EP0593185A1 - Wideband antenna arrangement - Google Patents

Wideband antenna arrangement Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0593185A1
EP0593185A1 EP19930307839 EP93307839A EP0593185A1 EP 0593185 A1 EP0593185 A1 EP 0593185A1 EP 19930307839 EP19930307839 EP 19930307839 EP 93307839 A EP93307839 A EP 93307839A EP 0593185 A1 EP0593185 A1 EP 0593185A1
Authority
EP
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
antenna
coils
coil
frequency
arrangement
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP19930307839
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0593185B1 (en )
Inventor
Nadeem Bukhari
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd
Original Assignee
Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/30Combinations of separate antenna units operating in different wavebands and connected to a common feeder system
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
    • H01Q1/24Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set
    • H01Q1/241Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM
    • H01Q1/242Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM specially adapted for hand-held use
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • H01Q1/362Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith for broadside radiating helical antennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/40Imbricated or interleaved structures; Combined or electromagnetically coupled arrangements, e.g. comprising two or more non-connected fed radiating elements

Abstract

A compact antenna arrangement for a portable transceiver in a wideband cellular radio system, comprises first and second antenna coils (3,4) tuned respectively to the transmit and receive frequencies and coupled respectively to the transmit and receive sections of the transceiver. The two antenna coils are provided in a common housing (10) external to the main housing (1) of the telephone and are disposed on a common axis. In one embodiment the antenna coils are arranged in-line (see Fig. 1). Alternatively, the antenna coils may be disposed concentrically, one within the other (see Fig.2); or they may be interwound (see Fig.3).

