GB2317735A - Addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal display - Google Patents

Addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal display Download PDF

Info

Publication number
GB2317735A
GB2317735A GB9620395A GB9620395A GB2317735A GB 2317735 A GB2317735 A GB 2317735A GB 9620395 A GB9620395 A GB 9620395A GB 9620395 A GB9620395 A GB 9620395A GB 2317735 A GB2317735 A GB 2317735A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
pulse
strobe
pixel
regions
shown
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB9620395A
Other versions
GB9620395D0 (en
Inventor
Akira Tagawa
Michael John Towler
Paul Bonnett
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Sharp Corp
Original Assignee
Sharp Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Sharp Corp filed Critical Sharp Corp
Priority to GB9620395A priority Critical patent/GB2317735A/en
Publication of GB9620395D0 publication Critical patent/GB9620395D0/en
Publication of GB2317735A publication Critical patent/GB2317735A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/34Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source
    • G09G3/36Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using liquid crystals
    • G09G3/3611Control of matrices with row and column drivers
    • G09G3/3622Control of matrices with row and column drivers using a passive matrix
    • G09G3/3629Control of matrices with row and column drivers using a passive matrix using liquid crystals having memory effects, e.g. ferroelectric liquid crystals
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/06Details of flat display driving waveforms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/06Details of flat display driving waveforms
    • G09G2310/061Details of flat display driving waveforms for resetting or blanking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/2007Display of intermediate tones
    • G09G3/2044Display of intermediate tones using dithering
    • G09G3/2051Display of intermediate tones using dithering with use of a spatial dither pattern
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/2007Display of intermediate tones
    • G09G3/207Display of intermediate tones by domain size control
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/2007Display of intermediate tones
    • G09G3/2074Display of intermediate tones using sub-pixels

Abstract

A ferroelectric liquid crystal device, such as a display panel, has a plurality of pixels arranged as rows and columns in a passive matrix arrangement. Each pixel has a plurality of switching thresholds, for instance by having different regions of different thicknesses, so as to provide a plurality of grey levels. A voltage waveform is applied to each pixel for switching it to a desired grey level. A banking pulse of a first polarity is applied to reset the pixel to a reset grey level. This is followed by a compensating pulse (20) of polarity opposite the first polarity, after which a waveform for selecting the desired grey level is provided. The effect of the compensating pulse (20) is to reduce the effect of imin shift so as to provide a relatively wide driving window (13) to allow more reliable selection of an intermediate grey level.

Description

2317735 1 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR ADDRESSING A FERROELECTRIC LIQUID

CRYSTAL DEVICE AND A FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTAL DEVICE.

The present invention relates to a method of and apparatus for addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal device (FICD) and to an FLCD. Such FLCDS may be used to provide high resolution display panels, for instance for use in personal computers and high definition television (HDTV).

Known FLCD display panels comprise rows and columns of picture elements (pixels) provided with row and column electrodes for passive matrix addressing. Strobe signals are supplied in sequence to the row electrodes whereas data signals are supplied simultaneously and in synchronism with the strobe signals to the column electrodes. Thus, the display is refreshed by writing display data to the pixels a row at a time. Once a complete frame of image data has been supplied, the process is repeated. Such drive schemes rely on the bistability of the ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLO to retain the image data i.e. the desired optical state, between consecutive pixel refreshes.

In general, each row refresh cycle uses a strobe signal which comprises a blanking puise for resetting all the pixels of the row to a predetermined state, such as maximally opaque (black) or maximally transparent (white), followed by a strobe pulse which is simultaneous with data pulses of the data signals on the column electrodes. Various addressing or drive schemes are known for achieving this. For instance, JP-HO 6-1309 and GB2249653A disclose drive schemes in which an additional pulse is 2 provided between the blanking pulse and the strobe or main switching pulse. The purpose of the additional pulse is to improve switching times for black and white i.e. two grey level displays in which each pixel has a single switching threshold.

