EP1228519A1 - Safety switch device for switching on and safely switching off an electrical user, in particular an electrically driven machine - Google Patents

Safety switch device for switching on and safely switching off an electrical user, in particular an electrically driven machine

Info

Publication number
EP1228519A1
EP1228519A1 EP20000971407 EP00971407A EP1228519A1 EP 1228519 A1 EP1228519 A1 EP 1228519A1 EP 20000971407 EP20000971407 EP 20000971407 EP 00971407 A EP00971407 A EP 00971407A EP 1228519 A1 EP1228519 A1 EP 1228519A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
switching
switching element
safety
switching device
characterized
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP20000971407
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1228519B1 (en
Inventor
Rolf Dickhoff
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Pilz GmbH and Co
Original Assignee
Pilz GmbH and Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19954460 priority Critical
Priority to DE1999154460 priority patent/DE19954460C2/en
Application filed by Pilz GmbH and Co filed Critical Pilz GmbH and Co
Priority to PCT/EP2000/010788 priority patent/WO2001037302A1/en
Publication of EP1228519A1 publication Critical patent/EP1228519A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1228519B1 publication Critical patent/EP1228519B1/en
Application status is Not-in-force legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H47/00Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the relay and designed to obtain desired operating characteristics or to provide energising current
    • H01H47/002Monitoring or fail-safe circuits
    • H01H47/004Monitoring or fail-safe circuits using plural redundant serial connected relay operated contacts in controlled circuit
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/74Switching systems
    • Y10T307/747Plural switches
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/74Switching systems
    • Y10T307/766Condition responsive
    • Y10T307/826Electrical
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/74Switching systems
    • Y10T307/937Switch actuation
    • Y10T307/951With time delay or retardation means
    • Y10T307/964Series connected switches

Abstract

The invention relates to a safety switch device (10), for switching on and safely switching off an electrical user, in particular, an electrically-driven machine (34), comprising a first (14) and a second (16) electromechanical switch element, whose working contacts (18, 20) are arranged in series with each other, between a first input terminal (30) and an output terminal (32) of the switch device. The switch device (10), furthermore, comprises a second input terminal (38) for a switching signal (Us), which acts upon the switch position of the working contacts (18, 20) of both switch elements (14, 16). The invention is characterised in that the first switch element (14) has a lower nominal switching capacity than the second switching unit (16).

Description

Safety switching device for switching on and off secure an electrical consumer, in particular an electrically driven machine

The present invention relates to a safety switching device for switching on and safe switching off an electrical load, in particular an electrically driven machine, are arranged with a first and a second electromechanical switching element, whose operating contacts in series with one another between a first input terminal and an output terminal of the switching device, and a second input terminal for a switching signal which acts on the switching position of the operating contacts of the two switching elements. Such a safety switching device is known from DE 197 36 183 Cl.

Generic safety switching devices are used mainly in the industrial field to electrically driven machines, such as, a press or a milling tool, mono- and safely off. They are used in particular in conjunction with a mechanically operable emergency stop button to turn off the machine quickly and safely in an emergency situation. For this, the power supply to the machine to run on the contacts of the two electromechanical switching elements mentioned. As soon as even one of the two switching elements opens its working contacts, the power supply of the machine is interrupted.

A known problem in the switching elements employed that the opening and closing of an energized working contact may cause a spark formation. Depending on the size which is guided through the contact of the stream, the sparking is less or more pronounced. At very high currents, an arc, which can result due to its high temperature that the working contacts weld together forms between the working contacts. This can cause the normally open contacts remain firmly adhere to one another, so that the switching element can not be opened. As the strength of the current to be switched Measures to arc extinction is required. The expense of such measures increases with the strength of the current to be switched so that switching elements for high and extremely high currents are correspondingly expensive. When the safety switching devices of the type mentioned at least two switching elements are used in series in order also to ensure a safe shutting off the power supply when the working contacts of a switching element adhere to one another due to a weld. When the safety switching device according to DE 197 36 183 Cl two safety relays connected in series are, for example, used as switching elements.

So far, this two switching elements are always used the same load class have the same nominal switching capacity related. The nominal switching capacity indicates it, which most current a switching element at a given voltage and a given power factor cos φ can switch without taking damage. The load class defines the properties of the load to be switched, for example. Whether it is a purely resistive load (load class AC 1) or to a more inductive load (load class AC 3). In the latter case sparking is particularly pronounced.

