EP1157776A2 - Cold formed high-loaded bearing steel parts and process for forming same - Google Patents

Cold formed high-loaded bearing steel parts and process for forming same Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1157776A2
EP1157776A2 EP01201642A EP01201642A EP1157776A2 EP 1157776 A2 EP1157776 A2 EP 1157776A2 EP 01201642 A EP01201642 A EP 01201642A EP 01201642 A EP01201642 A EP 01201642A EP 1157776 A2 EP1157776 A2 EP 1157776A2
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
blank
bore
hard turning
lateral
forming
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP01201642A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1157776A3 (en
Inventor
Michael J. Skilling
William P. Vukovich
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Delphi Technologies Inc
Original Assignee
Delphi Technologies Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US577174 priority Critical
Priority to US09/577,174 priority patent/US6440237B1/en
Application filed by Delphi Technologies Inc filed Critical Delphi Technologies Inc
Publication of EP1157776A2 publication Critical patent/EP1157776A2/en
Publication of EP1157776A3 publication Critical patent/EP1157776A3/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass
    • B23P15/003Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass bearings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C33/00Parts of bearings; Special methods for making bearings or parts thereof
    • F16C33/30Parts of ball or roller bearings
    • F16C33/58Raceways; Race rings
    • F16C33/62Selection of substances
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C33/00Parts of bearings; Special methods for making bearings or parts thereof
    • F16C33/30Parts of ball or roller bearings
    • F16C33/58Raceways; Race rings
    • F16C33/64Special methods of manufacture
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S148/00Metal treatment
    • Y10S148/902Metal treatment having portions of differing metallurgical properties or characteristics
    • Y10S148/906Roller bearing element
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S384/00Bearings
    • Y10S384/90Cooling or heating
    • Y10S384/912Metallic

