EP0965059B1 - Anti-reflection coating and method for producing same - Google Patents

Anti-reflection coating and method for producing same Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0965059B1
EP0965059B1 EP98906800A EP98906800A EP0965059B1 EP 0965059 B1 EP0965059 B1 EP 0965059B1 EP 98906800 A EP98906800 A EP 98906800A EP 98906800 A EP98906800 A EP 98906800A EP 0965059 B1 EP0965059 B1 EP 0965059B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
surface
characterised
anti
substrate
method according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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EP98906800A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0965059A1 (en
Inventor
Andreas Gombert
Hansjörg LERCHENMÜLLER
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Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Angewandten Forschung eV
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Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Angewandten Forschung eV
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Priority to DE19708776 priority Critical
Priority to DE19708776A priority patent/DE19708776C1/en
Application filed by Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Angewandten Forschung eV filed Critical Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Angewandten Forschung eV
Priority to PCT/DE1998/000117 priority patent/WO1998039673A1/en
Publication of EP0965059A1 publication Critical patent/EP0965059A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0965059B1 publication Critical patent/EP0965059B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B1/00Optical elements characterised by the material of which they are made
    • G02B1/10Optical coatings produced by application to, or surface treatment of, optical elements
    • G02B1/11Anti-reflection coatings
    • G02B1/118Anti-reflection coatings having sub-optical wavelength surface structures designed to provide an enhanced transmittance, e.g. moth-eye structures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24479Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including variation in thickness
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/31Surface property or characteristic of web, sheet or block
    • Y10T428/315Surface modified glass [e.g., tempered, strengthened, etc.]

Abstract

The invention relates to an anti-reflection coating with a carrier layer consisting of an optically transparent material. At least one surface of said layer has antireflective properties with respect to the wavelength of the radiation incident on said surface. The invention also relates to a method for producing said layer. The invention is characterized in that the antireflective surface has a rough surface with stochastically distributed structures, i.e. so-called macrostructures, and that said macrostructures are further modulated by periodically sequenced surface structures, i.e. so-called microstructures, the cycle lengths of which are smaller than the wavelengths of the radiation incident on the antireflective surface.

Description

Technical area

The invention relates to an anti-reflection layer with one of a optically transparent material existing carrier layer, at least on one Surface side antireflective properties with respect to the surface having incident radiation wavelengths. Moreover, inventive Method for producing the anti-reflection layer specified.

State of the art

At the interfaces of transparent media, such as glass or Plastic discs, preferably for window, screen or Instrument panels are used, is always part of the on the Reflected surfaces of incident light, so reflected back into space. By the occurring on the interface of the transparent Medjen Reflections become the see-through characteristics as well as the Reading capabilities of screens or displays significantly affected. to Improvement of the transparency or readability of screens of a more general nature, anti-reflection measures are known various influence on the reflection properties at the interfaces to take.

For example, reflecting surfaces can be antireflected, inter alia, by: the surface is provided with a suitable roughness. Although it is through the Roughening the interface surface, the same proportion of incident light in the space is reflected back, but become parallel to the surface incident Light rays through the surface roughness in different directions reflected back. In this way, clear mirror images are avoided, that is Light sources, usually with sharp edges imaged at the interface reflected, only lead to a fairly homogeneous brightening on roughened interface. In this way, strong luminance differences avoided and the reflexes are far less disturbing.

This type of antireflection coating is successful for example in displays with the Designation Antiglare layer used. A significant advantage of this Antireflection technology is the formability of the structures by reasonably priced Embossing processes. A disadvantage of this type of anti-reflection, however, is that the hemispherical reflection, i. the sum of reflective and diffuse Reflection in the entire backward space area, not in the best case is increased, whereby the background brightness of such prepared glass surfaces of screens is relatively high. This leads not least to a considerable Reducing the contrast of one behind such an antiglare layer existing image or display.

Another way to refract optical surfaces is through the Applying suitable interference layers. This is the anti-reflective Surface with one or more thin layers with suitable Refractive index and appropriate thickness coated. The interference layer structure is thereby formed such that in suitable wavelength ranges destructive Interference phenomena occur in the reflected radiation field, causing For example, reflections of light sources are greatly reduced in their brightness. However, their image remains in the reflected beam path, unlike the aforementioned Antiglare layer, sharp. Even with a visual Residual reflection <0.4%, the sharp mirror images are sometimes more disturbing than the ones relatively high brightness of antiglare surfaces. The contrast ratio is good. For however, most screens and other applications are Interference layers in the production too expensive.

A third alternative to the reflection coating of optical surfaces consists in the introduction so-called subwavelength grating, which on the interface of an optical transparent medium leads to a refractive index gradient, whereby an optical Effect as it is generated by interference layers. Such a Refractive index gradient is realized by surface structures, if the Structures are smaller than the wavelengths of the incident light. Suitable for this purpose Conveniently, the production of periodic structures by means of holographic Exposure in a photoresist layer on the surface of a transparent Medium is applied.

