EP0478956A2 - Micromechanical element - Google Patents

Micromechanical element Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0478956A2
EP0478956A2 EP19910114504 EP91114504A EP0478956A2 EP 0478956 A2 EP0478956 A2 EP 0478956A2 EP 19910114504 EP19910114504 EP 19910114504 EP 91114504 A EP91114504 A EP 91114504A EP 0478956 A2 EP0478956 A2 EP 0478956A2
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Prior art keywords
substrate
microstructure body
conductive material
micromechanical element
characterized
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Granted
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EP19910114504
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0478956B1 (en )
EP0478956A3 (en )
Inventor
Peter Dr. Bley
Jürgen Dr. Mohr
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Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH
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Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H1/00Contacts
    • H01H1/0036Switches making use of microelectromechanical systems [MEMS]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H61/00Electrothermal relays
    • H01H61/01Details
    • H01H61/013Heating arrangements for operating relays
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H61/00Electrothermal relays
    • H01H2061/006Micromechanical thermal relay

Abstract

The invention relates to a microchemical element, consisting of a substrate, a microstructure body, which is bonded to the substrate and can move partially with respect to it as a result of a temperature change and, for its part, is constructed from an electrically non-conductive and an electrically conductive material, at least a portion of the electrically conductive material forming a heating resistor. The object of the invention is to specify such an element of this type in which the movement of the microstructure body takes place parallel to the substrate. The object is achieved in that the heating resistor is arranged asymmetrically offset, seen in the vertical direction onto the substrate, in the moving part of the microstructure body, and is completely immersed in the microstructure body, its thickness in the specified direction corresponding to the thickness of the microstructure body.

Description

  • Die Erfindung betrifft ein mikromechanisches Element entsprechend dem Oberbegriff von Anspruch 1. The invention relates to a micromechanical element according to the preamble of claim. 1
  • Ein solches Element ist aus der DE 38 09 597 A1 bekannt. Such an element is known from DE 38 09 597 A1. Es besteht aus einem Substrat, an dem eine Zunge teilweise haftet, und einer Ätzgrube im Substrat, in die sich die Zunge bei Temperaturveränderung bewegt. It consists of a substrate to which partly adheres a tongue, and an etch pit in the substrate, in which the tongue moves when the temperature change. Das Heizelement, das diese Bewegung auslöst, sitzt -von oben gesehensymmetrisch angeordnet als Plättchen auf der Zunge. The heating element, which triggers the movement sits above -from arranged symmetrically seen as platelets on the tongue.
  • Nachteilig ist hierbei, daß der Heizwiderstand auf der teilweise beweglichen Zunge angebracht ist und daß bei der Bewegung die Verbindungsfläche zwischen Heizwiderstand und Zunge mechanisch stark beansprucht wird, so daß die Gefahr besteht, daß sich der Heizwiderstand ablöst. The disadvantage here is that the heating resistor is mounted on the movable part of the tongue and that the connecting surface between the heating resistor and the tongue is mechanically heavily stressed during the movement so that the danger exists that the heating resistor is peeled off. Ferner läßt das bekannte Element nur Bewegungen senkrecht zum Substrat zu. Furthermore, the known element only allows movement perpendicular to the substrate. Meist ist jedoch eine Bewegung parallel zum Substrat günstiger, weil sich damit zB Zahnstangen oder Zahnräder und dergleichen antreiben lassen. Usually, however, a movement is parallel to the substrate cheaper because blank thus driving example toothed racks or toothed wheels and the like.
  • Aus der DE-37 16 996 A1 ist ein Verformungselement bekannt, welches aus zwei miteinander verbundenen Materialstreifen mit unterschiedlichen Dehnungskoeffizienten gebildet ist und eine elektrische Heizung zum Erwärmen und damit Verformen des Verformungselements aufweist, bei dem die elektrische Heizung ein fest mit dem Verformungselement verbundenes Folienheizelement ist. From DE-37 16 996 A1 a deformation element is known which is formed of two interconnected strips of material with different coefficients of expansion, and having an electric heater for heating and hence deformation of the deformation element, wherein the electric heating is fixedly connected to the deformation element foil- , Das Folienheizelement besteht aus einer Kunststoff-Folie, die einseitig dünn metallisiert und als Schutz oder Isolierung wieder mit einer Kunststoff-Folie überzogen ist. The foil-type consists of a plastic film which is metallized on one side and thinly coated as a protective or isolation again with a plastic film. Die Metallschicht des Folienheizelements kann strukturiert sein. The metal layer of the Folienheizelements can be structured.
