GB2278247A - Chopper-stabilized sigma-delta converter - Google Patents

Chopper-stabilized sigma-delta converter Download PDF

Info

Publication number
GB2278247A
GB2278247A GB9310144A GB9310144A GB2278247A GB 2278247 A GB2278247 A GB 2278247A GB 9310144 A GB9310144 A GB 9310144A GB 9310144 A GB9310144 A GB 9310144A GB 2278247 A GB2278247 A GB 2278247A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
chopper
sigma
discrete
delta adc
signal
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB9310144A
Other versions
GB9310144D0 (en
Inventor
Chung-Yu Wu
Ying-Hwi Chang
Tsai-Chung Yu
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
National Science Council
Original Assignee
National Science Council
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by National Science Council filed Critical National Science Council
Priority to GB9310144A priority Critical patent/GB2278247A/en
Priority to DE19934318728 priority patent/DE4318728C1/en
Priority to FR9306925A priority patent/FR2706703A1/en
Publication of GB9310144D0 publication Critical patent/GB9310144D0/en
Publication of GB2278247A publication Critical patent/GB2278247A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03FAMPLIFIERS
    • H03F1/00Details of amplifiers with only discharge tubes, only semiconductor devices or only unspecified devices as amplifying elements
    • H03F1/30Modifications of amplifiers to reduce influence of variations of temperature or supply voltage or other physical parameters
    • H03F1/303Modifications of amplifiers to reduce influence of variations of temperature or supply voltage or other physical parameters using a switching device
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M3/00Conversion of analogue values to or from differential modulation
    • H03M3/30Delta-sigma modulation
    • H03M3/322Continuously compensating for, or preventing, undesired influence of physical parameters
    • H03M3/324Continuously compensating for, or preventing, undesired influence of physical parameters characterised by means or methods for compensating or preventing more than one type of error at a time, e.g. by synchronisation or using a ratiometric arrangement
    • H03M3/326Continuously compensating for, or preventing, undesired influence of physical parameters characterised by means or methods for compensating or preventing more than one type of error at a time, e.g. by synchronisation or using a ratiometric arrangement by averaging out the errors
    • H03M3/338Continuously compensating for, or preventing, undesired influence of physical parameters characterised by means or methods for compensating or preventing more than one type of error at a time, e.g. by synchronisation or using a ratiometric arrangement by averaging out the errors by permutation in the time domain, e.g. dynamic element matching
    • H03M3/34Continuously compensating for, or preventing, undesired influence of physical parameters characterised by means or methods for compensating or preventing more than one type of error at a time, e.g. by synchronisation or using a ratiometric arrangement by averaging out the errors by permutation in the time domain, e.g. dynamic element matching by chopping
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03FAMPLIFIERS
    • H03F2200/00Indexing scheme relating to amplifiers
    • H03F2200/331Sigma delta modulation being used in an amplifying circuit
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M3/00Conversion of analogue values to or from differential modulation
    • H03M3/30Delta-sigma modulation
    • H03M3/39Structural details of delta-sigma modulators, e.g. incremental delta-sigma modulators
    • H03M3/412Structural details of delta-sigma modulators, e.g. incremental delta-sigma modulators characterised by the number of quantisers and their type and resolution
    • H03M3/422Structural details of delta-sigma modulators, e.g. incremental delta-sigma modulators characterised by the number of quantisers and their type and resolution having one quantiser only
    • H03M3/43Structural details of delta-sigma modulators, e.g. incremental delta-sigma modulators characterised by the number of quantisers and their type and resolution having one quantiser only the quantiser being a single bit one
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M3/00Conversion of analogue values to or from differential modulation
    • H03M3/30Delta-sigma modulation
    • H03M3/458Analogue/digital converters using delta-sigma modulation as an intermediate step

Abstract

A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) bk9 has a discrete-time multiplier bk1 receiving an analog input signal x and a first discrete-time sequence bk2, and multiplying them to produce a choppered analog signal x'. A chopper sigma-delta ADC bk3 converts the choppered analog signal x' into a digital output signal y'. The chopper sigma-delta ADC is characterized in z-domain by: Y'(z)=X'(z)ST'(z) + Q(z)NT'(z),z=e<jw> wherein ST'(z) is a signal transfer function, and has a passband in a high-frequency range, and NT'(z) is a noise transfer function having a high attenuation in the high-frequency range. In this way, the low-frequency noises can be removed to increase the resolution of the converter bk9. <IMAGE>

Description

2278247 TITLE CHOPPER-STABILIZED SIGNA-DELTA ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER

is

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to a analog-todigital converters(ADC), and more particularly to a chopperstabilized sigma-delta ADC using a chopper stabilizer to remove the circuit low-frequency noises, so that the resolution of the sigma-delta ADC is greatly increased.

