GB2212903A - Analyzing two phase flow in pipes - Google Patents

Analyzing two phase flow in pipes Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2212903A
GB2212903A GB8727509A GB8727509A GB2212903A GB 2212903 A GB2212903 A GB 2212903A GB 8727509 A GB8727509 A GB 8727509A GB 8727509 A GB8727509 A GB 8727509A GB 2212903 A GB2212903 A GB 2212903A
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GB
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
pipe
flow
system
gas
apparatus
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB8727509A
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GB8727509D0 (en )
GB2212903B (en )
Inventor
Peter Antony Eabry Stewart
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Rolls-Royce PLC
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Rolls-Royce PLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N23/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00
    • G01N23/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by transmitting the radiation through the material
    • G01N23/06Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by transmitting the radiation through the material and measuring the absorption
    • G01N23/12Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by transmitting the radiation through the material and measuring the absorption the material being a flowing fluid or a flowing granular solid
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/74Devices for measuring flow of a fluid or flow of a fluent solid material in suspension in another fluid

Abstract

A section of pipe carrying a material flow is x-rayed using e.g. a stereoscopic imaging system 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and the images stored, e.g. in a video frame store 9. The stored image data is operated on by an image processing system 10, 11, 12, 13 and information describing the density distribution of material flowing through the imaged section of the pipe is extracted. From this information the type of flow and the relative quantities of gas, liquid and solid is determined. The results are useful for controlling the operation of a pumping system supplying the material in order to cater, for example, for large quantities of gas in the flow. The results also find use in a fiscal metering system in an oil field, and in fuel and lubrication systems for gas turbine engines. <IMAGE>

Description

TWO PHASE FLOW IN PIPES The invention relates to the detection and analysis of two phase flow in pipes. By two phase flow is meant a mixture of gas with liquids or solids in a fluid state.

Two phase flows may arise due to cavitation in fuel systems at altitude on gas turbine engines. It was also applicable as a diagnostic tool in performance of pressure-scavenge lubrication systems in gas turbines to determine oil/air ratios.

These problems had periodically arisen in the course of engine development but they have never been successfully understood. Tactical efforts had been made to solve the problem by modifying the pipework and inserting transparent sections. High speed cine had been used but with little success.

Another important application for this technology would appear to lie in the field of subsea pumping systems. At present, reservoir fluid is taken direct from the well to an offshore platform where it is processed by separating the water and gas before pumping it or shipping it ashore. There is being developed a system to pump the gas, liquid and solids, such as sand, together, direct from the well to the shore or between platforms over a distance of possibly 50 miles on the seabed.

This technology of multiphase pumping could cut the cost of offshore exploration and development by 20% or more so that oil producers could develop marginal fields which they have hitherto refused to explore and develop due to high cost risk.

Apart from the pumping problem there is a metering problem at two levels; the oil field management problem with a required accuracy of say 5% and the fiscal metering problem with an accuracy of 0.1%.

Presently the required fiscal accuracy is achieved with great difficulty after separation. Thus a two phase flow metering system is urgently required to complement the two phase flow pumping system.

The invention has for an objective to provide a device using an x-ray source and an imaging system to clip-on to a pipe and obtain images from which the nature and magnitudes of the internal flows could be deduced.

According to the invention there is provided apparatus for measuring two phase flow in a pipe including an x-ray device for x-raying a length of the pipe, means for determining the density distribution of material in the pipe and mean responsive to said density distribution to define the flow regime within the pipe.

Preferably the means responsive to the density distribution is arranged to compute the proportions of gas, liquids and solids in the pipe.

In an embodiment of the invention the x-ray device comprises a stereographic imaging system in which the two image forming paths preferably are oriented at a right angle one to the other about the axis of the pipe.

The invention and how it may be carried out in practice will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawing which illustrates, in diagrammatic form, a high energy x-ray imaging system for photogrammatic measurement of multiphase flow in a pipeline.

The system shown in Figure 1 comprises an intelligent instrumentation system to measure complex multiphase flows on the basis not only of the physical parameters but also the knowledge associated with such phenomena.

It comprises a radiographic electron linear accelerator capable of 1,000 pulses per second providing sufficient radiation per pulse to provide a well exposed image on each frame of a high speed video system (1). The 'lilac1 emits a beam of high energy x-rays (2) which pass through a steel pipe line containing flowing oil and natural gas bubbles (3).

An image is formed, in one embodiment, on a large format phosphor screen which scintillates under the action of x-rays. The visible light image so formed is relayed via a mirror and relay optics and focused by a lens upon a light intensifier (6). Alternatively at smaller scale the image is converted from x-rays to light by means of a proprietary x-ray intensifier such as that manufactured by Thomson-CSF or Philips.

The light image is viewed by a high speed video camera (7) which is part of a high speed video system (8) such as the Kodak Spin Physics SP2000 and displayed on a monitor where it may be analysed.