The use of two switching elements with the same nominal switching capacity has the disadvantage that both switching elements are referenced the same relative loads exposed to their respective performance. This has the consequence that both switching elements are subject to the same relative wear and therefore also carries the risk that both switching elements can fail simultaneously, eg. By welding the working contacts in both switching elements in the same shift.

Furthermore always rise in the use of two switching elements with the same nominal switching capacity costs by a factor of two when needed for switching higher currents switching elements with higher nominal switching capacity.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an alternative safety switching device, which provides a particularly high level of security in view of the possible welding of work contacts at high currents and this is inexpensive.

This object is achieved in that with the aforementioned safety switching device for the first switching element has a lower nominal switching capacity than the second switching element.

The safety switching device of the invention differs from the previously known safety switching devices in that the two mutually arranged in series switching elements have different nominal switching capacity. This is at least in respect to the same load class. This measure has the advantage that the switching elements of different strengths relative loads used are based subjected to their nominal switching capacity. Hereby is achieved that the wear of the two switching elements is different. Furthermore, the probability that both switching elements can fail simultaneously decreases. As a result, a particularly high safety margin against uncontrolled and dangerous welding of the operating contacts is achieved.

In addition, the measure has the advantage that the cost of a switching device for higher currents not increase disproportionately the advantage. As a result, it is possible to dimension a safety relay of the type mentioned already by itself so that it is specifically designed for switching high and very high currents.

The stated object is therefore completely achieved.

In one embodiment of the invention, the safety switching device a timer on which delays the switching signal such that it on the operating contacts of the first switching element during switching on of the consumer at an earlier time and turning off the consumer later in time acts than on the operating contacts of the second switching element.

This measure has the advantage that the first switching element during normal operation is not shifted under load the advantage. Consequently, no spark or arc between its working contacts may form, so that the wear of the first switching element is considerably reduced, and also a welding is excluded. Thus, the first switching element has in spite of its relatively lower nominal switching capacity, a high durability, while at the same time the safety switching device may be a total dimensioned for the switching of high currents. If due to welding work contacts fail the second, always connected under load switching element, it is sufficient that the previously "geschonte" first switching element can perform a successful switching operation under load, in which his work contacts are opened.

Thus, in this embodiment of the invention, the two switching elements have different "life expectancy", the "daily load" is here on the stronger, second switching element. A simultaneous failure of the two switching elements is thus but again virtually eliminated. Furthermore, this configuration has the advantage that the first switching element can be designed with respect to its nominal switching capacity may even be lower than in comparable switching devices. , The reason is that the first switching element is essentially only way to run a successful switching operation under load must. If his work contacts are damaged in the process, this is irrelevant, since the safety relay must be replaced anyway because of malfunction of the second switching element. The first, very cost-effective switching element thus acts as a kind of backup that can be damaged in the response. However, the safety switching device of this embodiment is very economical, especially for switching of high and very high currents, since only one switching element with the required very high nominal switching capacity is required.

In a further embodiment of the invention, at least surround the first and the second switching element by a common, tightly closed enclosure, from which the first input terminal and the output terminal are passed out.

In the tightly closed housing is a compact housing which surrounds the two switching elements in such a way that the user is then no access. This prevents damage in the security working group of the safety relay are avoided. The reliability and safety of the switching device to errors in the installation and also to manipulation is considerably increased. The advantage of the measure is particularly evident in comparison with the previously practiced solutions where individually to install contactors are used to switch very high currents in addition to the known safety switching devices. In contrast, the measure referred to provides a single, compact and easy to install component.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the first and the second switching element on a common component support are arranged.

This measure also has the advantage that the safety and reliability of the switching device is increased because faulty wiring is avoided during production. In addition, because this measure also improves the compactness and modular usability of the safety relay.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the first and the second switching element each have at least one auxiliary contact which is positively guided mechanically to the respective working contact.

Forced guidance means that the switching position of the auxiliary contacts is essential coupled with the switching position of the operating contacts, so that the switching position of the auxiliary contacts always enables reliable determination of the switching position of the operating contacts, without interfering with the power circuit of the switching elements. Only with the help of such a positive guidance, it is possible to obtain a reliable indication of the switching position of the contacts of the two switching elements. Because of the measure the safety of the switching device is further increased because a safe shutdown of the power supply can be checked against the position of the auxiliary contacts easily.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the first switching element is a relay.

