GB1603817A - Lining of tunnels and excavations and constructing walls - Google Patents

Lining of tunnels and excavations and constructing walls Download PDF

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Publication number
GB1603817A
GB1603817A GB4294577A GB4294577A GB1603817A GB 1603817 A GB1603817 A GB 1603817A GB 4294577 A GB4294577 A GB 4294577A GB 4294577 A GB4294577 A GB 4294577A GB 1603817 A GB1603817 A GB 1603817A
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GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
concrete
face
bags
bag
support structure
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
GB4294577A
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Tunnel Research & Dev Ltd
Original Assignee
Tunnel Research & Dev Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Tunnel Research & Dev Ltd filed Critical Tunnel Research & Dev Ltd
Priority to GB4294577A priority Critical patent/GB1603817A/en
Publication of GB1603817A publication Critical patent/GB1603817A/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/15Plate linings; Laggings, i.e. linings designed for holding back formation material or for transmitting the load to main supporting members
    • E21D11/157Laggings making use of fluid cushions, e.g. the fluid containing a hardenable material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D15/00Props; Chocks, e.g. made of flexible containers filled with backfilling material
    • E21D15/48Chocks or the like
    • E21D15/483Chocks or the like made of flexible containers, e.g. inflatable, with or without reinforcement, e.g. filled with water, backfilling material or the like

Description

(54) LINING OF TUNNELS AND EXCAVATIONS AND CONSTRUCTING WALLS (71) We, TUNNEL RESEARCH & DEVEL OPMENT LIMITED, of 109 Park View, Whitley Bay, Tyne & Wear, a British company, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement: This invention relates to the shoring of tunnels and excavations etc.

It is well known to line e.g. tunnels, such as roadways in underground workings, waterway banks and sea walls with, for example, concrete or masonry to support the tunnel roofs and walls, and prevent infall of debris as well as providing support against collapse of the excavation or bank.

In lining e.g. a tunnel with preformed concrete or masonry blocks, which are usually of regular shape, it is usually difficult or impossible to fit the blocks over irregularities in the rock face of the wall or roof - leading to the occurance of voids, or unavoidable bare rock protruZ sions or laborious sculpting of the blocks to fit.

An object of this invention is to avoid such dif- ficulties.

In accordance with this invention, a method of shoring excavations and earthworks and constructing walls comprises erecting a support structure spaced from the face to be shored, placing one or more tubular or cylindrical bags or sacks which are closed at both ends and made of woven material, between the support structure and the face, and pumping liquid concrete into the or each bag through one or more feed pipes connected to one or more tubular sleeves of the or each bag of the same woven material as the bag until the space between the support structure and the face is filled with the concrete filled bag or bags.

The bags are preferably of woven hessian or jute fibre, and may be folded flat for transport and storage, and are provided with the tubular lugs to serve as inlet nozzles for connection to a pumping line.

The invention also provides apparatus for use in the method of the invention comprising a tubular bag or sack closed at both ends and made of woven material, having one or more tubular sleeves of the same woven material as the bag for connection of a feed pipe or pipes or inlet of concrete slurry.

The support structure may comprise roof arch supports with beams between them extending longitudinally of the tunnel.

The invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein: Figure 1 shows the method of the invention applied to lining a mine tunnel; Figure 2 a waterway bank; and Figure 3 shows a bag being filled with concrete.

Initially after excavation, a tunnel or tunnel section 11 comprises an uneven surfaced passage with a roof and walls cut through rock 10.

In accordance with the invention, a supporting structure e.g. a horse shoe shaped arrangement of roof and wall support girders 12 is erected within the tunnel, 11, leaving a space between the structure and the irregular rock walls 10.

The supporting structure comprises a plurality of roof support arches 12 with legs, spaced at equal intervals along the tunnel 11, and joists or beams not shown extending longitudinally of the tunnel between the arches. Hessian bags or sacks 13 are then placed between the support structure 12 and rock walls and roof 10. These sacks 13 are from 8 to 30 metres in length, and 0.60 to 0.75 meters in diameter. The hessian is flame proofed, and stitched at the ends and along one side to form each sack from a single piece of fabric.

As shown in Figure 3 each bag 30 having end panels 31 is provided with a plurality of tubular sleeves 32 about 2 feet long and 2% inches in diameter, and these are connected to a pipe e.g.

33, for injection of liquid concrete in the bag via a pump 34. The concrete is pumped into the bags, which fill up, and conform with the irregular surface of the rock walls and roof of the tunnel. The concrete filled bags form panels facing the interior of the tunnel, which may if desired be finished or smoothed after setting of the concrete.

In the Figure 2 embodiment, concrete filled bags 23 are used to shore a bank 21 of a body of water 20, and supported by spaced apart posts 22 alongside the bank. This form of structure may be used for shoring banks of canals, rivers or sea walls or be used for shoring dry excavations such as road and railway cuttings.

In addition, the method may be adapted for erecting off-shore barriers as break-waters or for forming polders or artificial harbours by sinking such bags as they fill between a double line of support posts.

In any of the above uses, the sacks 13, 23 or 30 may be bonded together either by fabric, stitching, or by means of concrete penetrating the mesh of the sacking.

The most conspicuous advantage over the use of precase concrete blocks is that the bags when filling up with liquid concrete, conform and mould themselves to the irregular rock face. Another advantage is in handling, since it is easier to direct pipes along a tunnel and then pump a concrete slurry, than to transport and erect a large number of concrete or masonry blocks.