Various other drive schemes are known for FLCs with negative dielectric anisotropy exhibiting a minimum in their -r-Vmin (slot time-voltage) characteristics. P.W.H. Surguy et a], Ferroelectrics, 122,63, 1991 discloses a drive scheme known as the JOERS/ALVEY scheme. C.T.H. Yeoh et a], Ferroelectrics, 132,293, 1992 discloses another type of drive scheme. J.R. Hughes and E.P. Raynes, Liquid Crystals 13,597, 1993 discloses a strobe pulse expansion type of scheme known as the Malvern scheme. EP 0 710 945 discloses a pixel pattern independent drive scheme which can reduce the effects of pixel pattern by using special data signals.

FLCDs are prime contenders for use in HDTV panels and high resolution display applications, particularly because of the rapid refresh rates which can be achieved and which allow such panels to operate at video speeds. However, such applications require the production of grey levels, for instance a minimum of 256 grey levels for HDTV. Digital techniques known as spatial dither and temporal dither have been used to produce grey levels but, even when used in combination, have been limited to 64 grey levels in practical display panels.

In order to achieve additional analogue grey levels, FLCDs having two or more different threshold levels within each pixel have been proposed, for instance in JPS 62-145216 and in P.W Ross et al, SID International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers, 147, XXV, 1994. For instance, 3 the different threshold levels are achieved by subdividing each pixel into subpixels of different cell thickness. By controlling switching of the two or more areas of each pixel with different threshold levels independently, it is possible to achieve more than three additional grey levels. However, problems arise with independently controlling the different pixel areas or subpixels as described hereinafter.

Claims (23)