  • Auch bei diesem Verformungselement werden die Verbindungsflächen zwischen Folienheizelement und Materialstreifen mechanisch stark beansprucht. Even with this deformation element between the connecting surfaces and foil-type material strips are mechanically heavily stressed.
  • Aufgabe der Erfindung ist, die aufgezeigten Nachteile bei dem mikromechanischen Element der eingangs genannten Art zu beseitigen. The object of the invention to eliminate the disadvantages indicated in the micromechanical element of the type mentioned. Insbesondere soll ein mikromechanisches Element der eingangs genannten Art vorgeschlagen werden, bei dem die Verbindungsfläche zwischen dem elektrisch-leitenden und dem nichtleitenden Material weniger stark mechanisch beansprucht wird. In particular, a micro-mechanical element of the aforementioned type is to be proposed, in which the connecting surface between the electrically conductive and non-conductive material is less mechanically stressed.
  • Diese Aufgabe wird durch die in Anspruch 1 gekennzeichneten Merkmale gelöst. This object is solved by the features characterized in claim 1. Die weiteren Ansprüche geben vorteilhafte Ausgestaltungen der Erfindung an. The further claims indicate advantageous embodiments of the invention.
  • Der Mikrostrukturkörper kann beispielsweise durch Kunststoffabformung (Spritzguß, Reaktionsguß oder Prägetechnik) und Mikrogalvanik hergestellt werden. The microstructure element can be manufactured for example by plastic molding (injection molding, reaction casting or embossing technology) and micro-electroplating. Dazu können Abformwerkzeuge in bekannter Weise mit Hilfe der Röntgenlithographie und Mikrogalvanik hergestellt werden. These molding tools can be manufactured in a known manner using X-ray lithography and micro-electroplating.
  • Der wesentliche Vorteil des erfindungsgemäßen mikromechanischen Elements liegt -neben der Tatsache, daß die Auslenkung parallel zum Substrat erfolgt- darin, daß der Heizwiderstand 4 eine wesentlich festere Verbindung mit dem Kunststoffmaterial der Zunge eingeht. The main advantage of the micromechanical element of the invention is -In addition to the fact that the deflection parallel to the substrate erfolgt- therein, that the heating resistor 4 undergoes a much stronger bond with the plastic material of the tongue. Diese Verbindung wird noch verstärkt, wenn der Heizwiderstand zumindest teilweise mäanderförmig gestaltet ist. This compound is further enhanced when the heating resistor is designed at least partially in meandering fashion. Alternativ kann er bei Bedarf in einem Verfahrensschritt zusätzlich mit Verzahnungselementen versehen werden. Alternatively, it may be provided if needed in a process step with additional gearing elements.
  • Ein weiterer Vorteil besteht darin, daß mit dem erfindungsgemäßen mikromechanischen Element Steuerelemente z. A further advantage is that with the inventive micro-mechanical element such controls. B. für Gas- oder Flüssigkeitsströme, Zahnräder oder Zahnstangen und dgl. angetrieben werden können, die sich auf dem gleichen Substrat mit demselben Bestrahlungs-, Entwicklungs-, Ätz- und Galvanikschritt herstellen lassen. can be driven, which can be produced on the same substrate with the same irradiation, development, etching and electroplating step as for gas or liquid streams, gears or toothed racks and the like..
  • Dadurch entfallen zusätzliche Justierschritte. This eliminates additional alignment steps.
  • Die Erfindung wird im folgenden anhand von Figuren näher erläutert. The invention is explained below with reference to figures.
    • Figur 1 zeigt eine Aufsicht des mikromechanischen Elements. Figure 1 shows a top view of the micromechanical element.
