand And means for comparing the particle size distribution or weight distribution with a predetermined allowable range, and means for controlling the raw material storage means or raw material supply means or crushing means based on the comparison result. It was
【0032】特に砕砂を撮像する光学系手段と、得られ
た画像情報からそれぞれの砂粒の投影面積を計測する手
段と、砕砂の粒度及び粒度分布又は重量分布を計算する
手段とにより画像処理しているので、極めて精確な粒度
及び粒度分布又は重量分布の状況を得ることができるよ
うになった。そしてこの情報に基づき採掘原石の原料貯
蔵手段、原料供給手段又は破砕手段を制御して規格値を
中心とした砕砂を確実に得るようにした。
In particular, image processing is performed by an optical system means for imaging the crushed sand, a means for measuring the projected area of each sand particle from the obtained image information, and a means for calculating the particle size and particle size distribution or weight distribution of the crushed sand. Therefore, it has become possible to obtain a very accurate particle size and particle size distribution or weight distribution situation. Then, based on this information, the raw material storage means, raw material supply means, or crushing means for the raw mined stone is controlled to ensure that crushed sand centered on the standard value is obtained.
【0033】第8発明では、製造装置として曲線、ヒス
トグラム等のグラフで表示する手段を用いて視覚による
確認ができるようにした。
In the eighth aspect of the invention, means for displaying a graph such as a curve or a histogram is used as the manufacturing apparatus to enable visual confirmation.
【0034】[0034]
【発明の実施の形態】本発明では、従来の篩い分けによ
るJIS規格では明確でなかった粒度分布を画像解析手
段を利用して解析し、砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積を計測
し、例えば砕砂の粒度及び重量並びに単位面積当たりの
所定粒度を中心とする粒度分布を計算し、制御するよう
にしている。
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION In the present invention, a particle size distribution, which was not clear in the conventional JIS standard by sieving, is analyzed by using an image analysis means, and the projected area of each sand grain is measured. Also, the particle size distribution centered on the weight and the predetermined particle size per unit area is calculated and controlled.
【0035】[0035]
【実施例】以下、本発明のコンクリート用等の砕砂の製
造方法及び製造装置について、図面を参照して説明す
る。
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS A method and an apparatus for producing crushed sand for concrete according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
【0036】図1は砕砂を自動的に製造する製造工程の
例を示す概略図である。図1において、1は砕砂の原料
貯蔵手段、2は原料供給手段、3は破砕手段で、例えば
ロッドミルを用いて原料供給手段2から供給された砕砂
を細かく破砕して出口部から搬出するようになってい
る。4は搬送用のコンベヤ、5は光学系手段を示す。光
学系手段5では、コンベヤ4上の砕砂が移動状態のま
ま、又は静止状態で一定範囲の原料の状態を撮像して画
像情報とし、画像解析手段を内蔵し且つデーターとして
蓄積、処理、制御信号の入出力ができる中央処理装置
(CPU)6へ送る。7は給水手段で、破砕手段3に設
けた。
FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing an example of a manufacturing process for automatically manufacturing crushed sand. In FIG. 1, 1 is a raw material storage means for crushed sand, 2 is a raw material supply means, and 3 is a crushing means. For example, a crushed sand supplied from the raw material supply means 2 is finely crushed by using a rod mill and carried out from an outlet portion. Has become. Reference numeral 4 denotes a conveyor for transportation, and 5 denotes an optical system means. In the optical system means 5, the crushed sand on the conveyor 4 is in a moving state or in a static state, and the state of the raw material in a certain range is imaged to be image information, and an image analysis means is built in and accumulated as data, processing, and control signals. To a central processing unit (CPU) 6 capable of inputting and outputting. 7 is a water supply means, which is provided in the crushing means 3.
【0037】原料供給手段2ではあらかじめフィルター
等を用いて所定粒度より大のものを除去しておくことも
できる。また破砕手段3の例示としてロッドミルを示
し、内部のロッド8を表しているが、ローラーミル、衝
撃破砕式ミルその他の破砕手段を用いて原料を破砕する
ことも可能であり本発明はこれに限定されない。
In the raw material supply means 2, it is also possible to previously remove particles having a particle size larger than a predetermined one by using a filter or the like. Further, although a rod mill is shown as an example of the crushing means 3 and the rod 8 inside is shown, the raw material can be crushed by using a roller mill, an impact crushing type mill or other crushing means, and the present invention is not limited to this. Not done.
