EP1446833A1 - Optimised application of pcms in chillers - Google Patents

Optimised application of pcms in chillers

Info

Publication number
EP1446833A1
EP1446833A1 EP20020803758 EP02803758A EP1446833A1 EP 1446833 A1 EP1446833 A1 EP 1446833A1 EP 20020803758 EP20020803758 EP 20020803758 EP 02803758 A EP02803758 A EP 02803758A EP 1446833 A1 EP1446833 A1 EP 1446833A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
heat
pcm
device according
characterized
preceding
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP20020803758
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Ralf Glausch
Natascha Lotz
Mark Neuschütz
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Merck Patent GmbH
Original Assignee
Merck Patent GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE2001157671 priority Critical patent/DE10157671A1/en
Priority to DE10157671 priority
Application filed by Merck Patent GmbH filed Critical Merck Patent GmbH
Priority to PCT/EP2002/010865 priority patent/WO2003046982A1/en
Publication of EP1446833A1 publication Critical patent/EP1446833A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L23/00Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices
    • H01L23/34Arrangements for cooling, heating, ventilating or temperature compensation ; Temperature sensing arrangements
    • H01L23/42Fillings or auxiliary members in containers or encapsulations selected or arranged to facilitate heating or cooling
    • H01L23/427Cooling by change of state, e.g. use of heat pipes
    • H01L23/4275Cooling by change of state, e.g. use of heat pipes by melting or evaporation of solids
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00

Abstract

The invention relates to the application of phase change materials in devices for cooling, in particular of electrical and electronic components.

Description

description

IMPROVED USE OF PCM IN COOLERS

The present invention relates to the use of phase change materials in cooling devices.

In industrial processes often heat peaks or deficits must be avoided, that it must be thermostatically controlled. Heat exchangers are used commonly. You can consist simply of a heat conducting, which dissipates the heat and releases into the ambient air, or contain heat transfer media, which transport the heat initially from one place or medium to another.

Prior art (Figure 1) for cooling electronic components such as microprocessors (central processing unit = CPU) (2) are cooler made of extruded aluminum, which absorb the heat from the electronic component which is applied to a support (3), and cooling fins (1) View to the environment. In general, the convection is supported at the cooling fins by fan.

This type of coolers must always high for the worst case

Outside temperatures and full load of the device are designed to prevent overheating, which would reduce the life and reliability of the component. The maximum working temperature is at CPUs depending on the type between 60 and 90 ° C.

In the context of ever-faster clock speed of CPUs whose heat output increases with each new generation by leaps and bounds. Whereas in the past had to be removed excellence of a maximum of 30 watts, is expected in the next 8 to 12 months with the required cooling capacity of up to 90 watts. These services can no longer be removed with conventional cooling systems.

been occurring for extreme environmental conditions such as for example, in remote-controlled missiles are cooler, which receive the waste heat from electronic components in phase change materials, for example in the form of heat of fusion as described (US4673030A, EP116503A, US4446916A). this PCM

Coolers serve the short-term replacement of dissipation of energy to the environment and can (and must) not be used more than once. As storage media are known, for example, water or stones / concrete ( "sensitive") to sensible to store heat or phase change materials (Phase change materials, PCM), such as salts, salt hydrates or mixtures thereof, or organic compounds (for example, paraffin) to heat in the form of heat of fusion ( store "latent" heat).

It is known that during the melting of a substance, that is, heat is consumed during the transition from the solid to the liquid phase, that is received, which as long as the liquid state persists, is stored in latent form, and that this latent heat upon solidification, ie the transition from the liquid to the solid phase, is released again.

Basically, a higher temperature is required for charging a heat storage than can be obtained during discharging, since a temperature difference is required for the transport and flow of heat. The quality of heat is from the temperature at which it is available again: the higher the temperature, the better the heat can be dissipated. For this reason, it is desirable that the temperature level to drop as little as possible during storage.

When storage of sensible heat (for example by heating water) is connected to the input of heat a continuous heating of the storage material (and vice versa when discharging), while the latent heat is stored only at the phase transition temperature of the PCM and discharged. Latent heat storage therefore has the advantage that the temperature loss is limited compared to storage of sensible heat to the loss during heat transport from and to the memory.

Until now be used as a storage medium in the latent heat storage substances typically having a solid-liquid phase transition substantially for the application temperature range, ie, substances that melt at the application.