    • Figur 2 zeigt eine Weiterbildung, wobei der Mikrostrukturkörper teilweise von einem Metallmantel umgeben ist. Figure 2 shows a development, wherein the microstructure body is partially surrounded by a metal sheath.
    • Figuren 3, 4 und 5 zeigen verschiedene Schritte eines Herstellungsverfahrens für die erfindungsgemäßen Elemente. Figures 3, 4 and 5 show various steps of a production method for the inventive elements.
  • In Figur 1 ist ein mikromechanisches Element dargestellt, bei dem sich auf einem elektrisch nicht leitenden Substrat 1, etwa einem Silizium-Wafer, einem Glas- oder Keramiksubstrat, ein Mikrostrukturkörper aus Kunststoff und Metall befindet. In Figure 1, a micromechanical element is shown, in which is located on an electrically non-conductive substrate 1, such as a silicon wafer, a glass or ceramic substrate, a microstructure body made of plastic and metal. Der Mikrostrukturkörper besteht aus einem Grundkörper 2, der fest auf dem Substrat haftet und aus einer Zunge 3, die einen Abstand von wenigen Mikrometern zum Substrat besitzt. The microstructure body is composed of a basic body 2 which adheres firmly to the substrate and of a tongue 3 which is at a distance of a few micrometers to the substrate. Auf einer Seite der Zunge 3 ist asymmetrisch ein Heizwiderstand 4 eingelassen, der eine U-Form aufweist, wobei ein Schenkel der U-Form mäanderförmig gestaltet ist. On one side of the tongue 3, a heating resistor 4 is inserted asymmetrical, having a U-shape, one leg of the U-shape is designed in meandering fashion. Die Maße des Heizwiderstands sind so gewählt, daß einerseits in diesem Bereich der Zunge 3 der Metallantell sehr hoch, beispielsweise über 50 % ist, andererseits sein elektrischer Widerstand in einem für den vorgesehenen Verwendungszweck geeigneten Bereich liegt. The dimensions of the heating resistor are chosen so that on the one hand in the region of the tongue 3 of the Metallantell very high, for example over 50%, on the other hand, its electric resistance is in a material suitable for the intended application area. Vorteilhaft sind hohe Widerstände, da damit die Zunge rasch und mit kleinen Stromstärken erwärmt werden kann. Advantageously high resistances, as this tongue can be heated quickly and with little current. Der Heizwiderstand ist mit größeren Metallstrukturen 5 (Bond Pads) verbunden, die Kontakte darstellen, an welche von außen eine Stromquelle angeschlossen wird. The heating resistor is connected to larger metal structures 5 (bond pads), which constitute the contacts to which an external power source is connected.
  • Beim Anlegen einer elektrischen Spannung an die beiden Kontakte 5 fließt ein Strom durch den Heizwiderstand der Zunge und erwärmt sie. When an electrical voltage to the two contacts 5, a current flows through the heater resistor of the tongue and heats it. Da die Zunge aus Kunststoff und einem Kunststoff-Metall-Verbundbesteht, deren Wärmeausdehnungskoeffizienten sich unterscheiden, kommt es zu inneren Spannungen. Since the tongue of plastic and a plastic-metal composite consists whose thermal expansion coefficients differ, it comes to internal stresses. Infolge der asymmetrischen Anordnung des Heizwiderstandes bewegt sich die Zunge bei Temperaturveränderungen parallel zum Substrat. Due to the asymmetrical arrangement of the heating resistor, the tongue is moved parallel to the substrate during temperature changes.
  • Die Höhe der Zunge senkrecht zum Substrat gemessen liegt typischerweise im Bereich von 300 um, ihre Breite (Schnitt AA) etwa zwischen 50 und 150 um. The height of the tongue as measured perpendicular to the substrate is typically in the range of 300 to their width (section AA) is about between 50 and 150 in order.