  1. According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a method
    as defined in the appended Claim 1.
    According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided an apparatus as defined in the appended Claim 12.
    According to a third aspect of the invention, there is provided an FILCID as defined in the appended Claim 20.
    Preferred embodiments of the invention are defined in the other appended claims.
    It is thus possible to provide an IFI-CID which is capable of displaying one or more grey levels additional to the "black" and "white" grey levels and in which the intermediate grey level can be reliably addressed. In particular, by adopting the compensating pulse, the effects of Tmin shift between different thresholds is reduced so that a larger driving region for grey scale can be achieved.
    By using two bits of spatial dither and two bits of temporal dither, four analogue grey levels are required to produce 256 grey levels for each pixel. The four analogue grey levels can be achieved and reliably 4 addressed by means of the present drive scheme. It is thus possible to produce display panels which are suitable for use in HDTV and in high resolution displays operating at video rates.
    The invention will be further described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
    Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of an FLCD to which the invention may be applied; Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of a multi-threshold pixel of the display of Figure 1; Figure 3 is a graph illustrating the r-V curves for the two regions of the pixel shown in Figure 2; Figure 4 is a graph illustrating r-V curves for three kinds of data voltages for providing three grey levels from a pixel of the type shown in Figure 2; Figure 5 illustrates addressing waveforms for achieving three kinds of c- V curves; Figure 6 illustrates actual T-Vcurves achieved using the waveforms of Figure 5; Figure 7 illustrates a simple monopulse for application to a pixel of the type shown in Figure 2; Figure 8 Is a graph showing the T-V curves achieved using the waveform shown in Figure 7; Figure 9 illustrates a waveform comprising a monopulse preceded by a blanking pulse for application to the pixel of Figure 2; Figure 10 is a graph showing the c-V curves achieved using the waveform of Figure 9; Figure 11 is a graph IllustratingT-V curves for three kinds of data signals for providing three grey scales from a pixel divided into two regions; Figure 12 shows a conventional strobe signal for a multi-thickness pixel at A and waveforms including compensating pulses at B and C; Figure 13 shows alternative waveforms for a conventional strobe signal at A and for strobe signals including compensating pulses at B and C; Figure 14 shows data signals together with a conventional strobe signal and a strobe signal including a compensating pulse; and Figures 15(a) and (b) are graphs of z-V curves illustrating driving windows achieved by the strobe pulses shown in Figure 14.
    like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the drawings.
    Figure 1 shows an FILCID display panel comprising a 4x4 array of pixels. In practice, such a display would comprise many more pixels arranged as 6 a square or rectangular matrix but a 4x4 array has been shown for the sake of simplicity of description.
    The display panel comprises four column electrodes 1 connected to respective outputs of a data signal generator 2 so as to receive data signals W1 to W4. The generator 2 has a data input 3 for receiving data to be displayed, for instance one row at a time. The generator 2 has a synchronising input 4 for receiving timing signals so as to control the timing of the supply of the data signals Vdl to Vd4 to the column or data electrodes 1.
    The display further comprises four row electrodes 5 connected to respective outputs of a strobe signal generator 6 so as to receive respective strobe signals Vs1 to VA. The generator 6 has a synchronising input which is also connected to receive timing signals for controlling the timing of supply of the strobe signals VA to VA to the row or strobe electrodes 5.
    The display further comprises an FLC arranged as a layer between the data electrodes 1 and the strobe electrodes 5. The FILC has negative dielectric anisotropy and has a minimum in its r-V characteristic. The intersections between the data and strobe electrodes define individual pixels which are addressable independently of each other. The FILC is bistable and the display is of the passive matrix addressed type.
    One of the pixels of the display shown in Figure 1 is shown in Figure 2 in more detail. The pixel is divided into subpixels shown as first and second regions 7 and 8, although each pixel may be divided into more than two subpIxels. The first and second regions 7 and 8 are of different 7 thicknesses so as to have different switching thresholds. Such an arrangement allows an additional grey level to be provided by a technique known as the Multi-Threshold Modulation (MTM) method.
    In the embodiment described, the regions 7 and 8 are of different thicknesses. However, any technique may be used for achieving different switching characteristics in the regions 7 and 8.