Thus, the use of paraffins as storage medium in latent heat storage is known from the literature. International patent application WO 93/15625 describes shoe soles, which are contained in PCM containing microcapsules. In the application WO 93/24241 describes fabrics which are coated with a coating containing such microcapsules and binder. Preferably used here as PCM paraffinic hydrocarbons having 13 to 28 carbon atoms. In the European Patent EP-B-306 202 describes fibers with thermal storage properties, the storage medium is a paraffinic hydrocarbon or a crystalline plastic and the storage material in the form of microcapsules incorporated in the fiber base material. In the US patent US 5,728,316 salt mixtures based on magnesium and lithium nitrate are recommended for the storage and use of thermal energy. The heat storage takes place in the melt above the melt temperature of 75 ° C.

The aforementioned storage media in latent heat storage during application of a transition to the liquid state takes place. So trouble-scale use of storage media in latent heat storage are connected, since in principle there must be a sealing or encapsulation that prevents fluid leakage that leads to loss of material or contamination of the environment. This just requires a microencapsulation of the heat storage materials for use in or on flexible structures, such as fibers, fabrics or foams in general.

In addition, the vapor pressure of many potentially suitable compounds during melting increases greatly, so that the volatility of the melting of a long-term use of the storage materials often precludes. The technical use of melting PCMs frequently problems caused by strong volume changes during melting of many substances.

Therefore, a new area of ​​phase change materials will be provided with a special focus. At issue here is solid / solid

Phase change materials. Since these substances remain fixed throughout the temperature range of the application, the requirement of encapsulation is omitted. A loss of the storage medium or contamination of the environment by the melt of the storage medium in latent heat storage can be so excluded. This group of phase change materials opens up many new application areas. US 5831831A, JP 10135381A and SU 570131A describe the use of similar to each other PCM cooler in non-military use. Common to the inventions is the absence of conventional cooler (for example with cooling fins and fans).

The PCM-cooler described above are not suitable for absorbing the peak power of devices with irregular performance profile, since they provide an optimized discharge of the PCM and also record the basic load.

In DE 100 27 803 (Figure 2) it is proposed to buffer the peak power of an electric or electronic component by means of phase change materials (PCM), wherein the device for cooling heat-generating electrical and electronic components (2) with non-uniform power profile substantially from a heat conducting unit (1) and a heat receiving unit (4) containing a phase change material (PCM), is.

The object of the present invention is to trap heat generating components more effectively cooling and temperature peaks.

This object is achieved generated by a device for cooling heat components having an irregular power profile consisting essentially discharging from a heat unit (1) and a heat receiving unit (4) containing at least one phase change material (PCM) in accordance with the main claim.

The invention is characterized in that the at least one PCM is arranged in the cooling apparatus, that its phase change temperature (T PC) corresponding to the ambient temperature in the cooling device, the generators according to the temperature gradient in the to buffer temperature of the heating unit (2) is present ,

Preferably, the invention is characterized in that it has at least two PCM having different phase change temperatures (T PC). The PCM to each other are arranged such that in each case the PCM is located at the higher Tpc in the hotter region of the cooling device. The Tpc are each below the critical maximum temperature of the heat generating member (2), wherein would occur overheating of this component. The critical maximum temperature is the temperature of the heat-generating component that must not be exceeded.

The present invention relates more particularly to apparatus for cooling electrical and electronic components which have a non-uniform power profile, such as memory chips or microprocessor (MPU = micro processing unit) in desktop and laptop computers, or servers on both motherboard and video card, power supplies, disk and other electronic components which emit heat during operation.

However, these types of cooling using PCM for trapping heat peaks are not limited to use in computers. The systems of the invention can be applied in all devices that have power fluctuations and in which heat peaks should be intercepted because due to overheating can possible defects occur. The general non-limiting examples are power circuits and power circuits for mobile communications, transmission circuits for mobile telephones and fixed transmitters, control circuits for electromechanical actuators in industrial electronics and in automobiles, high-frequency circuits for satellite communications and radar applications, single-board computers, as well as actuators and control devices for home appliances and industrial electronics. Further cooling devices of the invention may also find use, for example in motors for elevators, substations or internal combustion engines.

Devices according to the invention for cooling are for example the radiator. Conventional cooler can be improved by the use of PCM.

The heat flow from the heat generating component to the radiator must not be interrupted, that is, the heat flow should first not take place by the heat dissipating unit, including the cooler, and the PCM. An interruption in this sense would be present if the PCM would first take up heat due to the design of the cooler before the heat could be dissipated through the cooling fins - which would lead to a deterioration in the performance of the radiator at a given design. In order to ensure that the PCM receive only the power peaks, the PCM are therefore preferably in or on the cooling device, arranged that the classic cooling performance of the heat dissipating unit is not affected as possible and that a significant heat flow to the PCM only then takes place when the heat dissipating unit, the phase change temperature Tp C exceeds the respective PCM. Before this time, only as little heat as it is received at normal temperature increase in the environment flows into the PCM. However, if Tpc reached, further cooling takes place (ie, removal of heat) by the heat dissipating unit and, in addition, an increased heat flow to the PCM takes place.

