EP1311787B1 - Equipment and method for enhancing combustion and heat transfer in a boiler by using sound - Google Patents

Equipment and method for enhancing combustion and heat transfer in a boiler by using sound Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1311787B1
EP1311787B1 EP20010958090 EP01958090A EP1311787B1 EP 1311787 B1 EP1311787 B1 EP 1311787B1 EP 20010958090 EP20010958090 EP 20010958090 EP 01958090 A EP01958090 A EP 01958090A EP 1311787 B1 EP1311787 B1 EP 1311787B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
sp
equipment
characterised
sound sources
combustion
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Not-in-force
Application number
EP20010958090
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1311787A1 (en
Inventor
Heikki Ahonen
Arttu Salmela
Martti Kinnunen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Nirafon Oy
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Nirafon Oy
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date
Priority to FI20001616 priority Critical
Priority to FI20001616A priority patent/FI108810B/en
Application filed by Nirafon Oy filed Critical Nirafon Oy
Priority to PCT/FI2001/000647 priority patent/WO2002004861A1/en
Publication of EP1311787A1 publication Critical patent/EP1311787A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1311787B1 publication Critical patent/EP1311787B1/en
Not-in-force legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C99/00Subject-matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • F23C99/003Combustion process using sound or vibrations

Description

  • The invention concerns equipment and a method for enhancing the combustion event and heat transfer in a heating boiler.
  • The invention relates to combustion taking place in power plants, heating furnaces, heating boilers and other such combustion spaces and to enhancement of such combustion. In the following, the name of heating boiler will be used for these application objects of the invention.
  • Combustion is a complex event, which depends on several different factors, such as the particle size of the fuel, the combustion temperature and the structure of the heating boiler. The fuel used in the combustion event becomes oxidized, whereby heat will result. At typical combustion temperatures, combustion of hot solid matter depends on the speed at which oxygen is diffused into the surface of the matter. As the combustion proceeds, the particle size and particle mass are reduced. When burning carbon, the combustion results in carbon monoxide, which in the continued combustion will become carbon dioxide.
  • It is a known method to enhance the combustion event by causing turbulence to occur in the combustion space to enhance movement of the matter and heat transfer in the combustion. However, in known solutions problems still occur in the completion of combustion taking place in power plants, heating furnaces and heating boilers and other such installations. It is difficult to make turbulence generators, such as agitators, to reach high temperatures, which are typically in a range of 600-1000 C. In particular, problems occur in the combustion of nonvolatile carbon particles.
  • U.S. Patent No. 5785012 discloses a method and apparatus for enhancing the efficiency of combustion by using acoustic energy. In the document, producing of longitudinal acoustic waves in a combustion chamber by placing a horn on top of the combustion chamber is described.
  • U.S. Patent No. 4699588 depicts a pulsating processing system for thermal, chemical and physical material processing, such as calciners, industrial driers and boilers. The system employs non-longitudinal acoustic waves is a round processing chamber by using one or two sound sources. The method is mainly directed for drying processes, such as drying of slurry materials such as kaolin.
  • Enhancing of combustion is also associated with cleaning of the heat transfer surfaces of the heating boiler to remove ash particles and unburnt carbon particles from them. Acoustic cleaning is a known cleaning method, wherein sound sources are placed in the heat transfer parts of the heating boiler and sound is produced periodically at intervals of about 2-15 minutes for a few seconds each time. Acoustic cleaning equipment is known e. g. from publications WO-82/01328 and WO82/03803.
  • The purpose of the invention is to bring about equipment and a method for enhancing the combustion event in such a way that the combustion is more complete and emissions are reduced.
  • Another purpose of the invention is to bring about equipment of a new kind, wherein a sound source based on a pulse burner is used as the sound source.
  • The equipment according to the invention for enhancing the combustion event and heat transfer in a heating boiler is mainly characterised in that the space above the major combustion zone in the combustion space of the heating boiler is equipped with sound sources to generate an acoustic field in order to enhance the combustion event and to achieve a more complete combustion, and that the sound sources are placed in such a way that the acoustic pressure patterns generated by the sound sources meet at angles of 20-90 sideways and/or vertically.
  • The method according to the invention for its part is characterised in that in a space above the major combustion zone in the combustion space of the heating boiler a rotating acoustic field is generated by sound sources, which are located on different sides and/or at different elevations of the heating boiler.
  • In the arrangement according to the invention, the combustion event is enhanced in such a way in a heating boiler that an acoustic field is directed to a space above the actual major combustion zone. Matte volatilising at this location has already burnt out for the most part, but some carbon still remains in the form of small particles, which have not yet burnt. The acoustic field is preferably continuous and it is generated by suitable sound sources, one or more, which are placed in the combustion space of the heating boiler. The sound source is preferably a sound source based on a pulse burner. By the arrangement according to the invention, the combustion event is enhanced in such a way that more heat is obtained from the fuel used and less combustion residue will result. At the same time, a cleaner combustion is also achieved, which means that harmful emissions are reduced.