  • Figur 2 zeigt eine Weiterbildung dieses mikromechanischen Elements, bei dem die Zunge 3 vollständig mit einer Metallstruktur 12 umgeben ist. Figure 2 shows a further development of this the micromechanical element, wherein the tongue 3 is completely surrounded by a metal structure 12th Damit die Verbindung zwischen Zunge 3 und dem Metallmantel 12 auch bei Spannungen erhalten bleibt, werden das Metall und der Kunststoff der Zunge ineinander verzahnt, zB durch Schwalbenschwanznuten 15. The connection between the tongue 3 and the metal shell 12 is maintained even at voltages, the metal and the plastic of the tongue are interlocked, for example by dovetail 15 °.
  • Das mikromechanische Element nach Figur 1 kann durch ein Verfahren hergestellt werden, das in den Figuren 3, 4 und 5 dargestellt ist. The micro-mechanical element of Figure 1 can be prepared by a process which is illustrated in Figures 3, 4 and 5. FIG. Figur 5 zeigt das fertige Element. Figure 5 shows the finished element.
  • Figur 3 zeigt eine Aufsicht und Figur 4 einen Schnitt (BB in Figur 1) durch das mikromechanische Element während der Herstellung. Figure 3 shows a plan view and Figure 4 is a section (BB in Figure 1) by the micromechanical element during manufacture.
  • Auf einem dünnen nichtleitenden Substrat 1 wird zunächst eine Metallschicht 6 mit einer Dicke von vorzugsweise weniger als 1 um durch Aufdampfen oder Aufsputtern aufgebracht, die mit den bekannten Schritten der Mikroelektronik (Belacken, Belichten, Entwickeln, selektiv Ätzen) strukturiert wird. On a thin non-conductive substrate 1, a metal layer 6 having a thickness of preferably less than 1 is first order by vapor deposition or sputtering, which with the known steps of microelectronics (resist coating, exposure, development, selectively etching) is patterned. In einem weiteren Schritt wird mit denselben Methoden eine Abstandsschicht 7 mit einer Dicke von vorzugsweise weniger als 10 um aufgebracht, die analog strukturiert wird (Figur 3), Dabei muß diese Abstandsschicht 7 selektiv abätzbar sein. In a further step, a spacer layer is applied using the same methods 7 having a thickness of preferably less than 10 microns, which is structured similarly (Figure 3), In this case, this spacer layer 7 must be selectively etched away. Dies ist zB möglich, wenn man als Metallschicht 6 Silber, Chrom, Kupfer, Nickel oder Gold wählt und als Abstandsschicht 7 Titan. This is for instance possible if one selects as the metal layer 6 of silver, chromium, copper, nickel or gold and the spacer layer 7 titanium. Der Teil 6a der Metallschicht 6 dient dem späteren Anschluß der Galvanikelektrode. The part 6a of the metal layer 6 is used for subsequent connection to the galvanic electrode.
  • Alternativ kann als Abstandsschicht auch eine Kunststoffschicht verwendet werden, die metallisiert wird. Alternatively, a plastic layer can be used as a spacer layer is metallized.
  • Auf dieses vorbereitete Substrat wird dann eine Resistschicht aufgebracht, die später sowohl den nichtleitenden Teil des Mikrostrukturkörpers 2, 3 als auch die Form für die galvanische Abscheidung des Heizwiderstands 4 und der Metallstrukturen 5 bildet. A resist layer is then applied to this prepared substrate, which forms both the non-conductive portion of the microstructure body 2, 3 as well as the form for the electrodeposition of the heating resistor 4 and the metal structures 5 later.
  • Hierzu wird gem. For this purpose, gem. Figur 4 der Resist zB mit Röntgenstrahlung 8 über eine Röntgenmaske 9 bestrahlt. Figure 4 of the resist, for example, irradiated with X-rays 8 through a X-ray mask. 9
  • Die bestrahlten Teilbereiche 10 und 11 des Resits werden mit einem geeigneten Entwickler entfernt, wobei die unbestrahlten Bereiche stehen bleiben. The irradiated sections 10 and 11 of Resits be removed with a suitable developer, the unexposed areas remain standing.