Examples of such subwavelength gratings are the publications DE 38 31 503 C2 and DE 2 422 298 A1 can be removed.

Such sub-wavelength surface gratings with periods of 200 to 300 nm are suitable for broadband reflection reduction. Such surfaces, the Also known by the term "moth-eye-antireflection-surfaces" are in an article by M.C. Hutley, S.J. Willson, "The Optical Properties of Moth Eye Antireflection Surfaces," OPTICA ACTA, 1982, Vol. 29, No. 7, pages 993-1009, described in detail. Although there is the great advantage of such "moth-eye layers" in the inexpensively reproduced by embossing processes Production method, so to speak of Antiglare structures, but is the large-scale Making such structures very difficult, due to the very tight optical tolerance ranges with respect to the variance of structure depths and a very high aspect ratio, i. very high ratio of structure depth and Period of structures through which falsifying color effects can occur. Moreover, on such surface finishes, the images of Light sources as sharp in the reflected image, as with interference layers the case is.

Presentation of the invention

The invention is based on the object, an antireflective coating with a an optically transparent material existing carrier layer, the at least on a surface side antireflective properties with respect to the Surface incident radiation wavelengths, further develop such that especially when used with screen surfaces, the contrast ratio in essentially not by the reflection behavior at the optical interface is impaired. Discrete reflection images, as with interference layers and Reflections on subwavelength gratings occur, should be avoided. The The inventive antireflection coating should in particular be hemispherical Reflective properties, the reflectivity far below those of normal Antiglare layers lie. Moreover, a method for producing the According to the invention are provided with the anti-reflection layer, with the large-scale antireflection coatings can be produced, despite low Production costs.

The solution of the problem underlying the invention is in claim 1 specified. Claim 7 is directed to an inventive manufacturing method. The dependent claims contain the respective inventive idea advantageous training features.

According to the invention, an antireflection coating with one of an optical transparent material existing carrier layer, at least on one Surface side antireflective properties with respect to the surface having incident radiation wavelengths, formed such that the antireflective surface side a surface roughness with stochastic distributed structures - the so-called macrostructures - has, and that the Macrostructures with surface structures of periodic sequence in addition are modulated - the so-called microstructures - which have period lengths, which is smaller than the wavelengths of the incident on the anti-reflective surface Radiation is.

The invention is based on the idea of the advantages of the reflection properties of described above, known Antiglare layers with those of To combine subwavelength gratings. By the superposition of macro and Microstructures on one and the same optical surface become one prevents discrete reflection images due to the macrostructures, and secondly the proportion by hemispherical reflection at the surface through the Drastically reduced microstructures. Especially in use Monitor display surfaces effects the inventive anti-reflection coating a significant increase in contrast ratios, a substantial destruction from mirror reflexes and a crucial reduction of hemispheric and reflective reflection.

By the superimposition of macro and microstructures according to the invention is also a large-scale production of the mirror layer according to the invention in difference to the known "moth-eye structures" possible, especially at the larger areas that are provided with moth-eye structures occurring only Mottling through the macrostructure and the associated diffuse Surface texture literally laminated away, i. visually in the background is urged.

To achieve the desired effect of diffuse reflection through the macrostructures are statistically on the surface of the anti-reflective coating applied structures with an average structure size, typically on the order of 10-100 times the wavelength of the Surface incident radiation. Due to the purely statistical distribution of Macrostructures, the anti-reflection layer receives a surface roughness through which radiation incident on the surface is completely diffusely reflected. To the Disadvantages of the above-described, not reduced hemispherical To avoid reflection, the diffusely reflected radiation components arrive, conditionally by additionally provided on the surface microstructuring, the typical period length of less than 250 nm and a typical structure depth of greater than 100 nm, as it were the reflection of interference layers in destructive interference. Due to the destructive interference phenomena will be the hemispherical reflection properties of the invention Antireflective coating significantly improved, resulting in particular in use of screen surfaces or instrument displays give improved contrast ratios. Also, the use of the inventive antireflection coating, in particular for solar applications, such as the glazing of solar cells or similar, photovoltaic working systems.

By the preferred embodiment of the anti-reflection layer on a Carrier film, which may be formed, for example, one-sided adhesive, the Layer on the most diverse optical systems versatile. In particular, the anti-reflection coating is suitable for liquid crystal displays and screens in which the layer together with the polarizer in a single Foil can be combined. Reflection measurements have shown that it Help of the anti-reflection layer according to the invention is possible, both the direct visually reduce the hemispherical reflection to well below 1%.