  • By using the sound source according to the invention, which is based on a pulse burner, that problem is solved, which is associated with pneumatically operated sound sources in that due to the higher pressure existing inside the combustion space dust or other impurities will drift from the combustion space into the sound source. No such problem occurs in the sound source based on a pulse burner.
  • In the following, the invention will be described with reference to the figures shown in the appended drawing, but the intention is not to limit the invention only to the embodiments shown in the figures.
    • Figure 1 shows a heating boiler and the location therein of the equipment according to the invention.
    • Figure 2 shows an example of the acoustic field according to the invention.
    • Figure 3A shows the sound source according to the invention.
    • Figure 3B shows a valve in the sound source according to the invention.
    • Figure 3C is a cross-sectional view of the sound source according to the invention.
    • Figure 3D is another cross-sectional view of the sound source according to the invention.
  • Figure 1 is a schematic view of a heating boiler, wherein the method according to the invention for enhancing the combustion event is applied. Sound sources S are located in combustion space 11 of heating boiler 10. The place of location of sound sources S is a space above the major combustion zone before cooling of the combustion gases. The sound sources used are preferably such sound horns known in acoustic cleaning, which produce a sound volume of 130-170 dB at a frequency of 20-1000 Hz. The sound source used may also be pneumatically operated continuous sirens or the sound source according to the invention shown in Figures 3A-D, which is based on a pulse burner. Due to the good penetration depth, the acoustic frequency range chosen is preferably used explicitly in order to enhance the combustion event. The power and frequency of the sound sources S may be controlled within the chosen range according to the type and size of boiler and the locations of sound sources S. The sound volume is chosen so that the acoustic pressure level generated by sound sources S is preferably no less than 130 dB at the place where acoustic pressure patterns meet, where the temperature in the combustion space 11 is typically over 800°C. Sound sources S are placed in combustion space 11 in such a way that the acoustic pressure patterns which they generate will meet at angles of 20-90° sideways and/or vertically.
  • In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, sound sources S are placed at different elevations in the heating boiler 10, and when moving upwards in the combustion space 11 the frequency of the sound source S is increased as the diameter and mass of solid particles diminish further ahead in combustion space 11. Hereby the desired effect enhancing the combustion event will remain at an optimum.
  • In another advantageous embodiment of the invention, sound sources S are placed in such a way in heating boiler 10 that the resulting acoustic field is rotating. Figure 2 illustrates such a rotating acoustic field, which is generated by locating in the combustion space 11 of a heating boiler, which as regards its diameter is of a rectangular shape, four sound sources S, which are used to generate the acoustic pressure direction pattern shown in Figure 2. A rotating acoustic field of a corresponding kind can also be generated in a heating boiler of some other shape. The number and locations of sound sources S may be different from those shown in this example, when generating a rotating acoustic field.
  • In an advantageous embodiment of the invention a part of the secondary and/or tertiary air needed in the combustion event is supplied through the sound sources S placed in heating boiler 10. This supplied air at the same time functions as cooling air for sound sources S.
  • Figure 3A shows a sound source SP according to the invention, which is based on a pulse burner. Figure 3B shows an example of the structure of a valve V of sound source SP, Figure 3C is a cross-sectional view of sound source SP along line A-A' indicated in Figure 3A and Figure 3D is a cross-sectional view of sound source SP along line B-B' indicated in Figure 3A.
  • The sound source used is a pulse burner, which preferably operates with the combustion reaction between a gaseous or gasified fuel and air and functions on the "pulse jet" principle known as such. In such an embodiment the sound source SP includes an antechamber SP1, into which air under pressure is supplied through assembly L1, a combustion chamber SP2, into which a gaseous inflammable matter is supplied through assembly L2, and a sound horn SP3. Between antechamber SP1 and combustion chamber SP2 there is a valve/set of valves V, whose structure is shown by the cross-sectional view in Figure 3B. In addition, sound source SP includes one or more igniters I located in combustion chamber SP2. Combustion chamber SP2 is surrounded by cooling devices C including cooling fins c1, ... ,cn. Into cooling devices C a cooling medium, preferably cooling air or water, is conducted by way of assembly L3.
  • After the combustion event, the pressure of combustion chamber SP2 is released into the space to be cleaned, that is, into combustion space 11.
  • The igniting device/devices I used are preferably spark plugs or a hot shoe functioning as a constantly glowing igniting component.
  • The pulse burner operating as sound source SP preferably uses hydrocarbon gas and air in starting. In addition, in one embodiment of the invention a gasified gas is used, which is taken from that part of the combustion space, where no secondary or tertiary air has yet been introduced.
  • The sound source according to the invention forms a continuous acoustic pressure pulse, with which a continuous quick pulse-like acoustic pressure can be driven into the combustion space of the boiler.
  • The invention may be applied in all types of power plants, heating furnaces, heating boilers and other such installations. The sound sources used are sound horns known in acoustic cleaning, but also sound sources of other kinds may be used.
  • The following is a presentation of the claims, but the invention is not intended to be limited only to the different embodiments presented in the claims.