【0038】破砕手段3の出口部から排出され搬送用コ
ンベヤ4での搬送中に、例えば上方から砂粒の状態を光
学系手段5により撮像し、画像解析手段へ送る。撮像さ
れる砕砂は搬送状態のままでよく、また静止状態として
もよい。
During the transportation by the conveyor 4 for transportation, which is discharged from the outlet of the crushing means 3, for example, the state of sand grains is imaged from above by the optical system means 5 and sent to the image analysis means. The crushed sand imaged may remain in the transportation state or may be in the stationary state.
【0039】光学系手段5の例としては、レーザーやC
CDカメラ、デジタルカメラ、もしくはビデオカメラ等
により砂粒の撮像ができればよい。
Examples of the optical system means 5 include laser and C
It suffices if the sand grains can be imaged by a CD camera, a digital camera, a video camera or the like.
【0040】図2は原料を白黒及び濃淡の2値で撮像し
た画像情報を示すものであり、各砂粒のそれぞれの輪郭
を大小様々な閉じた曲線で区分けしたものである。これ
らの砕砂の投影面積の計測は、上記の閉じた曲線の面積
として容易に測定できる。
FIG. 2 shows image information in which the raw material is imaged in black and white and light and shade, and the contours of each sand grain are divided by various closed curves of different sizes. The projected area of these crushed sands can be easily measured as the area of the closed curve.
【0041】図3は原料を破砕手段により破砕したもの
の拡大撮像例であり、各砕砂の周囲を閉じた曲線で表示
している。各砕砂は角が削られて丸みを帯びた状態にな
っていることが判明する。
FIG. 3 is an enlarged image of an example of the material crushed by the crushing means, and the circumference of each crushed sand is indicated by a closed curve. It turns out that each crushed sand has rounded corners.
【0042】本発明の砂粒の粒度計測においては、特
に、微粒子を撮像するため光学系手段5を接近させるか
若しくは画像を拡大化する事が望ましく、撮像対象は静
止状態か搬送状態においても極低速で移動する状態であ
ることが望ましい。
In the particle size measurement of the sand grains of the present invention, it is particularly desirable to bring the optical system means 5 close to or to enlarge the image in order to image the fine particles. It is desirable to be in a state of moving in.
【0043】中央処理装置6は光学系手段5の撮像時に
制御信号を出し搬送用コンベヤ4を静止状態にするか、
もしくは低速度にする事もできる。その他原料供給手段
を制御したり、搬送用コンベヤ4を分岐させ撮像用に搬
送速度を分岐部分のみ低下させたり、もしくは撮像用受
台を設置し、この受台に撮像対象の砂粒を搬送用コンベ
ヤ4からすくい取るなどしてサンプリングする方式も可
能である。
The central processing unit 6 outputs a control signal when the optical system means 5 captures an image, and makes the conveyor 4 in a stationary state, or
Alternatively, it can be slowed down. In addition, the raw material supply means is controlled, the conveying conveyor 4 is branched so that the conveying speed is reduced only for imaging, or an imaging pedestal is installed, and a sand grain to be imaged is conveyed to this pedestal. A method of sampling by scooping from 4 is also possible.
【0044】画像解析手段では、得られた画像に基づき
砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積を計測し、砕砂の粒度及び重
量並びに所定粒度を中心とする粒度分布等を計算するこ
とができる。画像解析手段には、粒度計測の精度向上の
ため、あらかじめ実際にふるい分けた結果をもとに解析
結果を補正する手段や、1回の測定において数枚の撮像
結果を合算することにより精度を向上する手段が組み込
まれている。
The image analysis means can measure the projected area of each sand particle based on the obtained image, and calculate the particle size and weight of the crushed sand, and the particle size distribution centered on the predetermined particle size. In order to improve the accuracy of particle size measurement, the image analysis means improves the accuracy by correcting the analysis result based on the result of actual sieving in advance and by adding up the results of several images in one measurement. The means to do is built in.