  • In einem anschließenden Galvanikprozeß werden die frei entwickelten Bereiche 10, die am Untergrund eine metallische Schicht 6 oder 7 aufweisen, mit Metall für den Heizwiderstand 4 und die Metallstrukturen 5 aufgefüllt. In a subsequent electroplating process, the free developed areas 10, which have the substrate a metallic layer 6 or 7, filled with metal for the heating resistor 4 and the metal structures 5 are. Hierzu wird eine Stromquelle an den Teil 6a der Metallschicht angeschlossen. For this purpose a power source to the part 6a of the metal layer is connected. Zur Verhinderung einer unerwünschten galvanischen Metallabscheidung im Bereich 6a kann dieser mit einem isolierenden Lack abgedeckt werden. In order to prevent an undesired galvanic metal deposition in the area 6a, it can be covered with an insulating varnish.
  • Nach der galvanischen Abscheidung des Metalls wird die Abstandsschicht 7 durch selektives Ätzen entfernt. After the electro-deposition of the metal, the spacer layer 7 is removed by selective etching. Dabei muß selbstverständlich das Metall 4 beständig gegen das Ätzmittel sein, mit dem die Abstandsschicht entfernt wird. The metal 4 must be resistant to the etchant of course, with the spacer layer is removed. Nimmt man als Abstandsschicht zB Titan, so können für die Metallstruktur viele andere Materialien, zB Chrom, Silber, Kupfer, Nickel oder Gold gewählt werden. Taking as a spacer layer, for example titanium, so can be selected for the metal structure of many other materials, such as chromium, silver, copper, nickel or gold.
  • In diesem Fall kann als Ätzmittel eine 5 %ige Flußsäurelösung verwendet werden. In this case a 5% hydrofluoric acid can be used as an etchant.
  • Figur 5 zeigt das fertige mikromechanische Element nach Figur 1 im Schnitt AA. Figure 5 shows the final micromechanical element according to figure 1 in section AA.
  • Der Mikrostrukturkörper 2, 3 kann auch auf einem metallischen Substrat aufgebaut werden. The microstructure body 2, 3 can also be built up on a metallic substrate. In diesem Fall entfällt die Metallschicht 6. Dafür muß aber gesorgt werden, daß die galvanische Metallabscheidung nur an den Stellen erfolgt, die den Heizwiderstand 4 und die Kontakte 5 bilden. In this case, the metal layer is omitted 6. For but care must be taken that the electrodeposition takes place only at the points that form the heating resistor 4 and the contacts. 5 Dies kann entweder durch eine strukturierte Isolationsschicht, zB einen Photolack, erfolgen, die vor dem Auftragen des Resists auf das metallische Substrat aufgebracht wird. This can either be done a photoresist by a patterned insulation layer, for example, which is applied to the metallic substrate prior to application of the resist.
  • Alternativ können nach dem Bestrahlen und Entwickeln die nicht zu galvanisierenden Bereiche mit einem Schutzlack abgedeckt werden. Alternatively, the not to be plated areas can be covered with a protective coating after exposure and development.
  • In diesem Fall müssen die Kontakte 5 in den frei tragenden, beweglichen Teil 3 des Mikrostrukturkörpers verlegt werden, um die notwendige Isolierung zu gewährleisten. In this case, the contacts must be installed in the cantilevered movable part 3 of the microstructure body 5 in order to ensure the necessary insulation.
  • Das in Fig. 1 dargestellte Element kann mit einer einzigen Bestrahlung hergestellt werden, bei der sowohl die Resistbereiche 10, die als Form für das elektrisch leitende Material dienen, als auch die zu entfernenden Resistbereiche 11 bestrahlt werden. The element shown in FIG. 1 can be produced with a single exposure, in which both the resist regions 10, which serve as a mold for the electrically conductive material, as well as to remove resist regions 11 to be irradiated.
  • Das mikromechanische Element nach Figur 2 wird durch zwei justierte Bestrahlungen hergestellt. The micro-mechanical element of Figure 2 is formed by two aligned radiation.
  • Im ersten Schritt werden alle Bereiche bestrahlt und entwickelt, welche mit Metall aufgefüllt werden sollen. In the first step, all regions are irradiated and developed which are to be filled with metal. Nach der Galvanik werden die nicht benötigten Resistbereiche bestrahlt und durch den Entwickler entfernt. After plating the unnecessary resist areas are irradiated and removed by the developer.
