EP0479551A2 - Liquid crystal display device - Google Patents

Liquid crystal display device Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0479551A2
EP0479551A2 EP91308978A EP91308978A EP0479551A2 EP 0479551 A2 EP0479551 A2 EP 0479551A2 EP 91308978 A EP91308978 A EP 91308978A EP 91308978 A EP91308978 A EP 91308978A EP 0479551 A2 EP0479551 A2 EP 0479551A2
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
liquid crystal
phase difference
difference plate
polymer film
crystal display
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
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EP91308978A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0479551A3 (en
Inventor
Hiroshi Ohnishi
Toshiyuki Yoshimizu
Yumi Yoshimura
Keiko Kishimoto
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Sharp Corp
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Sharp Corp
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Priority to JP2264684A priority Critical patent/JPH04140722A/en
Priority to JP264684/90 priority
Application filed by Sharp Corp filed Critical Sharp Corp
Publication of EP0479551A2 publication Critical patent/EP0479551A2/en
Publication of EP0479551A3 publication Critical patent/EP0479551A3/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of cells with optical devices, e.g. polarisers or reflectors
    • G02F1/13363Birefringent elements, e.g. for optical compensation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/137Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells characterised by the electro-optical or magneto-optical effect, e.g. field-induced phase transition, orientation effect, guest-host interaction or dynamic scattering
    • G02F1/139Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells characterised by the electro-optical or magneto-optical effect, e.g. field-induced phase transition, orientation effect, guest-host interaction or dynamic scattering based on orientation effects in which the liquid crystal remains transparent
    • G02F1/1396Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells characterised by the electro-optical or magneto-optical effect, e.g. field-induced phase transition, orientation effect, guest-host interaction or dynamic scattering based on orientation effects in which the liquid crystal remains transparent the liquid crystal being selectively controlled between a twisted state and a non-twisted state, e.g. TN-LC cell
    • G02F1/1397Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells characterised by the electro-optical or magneto-optical effect, e.g. field-induced phase transition, orientation effect, guest-host interaction or dynamic scattering based on orientation effects in which the liquid crystal remains transparent the liquid crystal being selectively controlled between a twisted state and a non-twisted state, e.g. TN-LC cell the twist being substantially higher than 90°, e.g. STN-, SBE-, OMI-LC cells
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F2202/00Materials and properties
    • G02F2202/40Materials having a particular birefringence, retardation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F2413/00Indexing scheme related to G02F1/13363, i.e. to birefringent elements, e.g. for optical compensation, characterised by the number, position, orientation or value of the compensation plates
    • G02F2413/04Number of plates greater than or equal to 4
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F2413/00Indexing scheme related to G02F1/13363, i.e. to birefringent elements, e.g. for optical compensation, characterised by the number, position, orientation or value of the compensation plates
    • G02F2413/08Indexing scheme related to G02F1/13363, i.e. to birefringent elements, e.g. for optical compensation, characterised by the number, position, orientation or value of the compensation plates with a particular optical axis orientation

Abstract

In a liquid crystal display device using uniaxially drawn polymer film as a phase difference plate, as the elevation angle becomes wider, the difference between the retardation of the phase difference plate and the retardation of the liquid crystal display panel becomes larger, and the optical compensation relation is broken, and the viewing angle becomes narrower. To solve this problem, uniaxially drawn polymer films are prepared separately from polycarbonate and polystyrene which differ in the optical properties, and they are disposed as the optical compensation plate at the front side (9) and back side (10) of a liquid crystal cell, or they are laminated and disposed at the front side (9) and back side (10) of a liquid crystal cell.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to a liquid crystal display device with color compensation function having liquid crystal molecules oriented by twisting 90 degrees or more (supertwisted) as display medium.
  • 2. Description of the Prior Art
  • Generally a supertwisted nematic (STN) liquid crystal display device is colored in yellow-green or blue color, but the color is corrected by using an optical compensating plate and a bright and sharp black/white display is obtained. Accordingly, the display quality is enhanced, and it can be used as the display element for word processor, computer and other business machine.