Description

  • This invention relates to an antenna arrangement, particularly suitable for use in wideband telephone applications.
  • A coil antenna (sometimes referred to as a "helical antenna") offers a relatively compact configuration suitable for use with portable radio telephones where size and weight are important considerations. US patent No. 4,868,576 discloses a retractable antenna arrangement for a portable radio transceiver, including a fixed antenna coil and a retractable whip antenna extending through the antenna coil. European patent application EP-A-0,467,822 relates to a retractable antenna arrangement for a CT2 cordless telephone, and includes an antenna coil carried by an extendable antenna rod. In the extended position a switching device causes the antenna coil to be disconnected so that only the antenna rod is operative, but in the retracted position the antenna rod is disconnected in favour of the antenna coil. Also, our co-pending British patent application no. 9115134 (our ref: PAT 91011) relates to an antenna assembly comprising an elongate antenna element mounted in a support and movable between a retracted position and an extended position. A helical antenna element is carried by one end of the elongate element. The elongate antenna element is automatically rendered inactive as a radiating element by movement to the retracted position.
  • However, the bandwidth of a coil antenna is relatively narrow. This may not be a problem in analogue systems where the total operating bandwidth is relatively narrow, i.e. where the duplex separation (between the transmit and receive bands) is low, e.g. 45 MHz. By contrast the digital cellular system proposed for Japan, for example, has a much higher duplex separation of 130 MHz. In this case a single helical antenna cannot be used because of its limited bandwidth.
  • According to the present invention there is provided an antenna arrangement for a wideband transceiver, comprising a first antenna coil tuned to include a first frequency, and a second antenna coil tuned to include a second frequency different to the first frequency.
  • An antenna arrangement in accordance with the invention has the advantage that it permits coil antennas to be used, even in a wideband system. Even though two seperate coils are required, the overall arrangement may nevertheless be relatively compact. To this end both coils are preferably enclosed within a common housing.
  • Suitably, one of the antenna coils is used for reception and is tuned to the receive frequency, and the other is used for transmission and is tuned to the transmit frequency.
  • The two antenna coils may be disposed in various configurations, preferably on a common axis. Thus, the two coils may be disposed in line. In this case the diameter of the two coils may be the same or different. Alternatively, the two coils may be arranged concentrically, one within the other. In this case the inner coil would have a smaller diameter than the outer coil. In another arrangement the two coils may be interwound, in which case they would both have substantially the same diameter.
  • It is noted here that one or both of the antenna coils need not have a uniform diameter, but may instead have a gradually increasing diameter. In this case the antenna coil(s) would be in the form of a helix.
  • Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
    • Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of a radio telephone incorporating an antenna arrangement in accordance with the invention;
    • Figure 2 is a cross-section of alternative antenna arrangement in accordance with the invention; and
    • Figure 3 is a cross-section of another antenna arrangement in accordance with the invention.
  • The portable two-way radio in Figure 1 is a cellular telephone for use in a wideband cellular system such as the digital cellular system currently proposed for Japan. As is conventional, the telephone has a main housing 1 enclosing a transceiver 2.
  • In accordance with the invention a pair of antenna coils 3,4 are provided in a common housing 10 outside the main housing 1 on the top wall thereof. The housing 10 may for example be a plastics encapsulation, and may be formed either as a discrete housing or integrally with the main housing 1.
  • The two antenna coils are disposed in line (i.e. one above the other) on a common axis.
  • The upper antenna coil 3 is coupled to the transmitter 5 of the transceiver 2 via a duplex filter 7, and the lower antenna coil 4 is coupled to the receiver 6 of the transceiver 2 via the duplex filter 7.
  • The electrical length of the two antenna coils 3,4 is chosen so that the upper antenna coil 3 is a quarter-wavelength at the transmission frequency of the transceiver 2, and the lower antenna coil 4 is a quarter-wavelength at the receive frequency of the transceiver 2.
  • In the proposed Japanese digital system the transmission band is 940-856 MHz and the receive band is 810-826 MHz. In this case the upper antenna coil 3 may be tuned to 948 MHz, this being the centre frequency of the transmission band; and the lower antenna coil may be tuned to 818 MHz, this being the centre frequency of the receive band.
  • In the arrangement shown the transmitting antenna coil 3 is above the receiving antenna coil 4, because the Applicant at present believes this will give better transmission performance since the antenna coil 3 is further removed from the metal ordinarily found within the telephone. However it is possible for the two antenna coils to be interchanged so that the receive antenna coil is disposed above the transmit antenna coil.
  • In the present embodiment the two antenna coils 3,4 have a common feed 8 to and from the duplex filter 7. The length of the portion 8a of the transmission feed for the antenna coil 3, which extends through the receive antenna coil 4, is selected to present an open circuit to the transmission antenna 3. Thus when the lower antenna coil 4 is being used, the upper antenna coil 3 does not load the connection point, so that only the lower antenna coil is driven. THe antenna coils 3,4 can be designed to match to 50 ohms so that impedance matching may not be required.
  • In the proposed Japanese digital cellular system there is a requirement for diversity reception, and to this end the telephone may comprise a second, receive antenna 9. The second receive antenna 9 may have any suitable form and is disposed within the main housing 1. The second receive antenna 9 is coupled to the receiver section 6 of the transceiver 2.
  • Alternative arrangements for the pair of antenna coils are shown in Figures 2 and 3. In Figure 2, the transmit antenna 30 has a larger diameter than the receive antenna 40 and the two antenna coils are disposed concentrically with the receive antenna coil 40 within the transmit antenna coil 30. The electrical length of the inner (receive) antenna 40 is greater than that of the outer (transmit) antenna coil 30, and so the axial length of the inner coil is greater than the outer coil 30. In other words the inner coil 40 extends beyond the outer coil 30. In an alternative arrangement the transmission antenna coil may be disposed within the receive antenna coil in which case the diameters may be selected so that the axial length of the two coils is substantially the same.
  • In Figure 3, the shorter transmission antenna coil 300 is interwound with the larger receive antenna coil 400.
  • In view of the foregoing description it will be evident to a person skilled in the art that various modifications may be made within the scope of the invention. For example, as mentioned above, one or both of the antenna coils need not have a uniform diameter, but may instead be in the form of a helix, i.e. with a gradually increasing diameter.
  • Moreover, it is not necessary for the two antenna coils to be fixedly mounted on the main housing 2. In an alternative embodiment the dual coil assembly may be carried by a retractable antenna rod in a manner analogous to that disclosed in the aforementioned European patent application EP-A-0,467,822 or British patent application no. 9115134. In this case both of the antenna coils would be decoupled when the antenna rod is extended, but coupled to the transceiver when the antenna rod is retracted. In a further embodiment both antenna coils may be provided inside rather than outside the main housing of the radiotelephone.