Abstract

A process for forming a metal, preferably steel, roller bearing comprising the steps of providing a hardened steel cylindrical blank (2-A) having end face surfaces, a lateral surface defining an outer diameter, and a centered circular bore whose surface defines an inner diameter; hard turning the surface of the bore (2-C) to a specified inner diameter; and hard turning the lateral surface of the blank (2-E) to achieve, in a single set up, a final form of the bearing having a specified outer diameter with a radial crown.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present invention relates to cold formed steel parts and, more particularly, to cold formed high-load bearing steel parts such as roller bearings. Most particularly, the present invention relates to the use of high strength, high carbon steels to form these parts, and to a process for forming them.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • High-load bearing steel parts made of high strength steels are widely used in the automotive industry for a variety of applications, such as for example, roller bearings included in hydraulic valve lifters and roller finger followers for automotive engines. Critical features of these roller bearings, such as their inside diameters, outside diameters and diametral surfaces, must be manufactured to close engineering tolerances to optimize performance and to minimize wear under extreme engine operating conditions. The need for high strength steels manufactured to exacting tolerances has become even greater with the application of smaller, more efficient engines in today's vehicles.
  • Typically, roller bearings are fabricated from high carbon steel by hot or warm forging processes or by machining bar stock. Hot forging requires first heating a steel slug in its preformed state to a temperature between 1600° F to 2000° F to allow formability. Mechanically forming techniques such as upsetting, heading, and extrusion, which are well known in the art, are then used to bring the shape of the part close to the final desired form. However, because of surface scaling resulting from the high temperature preheating process and because of the dimensional growth of the part as the part cools, a substantial amount of final machining is required to bring the part to its required dimensions. For example, the diametral surfaces of the part must be machined to their final dimensions and surface finish. The inside and outside diameters must also be machined to their final dimensions and surface finish. Because of the amount of material that must be removed, the machining often must be completed in several steps including rough cutting, grinding, and honing. These added machining operations are time consuming, add manufacturing steps to the process, and require the use of expensive machine tools. Furthermore, the added machining operations can produce inconsistent results which can vary significantly from part to part. Moreover, with the use of ovens or heaters to bring the slug up to temperature for forming, and the need to handle extremely hot parts during the process, there is added safety issues.
  • Warm forging requires the steel slug to be first heated to a lower temperature than the hot forming process - between 300° F and 1600° F - before the part is mechanically formed using one of the forming methods described above. While surface scaling typically does not occur because of the relatively lower temperatures used in the warm forming process, dimensional growth of the part does occur as the part cools. As a result, a substantial amount of final machining is similarly required.
    Thus, the warm forming process does not eliminate the time consuming and expensive steps of machining and finishing the diametral surfaces and the inner and outer diameters, the dimensional variations caused by the machining and finishing, nor the potential dangers found in the hot forming process.
  • Machining the part to the required dimensions from bar stock eliminates the expense and potential dangers of having to preheat the slug before forming. But cycle times are even longer than either the hot or warm forming processes since more material has to be removed to reach the final desired dimensions. Moreover, a greater amount of material must be inventoried to manufacture the part and a substantial amount of material is wasted in the form of metal shavings. Expensive machine tools are required and the results from the machining operations can vary widely from part to part. Also, since substantially more machining and final finishing of the part is required, a significant amount of cost is added to the product due to the higher cost of skilled labor and the additional energy consumption associated with the machining and finishing.
  • Cold forming processes, as defined in this application, are carried out at temperatures ranging from the ambient up to about 300EF and include techniques such as upsetting, heading, and extrusion. U.S. Patent No. 4,202,082 to Williams discloses a method of manufacturing a spherical bearing rod end having cold formed faces that include an annular area to serve as the outer race member. However, since the method does not use a high strength, high carbon steel slug to form the load bearing surfaces, the finished part must utilize additional metal inserts for the load bearing surfaces. U.S. Patent No. 5,453,139 to Gallagher, Jr. discloses a method of making cold formed high strength parts from steel that has a ferrite-pearlite microstructure and consists of about 0.30 to about 0.65 wt.% carbon, about 0.30 to about 2.5 wt.% manganese, and up to about 0.35 wt.% of at least one grain refiner from the group consisting of aluminum, niobium, titanium, vanadium, and mixtures thereof, the balance being iron. However, the method is limited to steels having a carbon content lower than the present invention and lower than that found to be most desirable for roller bearings having optimal performance and minimal wear characteristics.
  • Until the present invention, it was thought that cold forming a part from high strength, high carbon steel would likely result in the formation of cracks in the finished part. Therefore, what was needed in the art is a high load bearing part that can be produced by a method that minimizes the need for finishing and/or machining operations. Furthermore, what was needed in the art is a high load bearing part that does not require additional metal inserts or other parts to serve as the load bearing surfaces. Moreover, what was needed in the art is a high load bearing part that has the preferred carbon content for use in roller bearings. Even further, what was need in the art is a high load bearing part that minimizes the scrap and waste of raw materials. Finally, what was needed in the art is a high load bearing part that can be made to close dimensional tolerances with minimal part-to-part variation.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to a method of forming a high load bearing part, such as a roller bearing, from a high strength, high carbon steel, using a cold forming method of fabricating the part that minimizes waste and minimizes the amount of machining or finishing required after the part is formed. The term "net shape" as used herein means that the dimension of the part, as a result of the forming process, requires no further machining to achieve its final desired dimension.
  • The present invention provides a high load bearing part made of high carbon steel and a method of forming the part using a cold forming process where its critical surfaces are either net shaped by the cold forming process or require minimal finishing to achieve the desired dimensions.