  • As the color-compensated supertwisted liquid crystal display device, a two-layer supertwisted liquid crystal display device is known well, in which the coloring occurring in the first layer (a driving panel) is corrected in the second layer (optical compensating panel) to realize a colorless display. This structure requires two liquid crystal panels, as compared with the single-layer supertwisted liquid crystal display device, and the thickness of the display device increases, which adds to the weight. To solve this problem, using a phase different plate composed of a uniaxially drawn polymer film as optical compensating plate, a thin and light-weight supertwisted liquid crystal display device has been developed. This phase difference plate is, however, manufactured by drawing a polymer film, and differs in the optical properties between the film drawing direction and its orthogonal direction, and therefore as compared with the two-layer supertwisted liquid crystal display device, the color change due to the azimuth or elevation angle is larger in the supertwisted liquid crystal display device of phase difference plate type, that is, the viewing angle is narrower.
  • It is because of its optical anisotropy that a uniaxially drawn polymer film is used as a phase difference plate. That is, between the polymer film drawing direction and its orthogonal direction, the refractive index is different (birefringence). The retardation (Δn·d) given by the product of this refractive anisotropy An and the film thickness d is a physical quantity that brings about phase difference of the light occurring when passing through the film, and the change of this due to elevation angle differs between the drawing angle and its orthogonal direction. For example, in a phase difference plate made of polycarbonate, as the elevation angle becomes larger, the retardation decreases in the drawing direction and increases in the orthogonal direction. As a result, when combined with a liquid crystal display panel, if the optical compensation relation is perfect in the normal direction, as the elevation angle becomes larger, the difference between the retardation of the phase difference plate and the retardation of the liquid crystal panel becomes larger, and the optical compensation relation collapses. In other words, a color change occurs, and the contrast ratio is lowered, and therefore the viewing angle is narrowed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is hence a primary object of the invention to solve such problems and to present a liquid crystal display device of thin and light-weight, capable of obtaining a sharp black/white display and a wide viewing angle.
  • As a result of studies of various polymer materials usable as phase difference plate, it is found out that the polymer film manufactured by uniaxially drawing polystyrene is usable as phase difference plate, and is capable of almost eliminating the retardation changes due to elevation angle and azimuth in combination with the polycarbonate generally used hitherto as the phase difference plate. As the elevation angle becomes larger, the polycarbonate decreases in retardation in the drawing direction, while retardation increases in the orthogonal direction. Polystyrene has a similar tendency, but since the slow phase axis is in the direction orthogonal to the drawing direction, unlike polycarbonate, and when the both are disposed by matching the slow phase axes, the drawing directions cross with each other, and the retardation change due to elevation angle is canceled. When phase difference plates made of these two materials are disposed in the STN liquid crystal display as optical compensation plates, the optical compensation relation satisfied in the normal direction is kept constant if the elevation angle or azimum varies, so that a liquid crystal display device of a wide viewing angle, small in changes of contrast ratio and color tone is obtained.
  • It is because of its optical anisotropy that the uniaxially drawn polymer film is used as phase difference plate. That is, it is intended to make use of the property that the refractive index in the drawing direction is difference from the refractive index in its orthogonal direction. The relative phase difference of the light passing through the liquid crystal display panel (ordinary light beam and extraordinary light beam) is either canceled or aligned in phase in the entire wavelength by the product, that is, the retardation, of its refractive anisotropy An and film thickness d when passing through the phase difference plate. This is, however, true when the display device is seen from the normal direction, and it is necessary to consider also the case of seeing from the oblique direction, that is, the three-dimensional refractive index of the phase difference plate when applying viewing angle characteristics. Supposing the refractive index of the phase difference plate in the three-dimensional direction to be NMD (drawing direction), NTD (the direction orthogonal to drawing direction), and NzD (thickness- wise direction), the refractive anisotropy and retardation as seen from the drawing direction and its orthogonal direction are given as follows, assuming the elevation angle from the normal direction of the phase difference plate to be ϕ.