At present, the interface circuits of the sigma-delta ADC have been widely used in the VLSI(Very Large-Scale Integration) application products. For example, in case of the telecommunication products, they can be applied to the integrated service digital network (ISDN) U- interface, 9600 MODEM(Modem V.32 9600 bps), pulse code modulation codedecoder (PCM CODEC), etc. In comsumer electronic products, they can be applied to digital audio tape (DAT) recorders, compact disc (CD) player systems, and so on. In instrumentation products, they can be applied to 5 1/2 digital panel meters which can resolve a 1 MV signal. In these system, only the digital processing (DSP) chip connected behind the sigma-delta ADC needs to be differently designed to meet the requirements for different products. Therefore, it can be seen that the sigma-delta ADC is generally applied to various IC (Integrated Circuit) application products.

1 Referring to Figs. 14 and 15, conventional sigma-delta ADCs are typically constituted by a switched-capacitor circuit. Such a technology can refer to S. R. Norsworth, 11Oversampled Sigma-Delta Data Converter", ISCAS190 Workshop, New Orleans, LA, April 30, 1990. The sigma-delta ADC is a discrete-time system, and its relationship between input and output signals can be described in z-domain wherein z=ejw, and w is an angular frequency. The relationship between w and the continuous signal frequency f can be characterized by w=2rf/f,, wherein fs is the sampling frequency of system.

The sampling frequency fs= 1/T, wherein T is the sampling period. If the continuous signal frequency f= fs/2, the angular frequency w = v. In this specification, the description for the sigma-delta ADC are all in z-domain.

Referring to Figs. 1(a) to 1(e), there is shown a conventional sigma-delta ADC 10, and its transfer function can be characterized in z-domain by Y(z)=X(z)ST(z)+ Q(z)NT(z), z=ejw wherein ST(z) is signal transfer function, and NT(z) is a noise transfer function. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the signal transfer function ST(z) is characterized by having a passband in the low-frequency range to permit the input low frequency signal passing through. As shown in Fig. 1(c), the noise transfer function NT(z) is characterized by having a very high attenuation in the low-frequency range to attenuate a large part of the low-frequency quc-ntization noise which is generated when the input signal passes 2 through the analog-to-digital converter A/D (this A/D is a low-bit analog- to-digital converter, and usually outputs only one bit) of the sigma- delta ADC 10. In this way, the quantization noise will not be too large in the lowfrequency portion to interfere the passing of the normal signal. As shown in Figs. 1(d) and 1(e), the quantization noise generated when the input signal x passes through the sigma-delta ADC 10 is very small in low-frequency portion. However, since the signal transfer function ST(z) has a passband in the low-frequency range, the other circuit lowfrequency noises (except the quantization noise), for example the 1/f noise and the offset voltage of the operational amplifier, will also pass through the sigmadelta ADC 10 at the same time as the normal low-frequency signal, so that the output digital signal y will be contaminated. Therefore, circuit low-frequency will limit the sigma-delta ADC 10 to reach higher resolution, for example 2! 16 bits.

Known methods of reducing the low-frequency in a sigma delta ADC circuit are usually derived from method of reducing the low-frequency noise in conventional switched capacitor circuits, for example use of a chopper-stabilized operational amplifier to replace the operational amplifier(may refer to U.S. Patent No. 4,939,516) or the correlated double sampling technology. Since these methods all solve this low-frequency noise problem from the circuit angle, they can only overcome part of the problem.

3 Typical examples of the prior sigma-delta ADC are shown in Figs. 14 to 17. Fig. 14 shows a prior 1-order sigmadelta ADC structure, and Fig. 15 shows a circuit designed on the basis of the structure shown in Fig. 14. Fig. 16 shows a prior single-input-to-single-output 2-order one-bit sigmadelta ADC structure, and Fig. 17 shows a circuit designed on the basis of the structure shown in Fig. 16. the blocks of Z-'/(l-Z-1) can be e implemented by the circuit as shown in Fig. 5(b). Since the structures and circuits shown in Figs. 5(b), 14, to 17 are all clear to those skilled in the art, it is deemed unnecessary to describe them further. other prior sigma-delta ADCs are constituted by similar manner, as shown in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,068,660; 4,983,975; 4,972,436; 4,972,360; 4,939,516; and 4,920,544.

SUMMY OF THE INVENTION The primary object of the present invention is to provide a chopper- stabilized sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter(ADC) to solve the above-mentioned low-frequency noise problem and thus to greatly increase the resolution of the sigma- delta ADC. The present invention approaches this problem from the system angle and technology, quite different from the circuit angle in the prior arts.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC which has a simple circuit complexity, is easy to design and can be manufactured without any special processing technologies.