  • The present invention is directed to a cold formed high-load bearing steel part comprising high-carbon steel having at least 0.7 weight percent carbon and up to 1.6 weight percent of at least one alloying element. The present invention is further directed to a process for making the steel part that comprises: providing a slug made of high-carbon steel that comprises at least 0.7 weight percent carbon and up to 1.6 weight percent of at least one alloying element and has volume sufficient to form the part; cold forming the slug to form a blank having lateral and end surfaces; and finishing the surfaces as required to form the part.
  • Further in accordance with the present invention is a process for forming a roller bearing that comprises: providing a cylindrical slug having at least 0.7 weight percent carbon and up to 1.6 weight percent of at least one alloying element and has lateral and circular end surfaces and sufficient volume to form the roller bearing. A centered indentation is formed in each end surface, and a circular chamfer surface is formed at each intersection of the end and lateral surfaces, thereby producing an upsetting slug.
  • The upsetting slug is cold formed, thereby deepening the centered indentations and forming a blank that has a web separating the deepened indentations and end surfaces and chamfer surfaces that are substantially at net shape for the roller bearing. The web is removed from said blank, thereby forming a pierced blank having a through hole with an inner surface. The inner and lateral surfaces of the pierced blank are finished to dimensions having, respectively, the specified inner and outer diameters for the roller bearing.
  • The present invention provides a high load bearing part, such as roller bearings made, inexpensively, from high strength, high carbon steels, and using a cold forming process. The high load bearing parts, made according to the present invention can be efficiently made from a steel having a preferred carbon content for improved durability and wear.
  • The above-mentioned and other features and advantages of this invention, and the manner of attaining them, will become apparent and be better understood by reference to the following description of the invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 depicts the steps in the process of forming a cold formed roller bearing in accordance with the present invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a flow chart that shows the step of heat treating the pierced blank prior to finishing the roller bearing.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • Cold forming fabrication of steel parts typically utilizes low- to medium-carbon steels, i.e., steels having a carbon content of 0.6 weight percent or less. It has been generally believed in the art that cold forming a part from higher-carbon steels, which
    exhibit preferred durability and wear characteristics as compared to low-to medium-carbon steels, would result in the formation cracks or fractures. Thus, higher-carbon steels have been generally employed in warm and hot forging processes at temperatures in the range of about 300-2200EF. As previously noted, warm and hot forged products typically have less readily controlled net shape dimensions than those obtained by cold forming and may thus require further processing to meet specifications.
  • The present invention provides for net shape fabrication by cold forming of high-load bearing steel parts such as roller bearings from high-carbon steel containing at least 0.7, preferably at least 1.0, weight percent carbon together with up to 1.6 weight percent of at least one alloying element. Preferred alloying elements include molybdenum, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and mixtures thereof, chromium being especially preferred. Steels useful for the practice of the present invention include, for example, grades 1074, 1090, 51100, and 52100 steel. A preferred steel is 52100 grade, which contains 1.00 weight percent carbon and 1.45 weight percent chromium.
  • In a process for forming high-load bearing steel parts in accordance with the present invention, a slug of high-carbon steel having a carbon content of at least 0.7 weight percent and up to 1.6 weight percent of at least one alloying element and of sufficient volume to form the desired part is cold formed to form a blank having lateral and end surfaces. These surfaces are then finished, using methods known in the art, for example, grinding, burnishing, honing, coining, piercing, and combinations thereof, to produce the desired dimensions of the part.
  • Cold forming, which can be carried out at temperatures ranging from ambient to about 300°F, includes upsetting, where the cross-sectional area of a portion or all of a slug is increased, and extruding, where the slug is forced through the orifice of a die to produce a blank of decreased uniform cross-section. Heading is also included where the blank to be upset is a wire, rod or bar stock. Upsetting at substantially ambient temperature, which is preferred for the practice of the present invention, can be carried out using commercially available machinery such as a nut former or a header machine.
    Following cold forming and prior to finishing, the blank can be heat treated as known in the art, i.e., austenitized, quenched, and tempered to produce sufficient hardness for the desired application. Useful austenitizing temperature and time ranges are about 1475ºF to about 1625°F for about 30 minutes to about 90 minutes. Parts that can be advantageously formed by the process of the present invention include rollers, cam rollers, roller bearings, bearing races, nuts, and the like.
  • In one embodiment, the present invention provides for a cold formed high-load bearing steel part such as a roller bearing, which can be produced substantially at net shape and requires only minimal adjustment of its inside and outside diameters to their specified dimensions. Shown in FIG. 1 are the steps for fabricating a roller bearing 100 by the cold forming process of the present invention.
  • At station A, a cylindrical slug 10 of the length necessary to provide the proper volume of metal to form the roller bearing is sheared from bar stock and squared up, and an indentation 11 is made in one side 12 to form an indent slug 13.
  • At station B, a second indentation 14 is made in the opposite side 15 of indent slug 13, and circular chamfers 16 and 17 are formed, producing upsetting slug 18.
  • At station C, upsetting slug 18 is cold formed by applying pressure to indentations 11 and 14 to produce a blank 19 having a web 20 and parallel end surfaces 21 and 22 and chamfer surfaces 23 and 24 that are substantially at net shape for roller bearing 100.
  • At station D, web 20 is pierced out of blank 19, thereby forming a pierced blank 25 having a through hole 26.
  • At station E, through hole 26 is burnished to remove the pierce flash and to form a bearing inner surface 27 and a lateral outer surface 28 having, respectively, inner and outer diameters that substantially meet the specifications for roller bearing 100 of the present invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a flow chart that shows the step of heat treating pierced blank 25 prior to the finishing step. Following the heat treatment, the inner and lateral outer surfaces of the hardened pierced blank are turned to produce substantially the required inner and outer diameters. Finishing the inner surface completes the fabrication of roller bearing 100.
  • The invention has been described in detail for the purpose of illustration, but it is to be understood that such detail is solely for that purpose, and variations can be made therein by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, which is defined by the following claims.