Upon reaching the critical maximum temperature of the heat-generating component, the cooling device of the invention has a defined temperature gradient between the heat-generating unit and the opposite end of the heat dissipating unit. It was found that PCM are particularly suitable whose

Phase change temperatures TPC are suitably below the heat-generating unit for the critical maximum temperature. Preferably, the PCM used in the invention are therefore selected in such a way and in the

Cooling device arranged so that their T is P c matched as closely as possible to the defined critical temperature gradient, that is, that the phase changes occur almost simultaneously, and / or just below this temperature gradient.

For example, occur in commercial coolers with blowers for CPUs of

Desktop computers considerable temperature gradient, which may be from the interface CPU / cooler to the opposite end of the cooling fins 20 to 40 ° C. Suitable TPC for the PCM, which is the heat generating unit to the next, are, for example, in the case of microprocessors about 10 to 15 ° C below the heat-generating component for critical maximum temperature. The further remote PCM have correspondingly to lower TPC. Due to the temperature gradient in the cooling device, the different T P c are in the inventive arrangement with at least two PCM then preferably achieved almost simultaneously, so that the increase in performance of the cooling device is increased considerably and enters a "booster" effect of the PCMs in appearance conspicuous. Advantageously, should further use of significant heat flow to the PCM only at high temperature as possible in this way, the cooling device of the invention operates largely conventional, and it will be as a maximum classic cooling capacity provides almost to its critical Maximaltemperaturgradienten. only upon reaching the TPC. the screws through the PCM heat absorption adds. thus the power of the cooling device increases dramatically and a "booster" effect of PCM is found much in evidence. So that the heat generating component does not overheat is achieved.

Through the use of PCM in the inventive manner cooling devices can be used with less cooling capacity, as the extreme heat peaks do not have to be removed, but are buffered.

Depending on the by the heat generating component certain critical maximum temperature, all known PCM for the inventive device are suitable. For the use of PCM are encapsulated materials firmly PCM, PCM in suitable matrices, solid-liquid PCM in cavities or a mixture of said forms. As the matrix PCM are for solid-solid or solid-liquid, in particular, polymers, graphite, including expanded graphite (eg Sigri λ from SGL), or porous inorganic substances such as silica gel and zeolites, are suitable. Preferably, a PCM used in the invention is at least one solid / solid PCM.

For the inventive device, various PCM are available. Basically PCM can be used whose phase change temperature is between -100 ° C and 150 ° C. PCM in the range of ambient temperature to 95 ° C are preferred for use in electrical and electronic components. The materials from the group of paraffins (2 oC C 45) may be selected, inorganic salts, salt hydrates, and mixtures thereof, carboxylic acids or sugar alcohols. A non-limiting selection is summarized in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Furthermore, for example, solid-solid PCM selected from the group of di-n-alkyl ammonium salts, optionally having different alkyl groups, as well as suitable mixtures thereof. Here, for application in electrical and electronic components PCM particularly suitable whose T P c is between ambient temperature and 95 ° C, such as Diehxylammoniumbromid, Dioctylammoniumbromid, Dioctylammoniumchlorid, Dioctylammoniumacetat, Dioctylammoniumnitrat, Dioctylammoniumformiat, Didecylammoniumchlorid, Didecylammoniumchlorat, Didodecylammoniumchlorat, Didodecylammonium- formate , Didecylammoniumbromid, Didecylammoniumnitrat, Didecylammonium- acetate, Didodecylammoniumacetat, Didodecylammoniumsulfat, didodecyl ammonium chloride, dibutylammonium-2-nitrobenzoate, Didodecylammonium- propionate, Didecylammoniumformiat, Didodecylammoniumnitrat and didodecylammonium bromide.

In a preferred embodiment, the PCM addition to the actual heat storage material containing at least one adjuvant. The heat storage material and the at least one auxiliary are mixed, preferably in intimate blend. The assistant is preferably a substance or preparation with good thermal conductivity, in particular a metal powder or granules (for example, aluminum, copper) or graphite. These tools ensure good heat transfer.

In a further preferred embodiment, the at least one resource that is included in addition to the actual heat storage material in the PCM, a binder, particularly a polymeric binder, be. Preferably the particles of the heat storage material are present in the binder in finely divided form. Such binders are in particular used when the PCM is to be kept in shape. In addition, the binders provide intimate contact in the application, that is a good wetting between the discharging means for storage of heat and the surface of the thermal unit forth. For example, as carried out the precise installation of latent heat storage systems for cooling electronic components. The binder displaces air at the contact surfaces, thus ensuring intimate contact between the heat storage material and device. Preference is given to such agents, therefore use in devices for cooling electronic components.

