EP1328042A1 - Phased array antenna subsystem - Google Patents

Phased array antenna subsystem Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1328042A1
EP1328042A1 EP02025792A EP02025792A EP1328042A1 EP 1328042 A1 EP1328042 A1 EP 1328042A1 EP 02025792 A EP02025792 A EP 02025792A EP 02025792 A EP02025792 A EP 02025792A EP 1328042 A1 EP1328042 A1 EP 1328042A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
radar system
characterized
system according
data
supply network
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP02025792A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1328042B1 (en
Inventor
Heinz-Peter Feldle
Helmut Dr. Leier
Wolfgang Prof.Dr. Menzel
Marc Schreiner
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Airbus Defence and Space GmbH
Original Assignee
EADS Deutschland GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE2002100561 priority Critical patent/DE10200561B4/en
Priority to DE10200561 priority
Application filed by EADS Deutschland GmbH filed Critical EADS Deutschland GmbH
Publication of EP1328042A1 publication Critical patent/EP1328042A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1328042B1 publication Critical patent/EP1328042B1/en
Not-in-force legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/0087Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing antenna arrays
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/0006Particular feeding systems
    • H01Q21/0025Modular arrays
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q23/00Antennas with active circuits or circuit elements integrated within them or attached to them

Abstract

The invention relates to a radar system with a phase-controlled antenna array, which has a data and supply network (2) and a number of interchangeable transceivers arranged on the data and supply network (2), each containing a transmitter and receiver circuit (4) Modules (3), a number of circulator circuits (8) and a number of antenna elements (9) coupled to the transmitter and receiver circuits (4) via the circulator circuits (8). According to the invention, transmitter and receiver circuit (4), circulator circuit (8) and antenna element (9) are combined in each of the transmit / receive modules (3), and the transmit / receive modules (3) are on the radiation side of the radar system (1) are arranged interchangeably. <IMAGE>

Description

The invention relates to a phase-controlled antenna subsystem with a phase-controlled Antenna array according to the preamble of claim 1.

The invention is particularly applicable to a radar system in particular SAR, for antennas for electronic warfare or operational systems and for Navigation or communication systems. Possible platforms for the integration of the Functions according to the invention are ground, marine systems, aircraft, satellites, drones and missile as well as building or vehicle-bound systems.

From US 5 940 031 is a radar system with a phase-controlled antenna array known that a data and supply network and a number of arranged thereon interchangeable, each containing a transmitter and receiver circuit Transmit / receive modules, a number of circulator circuits and a number of coupled to the transmitter and receiver circuits via the circulator circuits Includes antenna elements. In the known radar system, the transmit / receive modules arranged at the back of the data and supply network, which in several, a heat sink structure, an energy supply structure and an RF supply structure containing layers is built up. Of those at the back of the data and Transmit / receive modules arranged in the supply network are RF connecting elements to each located on the front of the data and supply network and each carried out with an antenna element coupled circulator circuits. The transmit / receive modules are from the back of the data and supply network interchangeable so that the radar system for the purpose of maintenance work must be accessible from the back.

In many areas of application of radar and ECM systems (ECM = Electronic Counter Measures) with active phase-controlled antenna arrays, e.g. for aircraft, there is one Difficulty is that there is little space available for housing the radar system stands and that accessibility from the rear of the radar system is often not or is only possible under difficult conditions.

The object of the invention is to provide a radar system of the type mentioned in the introduction, which requires little space and in which the transmit / receive modules for Maintenance and repair purposes are easily interchangeable.

The object is achieved by the radar system specified in claim 1.

Advantageous developments of the radar system according to the invention are in the subclaims characterized.

The invention provides a radar system with a phase-controlled antenna array created a data and supply network and a number of on the data and Supply network arranged interchangeable, each a transmitter and receiver circuit containing transmit / receive modules, a number of circulator circuits and a number of via the circulator circuits with the transmitter and receiver circuits coupled antenna elements. According to the invention, it is provided that in each of the transmit / receive modules transmitter and receiver circuit, Circulator circuit and antenna element are combined, and that the transmit / receive modules on the radiation side or on the front of the radar system are arranged interchangeably.