Claims (11)

  1. A process for forming a metal roller bearing, said process comprising the steps of:
    obtaining a hardened metal cylindrical blank (2-A) having end face surfaces, a lateral surface defining an outer diameter, and a centered circular bore, said bore having an inner surface defining an inner diameter;
    a first hard turning step (2-C) wherein the inner surface of the bore is turned to a specified inner diameter; and
    a second hard turning step (2-E) wherein the lateral surface of the blank is turned to a specific outer diameter.
  2. The process of claim 1 wherein said second step (2-E) of hard turning the lateral surface of the blank includes the formation of a radial crown.
  3. The process of claim 1 wherein said blank (2-A) is made of a steel material and is formed by a method selected from the group consisting of warm forging, hot forging, cold forming, and machining.
  4. The process of claim 3 wherein said formed blank (2-A) is heat treated.
  5. The process of claim 1 wherein said blank (2-A) is cold formed and comprises a pierced flash, said process further comprising:
       prior to hard turning said inner surface of said bore to a specified inner diameter, removing said pierced flash (2-B).
  6. The process of claim 5 wherein said removing said pierced flash (2-B) is carried out by hard turning said inner surface of said bore.
  7. The process of claim 1 wherein said hard turning of said inner surface of said bore (2-C) is carried out using a diamond honing machine.
  8. The process of claim 1 further comprising:
       forming an incised cross-hatch pattern on said inner surface of said bore.
  9. The process of claim 1 wherein said hard turning said lateral surface is carried out using a computer numerically controlled (CNC) lathe. The process of claim 9 wherein said lathe comprises a cubic boron nitride or ceramic cutting tool.
  10. The process of claim 1 wherein said hard turning the inner surface of said bore (2-C) precedes said hard turning the lateral surface of said blank (2-E).
  11. The process of claim 1 wherein said hard turning the lateral surface of said blank (2-E) precedes said hard turning the inner surface of said bore (2-C).
EP01201642A 2000-05-23 2001-05-07 Cold formed high-loaded bearing steel parts and process for forming same Withdrawn EP1157776A3 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US577174 1984-02-06
US09/577,174 US6440237B1 (en) 2000-05-23 2000-05-23 Process for forming cold formed high-load bearing steel parts

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP04019895A EP1477693A1 (en) 2000-05-23 2001-05-07 Process for forming cold formed high-loaded bearing steel parts

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EP1157776A2 true EP1157776A2 (en) 2001-11-28
EP1157776A3 EP1157776A3 (en) 2002-09-04

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EP1215290A2 (en) * 2000-12-13 2002-06-19 Eaton Corporation Heat treated stainless steel hydraulic components and method for making same
EP1158194A3 (en) * 2000-05-23 2002-07-24 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Process for forming steel roller bearings
WO2009091297A1 (en) * 2008-01-15 2009-07-23 Aktiebolaget Skf Simplified rolling bearing unit and a method for manufacturing such a bearing unit
CN102773674A (en) * 2012-08-11 2012-11-14 安徽省小小科技实业有限责任公司 Hot forging, cold drawing composite molding process of bowl-shaped piece
CN103170803A (en) * 2013-03-07 2013-06-26 杭州新纪元安全产品有限公司 Method of manufacturing rolling wheels of four-roller centrifugal machine on rock wool production line
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DE102012221742A1 (en) * 2012-11-28 2014-05-28 Aktiebolaget Skf Method for producing bearing ring of rolling bearing, involves providing annular portion with cylindrical seat surface that is produced by hard turning process
DE102012221740A1 (en) * 2012-11-28 2014-05-28 Aktiebolaget Skf Method for manufacturing bearing ring of roller bearing, involves forming cylindrical seating surface by honing operation and providing bearing ring to be positioned with its seating surface, particularly with press fit on or in component
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CN104439922A (en) * 2014-10-28 2015-03-25 江苏万达特种轴承有限公司 Chamfering technology
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WO2015176767A1 (en) * 2014-05-23 2015-11-26 Aktiebolaget Skf Method for producing a bearing ring of a rolling-element bearing
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CN107524707A (en) * 2017-08-28 2017-12-29 大连冶金工具厂有限公司 A kind of bearing holder (housing, cover) processing technology
CN109604960A (en) * 2018-12-19 2019-04-12 内蒙古北方重型汽车股份有限公司 Quarry tipper wet brake processing method of casing
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CN111015123A (en) * 2019-12-28 2020-04-17 中国航发哈尔滨轴承有限公司 Method for prolonging fatigue life of cylindrical roller

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