Inventive polymeric binder may be any polymer which is suitable to the application purpose corresponding to as a binder. Preferably, the polymeric binder is a thermosetting polymer or a polymer precursor, in particular selected from the group consisting of polyurethanes, nitrile rubber, chloroprene, polyvinyl chloride, silicones, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and

Polyacrylates. Silicon is particularly preferably used as the polymeric binder. As the appropriate incorporation of the heat storage materials occurs in these polymeric binders, the skilled person is well known in the art. if necessary, it gives him no trouble the necessary additives, such as to find additives that stabilize such a mixture.

For inorganic liquid-solid PCM preferably also a nucleating agent, such as borax or various metal oxides used.

All the material, ie the PCM and optionally the auxiliaries is preferably either as a loose bed or as a shaped body before. Under moldings in particular, all structures are understood here that can be produced by Kompaktierungsmethoden such as pelleting, tableting, roller compacting or extrusion. The moldings can a variety of three-dimensional shapes, such as spherical, cubic or cuboid shape, accept.

The PCM may be compressed for molding in pure form, after crushing (for example milling) are pressed or compressed in mixtures with the adjuvants. The compacts can be easily stored, transported and used in many ways. Thus, the compacts can be used, for example, directly to electronic components. The compacts are installed between the cooling fins so that they are in intimate contact with the surfaces of the cooling fins. The thickness of the compacts is selected so that a frictional connection is produced between the ribs and pressing. The pellets can also be used between the cooling fins / heat exchanger before they are connected to form a stack.

Cooling devices according to the invention, the heat-dissipating unit (1) surfaces are further preferably comprises enlarging structures. Particularly preferably, the heat-dissipating unit (1) cooling fins. such

Structures have a positive effect on the conventional cooling performance, so that the cooling performance of the inventive device as a whole is more effective. Preferably, the heat dissipating unit has (1) further to support the cooling capacity of a blower to the generating of the thermal unit (2) opposite side.

Another object of the present invention is a component (Z) which is substantially generated from a cooling apparatus according to the invention and a heat unit (2). In this case, heat is laxative and heat-receiving unit (1) and (4) and the unit (2) arranged to each other such that the heat flow generated between the heat-radiating member (2) and the heat-dissipating unit (1) is in direct contact.

Preferably, the heat-generating unit (2) an electrical or electronic component, particularly preferably an MPU (micro processing unit), in particular a CPU (central processing unit) or a memory chip of a computer. Subsequently, the device of the invention is illustrated in detail a general example for the cooling of CPUs in computers.

In a device of the invention (Figure 3) are placed the PCM (4a + 4b) as in or on the cooler (1), first that the heat flow and then flows through the radiator by the PCM that a significant flow of heat from the CPU (2) on the carrier (3) to the PCM (4a, 4b) only takes place when the respective cooler areas exceeding the phase change temperature T P c of the adjacent PCM. This ensures that the PCM only absorb the power peaks. In powerful computers temperatures of 60-90 ° C (T1) can be achieved at the base of the radiator. The cooling fins have a sharp temperature gradient, wherein the temperature in the area farther from the CPU (T3) is lower than that in the vicinity of the CPU (T2). Due to more efficient fan at the opposite end they only reach temperatures of 40-50 ° C and T3 = T2 = 50-70 ° C here.

Fit to the phase change temperature of PCM1 (4a) to the temperature which is present in accordance with the temperature gradient at the critical maximum temperature of the CPU in the radiator in the vicinity of the CPU (T2 max), and of PCM2 (4b) corresponding to the more distant portion of the cooler to at (T3 ma χ), the phase change of both materials occurs almost simultaneously reached or just below the critical maximum temperature of the CPU (T1 ma χ), ie the supportive effect of PCM is a particularly efficient. The later the heat sink effect of the PCM uses, ie, the higher may be the cooler temperature, the higher this conventional and thus the total cooling capacity of the device according to the invention.

The discharge of the PCM is also more efficient in this way, since the entire phase change material is discharged almost simultaneously during the cooling of the cooler. A higher conventional cooling capacity leads to faster discharge of the PCM.