  • (1) As seen from the drawing direction Refractive anisotropy ΔNMD = { NMD 2 NZD 2 (NMD 2 sin2ψ + NzD 2 cos2ψ)} 112 - NTD Phase difference R MD = ΔNMD·d /cosψ (2) As seen from the direction orthogonal to drawing direction Refractive anisotropy ANTD = NMD - {NTD 2 NZD 2/( NTD 2 sin 2ψ + NzD 2 cos 2y )1/2
  • Phase difference RMD = ΔNTD · d cosψ Measuring the refractive indices in the three-dimensional direction and putting in the above equations, the results will be as shown in Fig. 1. It is known therefrom that the retardation decreases in the drawing direction of the phase difference plate, and tends to increase in the direction orthogonal to the drawing direction. In the case of polycarbonate which is a typical phase difference plate, changes of retardation due to elevation angle were actually measured by the method proposed by Senarmon, of which results are shown in Fig. 2. The results coincided with the tendency obtained from the theoretical formula above.
  • From Fig. 2, the change of each elevation angle by azimumth was determined, and Fig. 3 was obtained. Likewise, results of determining the retardation changes due to azimuth and elevation angle of the liquid crystal display panel are shown in Fig. 4. When the display device combining such phase difference plate and liquid crystal display panel is seen obliquely, the tendency of change of retardation is different each other, and the optical compensation relation is broken, and light leak or color change occurs, and the contrast ratio is lowered, and the viewing angle becomes narrower. Therefore, in order to extend the viewing angle, it is necessary to reduce the retardation changes due to elevation angle of the phase difference plate.
  • In the invention, in order to reduce the retardation changes due to elevation angle of the polycarbonate phase difference plate, it is another feature that the polymer film fabricated by uniaxially drawing the polystyrene is combined as the phase difference plate. Polycarbonate and polystyrene have benzene ring in their skeleton, but polycarbonate contains the benzene rings in the direction of principal chain of polymer, while polystyrene has its benzene rings in the direction of the side chain, so that the optical property of the film fabricated by drawing uniaxially is different. Polycarbonate has the maximum refractive index NMD in the drawing direction and has the slow phase axis in this direction, while polystyrene has the maximum refractive index NTD in the direction orthogonal to the drawing direction, and has the slow phase axis in this direction. Therefore, in the liquid crystal display device having the polycarbonate phase difference plate disposed on the front and rear sides of the panel, when replaced with the polystyrene phase difference plate while maintaining the slow phase axis configuration, the viewing angle characteristic is rotated by 90 degrees in the liquid crystal display device. Accordingly, when the polycarbonate phase difference plate is disposed at either side and the polystyrene phase difference plate on the other side, the drawing directions are orthogonal to each other, and the retardation changes due to elevation angle and azimuth are canceled with each other, and the optical compensation relation with the liquid crystal panel satisfied in the normal direction is maintained if the elevation angle is larger, so that a liquid crystal display device of wide viewing angle without change in contrast ratio and color tone may be obtained.
  • The invention hence realizes a black and white display device of high contrast and wide viewing angle, by mutually canceling the retardation changes due to elevation angle by combining polycarbonate phase difference plate and polystyrene phase difference plate, and eliminating the shortcomings of color tone changes due to elevation angle and narrowness of viewing angle due to the phenomenon of reversal of black and white display experienced in the conventional black and white liquid crystal display device of phase difference plate system. In particular, the invention is outstandingly effective in a display of high definition and large size, such as 1024 x 768 dots, and 1120x800 dots, and it is possible to extend to a work station or the like. Besides, since the black and white display is stable, display color changes due to viewing angle are minimized also in the color display, so that the display quality may be immensely improved.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Other and further objects, features, and advantages of the invention will be more explicit from the following detailed description taken with reference to the drawings wherein:
    • Fig. 1 is a characteristic diagram showing the relation between the retardation value R and elevation angle obtained by putting the three-dimensional refractive index to the theoretical formula expressing the retardation changes due to elevation angle presented for explanation of the invention.
    • Fig. 2 is a diagram showing retardation changes due to elevation angle measured on polycarbonate phase difference plate.
    • Fig. 3 is a diagram showing the change rate of retardation in all directions of the polycarbonate phase difference plate obtained from Fig. 2, in which the arrow denotes the drawing direction.
    • Fig. 4 is a characteristic diagram showing the change rate of retardation in all directions of the STN liquid crystal display panel (240-degree twisted).