【0045】この解析結果により中央処理装置6から前
記破砕手段3への原料供給量や破砕手段を制御又はその
供給水量を制御するよう制御信号を出すことにより自動
的に制御出来る。上記工程の各段階の状況は、例えば表
示装置によりそれぞれグラフや計算数値により目視でき
るので制御操作が容易になった。
Based on the result of this analysis, the amount of raw material supplied from the central processing unit 6 to the crushing means 3 and the crushing means can be controlled or can be automatically controlled by issuing a control signal to control the amount of supplied water. The state of each stage of the above process can be visually observed by a graph or a calculated numerical value on a display device, for example, which facilitates control operation.
【0046】図2及び図3に示したように、コンベヤ上
を搬送される砂粒9は大小さまざまな閉じた区画細線1
0によりそれぞれの輪郭を表している。この輪郭から画
像解析手段により、砂粒それぞれの粒度を計測する。
As shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3, the sand grains 9 conveyed on the conveyor are different in size, and are closed closed fine wires 1.
Each contour is represented by 0. From this contour, the grain size of each sand grain is measured by image analysis means.
【0047】例えば、区画細線10で囲まれた面積と同
一の矩形を考え、この面積と同一の円の直径を有する球
を想定し、砕砂として比重を掛ければ重量が計算でき
る、グラフ化も容易である。ソフトウェアの一例として
は、WipWare社製のWipFragやSPLIT ENGINEERING社製の
ソフトウェア等がある。
For example, considering a rectangle having the same area as the area surrounded by the partition thin line 10, assuming a sphere having the same circle diameter as this area, and multiplying the specific gravity as crushed sand, the weight can be calculated, and graphing is easy. Is. Examples of software include WipFrag manufactured by WipWare and software manufactured by SPLIT ENGINEERING.
【0048】図4は、前記図2及び図3の輪郭による砂
粒の投影面積から、原石の比重を掛けて計算され、横軸
に粒径、縦軸に粒径別重量でプロットしたヒストグラム
(histogram)であり、0.6mm を中心とした砂粒の分布
状態を示し、小さい粒度の側の砕砂が多くなっている。
FIG. 4 is a histogram (histogram) calculated by multiplying the specific gravity of the rough stone from the projected area of the sand grains according to the contours of FIGS. 2 and 3 and plotting the particle size on the horizontal axis and the weight by particle size on the vertical axis. ), Showing the distribution of sand grains centered on 0.6 mm, with a large amount of crushed sand on the smaller grain size side.
【0049】図5は、同じく計算結果を横軸に粒径、縦
軸に累積重量百分率でプロットした粒度分布曲線図であ
る。
FIG. 5 is a particle size distribution curve diagram in which the calculation results are similarly plotted with the particle size on the horizontal axis and the cumulative weight percentage on the vertical axis.
【0050】図6及び図7は、本発明の砕砂の製造方法
により、ダム用骨材規格(土木学会の規格)により計測
した細骨材の粒度分布値及び粒度分布曲線を示す。
FIGS. 6 and 7 show the particle size distribution value and the particle size distribution curve of the fine aggregate measured by the dam aggregate standard (standard of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers) by the method for producing crushed sand of the present invention.
【0051】図7に示すようにダム用骨材規格では、そ
れぞれの粒度による粒度分布が点線の上限値と下限値と
の間に位置していないとだめであり、このグラフでは粒
径0.6mmの部分で上限値の30%を越えていること
が判明する。従って、この画像解析手段で判断された結
果に基づき上限値を超えた部分の砕砂を小割りするよう
破砕手段へ信号をだして制御する。破砕手段3では、原
料供給量や供給水量又は破砕手段を制御することもで
き、製砂の管理が容易となる。
As shown in FIG. 7, the dam aggregate standard requires that the particle size distribution according to each particle size not be located between the upper limit value and the lower limit value of the dotted line. It is found that the 6 mm portion exceeds 30% of the upper limit value. Therefore, based on the result determined by the image analysis means, a signal is issued to the crushing means to control the crushed sand in a portion exceeding the upper limit value to be divided into small pieces. The crushing means 3 can also control the amount of raw material supplied, the amount of water supplied, or the crushing means, which facilitates the management of sand production.