    Figure 3 illustrates the switching characteristics of the first and second regions by unbroken and broken lines forming T-V curves 9 and 10, respectively, where T is the length of a switching signal and V is the amplitude of the switching signal. For switching signals which occur above the curve 9, the first region 7 is switched to one of its stable states whereas, for switching signals below the curve 9, the first region 7 remains in its other stable state. The switching characteristic for the second region 8 is of the same type. Accordingly, for a switching signal whose period and amplitude are in a region 11 which is above the curve 9 and below the curve 10, the first region 7 switches but the second region 10 does not switch. Similarly, for the region 12, the second region 8 switches but the first region 7 does not. For the area 13 which is above both the curves 9 and 10, both of the regions 7 and 8 switch. For the area 14 below both the curves 9 and 10, neither of the regions 7 and 8 switches. Thus, if the first and second regions 7 and 8 are of the same area, it is possible to select independently three grey levels corresponding to "black", "white", and an intermediate grey level. For instance, waveforms whose T and V fall within the regions 14, 13 and 11 would achieve this. If the regions 7 and 8 are of different areas, an additional intermediate grey level may be achieved by also using the area 12 of the T-V plane illustrated in Figure 3.
    8 As described hereinbefore, one technique for achieving MTM is for the regions such as 7 and 8 to be of different thicknesses. In general, the difference between the applied voltages for switching regions of different thicknesses is almost proportional to the difference in thicknesses. Thus, varying the thickness of the pixel region results in a Vmin shift in the T-V plane as illustrated in Figure 3.
    In order to achieve three grey levels from an FILM with two different threshold levels for each pixei, three kinds of data voitages are needed and give rise to three different T-Vcurves as illustrated in Figure 4. In particular, W1, il and B1 represent the worst, intermediate and best data voltages, respectively, for the first region 7 whereas W2, 12 and B2 represent the worst, intermediate and best voltages, respectively, for the region 8. The shaded region between the curves 11 and 12 illustrates the driving window for achieving an intermediate grey level from two MTM regions 7 and 8.
    By using a switching signal from the area 14, which is below both the worst curves W1 and W2, neither of the regions 7 and 8 is switched. Thus, if the initial pixel state was black, the "worsC voltage leaves the pixel in its black state. When the best data voltage is applied, the curves B 'I and B2 are observed. The driving window shown at 12 is above both the curves B1 and B2 so that both MTM regions 7 and 8 are switched to the white state if the initial state was black. When the intermediate data voltage is applied, the -r-V curves 11 and 12 are achieved. The driving window 13 is above the curve 12 but below the curve 11 so that the MTM region 8 is switched but the region 7 is not switched. This gives the intermediate (half black and half white) state of the pixel. Thus, if three types of data voltage giving theT-V curves 9 shown in Figure 4 are used, the three grey levels of the MTM pixel can readily be achieved. Figure 5 illustrates data and strobe signals which achieve this performance and Figure 6 shows actual experimental results achieved by the waveforms shown in Figure 5 for a standard test cell comprising parallel-rubbed aligning layers to provide approximately 5 degrees of surface tilt and ferroelectric liquid crystal type FILC-11 of negative dielectric anisotropy developed by Sharp K.K. in Japan.
    Although the c-V curves shown in Figures 3 and 4 are represented by single lines, the -c-V curves actually comprise two curves which are referred to as the 0% curve and the 100% curve. For example, as the pulse width is increased while maintaining the pulse height fixed, the pixel begins to switch at some point, which defines the 0% curve. As the pulse width increases, the switched area of the pixel increases until finally the whole area of the pixel is switched to give the 100% curve. Thus, driving conditions (i.e. combinations of pulse width and pulse height) above the 100% curve cause full switching of the pixels whereas driving conditions below the 0% curve give non-switching. The pixel is not switched at all under driving conditions below the 0% curve for the worst data voltage. Similarly, applying driving conditions above the 100% curve for the best data ensures that the pixel is totally switched.
    In order to achieve grey scale in an FILCID, a blanking pulse is provided before the main switching or strobe pulse. All the pixels of the line currently being strobed are thus reset to a fully switched state by the blanking pulse. Following this, the resultant between the main or strobe pulse and the data voltage during the selected period results in the desired grey level of the pixel being selected. The blanking pulse is necessary in order to ensure reliability of selection of the grey levels.