Table 2: Explanation of callouts in the figures

example

For a processor, the maximum line is 90W, a cooler according to Figure 3 is designed so that at 30 ° C ambient temperature has a cooler capacity of 0.61 K / W. Starting from a maximum operating temperature T1 max of 85 ° C, the temperatures are T2m a x 65 ° C and T3 max 45 ° C in the middle and in the upper part of the cooling fins. Suitable phase change materials Didodecylammoniumchlorid (PCM1) with a TPC of 65 ° C and Didecylammoniumchlorid (PCM2) be used with a PC T of 49 ° C.

With appropriate PCM, the radiator can be adjusted by using more than two PCM even more precisely to the temperature gradient.

Claims

claims
1. An apparatus for cooling heat generating components consisting essentially discharging from a heat unit (1) and a heat receiving unit (4) containing at least one phase change material (PCM) having a phase change temperature (TPC), wherein the PCM according to its Tpc is arranged according to the temperature gradient in the cooling device.
2. Device according to claim 1, dadu rch in that the heat receiving unit (4) contains at least two PCM with different Tpc, the PCM are arranged according to their T P c according to the temperature gradient in the cooling device to each other.
3. A device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the TPC each below the critical maximum temperature of the heat generating component are (2).
4. The device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the PCM are arranged such that their phase change almost simultaneously and / or just below the
carried temperature corresponding to the temperature gradient generated in accordance with the cooling device of the critical maximum temperature of the heat member (2).
5. The device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the PCM being arranged such that the heat flow component generated by the heat dissipating to the heat unit (1) is not interrupted and a significant heat flow to the PCM only then takes place when the temperature of the heat-dissipating unit (1), the phase change temperature T exceeds the PCM PC.
6. The device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the PCM-containing unit (4) consists of one or more cavities in which the PCM is incorporated, wherein the cavities in dissipating heat unit (1) are located.
7. The device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one PCM is a solid / solid PCM.
8. The device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one PCM is encapsulated.
9. The device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one PCM is provided with one or more adjuvants.
10. The apparatus of claim 9, d ad u rch in that the adjuvant is a substance having good thermal conductivity, in particular a metal powder, a metal granulate or graphite, and / or a binder, in particular a polymeric binder.
11. The device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the PCM and possibly present the tool in crimped form.
12. The device according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the heat-dissipating unit (1) has surface-increasing structures, in particular cooling ribs.
13. A device comprising at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the heat-dissipating unit (1) for additional cooling of a blower.
14, component (Z) comprising generating essentially of a cooling device according to any one of claims 1 to 13 and a heat member (2), the two structural units (1) and (4) and the component (2) arranged to each other are that the heat flow between the heat generating member (2) and the heat-dissipating unit (1) is in direct contact.
15, component (Z) according to claim 14, characterized in that the component (2) (micro processing unit) or a memory chip of a computer, is an electrical or electronic component, in particular an MPU.
16. Computer, comprising a device according to claim 14 or 15 °.
17. Use of a device according to claim 1 to 13 or a device according to claim 12 or 13 in computers and electronic
Data processing systems.
18. Use of a device according to claim 1 to 13 or a device according to claim 14 or 15 in power circuits and power circuits for the mobile communications, transmission circuits for mobile and fixed transmitters, control circuits for electromechanical
Actuators in industrial electronics and in automobiles, high-frequency circuits for satellite communications and radar applications, single-board computers, as well as actuators and control devices for home appliances and Industieelektronik.
EP20020803758 2001-11-24 2002-09-27 Optimised application of pcms in chillers Withdrawn EP1446833A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2001157671 DE10157671A1 (en) 2001-11-24 2001-11-24 Optimized use of PCM in coolers
DE10157671 2001-11-24
PCT/EP2002/010865 WO2003046982A1 (en) 2001-11-24 2002-09-27 Optimised application of pcms in chillers

Publications (1)

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EP1446833A1 true EP1446833A1 (en) 2004-08-18

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EP20020803758 Withdrawn EP1446833A1 (en) 2001-11-24 2002-09-27 Optimised application of pcms in chillers

Country Status (10)

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US (1) US20050007740A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1446833A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2005510876A (en)
KR (1) KR20040058310A (en)
CN (1) CN1589496A (en)
AU (1) AU2002365430A1 (en)
CA (1) CA2468065A1 (en)
DE (1) DE10157671A1 (en)
TW (1) TW200301814A (en)
WO (1) WO2003046982A1 (en)

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AU2002365430A1 (en) 2003-06-10
JP2005510876A (en) 2005-04-21
DE10157671A1 (en) 2003-06-05
CN1589496A (en) 2005-03-02
US20050007740A1 (en) 2005-01-13
TW200301814A (en) 2003-07-16
CA2468065A1 (en) 2003-06-05
WO2003046982A1 (en) 2003-06-05
KR20040058310A (en) 2004-07-03

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