The term "relay" in this case of the usual technical terminology refers according to an electromechanical switching element which is suitable for switching from low to medium flows. In particular, such a relay as normally open on only one pair of contacts. The measure has the advantage that such relays are available at low cost as standard components, so that when they are used, the cost of the safety relay are reduced overall. This is especially true in combination with the previously described embodiment in which the first switching element in the manner of a fuse is used.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the second switching element is a contactor.

can according to the German Industrial Standard DIN 57 660 part 103 is a contactor, strictly speaking, a switching element having only a rest position, which is not actuated by hand and turning currents under normal conditions the circuit including operational moderate overload, lead off. In practice, of simple contactors relays differ primarily by the fact that the current path in the working group is guided over at least two separate operating contact pairs so that a contactor already has by itself a redundancy with respect to the operating contacts. A simple relay has contrast, the working group only one contact pair. Added in the contactor integrated action to spark and arc extinction.

The measure has the advantage that a contactor has by the design of a very big robustness even at high switching frequencies. Accordingly, the lifetime of the security switching device considerably increased, in particular in combination with the first-mentioned embodiment of the invention. Moreover, the measure has the advantage that the working circuit of the safety switching device is closed only in the active state as a contactor falls back in case of failure of the switching signal by itself to its open position of rest. As a result, the safety of the switchgear is further increased with the use of a contactor.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the safety relay is configured as a contact enhancing unit for connection to a preceding switching device.

As an alternative to this measure, it is possible to design the safety relay as in fully functional unit. In contrast, the described feature that the safety switching device is needed as a modular insertable only where really high and very high currents need to be switched the advantage. In addition, many custom-developed switchgear for low and medium currents can thus easily and inexpensively upgrade to switch high and very high currents. This makes safety relay this embodiment, the present invention can be manufactured in much larger quantities, thereby reducing the overall cost again. It is understood that the features mentioned above and useful features to be explained not only in the respectively specified combination but also in other combinations or even alone, without departing from the scope of the present invention.

Embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the drawings and are explained in more detail in the following description. Show it:

Fig. 1 is a schematic representation of a safety switching device according to the invention as a safe contact amplifier and

Fig. 2, the time sequence for switching the first and the second switching element according to a preferred embodiment of the invention.

In Fig. 1 shows an inventive safety switching device is referred to as safe contact amplifier in its entirety by the reference numeral 10.

The switching device 10 is built into a compact, tightly closed housing 12 from which a plurality of input terminals and output terminals are led out. Of the switching device 10, only the essential components for the invention are shown schematically in FIG. 1. Further, per se known components of generic switching devices, such as. Willingness ads are not shown for clarity. The switching device 10 has a first switching element 14 and a second switching element 16, the NO contacts 18 and 20 arranged in series with each other. In the present case each of the two switching elements 14, 16 three sets of normally open contacts 18 and 20 which are each positively guided with one another has. Each of the two switching elements 14, 16 is therefore able to switch the three phases of a power supply 22nd In addition, each of the two switching elements 14, 16 has an auxiliary contact 24, 26, which is also positively driven by the respective working contacts 18 and 20 respectively. The auxiliary contacts 24, 26 of the two switching elements 14, 16 are also connected in series to each other. With the help of a current which is passed over the auxiliary contacts 24, 26 (not shown), it is therefore possible, the switching position of the operating contacts 18, 20 of the switching elements 14 to check 16 without intervening directly in the working circuit of the switching elements 14, 16 ,

The two switching elements 14, 16 are fixedly arranged on a common component support 28 within the housing 12th The first switching element 14 is a relay, whose operating contacts 18 each having only one contact pair. It has, based on the load class AC 3, a nominal switching capacity of 8 A. The second switching element 16 is a contactor, whose nominal switching capacity is based on the load class AC 3 16 A.

The work contacts 18, 20 of the two switching elements 14, 16 respectively form a current path, the first input terminals 30 of the switching device 10 connects to output terminals 32nd the individual phases of the power supply 22 to be connected with the installation of the switching device 10 to the Ξingangsklemmen 30th The output terminals 32 are in contrast connected to the electric load to be switched by the switching device 10 on and off. a motor is exemplified as the electrical consumers here represented 34th

The switching device 10 further has an input circuit having a timer 36th The timer 36 is driven via a second input terminal 38 and an output terminal 40 with a switching signal, which acts in the manner explained below on the switching position of the operating contacts 18, 20th The timer 36 is delayed while the switching sequence of work contacts 18, 20 in the embodiment shown in FIG. 2 type.