A major advantage of the radar system according to the invention is that an exchange of transmit / receive modules from the radiation side or from the front of the Radar system can take place, which is a great advantage for many applications. On Another advantage of the radar system according to the invention is that the antenna array too can be adapted to a curved surface if a structure-integrated antenna is desired. Yet another advantage of the radar system according to the invention are short RF lines to the antenna and thus a low noise figure, lower RF losses and less signal coupling. Finally, it is an advantage of the invention Radar system that thereby a simple structure of the data and supply network is possible.

According to a very advantageous embodiment of the invention, it is provided that the Transmitter and receiver circuit and the circulator circuit and the antenna element in Form of a multi-layer structure are integrated in the transmission / reception module.

The antenna element is preferably in the form of a planar antenna on the top of the Transmit / receive module arranged.

According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the multilayer structure contains several superimposed, the components of the transmitter and receiver circuit and substrates supporting the circulator circuit.

According to an advantageous embodiment of this, it is provided that a first substrate on the side of the transmission / reception module facing the data and supply network is arranged and an RF power amplifier of the transmitter and Receiver circuit carries.

According to another advantageous embodiment, it is provided that a second Substrate on the side of the transmitting / receiving network facing away from the data and supply network Module is arranged and the circulator circuit, the antenna element as well as parts of the transmitter and receiver circuit. This can result in a reduction of space requirements and an optimization of the noise figure possible.

According to an advantageous development of the aforementioned embodiments, it is provided that that at least between the first substrate and the second substrate a further substrate is arranged, which further circuits, in particular an RF processing part and / or carries a digital processing part.

According to another advantageous embodiment of the radar system according to the invention it is provided that the substrates are formed in one piece with a frame structure are, which are simultaneously a housing of the transmit / receive module and a mechanical Forms connection of the substrates to one another.

The data and supply network is preferably in the form of a mechanical support structure trained for the transmit / receive modules, which at the same time a cooling structure for the Includes transmit / receive modules.

The data and supply network is preferably designed as a multilayer structure, which the cooling structure in the form of a first layer and at least one further Circuit structure containing RF, data and power supply network in the form of a second layer includes.

The cooling structure is preferably on the side facing the transmit / receive modules Side of the data and supply network arranged.

The cooling structure is preferably in the form of an active cooling structure through which a cooling fluid flows educated.

This is preferably the RF power amplifier of the transmitter and receiver circuit bearing first substrate in intensive cooling contact with the cooling structure of the data and Supply network.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the substrates and / or the Frame structure made of aluminum nitride (AIN). The substrates themselves are made up of several Layers of aluminum nitride built up and contain vertical and horizontal electrical Contacts. These are multilayer systems that consist of several layers are built up. Electrical conductor tracks (horizontal electrical contacts). These interconnects are vertically interconnected by so-called vias connected (vertical electrical contacts).

According to a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, the substrates are stacked on top of each other and soldered together. The solder joint is preferably with hard solder balls, which are surrounded by solder.

The substrates are preferably soldered to one another on the frame structures.

The transmit / receive module is advantageously enclosed by a metal sleeve, which is attached using a soldering, welding or adhesive technique. The cuff will advantageously used to electromagnetic shrinkage of the module and to ensure the electrical contacts between the substrates and to make the module hermetic seal.

According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention are in the frame structure electrical contacts forming an electrical connection between the substrates integrated.

The transmit / receive modules are preferably the same.

The transmit / receive modules are advantageously from the radiation side or the Front placed on the data and supply network.

Finally, according to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, that the transmit / receive modules by means of attacks on their edge or corner areas Screws are attached to the data and supply network.

Exemplary embodiments of the invention are explained below with reference to the drawing.