    • Fig. 5, Fig. 10, and Fig. 12 are sectional views of liquid crystal display device in individual embodiments of the invention.
    • Fig. 6, Fig. 8 and Fig. 13 are diagrams showing the configuration conditions of members in individual embodiments.
    • Fig. 7, Fig. 9, Fig. 11, and Fig. 14 are comparative diagrams of viewing angle and contrast characteristic in embodiments and prior art, all showing the characteristics in 1/240 duty driving.
    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Now referring to the drawing, preferred embodiments of the invention are described below.
  • Embodiment 1
  • Fig. 5 shows an exploded sectional view of a liquid crystal display device in an embodiment of the invention. Numerals 8, 11 are polarizers, being of neutral gray type with the independent transmittance of 42% and degree of polarization of 99.99%, 9 is the front side of the optical compensation plate comprising a polystyrene phase difference plate with the retardation value of 420 nm, 10 is the back side of the optical compensation plate comprising a polycarbonate phase difference plate with the retardation value of 420 nm, and 1, 7 are glass substrates on which transparent electrodes ITO 2, 6 are formed. Furthermore, organic orientation films, 3, 5 are formed thereon, and rubbing orientation is treated so that a liquid crystal layer 4 may be twisted by 240 degrees. As the liquid crystal material for the liquid crystal layer 4, a nematic liquid crystal having a positive dielectric anisotropy is used, for example, a mixed liquid crystal adding 1.45 wt.% of cholesterylnonanoate (CN) as chiral dopant in order to define the twisting direction to phenylcyclohexane (PCH) liquid crystal. The refractive anisotropy An of mixed liquid crystal is 0.123, and the thickness of the liquid crystal layer 4 is set at 7.spm. Fig. 6 shows a drawing for showing the orientation condition of members in this embodiment. In the drawing, P8 is the absorption axis direction of the face side polarizer, P9 is the slow phase axis direction of the polystyrene phase difference plate, and P3, P5 are liquid crystal molecule orientation axis (rubbing axis) of the upper side glass substrate and lower side glass substrate, being twisted by 240 degrees in the clockwise direction. Moreover, P10 is the slow phase axis direction of the polycarbonate phase difference plate, and P11 is the absorption axis direction of the lower side polarizer. Fig. 7 is a viewing angle-contrast characteristic diagram as seen on the flat plane including the 12 o'clock-6 o'clock direction of this embodiment and the prior art. Characteristic curve A denotes this embodiment, and characteristic curve B represents the prior art. When compared in the viewing angle range where the contrast ratio Co is 4.0 or more, it is 44 degrees in the prior art and 55 degrees in this embodiment, being expanded about 1.25 times. The prior art cited herein is a configuration of polycarbonate phase difference plate disposed each on the face and back side of the STN liquid crystal display panel.
  • Embodiment 2
  • Fig. 5 is an exploded sectional view of a liquid crystal display device in other embodiment of the invention. Numerals 8, 11 are polarizers, being of neutral gray type with the independent transmittance of 42% and degree of polarization of 99.99%, 9 is the front side of the optical compensation plate comprising a polycarbonate phase difference plate with the retardation value of 420 nm, 10 is the back side of the optical compensation plate comprising a polystyrene phase difference plate with the retardation value of 420 nm, and 1, 7 are glass substrates, on which transparent electrode (ITO) 2, 6 are formed. Furthermore, organic orientation films 3, 5 are formed thereon the rubbing orientation is treated so that a liquid crystal layer 4 may be twisted by 240 degrees. As the liquid crystal material of the liquid crystal layer 4, a nematic liquid crystal having a positive dielectric anisotropy is used, for example, a mixed liquid crystal adding 1.77 wt.% of cholesteryl nonanoate (CN) as chiral dopant in order to define the twisting direction to phenyl- cychlohexane (PCH) liquid crystal. The refractive anisotropy An of the mixed liquid crystal is 0.125, and the thickness of the liquid crystal layer 4 is set at 7.5µm. Fig. 8 shows the orientation condition of the members in this embodiment. In the diagram, P8 is the absorption axis direction of the face side polarizer, P9 is the slow phase axis direction of polycarbonate phase difference plate, and P3, P5 are liquid crystal molecule orientation axis (rubbing axis) of the upper side glass substrate and lower side glass substrate, being twisted by 240 degrees in the clockwise direction. Moreover, P10 is the slow phase axis direction of the polystyrene phase difference plate, and P11 is the absorption axis direction of the lower side polarizer.