Claims (10)

  1. An antenna arrangement for a wideband transceiver, comprising a first antenna coil tuned to include a first frequency, and a second antenna coil tuned to include a second frequency different to the first frequency.
  2. An antenna arrangement as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first antenna coil is tuned to transmit frequencies including the transmission frequency of the transceiver, and the second antenna coil is tuned to receive frequencies including the receive frequency of the transceiver.
  3. An antenna arrangement as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the first and second antenna coils are disposed in a common housing.
  4. An antenna arrangement as claimed in any of the preceding claims, wherein the first and second antenna coils are disposed on a substantially common axis.
  5. An antenna arrangement as claimed in claim 4, wherein the first and second antenna coils are disposed substantially in line.
  6. An antenna arrangement as claimed in claim 4, wherein the first and second antenna coils have different diameters and are disposed substantially concentrically, one within the other.
  7. An antenna arrangement as claimed in claim 4, wherein the first and second antenna coils are interwound.
  8. A wideband transceiver apparatus including an antenna arrangement as claimed in any of the preceding claims, including means for transmitting signals having a first frequency, and means for receiving signals having a second frequency substantially different to the second frequency, wherein the first antenna coil is coupled to the transmitting means and the second antenna coil is coupled to the receiving means.
  9. A wideband transceiver apparatus as claimed in claim 9, including a main housing enclosing the transmitting means and the receiving means, wherein the first and second antenna coils are external to the main housing.
  10. A wideband transceiver apparatus as claimed in claim 9, including a main housing enclosing the transmitting means and the receiving means, wherein the first and second antenna coils are present within the main housing.
EP19930307839 1992-10-14 1993-10-01 Wideband antenna arrangement Expired - Lifetime EP0593185B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9221536 1992-10-14
GB9221536A GB2271670B (en) 1992-10-14 1992-10-14 Wideband antenna arrangement

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0593185A1 true true EP0593185A1 (en) 1994-04-20
EP0593185B1 EP0593185B1 (en) 2000-08-30

Family

ID=10723407

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19930307839 Expired - Lifetime EP0593185B1 (en) 1992-10-14 1993-10-01 Wideband antenna arrangement

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0593185B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH06204726A (en)
DE (2) DE69329323D1 (en)
GB (1) GB2271670B (en)

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0706231A1 (en) * 1994-10-04 1996-04-10 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Antenna equipment
EP0747990A1 (en) * 1995-06-06 1996-12-11 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Antenna
WO1997004496A1 (en) * 1995-07-14 1997-02-06 Allgon Ab A combination of at least one helically wound coil and a carrier therefor for use in a helical antenna, and a method for the manufacture of such combination
WO1997018601A1 (en) * 1995-11-15 1997-05-22 Allgon Ab Dual band antenna means
EP0823751A2 (en) * 1996-08-07 1998-02-11 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Antenna switching circuits for radio telephones
WO1998015028A1 (en) * 1996-10-04 1998-04-09 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson Multi band non-uniform helical antennas
WO1998028817A1 (en) * 1996-12-20 1998-07-02 Ericsson, Inc. Dual frequency band quadrifilar helix antenna systems and methods
EP0855759A2 (en) * 1997-01-24 1998-07-29 Lk-Products Oy Simple dual-frequency antenna
EP0877442A2 (en) * 1997-05-08 1998-11-11 Nec Corporation Helical antenna
EP0889541A1 (en) * 1997-07-04 1999-01-07 France Telecom Helix antenna with variable length
US5896113A (en) * 1996-12-20 1999-04-20 Ericsson Inc. Quadrifilar helix antenna systems and methods for broadband operation in separate transmit and receive frequency bands
US5920292A (en) * 1996-12-20 1999-07-06 Ericsson Inc. L-band quadrifilar helix antenna
US6144649A (en) * 1997-02-27 2000-11-07 Motorola, Inc. Method and apparatus for acquiring a pilot signal in a CDMA receiver
US6166694A (en) * 1998-07-09 2000-12-26 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Printed twin spiral dual band antenna
EP1119074A2 (en) * 1997-08-07 2001-07-25 Tokin Corporation Multi-band antenna suitable for use in a mobile radio device
US6300913B1 (en) 1998-12-18 2001-10-09 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Antenna
US6329962B2 (en) 1998-08-04 2001-12-11 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Multiple band, multiple branch antenna for mobile phone
US6343208B1 (en) 1998-12-16 2002-01-29 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Printed multi-band patch antenna
US6353443B1 (en) 1998-07-09 2002-03-05 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Miniature printed spiral antenna for mobile terminals
EP1343224A1 (en) * 2000-12-06 2003-09-10 Nippon Antena Kabushiki Kaisha Two-resonance antenna
WO2003105276A1 (en) * 2002-06-06 2003-12-18 Galtronics Ltd. Multi-band improvements to a monopole helical_antenna
WO2004001896A1 (en) * 2002-06-25 2003-12-31 E.M.W.Antenna Co., Ltd. Multiple bands type antenna and method for producing the same
EP1378961A2 (en) * 2002-07-04 2004-01-07 Meerae Tech, Inc. Multi-band helical antenna on multilayer substrate
US6724738B1 (en) 1997-02-27 2004-04-20 Motorola Inc. Method and apparatus for acquiring a pilot signal in a CDMA receiver
CN102544684A (en) * 2011-11-23 2012-07-04 杨鹤鸣 Radio-television integration receiving antenna