Show it:

Fig. 1
a schematic side view of a radar system with a phase-controlled antenna array according to a first embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 2
a schematic side view of a transmit / receive module from the embodiment shown in Figure 1 of a radar system with a block diagram representation of its essential components.
Fig. 3
a somewhat schematic side sectional view of a transmit / receive module according to a second embodiment of the invention; and
Fig. 4
a somewhat schematic perspective view of part of a radar system with a phase-controlled antenna array (Figure 4a)) and an enlarged, broken perspective view of an individual transmit / receive module (Fig. 4b)).

In the radar system shown in a schematic simplified side view in FIG. 1, that is designated as a whole by reference number 1 means the reference number 30 a phase-controlled antenna array consisting of a larger number of antenna elements 9 is composed. The antenna elements 9 are part of each of a transmit / receive module 3. The transmit / receive modules 3 are for radiation and the reception of a radar transmission signal in the direction indicated by the arrow intended. A data and supply network 2 is used to supply the transmit / receive Module 3 with RF and data signals and for power supply and cooling the same provided. At the back of the data and supply network 2 is a system circuit 40 is arranged, which further processing circuits of the radar system includes. System circuit 40 may also be from the data and utility network be attached separately. In particular when using the invention to an application system - e.g. on a radar system, for example in an airplane wing - only the send / receive modules and the supply network in the Wing installed, but the evaluating system, however, in a different place, at the one larger space is available, can be accommodated.

How the enlarged schematic representation of one of the transmit / receive modules 3 in Fig. 2 shows, the transceiver module 3 comprises a transmitter and receiver circuit 4 an RF power amplifier 5, a digital processing section 6 and an RF processing section 7 contains. The transmitter and receiver circuit 4 is via a circulator circuit 8 coupled to an antenna element 9, which is on the top or front of the transmit / receive module 3. In each transmit / receive module 3 are thus each transmitter and receiver circuit 4, circulator circuit 8 and antenna element 9 summarized. The antenna element 9 is in the form of a front or top of the transmit / receive module 3 arranged planar antenna.

The data and supply network 2, which the send / receive module 3 on its Front or on its radiation side is in the form of several layers, which a cooling structure 18 in the form of a first layer and another one RF, data and Circuit structures 19 comprising power supply networks in the form of second ones Layers. As can be seen, the cooling structure 18 is on that of the transmit / receive module 3 facing side of the data and supply network 2 arranged so that an intensive cooling contact between the cooling structure 18 and the transmit / receive module 3, in particular its HF power amplifier 5.

As can be seen from Fig. 3, which shows an embodiment, such as a transmit / receive module 3 could be constructed in practice, are the transmitter and receiver circuit 4, the the RF power amplifier 5, the digital processing section 6 and the RF processing section 7, and the circulator circuit 8 in the form of a multi-layer structure in the transmit / receive module 3 integrated. The antenna element 9 is in the form of a planar antenna arranged on the top or front of the transmission / reception module 3.

The multilayer structure contains several components arranged one above the other Transmitter and receiver circuit 4 and the circulator circuit 8 carrying substrates 11, 12, 13. A first substrate 11 is on the data and supply network 2 facing Arranged side of the transmit / receive module 3 and carries the RF power amplifier 5 of the transmitter and receiver circuit 4. A second substrate 12 is on the Data and supply network remote side of the transmit / receive module 3 arranged and carries the circulator circuit 8, the planar antenna and parts of the transmitter and Receiver circuit, essentially for reasons of space and to improve the Noise figure. There is another between the first substrate 11 and the second substrate 12 arranged further substrate 13, which further circuits, namely the digital processing part 6 and the RF processing part 7 carries. The substrates 11, 12, 13 are in one piece formed with a respective frame structure 14, 15 or 16. These framework structures 14, 15, 16 simultaneously form a housing 17 of the transmit / receive module 3 and a mechanical one Connection of the substrates 11, 12, 13 to one another.