4 1 In accordance with the present invention, a chopperstabilized sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter comprises: a first discrete-time multiplier adapted to receive an analog input signal and a first discrete-time sequence, and capable of multiplying the analog input signal by the first discrete-time sequence to produce a choppered analog signal; and a chopper sigma-delta analog-to digital converter (ADC) connected in series to the first discrete-time multiplier in order to receive an convert the choppered analog signal into a digital output signal, the chopper sigma-delta ADC being characterized in z-domain by:

is Y1(z)=Xl(z)ST1(z)+ Q(z)NT1(z), z=ejw wherein ST1(z) is a signal transfer functionj and is characterized by having a passband in a high-frequency range; and NV(z) is a noise transfer function, and characterized by having a high attenuation in the highfrequency range.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a chopperstabilized sigma-delta ADC further comprises a second discrete-time multiplier connected in series to the chopper sigma-delta ADC in order to receive the digital output signal, the second discrete-time multiplier adapted to receive a second discrete-time sequence, and multiplying the digital output signal by the second discrete-time sequence to produce a choppered digital signal.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention can be more fully understood by reference to the following description and accompanying drawings, which form an integral part of this application:

Figs. 1(a) to 1(e) illustrate the structure and characteristics of a conventional sigma-delta analog-todigital converter (ADC); Figs 2(a) to 2(h) illustrate the structure and characteristics of a chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC according to a first preferred embodiment of the present invention, which is suitable for a fully- differential circuit implementation; Figs. 3(a) to 3(h) illustrate the structure and characteristics of a chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC according to a second preferred embodiment of the present invention, which is suitable for a single-input- to-to single-output circuit implementation; Figs. 4 shows the control clocks indicated in all circuit diagrams of the drawings; Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) illustrate the z -domain symbols and circuit diagrams of two conventional single-input-to-singleoutput building blocks; Fig. 5(c) illustrate the z-domain symbol and circuit diagram of a singleinput-to-single-output building block according to the present invention; 6 Fig. 6(a) illustrate the z-domain symbol and circuit diagram of a conventional fully-differential building block; Fig. 6(b) illustrate the z-domain symbol and circuit diagram of a fully- differential building block according to the present invention; Fig. 7(a) illustrate the z-domain symbol and circuit diagram of a conventional gain building block; Fig. 7(b) illustrate the z-domain symbol and circuit diagram of a gain building block according to the present invention; Fig. 8 is a structural block diagram of a 1-order chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC with Z-'/(l+Z-l) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure as shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 9 is a schematically elect rical diagram of a fully-differential 1- order one-bit chopper-stabilized sigmadelta ADC with Z-1/(l+Z-1) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure of Fig. 8; Fig. 10 is a structural block diagram of a 1-order chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC with Z-I/(I+Z-l) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure as shown in Fig. 3; Fig. 11 is a schematically electrical diagram of a single-input-to-single- output 1-order one-bit chopperstabilized sigma-delta ADC with Z-'/(l+Z-1) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure of Fig. 10; 7 Fig. 12 is a structural block diagram of a 2-order chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC with Z-1/(I+Z-l) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure as shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 13 is a schematically electrical diagram of a fully-differential 2- order one-bit chopper-stabilized sigmadelta ADC with Z-1/(l+Z-l) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure of Fig. 12; Fig. 14 is a structural block diagram of a conventional 1-order sigma-delta ADC; Fig. 15 is a schematically electrical diagram of a conventional I-order sigma-delta ADC circuit designed on the basis of the structure of Fig. 14, wherein an equivalent is noise source is added; Fig. 16 is a structural block diagram of a conventional 2-order sigma- delta ADC; Fig. 17 is a schematically electrical diagram of a conventional 2-order sigma-delta ADC circuit designed on the basis of the structure of Fig. 16, wherein two equivalent noise sources are added; Fig. 18 is similar to Fig. 9, but an equivalent noise source is added further; Fig. 19 is similar to Fig. 13, but two equivalent noise source are added further; Figs. 20(a) and 20(b) show the simulation spectrums of the circuits as shown in Figs. 15 and 18; and 8 Figs. 21(a) and 21(b) show the simulation spectrums of the circuits as shown in Figs. 17 and 19.

Figs. 21(a) and 21(b) show the simulation spectrums of the circuits as shown in Figs. 17 and 19.

9 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In this description, two kinds of chopper-stabilized sigma-delta analogto-digital converters (ADCs) of the present invention are disclosed. Fig. 2(a) shows the first kind of chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk9 which is suitable for a fully-differential circuit implementation. Fig. 3(a) shows the second kind of chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk18 which is suitable for a single-input-to-single-output circuit implementation.