Starting from the second input terminal 38, the timer 36 has a first diode 42 disposed in the forward direction, the cathode with a series circuit of a resistor 44 and a Zener diode arranged in the reverse direction 46 is connected. The anode of the Zener diode 46 is connected to an input terminal of the control circuit of the second switching element sixteenth is parallel to the second switching element 16 which is arranged in the blocking diode 48. The output terminal of the control circuit of the second switching element 16 is connected to the collector of a transistor 50, whose emitter is led to the output terminal 40th The base of transistor 50 is connected through a resistor 52 to the anode of zener diode 46 and to the input terminal of the control circuit of the second switching element sixteenth

Parallel with the resistor 44 is a diode 54, whose cathode is connected to the cathode of the diode 42nd The anode of the diode 54 leads to the cathode of the Zener diode 46. Further, the anode of the diode 54 is connected via a capacitor 56 to the output terminal 40th On the cathode side, diodes 42 and 54 connected to the input terminal of the control circuit of the first switching element fourteenth On the output side of the control circuit of the first switching element 14 is guided to the output terminal 40th a reverse biased diode 58 is parallel to the first switching element 14. Finally, the input terminal 38 is still connected directly to the input side of the control circuit of the second switching element sixteenth

The switching device 10 of this embodiment serves as a contact amplifier, the output terminal 40 can be connected to a not shown here, previous switching device through the second input terminal 38 as well. This embodiment is selected for convenience, since contact amplifier circuitry is constructed comparatively simply and clearly. However, the invention can be used equally well in a complete safety relay, an emergency switch must be connected to the to operate only.

The operation of the timer 36 and thus of the switching device 10 will be explained.

In case of a positive voltage signal between the second input terminal 38 and output terminal 40, the diode 42 becomes conductive. As a result, a current from the second input terminal 38 via the diode 42 through the control circuit of the first switching element 14 flows to output terminal 40. In this way, the first switching element 14 is activated, that is, the normally open contacts 18 are closed. At the same time due to the forced coupling of the auxiliary contact 24 is opened. Furthermore, the current from the second input terminal 38 also flows through the resistor 44 to the capacitor 56 which is charged thereby. Once the voltage on capacitor 56 exceeds the breakthrough voltage of the Zener diode 46, this becomes conductive, and as a result, a base current via the resistor 52 flows through transistor 50. This in turn has the result that the transistor 50 becomes conductive, so that now a current through the control circuit of the second switching element can flow sixteenth As a result, also the second switching element 16 is activated, that is, the normally open contacts 20 are closed and the auxiliary contact 26 opens. In this state, the current paths between the first input terminals 30 and output terminals 32 are closed, so that the motor 34 is supplied with power.

For the following description, it is assumed that the timer 36 was sufficiently long to voltage that the capacitor 56 could charge. If now the voltage between the second input terminal 38 and output terminal 40, the second switching element 16 falls back to its passive state. In this way, the normally open contacts 20 are opened simultaneously and the auxiliary contact 26 are closed. As a result, the power supply to the motor is abruptly interrupted 34th

Furthermore, due to the charged capacitor 56, the diode 54 becomes conductive and the capacitor 56 discharges through the control circuit of the first switching element 14. This is therefore kept still for a certain time in its active state, ie, the working contacts 18 remain still closed for a period , As soon as the voltage on the capacitor 56 falls below the dropout voltage of the first switching element 14, the normally open contacts 18 will fall off so that the power supply to the motor is cut 34 at this time at the latest, adhere even if one or more operating contacts 20 of the second switching element 16 each other should remain. Furthermore, now the current path between the two auxiliary contacts 24, 26 closed, allowing a safe statement about the shutdown of the motor 34 due to the forced coupling.

The diodes 48 and 58 which are arranged parallel to the two switching elements 14, 16, serve in known manner for supplementary protection circuit.

The timer 36 ensures that the normally open contacts 18 of the first switching element 14 when the power supply to the motor 34 are always closed earlier in time than the normally open contacts 20 of the second switching element 16. Conversely, the normally open contacts 20 of the second switching element 16 for turning off the motor 34 always open earlier than the normally open contacts 18 of the first switching element.