The transmit / receive module is advantageously at least partially enclosed by a metal sleeve, which is fastened by means of a soldering, welding or adhesive technique. The sleeve is advantageously used to ensure electromagnetic shredding of the module and the electrical contacts between the substrates and to hermetically seal the module. The cuff is designated by the reference numeral 26 in the figures.
The data and supply network 2 is designed as a mechanical support structure for the transmit / receive modules 3 and at the same time contains a cooling structure 18 for the transmit / receive modules 3. The first substrate carrying the RF power amplifier 5 of the transmitter and receiver circuit 4 11 is in intensive cooling contact with the cooling structure 18 of the data and supply network 2.

Furthermore, the data and supply network 2 is designed in the form of a multi-layer structure, which the cooling structure 18 in the form of a first layer and at least one further a circuit structure 19 in the form of an RF data and power supply network a second layer. As in the schematic embodiment shown in FIG. 2 3, the cooling structure 18 is on the Transmit / receive module 3 facing side of the data and supply network 2 arranged. The one carrying the RF power amplifier 5 of the transmitter and receiver circuit 4 first substrate 11 is in intensive cooling contact with the cooling structure 18 of the Data and supply network 2 held. The cooling structure 18 is one of one Active cooling structure through which cooling fluid flows.

The substrates 11, 12, 13 and the respective frame structures connected to it in one piece 14, 15 and 16 are made of Aln (aluminum nitrite) for efficient heat dissipation to ensure. The substrates themselves are made up of several layers of aluminum nitride constructed and contain vertical and horizontal electrical contacts. The substrates 11, 12, 13 are stacked one on top of the other and in the area of the frame structures 14, 15, 16 soldered together. Hard solder balls 26 are preferably used for the soldering, which are surrounded by solder during the soldering process and thus the electrical Connect contacts on the surface of the substrates. A blunt soldering without solder balls is also possible. Into the substrates 11, 12, 13 and the frame structures 14, 15, 16 are horizontal electrical contacts 20, 21, 22 and vertical electrical contacts 23, 24, 25 integrated, which is an electrical connection between the substrates 11, 12, 13, the Data and supply network 2 and the individual components of the transmitter and Form receiver circuit 4. Electrical contacts are in the frame structures 14, 15, 16 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 integrated, which is an electrical connection between the substrates 11, 12, 13 form.

The transmit / receive modules 3 are preferably all the same.

From the perspective view shown in Fig. 4a) and b), a small section shows from a practical embodiment of the radar system according to the invention, it can be seen that the transmit / receive modules 3 from the radiation side to the data and supply network 2 put on and by attacking at the corner areas Screws 25 are attached to the data and supply network 2. The electrical Connection between the individual transmit / receive modules 3 and the data and supply network 2 is accomplished by electrical contact strips 50 which are in the top of the data and supply network 2, i.e. the cooling structure 18 embedded therein are, and by corresponding contact strips 60 on the underside of the transmission / reception modules 3. The contact strips designated by reference number 60 on the The underside of the modules is not visible in FIG. 4b.

The module is to be connected to the data and supply network using CIN: APSE contacts be connected. It is a flexible cylindrical one Wire mesh, which forms a pressure contact in a plastic socket, which the electrical Connection between two surfaces that are pressed on from both sides, manufactures. The module is preferably with the help of such flexible pressure contacts Data and supply network connected.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

1
radar system
2
Data and supply network
3
Transmit / receive module
4
Transmitter and receiver circuit
5
RF power amplifier
6
Digital processing part
7
RF processing part
8th
circulator
9
antenna element
11
first substrate
12
second substrate
13
another substrate
14
frame structure
15
frame structure
16
frame structure
17
casing
18
cooling structure
19
circuit structure
20
electric contact
21
electric contact
22
electric contact
23
electric contact
24
electric contact
25
fixing screw
30
Antenna array
40
system circuit
50
contact strip

Claims (21)