    Applying strobe signals having blanking pulses to FILCIDs with MTM pixels as shown in Figure 2 causes problems, particularly in the case of multithickness pixels having two or more regions such as 7 and 8 of difference thicknesses. Figure 7 illustrates the waveform of a strobe signal having no blanking pulse but having main switching of strobe pulses of amplitude Vs or -Vs having a duration of two slot widths. Figure 8 illustrates typical T-V curves of thinner and thicker regions with each pixel comprising one of each. Thus, only Vmin is changed by variation of the thickness.
    Figure 9 illustrates a waveform having the same "monopulse" as in Figure 7 but having a preceding blanking pulse of amplitude J/2Vs and duration of four slot widths. TheT-Vcurves for this waveform are shown in Figure 10, from which it is apparent that not only does Vmin shift but alSO Min also shift. TheTMin in the thicker region is larger than that in the thinner region. Thus, although only Vmin was expected to shift, some driving conditions such as those including blanking pulses cause TMin to shift also. As illustrated in Figure 11, the drive window 13 for the intermediate grey level is substantially reduced and in fact may disappear because of theTMin shift effect. Thus, the presence of the blanking pulses causes the unexpectedMin shift which makes the driving window 13 narrower. This is particularly apparent from comparing Figure 11 with Figure 4, which illustrates the driving window 13 in the absence of such Tmin shift.
    In order to avoid the problem of narrowing of the intermediate grey level drive window 13 in the presence of a blanking pulse, a compensating pulse of opposite polarity to the blanking pulse is provided between the blanking pulse and the strobe or main switching pulse. It has been 11 found that the presence of such a compensating pulse increases the width of the drive window 13 for intermediate grey levels as compared with the use of a blanking pulse without the compensating pulse.
    Figure 12 illustrates at A a conventional waveform for a strobe signal having a strobe pulse of amplitude Vs occupying two time slots and a preceding blanking pulse of amplitude -V2Vs occupying four time slots. Figure 12 shows at B a strobe signal which differs from that shown at A in that the blanking pulse is extended forward by two time slots and a compensating pulse 20 of amplitude Vs and occupying one time slot immediately follows the blanking pulse. Figure 20 shows at C another strobe signal which differs from that shown at A by the provision of the compensating pulse 20 of amplitude Vs occupying one time slot.
    The strobe waveform shown at B is DC balanced whereas that shown at C is unbalanced. In order to preserve DC balance, the waveform shown at C may have a small DC offset during past or all of a frame. The waveform shown at C may be inverted in alternate frame refresh cycles for each row.
    Figure 13 illustrates the effective electric field across a pixel corresponding to the use of the strobe signals shown in Figure 12 together with a data signal of the type having an amplitude Vd and a positive value in the two time slots before the strobe pulse and a negative value in the two time slots occupied by the strobe pulse. These waveforms correspond to a so-called switching pulse in the JOERS/ALVEY driving scheme referred to hereinbefore. These waveforms were used to measure the T-V curves for FIC cells showing different thickness variations. In particular, a cell A had two regions of different 12 thickness, one having a thickness of 1 micrometer and the other a thickness of 1.4 micrometer. A cell B had a region of thickness 1 micrometer and another region of thickness 1.8 micrometer. Using the waveforms shown in Figures 12 and 13, the results illustrated in tables 1 and 2, respectively, were obtained.
    Table 1 Distance Blanking C Blanking B Blanking A Cell A 1 slot 3.Ous 3.7us 20.1% 22.1% 5slot 2.4us 2.9us 20.7% 23.7us Cell B 1 slot 6.8us 6.4us 8.5us 40.2% 37.9% 45.6% 5slot 5.9us 5.6us 6.6us 43.9% 41.8% 47.1% Table 2 Distance Blanking C Blanking B Blanking A Cell A 1 slot 2.2us 3.2us 17.5% 23.7% 5slot 2.Ous 2.6us 22.0% 27.4% 13 Cell B 1 siot 5.3us 5.5us 7.7us 36.9% 37.8% 50.5% 5510t 4.9us 4.8us 5.8us 47.3% 45.7% 53.7% In both tables the upper values show Armin in microseconds and the lower values show A-rmin/-rmean as a percentage, where ATmin is the difference between theTMin values for the thinner and thicker regions and Tmean is the mean value of the Tmin values in the thicker and thinner regions. As is clear from comparing the table column headed "blanking X' (prior art) with "blanking W' or "blanking C", the presence of the compensation pulse decreases the Tmin shift effect.
    The cells A and B were parallel-rubbed to provide approximately 5 degrees of surface tilt. The FILC material used in the cells was material known as FLC-1 of negative dielectric anisotropy developed by Sharp K.K. in Japan. Figure 14 illustrates data and strobe signals for achieving three grey levels in a pixel of the type shown in Figure 2 having two MTM regions. The strobe signal labelled "strobe W" is of the conventional blanking pulse type whereas the strobe signal labelled "strobe (b)" is of the type in which the blanking pulse is followed by a compensating pulse. These signals were applied to an FLC cell containing FLC-1 and paraliei- rubbed to provide approximately 5 degrees of surface tilt. The thinner region of the cell or pixel was 1 micrometer thick whereas the thicker region was 1.4 micrometer thick.