Claims (16)

  1. Equipment for enhancing the combustion event and heat transfer in a heating boiler, said equipment comprising sound sources (S) in a space above the major combustion zone in a combustion space (11) of the heating boiler (10), which sound sources (S) generate an acoustic field in order to enhance the combustion event and a more complete combustion, characterised in that the sound sources (S) are placed on different sides of the heating boiler (10) in such a way that the generated acoustic field is rotating and directed to a space above the actual major combustion zone.
  2. Equipment as defined in claim 1, characterised in that the sound sources (S) are suitable for producing a continuous acoustic field.
  3. Equipment as defined in claim 1 or 2, characterised in that the sound sources produce a volume of 130-170 dB.
  4. Equipment as defined in any one of claims 1-3, characterised in that the sound sources (S) produce sound at a frequency range of 20-1000 Hz.
  5. Equipment as defined in any one of claims 1-4, characterised in that the secondary and/or tertiary air of the heating boiler (10) or a part of that air has been supplied into the boiler through the sound sources (S).
  6. Equipment as defined in any one of claims 1-5, characterised in that the sound sources (S) are placed at different elevations into the heating boiler (10) in such a way that the sound frequency increases towards the top part of the heating boiler (10).
  7. Equipment as defined in any one of claims 1-6, characterised in that the sound sources (S) are acoustic horns.
  8. Equipment as defined in any one of claims 1-6, characterised in that the sound sources (S) are pneumatically operated continuous sirens.
  9. Equipment as defined in any one of claims 1-6, characterised in that the sound sources (S) are sound sources (SP) based on a pulse burner.
  10. Equipment as defined in claim 9, characterised in that the fuel of the pulse burner (SP) functioning as sound source essentially includes a gaseous inflammable matter and an oxidiser.
  11. Equipment as defined in claim 9 or 10, characterised in that the pulse burner (SP) functioning as sound source includes an antechamber (SP1), into which air under pressure is arranged to be supplied, a set of valves (V) opened and closed by pressure and separating the space between the antechamber (SP1) and the combustion chamber (SP2), and into which combustion chamber (SP2) supply of fuel is arranged, and a sound horn (SP3).
  12. Equipment as defined in claim 11, characterised in that a contines supply of air under pressure is arranged into the antechamber (SP1) of the pulse burner (SP) through an assembly (L1).
  13. Equipment as defined in claim 11 or 12, characterised in that the supply of fuel into the combustion chamber (SP2) of the pulse burner (SP) is arranged through an assembly (L2).
  14. Equipment as defined in any one of claims 11-13, characterised in that the pressure of the combustion chamber (SP1) of the pulse burner (SP) discharges into the combustion space (11) of the heating boiler (10).
  15. Method for enhancing the combustion event and heat transfer in a heating boiler, in which method an acoustic field is generated with sound sources (S) in a space above the major combustion zone in a combustion space (11) of the heating boiler (10), characterised in that a rotating acoustic field is generated by sound sources (S), which are located on different sides of the heating boiler (10) in such a way that the generated acoustic field is rotating and directed to a space above the actual major combustion zone.
  16. Method as defined in claim 15, characterised in that sound sources (SP) based on a pulse burner are used as sound sources (S).
EP20010958090 2000-07-06 2001-07-06 Equipment and method for enhancing combustion and heat transfer in a boiler by using sound Not-in-force EP1311787B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FI20001616 2000-07-06
FI20001616A FI108810B (en) 2000-07-06 2000-07-06 Plant and method for streamlining combustion and heat transfer
PCT/FI2001/000647 WO2002004861A1 (en) 2000-07-06 2001-07-06 Equipment and method for enhancing combustion and heat transfer in a boiler by using sound