【0052】一般的にロッドミルのような破砕手段で
は、運転中にロッド量を変化することは不可能であり、
図1における砕砂の原料貯蔵手段1又は原料供給手段2
の制御、又は給水手段7による給水量の制御が行われ
る。粒度分布が大きく相違する場合は原料供給量の調
整、また少ない相違には給水量の調整等の選択ができる
が、本発明では熟練工による勘に頼ることなく、実際の
砂粒を撮像して計算された数値により、粒度分布の調整
ができるようになった。
Generally, with a crushing means such as a rod mill, it is impossible to change the rod amount during operation.
Raw material storage means 1 or raw material supply means 2 for crushed sand in FIG.
Or the water supply amount is controlled by the water supply means 7. When the particle size distribution is largely different, the raw material supply amount can be adjusted, and the small difference can be selected by adjusting the water supply amount or the like, but in the present invention, the actual sand grains are imaged and calculated without relying on intuition by a skilled worker. It became possible to adjust the particle size distribution by adjusting the numerical values.
【0053】あらかじめ画像解析手段を内蔵した中央処
理装置6には製砂工場における、各種砕砂の過去のデー
タが蓄積されているので、このデータによる原料供給量
や供給水量の変化が容易に計算され、製砂の管理が極め
て敏速に且つ精確に実現できるようになった。従って、
例えば自動運転システムにより、規格値の真ん中で生産
することを可能とし、一系列ラインの生産設備で設備費
や維持管理費の低減も可能となった。製砂手段の一部を
手動で制御することも可能である。
Since the past data of various crushed sands in the sand factory are accumulated in the central processing unit 6 having the built-in image analysis means in advance, the change of the raw material supply amount and the supplied water amount can be easily calculated by this data. , Sand management has become extremely quick and accurate. Therefore,
For example, an automatic operation system has made it possible to produce in the middle of standard values, and it has also become possible to reduce equipment costs and maintenance costs with one-line production equipment. It is also possible to manually control a part of the sand making means.
【0054】図8及び図9はJIS規格による計測値と
分布図を示したもので、上記図6、図7と全く同じ資料
による分析であるが、図7のように粒度分布の上限値が
粒径0.60の部分で飛び越していることが解析でき
ず、JIS規格では良いとしてもダム用骨材規格には合
格しないことが判明した。
FIGS. 8 and 9 show the measured values and distribution charts according to the JIS standard, and the analysis is based on the exact same data as in FIGS. 6 and 7, but the upper limit of the particle size distribution is as shown in FIG. It was not possible to analyze that the particles jumped at the grain size of 0.60, and it was found that the JIS standard did not pass the dam aggregate standard.
【0055】[0055]
【発明の効果】本発明では、自動運転システム又は一部
手動により、例えば規格値の真中で生産することを可能
とし、あらかじめ定められた粒度とその粒度を中心とす
る粒度分布が許容範囲内に納まるよう、小さい粒度の側
の砕砂が多くなるよう破砕手段を制御し、厳しいダム用
骨材規格の範囲に入る細骨材としての砕砂の製造も精確
にコントロールできるようになったので、製品の品質が
向上し粒度分布の管理が効率化される。また一系列ライ
ンの生産設備で生産が可能なため、設備費や維持管理費
の低減を可能とし、高品質な砕砂を効率良く大量に且つ
簡単に生産ができる。
Industrial Applicability According to the present invention, it is possible to produce in an automatic operating system or partially manually, for example, in the middle of the standard value, and the predetermined particle size and the particle size distribution centered on the particle size are within the allowable range. In order to fit it, the crushing means was controlled so that the amount of crushed sand on the small grain side increased, and it became possible to accurately control the production of crushed sand as fine aggregate that falls within the strict standards for dam aggregates. The quality is improved and the particle size distribution is managed efficiently. In addition, since production can be performed with a single-line production facility, facility costs and maintenance costs can be reduced, and high-quality crushed sand can be efficiently produced in large quantities and easily.