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3089933B2 (en) * 1993-11-18 2000-09-18 三菱電機株式会社 The antenna device
US5708448A (en) * 1995-06-16 1998-01-13 Qualcomm Incorporated Double helix antenna system
KR100406352B1 (en) 2001-03-29 2003-11-28 삼성전기주식회사 Antenna and method for manufacture thereof
JP5094527B2 (en) * 2008-04-23 2012-12-12 京セラ株式会社 Structure, and a battery, and an electronic device using the same

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AU2284370A *
GB2050701A (en) * 1979-05-08 1981-01-07 Secr Defence Improvements in or relating to radio antennae structures
US4442438A (en) * 1982-03-29 1984-04-10 Motorola, Inc. Helical antenna structure capable of resonating at two different frequencies
FR2570546A1 (en) * 1984-09-17 1986-03-21 Europ Agence Spatiale Helicoid multiwire antenna for simultaneous transmission of a plurality of VHF/UHF transmission and reception signals
EP0177362A2 (en) * 1984-10-04 1986-04-09 Nec Corporation Portable radio communication apparatus comprising an antenna member for a broad-band signal
US4772895A (en) * 1987-06-15 1988-09-20 Motorola, Inc. Wide-band helical antenna

Family Cites Families (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1270518A (en) * 1969-01-28 1972-04-12 Vorta Systems Inc Omni-directional antenna
US4229743A (en) * 1978-09-22 1980-10-21 Shakespeare Company Multiple band, multiple resonant frequency antenna
US4349825A (en) * 1980-06-16 1982-09-14 Shmitka Clarence F Antenna assembly for high frequency ranges
US5258771A (en) * 1990-05-14 1993-11-02 General Electric Co. Interleaved helix arrays

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AU2284370A *
GB2050701A (en) * 1979-05-08 1981-01-07 Secr Defence Improvements in or relating to radio antennae structures
US4442438A (en) * 1982-03-29 1984-04-10 Motorola, Inc. Helical antenna structure capable of resonating at two different frequencies
FR2570546A1 (en) * 1984-09-17 1986-03-21 Europ Agence Spatiale Helicoid multiwire antenna for simultaneous transmission of a plurality of VHF/UHF transmission and reception signals
EP0177362A2 (en) * 1984-10-04 1986-04-09 Nec Corporation Portable radio communication apparatus comprising an antenna member for a broad-band signal
US4772895A (en) * 1987-06-15 1988-09-20 Motorola, Inc. Wide-band helical antenna