Referring now to Fig. 2(a), the chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk9 according to the first preferred embodiment of the present invention includes a discrete-time multiplier bkI, a chopper sigma-delta ADC bk3, and another discrete-time multiplier bk4, connected together in series. The discrete-time multiplier bki receives an input analog lowfrequency signal x, and a discrete-time sequence bk2 consisting of alternating 11111 and 11-111 digital signals, and multiplies them to produce a signal xt. The chopper sigma-delta ADC bk3 especially designed by the present invention receives and converts the output signal xl of the discrete-time multiplier bki into a digital signal output yf. The discrete-time multiplier bk4 receives the output signal y' of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk3, and a discrete-time sequence bk5 consisted of alternating 11111 and "-111 digital signals, and multiplies them to produce a digital output signal y for the entire chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC bk9.

Referring to Figs. 2(a) to 2(h), Figs. 2(b) to 2(d) illustrate the characteristics of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk3, and Figs. 2(e) to 2(h) are diagrams of the halfspectrums of respective signals at different points in the chopper-stabilized sigma- delta ADC bk9. The multiplication operation conducted by the discrete- time multiplier bkl is called a "chopper" multiplication, and can modulate the input low-frequency signal x having a center frequency at wx, as shown in Fig. 2(e), into a signal having a center frequency at (r + wx) which, in the half-spectrum, is represented by a signal xI having a center frequency at (v wx), as shown in Fig. 2(f). The transfer function of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk3 can be characterized in the z domzin by:

Yl(z)=Xf(z)STI(z) + Q(z)NTI(z), z=ejw wherein STI(z) is the signal transfer function, and NTI(z) is the noise transfer function. As shown in Fig. 2(c), the signal transfer function STI(z) is characterized by having a passband in the high-frequency range, i.e. the area around the angular frequency r, to permit the input high-frequency signal, i.e. the signal around the angular frequency r, to pass through. As shown in Fig. 2(d), the noise transfer function NTI(z) is characterized by having a very high attenuation in the high-frequency range to attenuate a large part of the quantization noise in high-frequency which is 11 is generated when the input signal passes through the analogto-digital converter A/D(this A/D is a low-bit analog-todigital converter, and usually outputs only one bit) of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk3. In this way, the quantization noise will not be too large in high-frequency portions to interfere with the passing of the normal high-frequency signal. Fig. 2(g) shows the spectrum of the output digital signal yl, and the circuit low-frequency noise joins in at this time. The "chopper" multiplication of the discretetime multiplier bk4 choppers the output signal yl of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk3 to produce the finally desired digital signal y. The spectrum of the digital signal y is shown in Fig. 2 (h). In this way, there is only a small quantization noise in the low-frequency range, and the circuit low-frequency noise is choppered to the highfrequency range by the "chopper" multiplication of the discrete-time multiplier bk4, so as not to affect the resolution. Since both of the input and output signals of the discrete-time multiplier bk4 are all in digital forms, the discrete-time multiplier bk4 may be designed in the digital signal processing(DSP) chip connected behind the sigma-delta ADC. That is to say, the chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC bk9 of the present invention may omit the discrete-time multiplier bk4.

Referring now to Fig. 3(a), the chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk18 according to the second preferred embodiment of the present invention includes a 12 discrete-time multiplier bklO, a chopper sigma-delta ADc bk12, and another discrete-time multiplier bk13, connected together in series. The discrete-time multiplier bkio receives an input analog low-frequency signal x, and a discrete-time sequence bkil consisting of alternating 11111 and 'toy', and multiplies them to produce a signal xl. The chopper sigma-delta ADC bk12 also especially designed by the present invention receives and converts the output signal xl of the discrete-time multiplier bk10 into a digital signal output Y1. The discrete-time multiplier bk13 receives the output signal y' of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk12, and a discrete-time sequence bk14 consisting of alternating 11111 It111, and multiplies them to produce a digital output signal y for the entire chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC bk18.

Ref erring to Figs. 3 (a) to 3 (h), Figs. 3 (b) to 3 (d) illustrate the characteristics of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk12, and Figs. 3(e) to 3(h) are schematic diagrams of the half-spectrums of respec tive signals at different points in the chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADc bk18. The "chopper" multiplication conducted by the discrete-time multiplier bkio which receives the discrete-time sequence bk11 obtains a little different result from the Uchopper" multiplication conducted by the discrete-time multiplier bkl which receives the discrete-time sequence bk2 as shown in Fig. 2(a). The discrete-time multiplier bkio modulates only half of the input low-frequency signal x having a center frequency at wx, as shown Fig. 3(e), into a signal having a 13 center frequency at (v + wx) which, in the half-spectrum, is represented by a signal having a center frequency at (vwx), while the other half of the input signal x still stays in the low-frequency range, as shown in Fig. 3(f). The transfer function of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk12 can be characterized in the z domzin:

Y1(z)=X1(z)ST1(z)+ Q(z)NTI(z), z=ejw wherein STI(z) is the signal transfer function, and NTI(z) is the noise transfer function. As shown in Fig. 3(c), the signal transfer function STI(z) is characterized by having a passband in the high-frequency range to permit the input high-frequency signal passing through. As shown in Fig. 3(d), the noise transfer function NTI(z) is characterized by having a very high attenuation in the high- frequency range to attenuate a large part of the quantization noise in highfrequency which is generated when the input signal passes through the analog-to-digital converter A/D (this A/D is a low-bit analog-to-digital converter, and usually outputs only one bit) of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk12. In this way, the quantization noise will not be too large in highfrequency portion to interfere the passing of the normal high-frequency signal. Fig. 3(g) shows the spectrum of the output digital signal yl, and the circuit low-frequency noise joins in at this time. The "chopper" multiplication of the discrete-time multiplier bk13 choppers the output signal yl of the chopper sigma-delta ADC bk12 to produce the final output digital signal y. The spectrum of the digital 14 signal y is shown in Fig. 3(h). In this way, the circuit low-frequency noise is choppered to the high-frequency range by the "chopper" multiplication of the discrete-time multiplier bk13, so as not to affect the resolution. In addition, there will be a 0.5-time linear error in this embodiment because only half of the input low-frequency signal x is modulated to the high-frequency range, i.e. the input low-frequency signal x is half attenuated before entering the analog-to-digital converting process. However, this linear error can be compensated in the digital signal processing chip later. Since both of the input and output signals of the discrete-time multiplier bk13 are all in digi tal form, the discrete-time multiplier bk13 may be designed in the digital signal processing (DSP) chip is connected behind the sigma-delta ADC. That is to say, the chopper- stabilized sigma-delta ADC bk18 of the present invention my omit the discrete-time multiplier bk13.

In sum, the function of the chopper-stabilized sigma delta ADC structure bkg in accordance' with the first embodiment of the present invention can be characterized in z-domain by:

Y(z)=X(z)ST(z) + Q(z)NT(z), z=ejw That is to say, it achieves the same transfer function as the conventional sigma-delta ADC. The function of the chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk18 in accordance with the second embodiment of the present invention can be characterized in z-domain by:

Y(z)=0.5X(z) ST(z) + Q(z)NT(z), z=ejw It also achieves the same transfer function as the conventional sigma- delta ADC, except a 0.5-time linear error. As mentioned above, this linear error can be compensated in the DSP chip. Therefore, the chopperstabilized sigma-delta ADC structures bk9 and bk18 not only can achieve the same function as the conventional sigmadelta ADC, but also can remove the circuit low-frequency noises so as to increase the resolution of the converter.

The two abovedescribed structures of the present invention can be implemented by the switched-capacitor circuit. Three application circuit examples are described hereinafter for reference. It should be noted that the control signals of all circuits in the drawings are shown in Fig. 4, and include six control clocks 1, 2, 11, 12, 21, 22.

The period T shown in Fig. 4 corresponds to the system sampling frequency of the structures of the present invention. Referring to Fig. 4, the clocks 1 and 2 have the same sampling period T, and are not overlapped with each other. The clocks 11 and 12 have the same sampling period 2T, and are not overlapped with each other while overlapped with the clock 1. The clock 21 and 22 have the same sampling period 2T, and are not overlapped with each other while overlapped with the clock 2. It should be also noted that all blocks A/D in the three examples can be implemented by a comparator, and all blocks D/A can be implemented by a positive/negative voltage output controlled by a one-bit 16 digital signal. The circuit examples of the other building blocks are shown in Figs. 5(a) to 5(c), 6(a), 6(b), 7(a), and 7(b). In these figures, there are shown the conventional circuit examples, the circuit examples designed for the present invention, and the z-domain symbols of all building block circuits. For example, Fig. 7(a) shows a conventional switched-capacitor differentiator, Figs. 5(c) and 6(b) show two switched-capacitor chopper integrators ck25 and ck26 of the present invention, and Fig. 7(b) shows a switched-capacitor chopper differentiator ck27. Since these circuits are clear to those skilled in the are, it is deemed unnecessary to be described further.

With reference to Fig. 8, there is shown a 1-order chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk30 with Z 1/(1+Z-1) as building block, designed on the basis of the chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bkg of the present invention as shown in Fig. 2(a). Fig. 9 shows a fully-differential 1-order one-bit chopper-stabilized sigma delta ADC circuit cM with Z-1/(1+Z-1) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure bk30 of Fig. 8. The blocks bk27, bk28, and bk29 in the structure bk30 of Fig. 8 correspond to the circuit blocks ckl, ck2, and ck3 in the circuit cM of Fig. 9, respectively. The building block bk22 in the structure bk30 of Fig. 8 may be implemented by the circuit ck26 shown in Fig. 6(b). The block bk27 may be implemented by using the clocks 11 and 12 to control the differential signals, as shown in Fig. 9. The block bk29 17 may be implemented by using the clocks 11 and 12 to control the positive logic (Q) and negative logic (Q) of the comparator cpl, as shown in Fig. 9.