  1. Radar system with a phase-controlled antenna array, which has a data and supply network (2) and a number of interchangeable transmit / receive modules (3) arranged on the data and supply network (2), each containing a transmitter and receiver circuit (4) ), a number of circulator circuits (8) and a number of antenna elements (9) coupled to the transmitter and receiver circuits (4) via the circulator circuits (8), characterized in that in each of the transmit / receive modules (3) each transmitter and receiver circuit (4), circulator circuit (8) and antenna element (9) are combined, and that the transmit / receive modules (3) are arranged interchangeably on the radiation side of the radar system (1).
  2. Radar system according to claim 1, characterized in that the transmitter and receiver circuit (4) and the circulator circuit (8) are integrated in the form of a multilayer structure in the transmitter / receiver module (3).
  3. Radar system according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the antenna element (9) is arranged in the form of a planar antenna on the top of the transmission / reception module (3).
  4. Radar system according to Claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the multilayer structure contains a plurality of substrates arranged one above the other, which carry the components of the transmitter and receiver circuit (4) and the circulator circuit (8).
  5. Radar system according to claim 4, characterized in that a first substrate (11) is arranged on the side of the transmission / reception module (3) facing the data and supply network (2) and an RF power amplifier (5) of the transmitter and receiver circuit (4) wearing.
  6. Radar system according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that a second substrate (12) is arranged on the side of the transmission / reception module (3) facing away from the data and supply network (2) and carries the circulator circuit (8).
  7. Radar system according to claim 4, 5 or 6, characterized in that between the first substrate (11) and the second substrate (12) at least one further substrate (13) is arranged, which further circuits (6, 7), in particular an RF -Processing part (7) and / or a digital processing part (6) carries.
  8. Radar system according to one of claims 4 to 7, characterized in that the substrates (11, 12, 13) are formed in one piece with a frame structure (14, 15, 16) which at the same time a housing (17) of the transmission / reception module 3) and forms a mechanical connection between the substrates (11, 12, 13).
  9. Radar system according to one of Claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the data and supply network (2) is designed as a mechanical support structure for the transmit / receive modules (3), which at the same time has a cooling structure (18) for the transmit / receive Modules (3).
  10. Radar system according to claim 9, characterized in that the data and supply network (2) is designed as a multi-layer structure which contains the cooling structure (18) in the form of a first layer and at least one further circuit structure (19) containing an RF, data and power supply network ) in the form of a second layer.
  11. Radar system according to claim 10, characterized in that the cooling structure (18) is arranged on the side of the data and supply network (2) facing the transmit / receive modules (3).
  12. Radar system according to claim 11, characterized in that the cooling structure (18) is designed as an active cooling structure through which a cooling fluid flows.
  13. Radar system according to Claim 11 or 12 in connection with one of Claims 5 to 8, characterized in that the first substrate carrying the HF power amplifier (5) of the transmitter and receiver circuit (4) is in intensive cooling contact with the cooling structure (18) of the Data and supply network (2) is available.
  14. Radar system according to one of claims 4 to 13, characterized in that the substrates (11, 12, 13) and / or the frame structure (14, 15, 16) are made of AlN.
  15. Radar system according to one of claims 4 to 14, characterized in that the substrates (11, 12, 13) are stacked one above the other and soldered to one another.
  16. Radar system according to Claim 15 in conjunction with Claim 8, characterized in that the substrates (11, 12, 13) are soldered to one another on the frame structures (14, 15, 16).
  17. Radar system according to one of claims 8 to 16, characterized in that in the frame structure (14, 15, 16) an electrical connection between the substrates (11, 12, 13) forming electrical contacts (20, 21, 22, 23, 24) are integrated.
  18. Radar system according to one of claims 1 to 17, characterized in that the transmit / receive modules (3) are the same.
  19. Radar system according to one of Claims 1 to 18, characterized in that the transmit / receive modules (3) are placed on the data and supply network (2) from the radiation side.
  20. Radar system according to Claim 19, characterized in that the transmit / receive modules (3) are fastened to the data and supply network (2) by means of screws (25) acting on their edge or corner regions.
  21. Radar system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the transmitting / receiving module is at least partially enclosed by a sleeve (26).
EP20020025792 2002-01-09 2002-11-16 Phased array antenna subsystem Not-in-force EP1328042B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2002100561 DE10200561B4 (en) 2002-01-09 2002-01-09 Radar system with a phased array antenna
DE10200561 2002-01-09