    14 The measured T-V curves shown in Figures 15(a) and (b) correspond to the use of the strobe (a) and strobe (b) waveforms, respectively, shown in Figure 14. As shown in Figure 1 5(a), the driving window for the conventional strobe waveform without the compensating pulse is very narrow so that reliable switching to the intermediate grey level would be difficult to achieve. As shown in Figure 15(b), the use of the compensating pulse 20 results in a much wider driving window for the intermediate grey level, which can therefore be more reliably selected.
    is CLAIMS 1. A method of addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal device picture element having a plurality of switching thresholds corresponding to a plurality of grey levels, comprising applying to the picture element an electric field having a resetting pulse of a first polarity for resetting the picture element to a reset grey level, a compensating pulse of a second polarity opposite the first polarity for reducing TMin shift, and a waveform for achieving a selected grey level.
  2. 2. A method as claimed in Claim 1, in which the RMS voltage of the compensating pulse is less than the RMS voltage of the resetting pulse.
  3. 3. A method as claimed in Claim 1 or 2, in which the amplitude of the compensating pulse is greater than the amplitude of the resetting pulse.
  4. 4. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the reset grey level is a maximally opaque level of the picture element.
  5. 5. A method as claimed in any one of Claims 1 to 3, in which the reset grey level is a maximally transparent level of the picture element.
  6. 6. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims for a device of the type comprising a plurality of picture elements arranged as rows and columns, in which strobe signals are applied in turn to the rows and data signals are supplied simultaneously to the columns in 16 synchronism with the strobe signals for simultaneously selecting the selected grey levels of the picture elements of each row.
  7. 7. A method as claimed in Claim 6, in which each strobe signal comprises the resetting pulse, the compensating pulse and a strobe pulse.
  8. 8. A method as claimed in Claim 7, in which the strobe pulse is of the second polarity.
  9. 9. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the or each picture element comprises a plurality of regions having the plurality of switching thresholds.
  10. 10. A method as claimed in Claim 9, in which the regions are of different thicknesses.
  11. 11. A method of addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal device substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to Figures 12 to 15 of the accompanying drawings.
  12. 12. An apparatus for addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal device picture element having a plurality of switching thresholds corresponding to a plurality of grey levels, comprising a waveform generator for applying to the picture element an electric field having a resetting pulse of a first polarity for resetting the picture element to a reset grey level, a compensating pulse of a second polarity opposite the first polarity for reducing -cmin shift, and a waveform for achieving a selected grey level.
    17
  13. 13. An apparatus as claimed in Claim 12, in which the RMS voltage of the compensating pulse is less than the RMS voltage of the resetting pulse.
  14. 14. An apparatus as claimed in Claim 12 or 13, in which the amplitude of the compensating pulse is greater than the amplitude of the resetting pulse.
  15. 15. An apparatus as claimed in any one of Claims 12 to 14, in which the reset grey level is a maximally opaque level of the picture element.
  16. 16. An apparatus as claimed in any one of Claims 12 to 14, in which the reset grey level is a maximally transparent level of the picture element.
  17. 17. An apparatus as claimed in any one of Claims 12 to 16 for a device of the type comprising a plurality of picture elements arranged as rows and columns, in which the waveform generator comprises a strobe signal generator for supplying strobe signals in turn to the rows and a data signal generator for supplying data signals simultaneously to the columns in synchronism with the strobe signals for simultaneously selecting the selected grey levels of the picture elements of each row.
    18. An apparatus as claimed in Claim 17, in which each strobe signal comprises the resetting pulse, the compensating pulse and a strobe pulse.
  18. 18
  19. 19. An apparatus as claimed in Claim 18, in which the strobe pulse is of the second polarity.
  20. 20. A ferroelectric liquid crystal device comprising an apparatus as claimed in any one of Claims 12 to 19, in which the or each picture element comprises a plurality of regions having the plurality of switching thresholds.
  21. 21. A device as claimed in Claim 20, in which the regions are of different thicknesses.
  22. 22. A device as claimed in Claim 20 or 21, of passive matrix type.
  23. 23. A ferroeJectric liquid crystal device substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to and as illustrated in Figures 12 to 15 of the accompanying drawings.
GB9620395A 1996-09-30 1996-09-30 Addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal display Withdrawn GB2317735A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9620395A GB2317735A (en) 1996-09-30 1996-09-30 Addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal display