In addition to the use of films as a transparent carrier layer, the Inventive coating layer also applied directly to glass substrates example, as the display surface of a monitor or a serve other instrument display.

Furthermore, according to the invention, a method for producing an antireflection coating comprising a carrier layer consisting of an optically transparent material, which has antireflective properties with respect to the radiation wavelengths incident on the surface at least on one surface side, is designed such that the method comprises the combination of the following method steps:

  • In a first step, at least one surface of a planar substrate is provided with a stochastically distributed surface structure, the so-called macrostructures.
  • The application of macrostructures takes place either on mechanical, chemical way or by means of a photoresist layer, which exposes accordingly Alternatively, the substrate surface may also be coated with a coating be having a surface roughness in the desired manner, or forms.

    Further, the above pretreated substrate surface, if still on it no photoresist layer has been applied, a photoresist layer plotted with an interference pattern by overlapping two coherent ones Wave fields is exposed so that surface structures with periodic sequence, arise the so-called microstructures. The thus exposed photoresist layer will be developed below. Below is the macro and microstructures having substrate surface formed on a embossing matrix, by means of which the an optically transparent material existing carrier layer as part of a Embossing process is structured.

    The preparation of the macrostructure on a substrate surface may occur mechanical way, preferably by means of sandblasting, glass bead blasting or by lapping, i. by grinding, the desired Surface roughening done.

    In addition to mechanical roughening, for example, offer wet-chemical Etching alternative ways, the substrate surface with the desired To provide roughness. Also, layer deposits on the Substrate surface having the desired surface roughness, the Lead macrostructures.

    In addition to the direct treatment of the substrate surface sees the application of a Photoresist layer on the substrate surface another, alternative Preparation method for the macrostructure before. The thickness of the applied The photoresist layer must be greater than the achievable structural depth, obtained in overlays of macrostructures and microstructures. That's the way it is on the one hand possible by incoherent or coherent exposure of Photoresist layer using gray value masks a stochastic To obtain structure distribution on the photoresist layer. Alternatively or in In addition to the above exposure variant, also bacon patterns in the photoresist layer are imprinted. Suitable for this purpose are diffuser glass panes, which are irradiated with coherent light. The way this way pre-exposed photoresist layer can be developed at this stage, thereby on the photoresist layer, which is said to be sufficiently thick, a stochastically distributed height profile, the so-called macrostructure results.

    Likewise, the above-exposed photoresist layer without Intermediate development exposed to a further exposure step, through the microstructuring is imprinted into the surface. With the aid of of two coherent wave fields superimposed, the preexposed, and optionally pretreated photoresist with the itself exposed from the superposition interference pattern exposed so that on the Stochastically distributed surface structure a periodic sequence of so-called Form microstructures.

    As it is known from the transmission technology of electromagnetic waves Principle of the modulated carrier frequency, with the above-described Procedure on the macrostructure modulated a microstructure. One Downstream development process, if the development step to spatial generation of the macrostructure has not yet been carried out, the entire macro- and microstructure on the photoresist layer spatially free.

    The surface structure obtained in this way is used in a subsequent, preferably galvanic molding on a typically nickel transferred to existing metal masters. The metal master or copies of the Metal masters serve as embossing dies for subsequent embossing processes. at These subsequent embossing processes are the inventive Surface structures, for example by thermoplastic molding or transferred by UV curing to carrier layers, typically as films are formed. In addition to films also organic or inorganic Coatings or solid polymers.

    Brief description of the drawings

    The invention will now be described by way of example without limitation of the general inventive idea using exemplary embodiments with reference to the drawings, which are expressly referred to in the rest with respect to the disclosure of all unspecified in the text details of the invention. Show it:

    Fig. 1
    the schematic representation of the surface structure according to the invention and
    Fig. 2
    Diagrammatic representation of the hemispherical reflection of an interfacial substrate-air coated according to the method according to the invention.
    Brief description of an embodiment

    From Fig. 1 is a mere schematic representation of a typical surface profile in Cross-sectional representation of the inventive anti-reflection layer shown. The macrostructure is subject to a stochastic, that is nonuniform Distribution and corresponds in analogy to the transmission technology electromagnetic Shafts of the shape of a carrier wave, the one shown in Fig. 1 Surface structure can be highlighted. On the carrier wave, respectively on the Macrostructure is the microstructuring quasi modulated.

    FIG. 2 shows a diagram which corresponds to a measurement. in which the reflection properties of an optically transparent medium with a Refractive index of 1.6 have been measured. It can be clearly seen that the Hemispherical reflection over the entire visible wavelength range and in the adjacent infrared range is well below 2%. Comparative measurements with just Antiglare antireflection coatings have shown in that they are orders of magnitude larger than those measured in FIG Values are.