【0056】また粒度分布を制御しながら生産するた
め、不要な超細粒部分(骨材として使用できない)が副
産物として大量に生産されることがないためコスト低減
に寄与し、採掘原石の増大(自然改変範囲の拡大)や濁
水処理後の廃棄ケーキ(産業廃棄物)等の増大の心配が
ないため自然環境保護に寄与し、生産能力の拡大と品質
の安定ができるコンクリート用等の砕砂の製造方法及び
製造装置を提供することができる。
Since the production is performed while controlling the particle size distribution, unnecessary ultrafine grain portions (which cannot be used as aggregates) are not produced in large amounts as by-products, which contributes to cost reduction and increases in the amount of raw ore ( There is no concern about the expansion of the range of natural alteration) and the increase of waste cake (industrial waste) after turbid water treatment, which contributes to the protection of the natural environment, and the production of crushed sand for concrete, etc., which can expand production capacity and stabilize quality A method and manufacturing apparatus can be provided.
【図面の簡単な説明】[Brief description of drawings]
【図1】 本発明の方法による砕砂の製造工程の例を示
す概略図
FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing an example of a crushed sand manufacturing process by the method of the present invention.
【図2】 光学系手段による画像情報を示す参考図FIG. 2 is a reference diagram showing image information by an optical system means.
【図3】 光学系手段による画像情報を拡大して示した
参考図
FIG. 3 is a reference diagram showing enlarged image information by an optical system means.
【図4】 画像情報による粒度分布解析図の例[Fig. 4] Example of particle size distribution analysis diagram based on image information
【図5】 画像情報による粒度分布グラフの例FIG. 5: Example of particle size distribution graph based on image information
【図6】 ダム骨材用規格に基づくデーター値の例[Fig. 6] Example of data values based on dam aggregate standards
【図7】 同上の粒度分布図の例FIG. 7: Example of particle size distribution map of the same as above
【図8】 JIS規格に基づくデーター値の例FIG. 8: Example of data value based on JIS standard
【図9】 同上の粒度分布図FIG. 9: Particle size distribution diagram of the same as above
【符号の説明】[Explanation of symbols]
1: 原料貯蔵手段 2: 原料供給手段 3: 破砕手段 4: 搬送用コンベヤ 5: 光学系手段 6: 中央処理装置(CPU) 7: 給水手段 9: 砕砂 10: 砂粒の輪郭をあらわす閉じた曲線の例 1: Raw material storage means 2: Raw material supply means 3: Crushing means 4: Conveyor for transportation 5: Optical system means 6: Central processing unit (CPU) 7: Water supply means 9: Crushed sand 10: An example of a closed curve that represents the contour of a sand grain
───────────────────────────────────────────────────── フロントページの続き (72)発明者 中山 明嗣 福岡県宗像市城西ケ丘4丁目16番4号 (72)発明者 西 政明 宮崎県延岡市旭町6丁目4100番地 旭化成 株式会社内 Fターム(参考) 4D067 EE45 FF02 FF14 FF15 GA03 GB01    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── Continued front page    (72) Inventor Akitsugu Nakayama             4-16 Josaigaoka, Munakata City, Fukuoka Prefecture (72) Inventor Masaaki Nishi             6-4100 Asahi-cho, Nobeoka-shi, Miyazaki Asahi Kasei             Within the corporation F-term (reference) 4D067 EE45 FF02 FF14 FF15 GA03                       GB01

Claims (8)

    【特許請求の範囲】[Claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 採掘原石を製砂工場で破砕して所定の粗
    粒率(FM値)を有するコンクリート用等の砕砂を製造
    する方法において、原料貯蔵手段、原料供給手段を経て
    採掘原石を破砕手段で破砕し、破砕手段から搬出される
    砕砂の全体又は一部を光学系手段により撮像して画像情
    報とし、この画像情報に対して中央処理装置に内蔵され
    た画像解析手段を用い、砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積を計
    測して粒度及び粒度分布又は重量分布を計算し、この粒
    度分布又は重量分布が予め定められた許容範囲内に納ま
    るよう、前記原料貯蔵手段又は原料供給手段又は破砕手
    段を制御するようにしたことを特徴とする砕砂の製造方
    法。
    1. A method for producing crushed sand for concrete or the like having a predetermined coarse grain ratio (FM value) by crushing raw ore in a sand factory, and crushing raw ore through raw material storage means and raw material supply means. The whole or a part of the crushed sand discharged from the crushing means is imaged by the optical system means as the image information, and the image analysis means built in the central processing unit is used for this image information, Calculate the particle size and particle size distribution or weight distribution by measuring each projected area, and control the raw material storage means, raw material supply means or crushing means so that this particle size distribution or weight distribution falls within a predetermined allowable range. A method for producing crushed sand, characterized in that
  2. 【請求項2】 砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積の計測を、白
    黒又は濃淡等による2値化処理によって行うことを特徴
    とする請求項1に記載の砕砂の製造方法。
    2. The method for producing crushed sand according to claim 1, wherein the measurement of the projected area of each of the sand grains is performed by a binarization process such as black and white or shading.