With reference to Fig. 10, there is shown a 1-order chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk42 with Z-1/(1+Z-1) as building block, designed on the basis of the chopper- stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk18 of the present invention shown in Fig. 3(a). Fig. 11 shows a single-input-to-single-output 1-order one- bit chopper- stabilized sigma-delta ADC circuit ck8 with z-1/(1+Z-1) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure bk42 of Fig. 10. The blocks bk39, bk40, and bk41 in the structure bk42 of Fig. 10 correspond to the circuit blocks ckS, ck6, and ck7 in the circuit ck8 of Fig. 11, respectively. The building block bk34 in the structure bk42 of Fig. 10 may be implemented by the circuit ck25 shown in Fig. 5(c). the block bk39 may be implemented by using the blocks 11 and 12 to control the differdntial signals, as shown in Fig. 11. The block bk41 may be implemented by using the clocks 11 and 12 to control the positive logic (Q) and negative logic (Q) of the comparator cp2, as shown in Fig. 11.

With reference to Fig. 12, there is shown a 2-order chopper-stabilized sigma"delta ADC structure bk57 with Z-1/(1+Z-1) as building block, designed on the basis of the chopper- stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk9 of the present invention shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 13 shows a fully- 18 differential 2-order one-bit chopper-stabilized single-delta ADC circuit ck12 with Z-1/(1+Z-1) as building block, designed on the basis of the structure bk57 of Fig. 12. The blocks bk54, bk55, and bk56 in the structure bk57 of Fig. 12 correspond to the circuit blocks ck9, cklO, and ck11 in the circuit ck12 of Fig. 13, respectively. The building blocks bk46 and bk49 in the structure bk57 of Fig. 12 may be implemented by the circuit ck26 shown in Fig. 6(b). The block bk54 may be implemented by using the clocks 11 and 12 to control the differential signals, as shown in Fig. 13. The block bk56 may be implemented by using the clocks 11 and 12 to control the positive logic(Q) and negative logic (Q) of the comparator cp3, as shown in Fig. 13.

Of course, a variety of structures and circuits in addition to the above-described examples may be designed on the basis of the chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC structure bk9 or bk18 of the present invention. For example, the single-input-to-single-output 2-order one-bit chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC with Z-1/(1+Z-1) as building blocks; the fully-differential 1-order one-bit chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC with (1-Z-1) as building block; the fully-differential 2-order one-bit chopper stabilized sigma-delta ADC with (1-Z-1) as building block; the fully-differential 2-order one-bit chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC with (1+Z-1) as building block, and so on.

It should be understood that the gain of the circuits of the 19 present invention may be adjusted depending on the application requirements.

In order to verify the advantages of the present invention in removing the circuit low-frequency noises and increasing the resolution of the converter, there are described hereinafter the simulation comparisons between the conventional circuits shown in Figs. 15 and 17, and the circuits of the present invention shown in Figs. 18 and 19.

The circuit of Fig. 15 is designed from the conventional 1-order sigma-delta ADC structure of Fig. 14. An equivalent noise voltage source el needed by the simulation is added in front of the operational amplifier al shown in Fig. 15, and the simulation is achieved by use of the switched-capacitor circuit simulator software SWICAP2 developed by K. Suyana and S. C. Fang of Columbia University, U.S.A. The input signal is a sinusoidal wave_ with the frequency 1OkHz, and the sampling frequency is 1024 KHz. There are 4096 output signals sampled for spectrum analysis. When the noise source el equals to zero, i.e. in a noise free condition, the simulation result is plotted in Fig. 20(a) in solid line. When the noise source el is a 1 kHz sinusoidal wave, i.e. in a noisy condition, the simulation result is plotted in Fig. 20(a) in phantom line. It can be clearly seen from Fig. 20(a) that the output signal is contaminated by the low-frequency noise. Fig. 18 is similar to Fig. 9, but an equivalent noise voltage source el is added in front of the operational amplifier a4. Using the same parameters and conditions as above, the simulation results are plotted in Fig. 20(b). It can be clearly seen from Fig. 20(b) that the simulation results are almost the same in both noise free and noisy conditions. Therefore, the immunity from the contamination of the low-frequency noise is verified in the circuit of the present invention.