  • Fig. 9 is a viewing angle-contrast characteristic diagram as seen on the flat plane including the 12 o'clock-6 o'clock direction of this embodiment and the prior art. Characteristic curve A denotes this embodiment, and characteristic curve B represents the prior art. When compared in the viewing angle range in which the contrast ratio Co is 4.0 or more, it is 35 degrees in the prior art and 52 degrees in this embodiment, being extended about 1.5 times. The prior art refers to a configuration of polycarbonate phase difference plate disposed each on the face and back side of the STN liquid crystal display panel.
  • Embodiments 3
  • Fig. 10 is an exploded sectional view of a liquid crystal display device in a different embodiment of the invention. Numerals 8, 13 are polarizers of neutral gray type with the independent transmittance of 42% and degree of polarization of 99.99%, 9 is the front side of optical compensation plate comprising a laminate structure of a polystyrene phase difference plate 9a with the retardation value of 210 0nm and a polycarbonate phase difference plate 9b with the retardation value of 210 nm, 10 is the back side of optical compensation plate comprising a laminate structure of a polycarbonate phase difference plate 10a with the retardation value of 210 nm and a polystyrene phase difference plate 10b with the retardation value of 210 nm. Numerals 1, 7 are glass substrates, on which transparent electrodes (ITO) 2, 6 are formed thereon. Furthermore organic orientation films 3, 5 are formed thereon, and rubbing orientation is treated so that a liquid crystal layer 4 may be twisted by 240 degrees. As the liquid crystal material for the liquid crystal layer 4, a nematic liquid crystal having a positive dielectric anisotropy is used, for example, a mixed liquid crystal adding 1.45 wt.% of cholesterylnonanoate (CN) as chiral dopant to define the twisting direction to phenylcyclohexane (PCH) liquid crystal. The refractive anisotropy of the mixed liquid crystal An is 0.123, and the thickness of the liquid crystal layer 4 is set at 7.5µm. Fig. 8 shows the orientation condition of members of this embodiment. In the diagram, P8 is the absorption axis direction of the face side polarizer, P9 is the slow phase axis direction of the plystyrene phase difference plate 9a adjacent to the polarizer 8 and the polycarbonate phase difference plate 9b, and P3, P5 are liquid crystal molecule orientation axis (rubbing axis) of the upper side glass substrate and lower side glass substrate, being twisted by 240 degrees in the clockwise direction. More over, P10 is the slow phase axis direction of the polycarbonate phase difference plate 10a adjacent to the lower side glass substrate 7, and the polystyrene phase difference plate 10b, and P11 is the absorption axis direction of the lower side polarizer 13. Fig. 11 is a viewing angle-contrast characteristic diagram as seen on the flat plane including the 12 o'clock-6 o'clock direction of this embodiment and the prior art. Characteristic curve A denotes this embodiment, and characteristic curve B represents the prior art. When compared in the viewing angle range in which the contrast ratio Co is 4.0 or more, it is 44 degrees in the prior art and 57 degrees in this embodiment, being extended about 1.3 times. The prior art refers to a configuration of polycarbonate phase difference plates with the retardation value of 210 nm in 9a, 9b, 10a, 10c in Fig. 10.