These timing relationships are shown in Fig. 2 by means of three time diagrams in which designated U s, the switching signal between the second input terminal 38 and the output clamp 40. As can be seen from the illustration, the pull-in voltage U x is in time by a period of T x before the pull-in voltage U 2 for the operating contacts 20 of the second switching element 16 for the working contacts 18 of the first switching element fourteenth Conversely, the pull-in voltage U 2 falls for the second switching element 16 by a time period T 2 earlier than the pull-in voltage U x for the first switching element 14 off. In addition to the two periods of time T x and T 2 are also the switching time delays T are shown in Fig. 2 v between the switching signal U Ξ and the pull-in voltages U x and U 2. It is understood that the term "switching" in the sense of the present invention, a voltage increase of an amount below the reset voltage of the two switching elements 14, 16 at a level above the tightening tension of the two switching elements 14, 16 is within a time which is small compared to T 1. Conversely, the term "off" a voltage drop from above the holding voltage of the switching elements 14, 16 to a value below the dropout voltage of the switching elements 14, 16 within a time span which is small compared to the time T 2. In fact, the switching signals shown in FIG. 2 will have no infinitely steep rise and fall flanks.

In a further, not shown embodiment of the invention the safety switching device 10 is a full-featured stand-alone device that the components described so far has, in addition a separate power supply. With the aid of the power supply, the switching device of this embodiment generates a voltage signal, by means of which the switching position of a passive emergency stop button may be checked. then a the timer circuit 36 ​​are controlled corresponding the contacts of the two switching elements 14, 16 in response to a switching signal derived therefrom.

Claims

claims
Safety switching device for switching on and safe switching off an electrical load (34), in particular an electrically driven machine, electromechanical having first (14) and a second (16) switching element, whose operating contacts (18, 20) in series with one another between a first input terminal ( 30) and an output terminal (32) of the switching device (10) are arranged, and (to a second input terminal 38) (for a switching signal U s), which (on the shift position of the operating contacts 18, 20) of the two switching elements (14, 16 ) is applied, characterized in that the first switching element (14) has a lower nominal switching capacity than the second switching element (16).
Safety switching device according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises a timer (36) which delays the switching signal (U s) such that it earlier on the operating contacts (18) of the first switching element (14) when switching on of the consumer (34) temporally and later in time acts when switching off the consumer (34) than on the operating contacts (20) of the second switching element (16).
3. Safety switching device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that at least the first (14) and second (16) are surrounded switching element by a common, tightly closed enclosure (12) from which the first input terminal (30) and the output terminal (32) are led out.
4. Safety switching device according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the first (14) and the second are arranged (16) switching element on a common component support (28).
5. Safety switching device according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the first (14) and second (16) switching element each have at least one auxiliary contact (24, 26) connected to the respective working contact (18, 20) forcibly guided mechanically is.
6. Safety switching device according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the first switching element (14) is a relay.
7. Safety switching device according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the second switching element (16) is a contactor.
8. Safety switching device according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that it is designed as a contact enhancing unit for connection to a preceding switching device.
EP20000971407 1999-11-12 2000-11-02 Safety switch device for switching on and safely switching off an electrical user, in particular an electrically driven machine Not-in-force EP1228519B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19954460 1999-11-12
DE1999154460 DE19954460C2 (en) 1999-11-12 1999-11-12 Safety switching device for switching an electrical consumer, in particular an electrically driven machine, on and off
PCT/EP2000/010788 WO2001037302A1 (en) 1999-11-12 2000-11-02 Safety switch device for switching on and safely switching off an electrical user, in particular an electrically driven machine

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1228519A1 true EP1228519A1 (en) 2002-08-07
EP1228519B1 EP1228519B1 (en) 2004-05-26

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20000971407 Not-in-force EP1228519B1 (en) 1999-11-12 2000-11-02 Safety switch device for switching on and safely switching off an electrical user, in particular an electrically driven machine

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (1) US6570272B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1228519B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4490616B2 (en)
AT (1) AT268053T (en)
AU (1) AU1027401A (en)
DE (1) DE19954460C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2001037302A1 (en)

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WO2001037302A1 (en) 2001-05-25
AU1027401A (en) 2001-05-30
JP2003514361A (en) 2003-04-15
US20020130557A1 (en) 2002-09-19
EP1228519B1 (en) 2004-05-26
JP4490616B2 (en) 2010-06-30
DE19954460A1 (en) 2001-09-20
DE19954460C2 (en) 2002-02-28
AT268053T (en) 2004-06-15
US6570272B2 (en) 2003-05-27

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