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1311787A1 EP1311787A1 (en) 2003-05-21
EP1311787B1 true EP1311787B1 (en) 2006-05-31

Family

ID=8558736

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20010958090 Not-in-force EP1311787B1 (en) 2000-07-06 2001-07-06 Equipment and method for enhancing combustion and heat transfer in a boiler by using sound

Country Status (11)

Country Link
US (1) US20060040226A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1311787B1 (en)
JP (1) JP2004502919A (en)
AT (1) AT328242T (en)
AU (1) AU7982901A (en)
CA (1) CA2414988C (en)
DE (1) DE60120184T2 (en)
FI (1) FI108810B (en)
NO (1) NO323672B1 (en)
WO (1) WO2002004861A1 (en)
ZA (1) ZA200300058B (en)

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FI118756B (en) 2004-04-02 2008-03-14 Nirafon Oy Process for generating gas pressure pulses in a particulate precipitation purifier and particulate precipitation purifier
EP2016334A1 (en) * 2006-05-10 2009-01-21 Force Technology Method, device and system for enhancing combustion of solid objects

Family Cites Families (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SE162662C1 (en) *
SE425597B (en) * 1980-10-13 1982-10-18 Ekstroms Vermetekniska Ab Forced-controlled sound generator for infraljudomradet
JPS58500725A (en) * 1981-04-30 1983-05-06
US4699588A (en) * 1986-03-06 1987-10-13 Sonotech, Inc. Method and apparatus for conducting a process in a pulsating environment
JPS63229125A (en) * 1987-03-18 1988-09-26 Hitachi Zosen Corp Desulfurization inside oven
US5785012A (en) * 1992-12-15 1998-07-28 Bha Group Holdings, Inc. Acoustically enhanced combustion method and apparatus
US5638609A (en) * 1995-11-13 1997-06-17 Manufacturing And Technology Conversion International, Inc. Process and apparatus for drying and heating
EP1001214B1 (en) * 1998-11-09 2004-09-15 ALSTOM Technology Ltd Burner

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CA2414988A1 (en) 2002-01-17
DE60120184D1 (en) 2006-07-06
NO20030036D0 (en) 2003-01-03
US20060040226A1 (en) 2006-02-23
NO323672B1 (en) 2007-06-25
EP1311787A1 (en) 2003-05-21
ZA200300058B (en) 2003-07-23
FI108810B1 (en)
DE60120184T2 (en) 2007-03-29
FI20001616D0 (en)
FI20001616A (en) 2002-01-07
AT328242T (en) 2006-06-15
JP2004502919A (en) 2004-01-29
AU7982901A (en) 2002-01-21
FI108810B (en) 2002-03-28
FI20001616A0 (en) 2000-07-06
WO2002004861A1 (en) 2002-01-17
CA2414988C (en) 2009-06-09
NO20030036L (en) 2003-01-03

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