    Claims (18)

    1. Optically transparent substrate, having an anti-reflective coating with anti-reflective properties with respect to the radiation wavelengths which are incident on the surface, configured in such a manner that the anti-reflective surface side has a surface roughness with stochastically distributed structures - the so-called macrostructures, and in that the macrostructures are in addition modulated with surface structures - the so-called microstructures, characterised in that these microstructures have a periodic sequence and the period lengths are smaller than the wavelengths of the radiation which is incident on the anti-reflective surface.
    2. Substrate having an anti-reflective coating according to claim 1, characterised in that the macrostructures have an average structure size of the order of magnitude of 10 to 100 times the wavelength of the radiation.
    3. Substrate having an anti-reflective coating according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that said substrate is configured as a foil.
    4. Substrate having an anti-reflective coating according to claim 3, characterised in that the foil has a one-sided adhesive configuration.
    5. Substrate having an anti-reflective coating according to one of the claims 1 to 4, characterised in that the period length of the microstructures is smaller than 250 nm.
    6. Substrate having an anti-reflective coating according to one of the claims 1 to 5, characterised in that the structure depth of the microstructures is greater than 100 nm.
    7. Method for producing an optically transparent substrate, having an anti-reflective coating with anti-reflective properties with respect to the radiation wavelengths which are incident on the surface, characterised by the combination of the following method steps:
      a surface of a planar substrate is roughened by a mechanical or chemical method in such a manner, or
      coated with a photoresist layer, which is exposed in such a manner, or
      provided with a coating, which forms or has a surface roughness,
      such that stochastically distributed structures - so-called macrostructures - are produced,
      a photoresist layer is applied, if not already present, on the surface of the planar substrate, which photoresist layer is exposed with an interference pattern by means of superimposition of two coherent wave fields, so that surface structures with a periodic sequence - so-called microstructures - are produced,
      the exposed photoresist layer is developed, and
      the substrate surface which has macro- and microstructures is moulded on an embossing matrix, by means of which optically transparent material is structured within the scope of an embossing process.
    8. Method according to claim 7,
      characterised in that the mechanical method of surface roughening is effected by means of sand blasting or glass bead blasting.
    9. Method according to claim 7 or 8,
      characterised in that the surface roughening is effected by lapping or grinding of the surface.
    10. Method according to claim 7,
      characterised in that the chemical method of surface roughening is effected by means of wet-chemical etching.
    11. Method according to claim 7,
      characterised in that a sol-gel layer is applied on the surface.
    12. Method according to one of the claims 7 to 11,
      characterised in that the method steps according to claims 7 to 10 are combined in any manner.
    13. Method according to one of the claims 7 to 12,
      characterised in that, in order to produce the macrostructure, the surface of the planar substrate, which is coated with a photoresist layer, is exposed by means of a mask which has a gray scale value distribution.
    14. Method according to one of the claims 7 to 13,
      characterised in that, in order to produce the macrostructure, the surface of the planar substrate, which is coated with a photoresist layer, is exposed with a speckle pattern which contains a stochastic intensity distribution.
    15. Method according to claim 14,
      characterised in that the speckle pattern is produced by means of irradiation of a diffuser glass disc with coherent light.
    16. Method according t.o one of the claims 7 to 15,
      characterised in that the moulding of the substrate surface which has the macro- and microstructures is effected on the embossing matrix by means of electroforming.
    17. Method according to one of the claims 7 to 16,
      characterised in that the embossing process is effected by means of thermoplastic embossing or embossing with radiation curing, in particular UV curing.
    18. Method according to one of the claims 7 to 16,
      characterised in that the embossing process of the substrate surface which has the macro- and microstructures is effected on the embossing matrix by means of injection moulding methods.
    EP98906800A 1997-03-04 1998-01-14 Anti-reflection coating and method for producing same Expired - Lifetime EP0965059B1 (en)

    Priority Applications (3)

    Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
    DE19708776 1997-03-04
    DE19708776A DE19708776C1 (en) 1997-03-04 1997-03-04 Anti-reflection coating for glass or plastics panels used in windows, display screens etc.
    PCT/DE1998/000117 WO1998039673A1 (en) 1997-03-04 1998-01-14 Anti-reflection coating and method for producing same

    Publications (2)

    Publication Number Publication Date
    EP0965059A1 EP0965059A1 (en) 1999-12-22
    EP0965059B1 true EP0965059B1 (en) 2005-05-25

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    US (1) US6359735B1 (en)
    EP (1) EP0965059B1 (en)
    JP (1) JP2001517319A (en)
    AT (1) AT296455T (en)
    DE (1) DE19708776C1 (en)
    WO (1) WO1998039673A1 (en)

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    DE19708776C1 (en) 1998-06-18
    EP0965059A1 (en) 1999-12-22
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    US6359735B1 (en) 2002-03-19
    AT296455T (en) 2005-06-15

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