  • Embodiment 4
  • Fig. 12 is an exploded sectional view of a liquid crystal display device of a further difference embodiment of the invention. Numerals 8, 12 are polarizers of neutral gray type with the independent transmittance of 42% and degree of polarization of 99.99%, 9 is the front side of the optical compensation plate comprising a laminate structure of a polycarbonate phase difference plate 9a with the retardation value of 210 nm and a polystyrene phase difference plate 9b with the retardation value of 210 nm, 10 is the back side of the optical compensation pate comprising a polycarbonate phase difference plate with the retardation value of 420 nm. Numerals 1, 7 are glass substrates, and transparent electrodes (ITO) 2, 6 are formed thereon. Furthermore, organic orientation films 3, 5 are formed thereon, and rubbing orientation is treated so that a liquid crystal layer4 may be twisted by 240 degrees. As the liquid crystal material for the liquid crystal layer 4, a nematic liquid crystal having a positive dielectric anisotropy is used, for example, a mixed liquid crystal adding 1.45 wt.% of cholesterylnonanoate (CN) as chiral dopant to define the twisting direction to phenylcyclohexane (PCH) liquid crystal. The refractive anisotropy An of the mixed liquid crystal is 0.123, and the thickness of the liquid crystal layer 4 is set at 7.5µm. Fig. 13 shows the orientation condition of the members of this embodiment. In the diagram, P8 denotes the absorption axis direction of face side polarizer, P9 is the slow phase axis direction of the polycarbonate phase difference plate 9a adjacent to the face side polarizer 8, P10 is the slow phase axis direction of the polystyrene phase difference plate 9b adjacent to the polycarbonate phase difference plate 9a, and P3, P5 are the liquid crystal molecule orientation axis (rubbing axis) of the upper side glass substrate 1 and lower side glass substrate 7, being twisted by 240 degrees in the clockwise direction. More over, P11 is the slow phase axis direction of the polycarbonate phase difference plate 10 adjacent to the lower side glass substrate and P12 is the absorption axis direction of the lower side polarizer 12. Fig. 14 is a viewing angle-contrast characteristic diagram as seen on the flat plane including the 9 o'clock-3 o'clock direction of this embodiment and the prior art. Characteristic curve A denotes this embodiment, and characteristic curve B represents the prior art. when compared in a viewing angle range in which the contrast ratio Co is 4.0 or more, it is 59 degrees in the prior art and 78 degrees in this embodiment, being extended by about 1.2 times. The prior art is a configuration of polycarbonate phase difference plates, having the retardation value of 9a, 9b of 210 nm and the retardation value of 10 of 420 nm in Fig. 12.
  • The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristic thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims ratherthan by the foregoing description and all changes which comes within the meaning and the range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
  • There are described above novel features which the skilled man will appreciate give rise to advantages. These are each independent aspects of the invention to be covered by the present application, irrespective of whether or not they are included within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (7)

1. A liquid crystal display device composed by disposing optical compensation plates on the face (9) and back (10) side of a liquid crystal cell having liquid crystal layers oriented by supertwisting, wherein one of the optical compensation plates is a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polycarbonate and the other is a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polystyrene.
2. A liquid crystal display device of claim 1, wherein the front side (9) of the optical compensation plates is phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polycarbonate and the back side (10) is a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polystyrene.
3. A liquid crystal display device of claim 1, wherein the front side (9) of the optical compensation plates is a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polystyrene and the back side (10) is a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polycarbonate.
4. A liquid crystal display device composed by disposing optical compensation plates at least on one side of the front side (9) and back side (10) of a liquid crystal cell having liquid crystal layers oriented by supertwisting, wherein a least one of the optical compensation plates is a laminate structure of a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polycarbonate and a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polystyrene.
5. A liquid crystal display device of claim 4, wherein both the front side (9) and back side (10) of the optical compensation plates are a laminate structure of a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polycarbonate and a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polystyrene.
6. A liquid crystal display device of clam 4, wherein the front side (9) of the optical compensation plates is a laminate structure of a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polycarbonate (9a) and a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polystyrene (9b), and the back side (10) is a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polycarbonate.
7. A liquid crystal display device of claim 4, wherein the front side (9) of the optical compensation plates is a laminate structure of phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polycarbonate (9a) and a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polystyrene (9b), and the back side (10) is a phase difference plate of uniaxially drawn polymer film made of polystyrene.
EP19910308978 1990-10-01 1991-10-01 Liquid crystal display device Withdrawn EP0479551A3 (en)

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JP2264684A JPH04140722A (en) 1990-10-01 1990-10-01 Liquid crystal display device
JP264684/90 1990-10-01

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EP0479551A3 EP0479551A3 (en) 1992-11-25

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JPH04140722A (en) 1992-05-14
US5291323A (en) 1994-03-01
EP0479551A3 (en) 1992-11-25

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