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9620395A GB2317735A (en) 1996-09-30 1996-09-30 Addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal display
EP97307638A EP0838802A3 (en) 1996-09-30 1997-09-29 Method of and apparatus for addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal device and a ferroelectric liquid crystal device
JP26750397A JPH10153762A (en) 1996-09-30 1997-09-30 Method and device for addressing pixel of ferroelectric liquid crystal display device, and ferroelectric liquid crystal display device
KR1019970050216A KR100236433B1 (en) 1996-09-30 1997-09-30 Method of and apparatus for addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal device and a ferroelectric liquid crystal device

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB9620395D0 GB9620395D0 (en) 1996-11-13
GB2317735A true GB2317735A (en) 1998-04-01

Family

ID=10800733

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB9620395A Withdrawn GB2317735A (en) 1996-09-30 1996-09-30 Addressing a ferroelectric liquid crystal display

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0838802A3 (en)
JP (1) JPH10153762A (en)
KR (1) KR100236433B1 (en)
GB (1) GB2317735A (en)

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR100685921B1 (en) * 2001-10-13 2007-02-23 엘지.필립스 엘시디 주식회사 Method For Driving Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display Device
WO2011117192A1 (en) 2010-03-22 2011-09-29 Carlsberg Breweries A/S A method and apparatus of cleaning and flushing a beverage dispensing system

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2271011A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-03-30 Central Research Lab Ltd Greyscale addressing of ferroelectric liquid crystal displays.
WO1995027971A1 (en) * 1994-04-11 1995-10-19 The Secretary Of State For Defence Ferroelectric liquid crystal displays with greyscale

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4712877A (en) * 1985-01-18 1987-12-15 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Ferroelectric display panel of varying thickness and driving method therefor
US5469281A (en) * 1992-08-24 1995-11-21 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Driving method for liquid crystal device which is not affected by a threshold characteristic change
US5532713A (en) * 1993-04-20 1996-07-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Driving method for liquid crystal device
GB2294797A (en) * 1994-11-01 1996-05-08 Sharp Kk Method of addressing a liquid crystal display

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2271011A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-03-30 Central Research Lab Ltd Greyscale addressing of ferroelectric liquid crystal displays.
WO1995027971A1 (en) * 1994-04-11 1995-10-19 The Secretary Of State For Defence Ferroelectric liquid crystal displays with greyscale

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB9620395D0 (en) 1996-11-13
KR19980025163A (en) 1998-07-06
KR100236433B1 (en) 2000-07-01
EP0838802A3 (en) 1998-07-29
EP0838802A2 (en) 1998-04-29
JPH10153762A (en) 1998-06-09

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
EP0241562B1 (en) Liquid crystal display device
US4870396A (en) AC activated liquid crystal display cell employing dual switching devices
US6369832B1 (en) Pixel buffer circuits for implementing improved methods of displaying grey-scale or color images
US5835075A (en) Method of driving a liquid crystal display device
US4770502A (en) Ferroelectric liquid crystal matrix driving apparatus and method
AU609901B2 (en) Liquid crystal apparatus
US5912651A (en) Matrix display systems and methods of operating such systems
US4651148A (en) Liquid crystal display driving with switching transistors
KR100234612B1 (en) Memory interface circuit and access method
US7161573B1 (en) Liquid crystal display unit and method for driving the same
EP1141934B1 (en) Methods of driving an array of optical elements
JP2743841B2 (en) The liquid crystal display device
US4765720A (en) Method and apparatus for driving ferroelectric liquid crystal, optical modulation device to achieve gradation
US20020089485A1 (en) Liquid crystal display with multi-frame inverting function and an apparatus and a method for driving the same
EP0313876B1 (en) A method for eliminating crosstalk in a thin film transistor/liquid crystal display
EP0299546B1 (en) Display device and method of controlling such a device
US5233447A (en) Liquid crystal apparatus and display system
KR970006981B1 (en) Liquid crystal displaying apparatus
US20040104881A1 (en) Active matrix liquid crystal display
JP3476241B2 (en) Display method of the active matrix type display device
US4317115A (en) Driving device for matrix-type display panel using guest-host type phase transition liquid crystal
EP0090988A1 (en) Scanning liquid crystal display cells
US5808594A (en) Driving method for display device and display apparatus
US5136282A (en) Ferroelectric liquid crystal apparatus having separate display areas and driving method therefor
EP0848369B1 (en) Light Modulating devices with addressable matrix of elements and greyscale levels by spatial and/or temporal dithering wherein one or more subelements and/or one or more subframes can be set to more than two different light transmission states

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
WAP Application withdrawn, taken to be withdrawn or refused ** after publication under section 16(1)