In operation, the gas/liquid flows will be sampled as required at regular intervals by the system. The images will be stored on video tape.

Samples of images may be abstracted at will from the tape to video disc and sequences inspected in the photogrammetry system and/or held in frame stores for this purpose.

First the image will be held in frame store (9) whilst it is manipulated by an intelligent image processing system. It is then analysed with densitometry to determine gas/liquid from experts (10) on the spatial distribution of such reference interfaces as a pattern. This will define the flow regime ie. bubbly, slug/plug, churn, annular etc. This pattern will be automatically matched and recognised and define the flow type in the pipes and thus the relevant area in the flow regime map.

The second computer is essentially an intelligent real time photogrammetry system (11) (12). It will similarly take the spatial distribution of interfaces and compute from density information the gas/liquid/solid volumes in unit length of pipe. Both computers for real time applications would either be based on array or parallel processing or transputer technology. From an inspection of subsequent images, and by correlating flow structures in sequential image frames, the flow velocity may be determined and thus the gas and liquid flowrates. For more precise data a second linac and imaging system could if necessary be used in one embodiment at right angles to more closely define, in three dimensions, the bubble shapes. This is known as biplanar x-ray imaging.

Finally, the regime identified is entered into a multiphase flow intelligent knowledge based expert system (14) which makes decisions and then calls into operation the regime-specific software flow computational programs to provide the flow data.

The measurements would also be entered into the expert system. Calling on the knowledge base, which may be constructed as a rule based system, the required data is produced in a form suitable for engineers to assess the flow performance of the oil field for management purposes to control the process and output, or more precisely as a fiscal flow measurement system. It could also give warning of exceptional conditions (such as a 3 km slug of natural gas) which could cause hazard to process equipment.

It is envisaged that his non-invasive diagnostic and measurement system could be installed on the oil delivery pipe, on the seabed, at depth. It would automatically monitor the presence, nature and quantities of multiphase flow in pipes, including solid content such as sand. Water content could also be identified. The electrical power could be provided by a fuel cell and the system would be transmitted by cable or fibre-optics to the oil field management control centre.

The proposed system provides a capability which presently does not exist, namely non-invasive, real-time or near real-time multiphase flow diagnostics and measurement.

Claims (5)

1. Apparatus for measuring two phase flow in a pipe including an x-ray device for x-raying a length of the pipe, means for determining the density distribution of material in the pipe and means responsive to said density distribution to define the flow regime within the pipe.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the means responsive to the density distribution is arranged to compute the proportions of gas, liquids and solids in the pipe.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the x-ray device comprises a stereographic imaging system.
4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein the stereographic x-ray system has two image forming paths oriented at a right angle one to the other about the axis of the pipe.
5. Apparatus substantially as described with reference to the accompanying drawing.
GB8727509A 1987-11-24 1987-11-24 Measuring two phase flow in pipes. Expired - Fee Related GB2212903B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8727509A GB2212903B (en) 1987-11-24 1987-11-24 Measuring two phase flow in pipes.

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8727509A GB2212903B (en) 1987-11-24 1987-11-24 Measuring two phase flow in pipes.

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB8727509D0 GB8727509D0 (en) 1987-12-23
GB2212903A true true GB2212903A (en) 1989-08-02
GB2212903B GB2212903B (en) 1991-11-06

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Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB8727509A Expired - Fee Related GB2212903B (en) 1987-11-24 1987-11-24 Measuring two phase flow in pipes.

Country Status (1)

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GB (1) GB2212903B (en)

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2007098328A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2007-08-30 Bp Corporation North America Inc. On-line tool for detection of soilds and water in petroleum pipelines
WO2008032265A1 (en) * 2006-09-15 2008-03-20 Schlumberger Canada Limited Apparatus and method for well services fluid evaluation using x-rays
US7349525B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2008-03-25 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray sources
US7440543B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2008-10-21 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray monitoring
US7512215B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2009-03-31 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tube electron sources
US7564939B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2009-07-21 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Control means for heat load in X-ray scanning apparatus
US7664230B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2010-02-16 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tubes
US8085897B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2011-12-27 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanning system
US8824637B2 (en) 2008-09-13 2014-09-02 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tubes
US8885794B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2014-11-11 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tomographic inspection system for the identification of specific target items
US9048061B2 (en) 2005-12-16 2015-06-02 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanners and X-ray sources therefor
US9113839B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2015-08-25 Rapiscon Systems, Inc. X-ray inspection system and method
US9183647B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2015-11-10 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Imaging, data acquisition, data transmission, and data distribution methods and systems for high data rate tomographic X-ray scanners
US9208988B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2015-12-08 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Graphite backscattered electron shield for use in an X-ray tube
US9218933B2 (en) 2011-06-09 2015-12-22 Rapidscan Systems, Inc. Low-dose radiographic imaging system
US9223049B2 (en) 2002-07-23 2015-12-29 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Cargo scanning system with boom structure
US9223050B2 (en) 2005-04-15 2015-12-29 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray imaging system having improved mobility
US9263225B2 (en) 2008-07-15 2016-02-16 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tube anode comprising a coolant tube
US9332624B2 (en) 2008-05-20 2016-05-03 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Gantry scanner systems
US9420677B2 (en) 2009-01-28 2016-08-16 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tube electron sources
US9618648B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2017-04-11 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanners
US9675306B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2017-06-13 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanning system
US9726619B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2017-08-08 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Optimization of the source firing pattern for X-ray scanning systems
US9791590B2 (en) 2013-01-31 2017-10-17 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Portable security inspection system
GB2554643A (en) * 2016-09-29 2018-04-11 Statoil Petroleum As Diagnostics tool
US10007019B2 (en) 2002-07-23 2018-06-26 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Compact mobile cargo scanning system
US10098214B2 (en) 2008-05-20 2018-10-09 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Detector support structures for gantry scanner systems