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1328042A1 true EP1328042A1 (en) 2003-07-16
EP1328042B1 EP1328042B1 (en) 2006-03-29

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20020025792 Not-in-force EP1328042B1 (en) 2002-01-09 2002-11-16 Phased array antenna subsystem

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US6876323B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1328042B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4156382B2 (en)
AT (1) AT322090T (en)
DE (2) DE10200561B4 (en)
ES (1) ES2258588T3 (en)

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WO2004013934A1 (en) * 2002-08-01 2004-02-12 Raytheon Company Dielectric interconnect frame incorporating emi shield and hydrogen absorber for tile t/r modules
EP2159876A1 (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-03 Thales Nederland B.V. An array antenna comprising means to establish galvanic contacts between its radiator elements while allowing for their thermal expansion
EP2159875A1 (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-03 Thales Nederland B.V. An array antenna comprising means to suppress the coupling effect in the dielectric gaps between its radiator elements without establishing galvanic contacts
WO2010116357A1 (en) * 2009-04-05 2010-10-14 Elta Systems Ltd Phased array antenna and method for producing thereof
WO2010111012A3 (en) * 2009-03-24 2010-11-18 Raytheon Company Translating hinge
WO2011042000A1 (en) * 2009-10-09 2011-04-14 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Hermetically sealed radio-frequency front end
EP2549589A1 (en) * 2011-07-20 2013-01-23 Alcatel Lucent Wireless communication antenna devices and method for heat dissipation in such devices
EP2840647A1 (en) * 2013-08-22 2015-02-25 Alcatel Lucent Antenna module
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US7831225B2 (en) * 2007-07-26 2010-11-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Radio frequency power load and associated method
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US8902015B1 (en) 2011-11-18 2014-12-02 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Radio frequency power load and associated method
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WO2004013934A1 (en) * 2002-08-01 2004-02-12 Raytheon Company Dielectric interconnect frame incorporating emi shield and hydrogen absorber for tile t/r modules
EP2159876A1 (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-03 Thales Nederland B.V. An array antenna comprising means to establish galvanic contacts between its radiator elements while allowing for their thermal expansion
EP2159875A1 (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-03 Thales Nederland B.V. An array antenna comprising means to suppress the coupling effect in the dielectric gaps between its radiator elements without establishing galvanic contacts
NL1035878C (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-11 Thales Nederland Bv An array antenna comprising means to establish galvanic contacts between its radiator elements while allowing for their thermal expansion.
NL1035877C (en) * 2008-08-28 2010-03-11 Thales Nederland Bv An array antenna comprising means to suppress the coupling effect in the dielectric gaps between its radiator elements without establishing galvanic contacts.
US9441404B2 (en) 2009-03-24 2016-09-13 Raytheon Company Translating hinge
WO2010111012A3 (en) * 2009-03-24 2010-11-18 Raytheon Company Translating hinge
US8270169B2 (en) 2009-03-24 2012-09-18 Raytheon Company Translating hinge
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JP2004028980A (en) 2004-01-29
ES2258588T3 (en) 2006-09-01
US20030218566A1 (en) 2003-11-27
DE10200561A1 (en) 2003-07-24
DE50206215D1 (en) 2006-05-18
AT322090T (en) 2006-04-15
EP1328042B1 (en) 2006-03-29
DE10200561B4 (en) 2006-11-23
US6876323B2 (en) 2005-04-05
JP4156382B2 (en) 2008-09-24

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