Cited By (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0706231A1 (en) * 1994-10-04 1996-04-10 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Antenna equipment
US5541610A (en) * 1994-10-04 1996-07-30 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Antenna for a radio communication apparatus
CN1055571C (en) * 1994-10-04 2000-08-16 三菱电机株式会社 Antenna equipment of mobile communication device
EP0747990A1 (en) * 1995-06-06 1996-12-11 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Antenna
US6054966A (en) * 1995-06-06 2000-04-25 Nokia Mobile Phones Limited Antenna operating in two frequency ranges
WO1997004496A1 (en) * 1995-07-14 1997-02-06 Allgon Ab A combination of at least one helically wound coil and a carrier therefor for use in a helical antenna, and a method for the manufacture of such combination
WO1997018601A1 (en) * 1995-11-15 1997-05-22 Allgon Ab Dual band antenna means
EP0823751A2 (en) * 1996-08-07 1998-02-11 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Antenna switching circuits for radio telephones
EP0823751A3 (en) * 1996-08-07 2000-04-26 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Antenna switching circuits for radio telephones
WO1998015028A1 (en) * 1996-10-04 1998-04-09 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson Multi band non-uniform helical antennas
US5920292A (en) * 1996-12-20 1999-07-06 Ericsson Inc. L-band quadrifilar helix antenna
US5896113A (en) * 1996-12-20 1999-04-20 Ericsson Inc. Quadrifilar helix antenna systems and methods for broadband operation in separate transmit and receive frequency bands
WO1998028817A1 (en) * 1996-12-20 1998-07-02 Ericsson, Inc. Dual frequency band quadrifilar helix antenna systems and methods
US5909196A (en) * 1996-12-20 1999-06-01 Ericsson Inc. Dual frequency band quadrifilar helix antenna systems and methods
EP0855759A2 (en) * 1997-01-24 1998-07-29 Lk-Products Oy Simple dual-frequency antenna
EP0855759A3 (en) * 1997-01-24 2000-06-14 Lk-Products Oy Simple dual-frequency antenna
US6175561B1 (en) 1997-02-27 2001-01-16 Motorola, Inc. Method and apparatus for acquiring a pilot signal in a CDMA receiver
US6724738B1 (en) 1997-02-27 2004-04-20 Motorola Inc. Method and apparatus for acquiring a pilot signal in a CDMA receiver
US6144649A (en) * 1997-02-27 2000-11-07 Motorola, Inc. Method and apparatus for acquiring a pilot signal in a CDMA receiver
US6075501A (en) * 1997-05-08 2000-06-13 Nec Corporation Helical antenna
EP0877442A2 (en) * 1997-05-08 1998-11-11 Nec Corporation Helical antenna
EP0877442A3 (en) * 1997-05-08 1999-04-14 Nec Corporation Helical antenna
EP0889541A1 (en) * 1997-07-04 1999-01-07 France Telecom Helix antenna with variable length
FR2765732A1 (en) * 1997-07-04 1999-01-08 France Telecom Variable helix antenna
EP1119074A2 (en) * 1997-08-07 2001-07-25 Tokin Corporation Multi-band antenna suitable for use in a mobile radio device
EP1119074A3 (en) * 1997-08-07 2001-09-05 Tokin Corporation Multi-band antenna suitable for use in a mobile radio device
US6353443B1 (en) 1998-07-09 2002-03-05 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Miniature printed spiral antenna for mobile terminals
US6166694A (en) * 1998-07-09 2000-12-26 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Printed twin spiral dual band antenna
US6329962B2 (en) 1998-08-04 2001-12-11 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Multiple band, multiple branch antenna for mobile phone
US6343208B1 (en) 1998-12-16 2002-01-29 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Printed multi-band patch antenna
US6300913B1 (en) 1998-12-18 2001-10-09 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Antenna
EP1343224A1 (en) * 2000-12-06 2003-09-10 Nippon Antena Kabushiki Kaisha Two-resonance antenna
EP1343224A4 (en) * 2000-12-06 2005-10-05 Nippon Antenna Kk Two-resonance antenna
WO2003105276A1 (en) * 2002-06-06 2003-12-18 Galtronics Ltd. Multi-band improvements to a monopole helical_antenna
WO2004001896A1 (en) * 2002-06-25 2003-12-31 E.M.W.Antenna Co., Ltd. Multiple bands type antenna and method for producing the same
US7132998B2 (en) 2002-06-25 2006-11-07 E.M.W. Antenna Co., Ltd. Multiple bands type antenna and method for producing the same
EP1378961A2 (en) * 2002-07-04 2004-01-07 Meerae Tech, Inc. Multi-band helical antenna on multilayer substrate
EP1378961A3 (en) * 2002-07-04 2005-07-13 Antenna Tech, Inc. Multi-band helical antenna on multilayer substrate
CN102544684A (en) * 2011-11-23 2012-07-04 杨鹤鸣 Radio-television integration receiving antenna

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB9221536D0 (en) 1992-11-25 application
GB2271670B (en) 1996-10-16 grant
DE69329323D1 (en) 2000-10-05 grant
EP0593185B1 (en) 2000-08-30 grant
JPH06204726A (en) 1994-07-22 application
GB2271670A (en) 1994-04-20 application
DE69329323T2 (en) 2001-03-29 grant

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