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US8223919B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2012-07-17 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tomographic inspection systems for the identification of specific target items
US8094784B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2012-01-10 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray sources
US6928141B2 (en) 2003-06-20 2005-08-09 Rapiscan, Inc. Relocatable X-ray imaging system and method for inspecting commercial vehicles and cargo containers
GB0525593D0 (en) 2005-12-16 2006-01-25 Cxr Ltd X-ray tomography inspection systems
GB0803641D0 (en) 2008-02-28 2008-04-02 Rapiscan Security Products Inc Scanning systems
GB0803644D0 (en) 2008-02-28 2008-04-02 Rapiscan Security Products Inc Scanning systems

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Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9223049B2 (en) 2002-07-23 2015-12-29 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Cargo scanning system with boom structure
US10007019B2 (en) 2002-07-23 2018-06-26 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Compact mobile cargo scanning system
US9675306B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2017-06-13 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanning system
US7440543B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2008-10-21 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray monitoring
US7505563B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2009-03-17 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray sources
US7512215B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2009-03-31 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tube electron sources
US9747705B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2017-08-29 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Imaging, data acquisition, data transmission, and data distribution methods and systems for high data rate tomographic X-ray scanners
US7564939B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2009-07-21 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Control means for heat load in X-ray scanning apparatus
US7664230B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2010-02-16 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tubes
US7903789B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2011-03-08 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tube electron sources
US8085897B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2011-12-27 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanning system
US9442082B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2016-09-13 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray inspection system and method
US8885794B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2014-11-11 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tomographic inspection system for the identification of specific target items
US7349525B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2008-03-25 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray sources
US9113839B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2015-08-25 Rapiscon Systems, Inc. X-ray inspection system and method
US9183647B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2015-11-10 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Imaging, data acquisition, data transmission, and data distribution methods and systems for high data rate tomographic X-ray scanners
US9618648B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2017-04-11 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanners
US9223050B2 (en) 2005-04-15 2015-12-29 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray imaging system having improved mobility
US9208988B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2015-12-08 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Graphite backscattered electron shield for use in an X-ray tube
US9726619B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2017-08-08 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Optimization of the source firing pattern for X-ray scanning systems
US9048061B2 (en) 2005-12-16 2015-06-02 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanners and X-ray sources therefor
US9638646B2 (en) 2005-12-16 2017-05-02 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray scanners and X-ray sources therefor
WO2007098328A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2007-08-30 Bp Corporation North America Inc. On-line tool for detection of soilds and water in petroleum pipelines
WO2008032265A1 (en) * 2006-09-15 2008-03-20 Schlumberger Canada Limited Apparatus and method for well services fluid evaluation using x-rays
US7542543B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2009-06-02 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Apparatus and method for well services fluid evaluation using x-rays
US9332624B2 (en) 2008-05-20 2016-05-03 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Gantry scanner systems
US10098214B2 (en) 2008-05-20 2018-10-09 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Detector support structures for gantry scanner systems
US9263225B2 (en) 2008-07-15 2016-02-16 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tube anode comprising a coolant tube
US8824637B2 (en) 2008-09-13 2014-09-02 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tubes
US9420677B2 (en) 2009-01-28 2016-08-16 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. X-ray tube electron sources
US9218933B2 (en) 2011-06-09 2015-12-22 Rapidscan Systems, Inc. Low-dose radiographic imaging system
US9791590B2 (en) 2013-01-31 2017-10-17 Rapiscan Systems, Inc. Portable security inspection system
GB2554643A (en) * 2016-09-29 2018-04-11 Statoil Petroleum As Diagnostics tool

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB8727509D0 (en) 1987-12-23 grant
GB2212903B (en) 1991-11-06 grant

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PCNP Patent ceased through non-payment of renewal fee

Effective date: 19981124