The circuit of Fig. 17 is designed from the conventional 2-order sigmadelta ADC structure of Fig. 16. Two equivalent noise voltage sources el and e2 needed by the simulation are added respectively in front of the operational amplifiers a2 and a3 shown in Fig. 17, and the simulation is achieved also be use of the switched-capacitor circuit simulator software SWICAP2. The input signal is a sinusoidal wave with the frequency 10 kHz, and the sampling frequency is 1024 kHz. There are 4096 output signals sampled for spectrum analysis. When both of the noise sources el and e2 equal to zero, i.e. in a noise free condition, the simulation result isplotted in Fig. 21(a) in solid line. When the noise source el is a 1 kHz sinusoidal wave, and the noise source e2 is a 4kHz sinusoidal wave, i.e. in s noisy condition, the simulation result is plotted in Fig. 21(a) in phantom line. It can be clearly seen from Fig. 21(a) that the output signal is contaminated by the low-frequency noise. Fig. 19 is similar to Fig. 13, but two equivalent noise voltage sources el nd e2 are added respectively in fronts of the operational amplifiers a5 and a6. Using the same parameters and conditions as above, the 21 simulation results are plotted in Fig. 21(b). It can be clearly seen from Fig. 21(b) that the simulation results are almost the same in both of noise free condition and noisy condition. Therefore, the immunity from the contamination of the low-frequency noise is verified again in the circuit of the present invention.

It has been verified from both theoretical derivation and computer simulation that the present invention is immune from the low-frequency noise, so that the resolution of the sigma-delta ADC can be greatly increased. Thus, the present invention is very suitable to be applied to the highresolution(2: 16 bits) sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter circuits.

While the invention has been described in terms of what is presently considered to be the most practical and preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention need not be limited to the disclosed embodiments. On the contrary, it is intended to cover various modifications and similar arrangements included within the spirit and scope of the appended claims, the scope of which should be accorded the broadest interpretation so as to encompass all such modifications and similar structures.

22 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Claims (10)

  1. What is claimed is: 1. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta analog-to-digital
    converter (ADC) comprising:
    a first discrete-time multiplier adapted to receive an analog input signal and a first discrete-time sequence, and to multiply said analog input signal by said first discretetime sequence to produce a choppered analog signal; and a chopper sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) connected in series to said first discrete-time multiplier in order to receive and convert said choppered analog signal into a digital output signal, said chopper sigma-delta ADC being characterized in z-domain by:
    Y1(z)=Xl(z) STI(z) + Q(z)NTI(z), z= ejw wherein STI(z) is a signal transfer function, and is characterized by having a passband in a highfrequency range; and NTI(z) is a noise transfer function, and characterized by having a high attenuation is said highfrequency range.
  2. 2. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC as claimed in claim 1, wherein said fist discrete-time sequence is consisted of alternating 11111 and 11111 digital signals.
  3. 3. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC as claimed in claim 1, wherein said first discrete-time sequence is consisted of alternating 11111 and 11011 digital signals.
    23 2 3
  4. 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 4. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC as claimed in claim 2, further comprising a second discrete-time multiplier connected in series to said chopper sigma-delta ADC in order to receive said digital output signal, said second discretetime multiplier adapted to receive a second discretetime sequence, and multiplying said digital output signal by said second discrete-time sequence to produce a choppered digital signal.
  5. 5. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC as claimed in claim 4, wherein said second discrete-time sequence is consisted of alternating 11111 and 11-111 digital signals.
  6. 6. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC as claimed in claim 5, wherein said high-frequency range is an area around an angular frequency v.
  7. 7. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC as claimed in claim 3, further comprising a second discrete-time multiplier connected in series to said chopper sigma-delta ADC in order to receive said digital output signal, said second discretetime multiplier adapted to receive a second discretetime sequence, and multiplying said digital output signal by said second discrete-time sequence to produce a choppered digital signal.
    24 1
  8. 8. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC as claimed in claim 2 7, wherein said second discrete-time sequence is consisted 3 of alternating "I" and 11-111 digital signals.
    4 6 7 8
  9. 9. A chopper-stabilized sigma-delta ADC as claimed in claim 8, wherein said high-frequency range is an area around an angular frequency v.
  10. 10. A chopper-stablised sigma-delta analogue-to-digital converter substantially in accordance with any embodiment hereinbefore described with reference to Figures 2a to 4, 5c, 6b, 7b to 13 and 18 to 21(b) of the accompanying drawings.
GB9310144A 1993-05-17 1993-05-17 Chopper-stabilized sigma-delta converter Withdrawn GB2278247A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9310144A GB2278247A (en) 1993-05-17 1993-05-17 Chopper-stabilized sigma-delta converter
DE19934318728 DE4318728C1 (en) 1993-05-17 1993-06-07 Chopper stabilised sigma-delta analogue=to=digital converter - has chopper-sigma-delta converter which receives chopped analogue signal from time discrete multiplier
FR9306925A FR2706703A1 (en) 1993-05-17 1993-06-09 Sigma-delta analogue/digital converter stabilized by chopping

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9310144A GB2278247A (en) 1993-05-17 1993-05-17 Chopper-stabilized sigma-delta converter
DE19934318728 DE4318728C1 (en) 1993-05-17 1993-06-07 Chopper stabilised sigma-delta analogue=to=digital converter - has chopper-sigma-delta converter which receives chopped analogue signal from time discrete multiplier
FR9306925A FR2706703A1 (en) 1993-05-17 1993-06-09 Sigma-delta analogue/digital converter stabilized by chopping