WHAT WE CLAIM IS:- 1. A method of shoring excavations and earthworks and constructing walls, comprising erecting a support structure spaced from the face to be shored, placing one or more tubular or cylindrical bags or sacks which are closed at both ends and made of woven material, between the support structure and the face, and pumping liquid concrete into the or each bag through one or more feed pipes connected to one or more tubular sleeves of the or each bag of the same woven material as the bag until the space between the support structure and the face is filled with the concrete filled bag or bags.

2. A method according to Claim 1 wherein, in a tunnel, the support structure is erected within the tunnel and comprises roof support arches, and support stilts for the arches.

3. A method according to Claim 1 wherein, in shoring a bank, trench, or waterway, a series of posts is driven adjacent the face, and the bags are placed between the face and the posts.

4. A method according to Claim 1 wherein in providing an off-shore barrier, a second support structure replaces the face, and the bags are placed between the support structure.

5. Apparatus for use in the method of Claim 1,2, 3, or 4 comprising a tubular bag or sack closed at both ends and made of woven material, having one or more tubular sleeves of the same woven material as the bag for connection of a feed pipe or pipes for inlet of concrete slurry.

6. A method of shoring excavations and earthworks, and constructing walls substantially as hereinbefore described and/or as described with reference to Figures 1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings.

7. Apparatus for use in the method of any one of Claims 1, to 4, or 6, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to and as illustrated in Figure 3 of the accompanying drawings.

**WARNING** end of DESC field may overlap start of CLMS **.

Claims (7)

**WARNING** start of CLMS field may overlap end of DESC **. rivers or sea walls or be used for shoring dry excavations such as road and railway cuttings. In addition, the method may be adapted for erecting off-shore barriers as break-waters or for forming polders or artificial harbours by sinking such bags as they fill between a double line of support posts. In any of the above uses, the sacks 13, 23 or 30 may be bonded together either by fabric, stitching, or by means of concrete penetrating the mesh of the sacking. The most conspicuous advantage over the use of precase concrete blocks is that the bags when filling up with liquid concrete, conform and mould themselves to the irregular rock face. Another advantage is in handling, since it is easier to direct pipes along a tunnel and then pump a concrete slurry, than to transport and erect a large number of concrete or masonry blocks. WHAT WE CLAIM IS:-
1. A method of shoring excavations and earthworks and constructing walls, comprising erecting a support structure spaced from the face to be shored, placing one or more tubular or cylindrical bags or sacks which are closed at both ends and made of woven material, between the support structure and the face, and pumping liquid concrete into the or each bag through one or more feed pipes connected to one or more tubular sleeves of the or each bag of the same woven material as the bag until the space between the support structure and the face is filled with the concrete filled bag or bags.
2. A method according to Claim 1 wherein, in a tunnel, the support structure is erected within the tunnel and comprises roof support arches, and support stilts for the arches.
3. A method according to Claim 1 wherein, in shoring a bank, trench, or waterway, a series of posts is driven adjacent the face, and the bags are placed between the face and the posts.
4. A method according to Claim 1 wherein in providing an off-shore barrier, a second support structure replaces the face, and the bags are placed between the support structure.
5. Apparatus for use in the method of Claim 1,2, 3, or 4 comprising a tubular bag or sack closed at both ends and made of woven material, having one or more tubular sleeves of the same woven material as the bag for connection of a feed pipe or pipes for inlet of concrete slurry.
6. A method of shoring excavations and earthworks, and constructing walls substantially as hereinbefore described and/or as described with reference to Figures 1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings.
7. Apparatus for use in the method of any one of Claims 1, to 4, or 6, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to and as illustrated in Figure 3 of the accompanying drawings.
GB4294577A 1978-05-15 1978-05-15 Lining of tunnels and excavations and constructing walls Expired GB1603817A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB4294577A GB1603817A (en) 1978-05-15 1978-05-15 Lining of tunnels and excavations and constructing walls

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB4294577A GB1603817A (en) 1978-05-15 1978-05-15 Lining of tunnels and excavations and constructing walls

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB1603817A true GB1603817A (en) 1981-12-02

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ID=10426657

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB4294577A Expired GB1603817A (en) 1978-05-15 1978-05-15 Lining of tunnels and excavations and constructing walls

Country Status (1)

Country Link
GB (1) GB1603817A (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2555657A1 (en) * 1983-11-24 1985-05-31 Genie Civil Coordination Et Support system which can be used in underground works in addition to frames, arches, etc. ... made of metal or the like and making it possible to immobilise the ground efficiently over the whole periphery with the use of sleeves made of fabric which is permeable to water and filled with pumpable grout prepared for this purpose
EP0203242A1 (en) * 1985-05-30 1986-12-03 M.I.G.E.C. Method and device for continuously lining a subway
GB2284623A (en) * 1993-11-16 1995-06-14 Barry France Filling of spaces
CN106437756A (en) * 2016-09-12 2017-02-22 中铁二局集团有限公司 Method for preventing duct piece displacement in no-load shield tunneling process

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2555657A1 (en) * 1983-11-24 1985-05-31 Genie Civil Coordination Et Support system which can be used in underground works in addition to frames, arches, etc. ... made of metal or the like and making it possible to immobilise the ground efficiently over the whole periphery with the use of sleeves made of fabric which is permeable to water and filled with pumpable grout prepared for this purpose
EP0203242A1 (en) * 1985-05-30 1986-12-03 M.I.G.E.C. Method and device for continuously lining a subway
GB2284623A (en) * 1993-11-16 1995-06-14 Barry France Filling of spaces
CN106437756A (en) * 2016-09-12 2017-02-22 中铁二局集团有限公司 Method for preventing duct piece displacement in no-load shield tunneling process
CN106437756B (en) * 2016-09-12 2018-12-11 中铁二局集团有限公司 A kind of limit method for preventing shield sky from pushing away Segment displacement

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