  3. 【請求項3】 砂粒のそれぞれの投影面積の計測を、画
    像上で砂粒のそれぞれの輪郭を再現して表される大小様
    々な閉じた曲線の面積として行うことを特徴とする請求
    項1又は2に記載の砕砂の製造方法。
    3. The measurement of the projected area of each sand grain is performed as an area of a closed curved line of various sizes represented by reproducing each contour of the sand grain on the image. The method for producing crushed sand according to.
  4. 【請求項4】 粒度分布又は重量分布の計算を、砂粒の
    それぞれの寸法を投影面積の円相当径に変換して行うこ
    とを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれかに記載の砕砂
    の製造方法。
    4. The production of crushed sand according to claim 1, wherein the particle size distribution or the weight distribution is calculated by converting each size of the sand grains into a circle equivalent diameter of the projected area. Method.
  5. 【請求項5】 粒度分布又は重量分布の計算を、砂粒の
    それぞれの形状を球や直方体等の幾何学的に単純な立方
    体に変換して行うことを特徴とする請求項1乃至4のい
    ずれかに記載の砕砂の製造方法。
    5. The particle size distribution or the weight distribution is calculated by converting each shape of the sand grains into a geometrically simple cube such as a sphere or a rectangular parallelepiped. The method for producing crushed sand according to.
  6. 【請求項6】 粒度分布又は重量分布を、曲線、ヒスト
    グラム等のグラフで表示して行うことを特徴とする請求
    項1乃至5のいずれかに記載の砕砂の製造方法。
    6. The method for producing crushed sand according to claim 1, wherein the particle size distribution or the weight distribution is displayed by a graph such as a curve or a histogram.
  7. 【請求項7】 採掘原石を製砂工場で破砕して所定の粗
    粒率(FM値)を有する砕砂を製造する製造装置におい
    て、採掘原石の原料貯蔵手段と、原料供給手段と、破砕
    手段と、破砕された砕砂を搬出する手段と、砕砂を撮像
    する光学系手段と、得られた画像情報からそれぞれの砂
    粒の投影面積を計測する手段と、砕砂の粒度及び粒度分
    布又は重量分布を計算する手段と、該粒度分布又は重量
    分布と予め定められた許容範囲とを比較する手段と、該
    比較結果に基づいて前記原料貯蔵手段又は原料供給手段
    又は破砕手段を制御する手段とを備えてなることを特徴
    とする砕砂の製造装置。
    7. A manufacturing apparatus for crushing raw ore in a sand factory to produce crushed sand having a predetermined coarse grain ratio (FM value), a raw material storage means, a raw material supplying means, and a crushing means for the raw ore. , Means for carrying out the crushed sand, optical means for imaging the crushed sand, means for measuring the projected area of each sand grain from the obtained image information, and calculating the grain size and particle size distribution or weight distribution of the crushed sand Means, means for comparing the particle size distribution or weight distribution with a predetermined allowable range, and means for controlling the raw material storage means, raw material supply means or crushing means based on the comparison result. An apparatus for producing crushed sand.
  8. 【請求項8】 粒度分布又は重量分布を曲線、ヒストグ
    ラム等のグラフで表示する手段を有することを特徴とす
    る請求項7に記載の砕砂の製造装置。
    8. The crushed sand manufacturing apparatus according to claim 7, further comprising means for displaying the particle size distribution or the weight distribution in a graph such as a curve or a histogram.
JP2001202222A 2001-07-03 2001-07-03 Method and apparatus for manufacturing crushed sand Pending JP2003010726A (en)

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