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB9310144D0 GB9310144D0 (en) 1993-06-30
GB2278247A true GB2278247A (en) 1994-11-23

Family

ID=27205175

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB9310144A Withdrawn GB2278247A (en) 1993-05-17 1993-05-17 Chopper-stabilized sigma-delta converter

Country Status (3)

Country Link
DE (1) DE4318728C1 (en)
FR (1) FR2706703A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2278247A (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6201835B1 (en) 1999-03-05 2001-03-13 Burr-Brown Corporation Frequency-shaped pseudo-random chopper stabilization circuit and method for delta-sigma modulator
EP1569345A1 (en) * 2004-02-28 2005-08-31 Lucent Technologies Inc. Bandpass delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB9408686D0 (en) * 1994-04-30 1994-06-22 Smiths Industries Plc Analog-to-digital conversion systems
DE19630605A1 (en) * 1996-07-29 1998-02-05 Tech Gmbh Antriebstechnik Und Multiplication circuit for power meter
US6172630B1 (en) * 1998-08-18 2001-01-09 Tektronix, Inc. Extended common mode input range for a delta-sigma converter
DE10237126B4 (en) * 2002-05-14 2017-09-14 Ams Ag Measuring circuit
DE102008027939A1 (en) * 2008-06-12 2009-12-24 Rutronik Elektronische Bauelemente Gmbh Analog / digital converter with a SAR topology and associated method

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5179380A (en) * 1992-02-07 1993-01-12 Rockwell International Corporation One-bit sigma-delta modulator with improved signal stability

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH01233921A (en) * 1988-03-15 1989-09-19 Toshiba Corp A/d conversion circuit using delta-sigma modulator
GB2256551B (en) * 1991-06-06 1996-01-24 Crystal Semiconductor Corp Switched capacitor integrator with chopper stabilisation performed at the sampling rate

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5179380A (en) * 1992-02-07 1993-01-12 Rockwell International Corporation One-bit sigma-delta modulator with improved signal stability

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6201835B1 (en) 1999-03-05 2001-03-13 Burr-Brown Corporation Frequency-shaped pseudo-random chopper stabilization circuit and method for delta-sigma modulator
EP1569345A1 (en) * 2004-02-28 2005-08-31 Lucent Technologies Inc. Bandpass delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters
US7126516B2 (en) 2004-02-28 2006-10-24 Lucent Technologies Inc. Bandpass delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE4318728C1 (en) 1994-06-01
GB9310144D0 (en) 1993-06-30
FR2706703A1 (en) 1994-12-23

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Friedman The structure of the limit cycles in sigma delta modulation
Hauser Principles of oversampling A/D conversion
US5977899A (en) Digital-to-analog converter using noise-shaped segmentation
Del Signore et al. A monolithic 2-b delta-sigma A/D converter
US5181032A (en) High-order, plural-bit-quantization sigma-delta modulators using single-bit digital-to-analog conversion feedback
US5311181A (en) Sigma delta modulator
US5068661A (en) Multi-stage noise shaping over-sampling d/a converter
EP0084353B1 (en) Delta-sigma modulator with switched capacitor implementation
US7006028B2 (en) Digital background cancellation of digital to analog converter mismatch noise in analog to digital converters
US6873276B2 (en) Delta-sigma modulators with improved noise performance
US5148166A (en) Third order sigma delta oversampled analog-to-digital converter network with low component sensitivity
US5406283A (en) Multi-bit oversampled DAC with dynamic element matching
CN1127216C (en) Oversampled high order modulator
US6816097B2 (en) System and method for performing digital-to-analog conversion using a sigma-delta modulator
RU2159505C2 (en) Method and device for converting analog signal into digital representation, method and device for converting multiple binary-coded signal samples into analog signal
US5745061A (en) Method of improving the stability of a sigma-delta modulator employing dither
EP0457429A2 (en) Analog-to-digital converters
Matsuya et al. A 17 bit oversampling DA conversion technology using multistage noise shaping
KR101651140B1 (en) Method and apparatus for dithering in multi-bit sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters
CN101427471B (en) Analog - digital signal processing system and method for δ-Σ modulator
KR910009070B1 (en) Delta to sigma converter
KR100923481B1 (en) Multi-level quantizer delta sigma modulator with current mode DEM and DEM decision logic
EP0368610A2 (en) A method of cascading two or more sigma-delta modulators and a sigma-delta modulator system
US4914439A (en) Analog to digital conversion system utilizing dither
US5221926A (en) Circuit and method for cancelling nonlinearity error associated with component value mismatches in a data converter

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
WAP Application withdrawn, taken to be withdrawn or refused ** after publication under section 16(1)