  • Da bei dem mikromechanischen Element nach Fig. 2 die Bereiche des Resist, die die Form für den Metallmantel 12 bilden, und die Bereiche 11, die ganz entfernt werden, nebeneinander liegen und so nicht mehr durch einen verbleibenden Resistbereich getrennt sind, muß dieses Element durch zwei Bestrahlungen hergestellt werden. Since the micro-mechanical element according to Fig. 2, the portions of the resist which form the mold for the metal shell 12, and the areas 11 which are removed altogether are adjacent and thus no longer separated by a remaining resist region are, this element must by two exposures are made.

Claims (5)

  1. 1. Mikromechanisches Element, bestehend aus 1. The micromechanical element, consisting of
    a) einem Substrat a) a substrate
    b) einem am Substrat haftenden, gegenüber diesem durch Temperaturänderung teilweise beweglichen Mikrostrukturkörper, der seinerseits b) an adhesive on the substrate, with respect to this part movable by temperature change microstructure body, which in turn
    b1 )aus einem elektrisch nicht leitenden und b1) of an electrically non-conductive and
    b2)aus einem elektisch leitenden Material aufgebaut ist, wobei b2) is constructed of a Electrically conductive material,
    b3)zumindest ein Teil des elektrisch leitenden Materials einen Heizwiderstand bildet, b3) at least a portion of the electrically conductive material forming a heating resistance,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß characterized in that
    der Heizwiderstand im beweglichen Teil des Mikrostrukurkörpers in senkrechter Richtung auf das Substrat gesehen asymmetrisch versetzt angeordnet und vollständig im Mikrostrukturkörper versenkt ist, wobei seine Dicke in der angegebenen Richtung der Dicke des Mikrostrukturkörpers entspricht. the heating resistor is seen in the moving part of the Mikrostrukurkörpers in the direction perpendicular to the substrate and arranged asymmetrically displaced completely sunk in the microstructural body, its thickness corresponds to the specified direction of the thickness of the microstructure body.
  2. 2. Mikromechanisches Element nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Heizwiderstand eine U-Form aufweist. 2. Micromechanical element according to claim 1, characterized in that the heating resistance has a U-shape.
  3. 3. Mikromechanisches Element nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß 3. The micromechanical element according to claim 2, characterized in that
    mindestens ein Schenkel des U-förmigen Heizwiderstands eine Mäanderform aufweist. at least one leg of the U-shaped heating resistor has a meandering shape.
  4. 4. Mikromechanisches Element nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß 4. The micromechanical element of any of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that
    der Mikrostrukturkörper zumindest teilweise von einem Metallmantel umgeben ist. the microstructure body is at least partially surrounded by a metal sheath.
  5. 5. Mikromechanisches Element nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß 5. The micromechanical element of any of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that
    das elektrisch leitende Material mit dem elektrisch nicht leitenden Material verzahnt ist. the electrically conductive material is in mesh with the electrically non-conductive material.
EP19910114504 1990-10-04 1991-08-29 Micromechanical element Expired - Lifetime EP0478956B1 (en)

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DE4031248 1990-10-04
DE19904031248 DE4031248C2 (en) 1990-10-04 1990-10-04

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EP0478956A2 true true EP0478956A2 (en) 1992-04-08
EP0478956A3 true EP0478956A3 (en) 1992-11-25
EP0478956B1 EP0478956B1 (en) 1995-05-17

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US6137206A (en) * 1999-03-23 2000-10-24 Cronos Integrated Microsystems, Inc. Microelectromechanical rotary structures
US6211598B1 (en) 1999-09-13 2001-04-03 Jds Uniphase Inc. In-plane MEMS thermal actuator and associated fabrication methods
US6218762B1 (en) 1999-05-03 2001-04-17 Mcnc Multi-dimensional scalable displacement enabled microelectromechanical actuator structures and arrays
US6236139B1 (en) 1999-02-26 2001-05-22 Jds Uniphase Inc. Temperature compensated microelectromechanical structures and related methods
US6255757B1 (en) 1999-09-01 2001-07-03 Jds Uniphase Inc. Microactuators including a metal layer on distal portions of an arched beam
US6291922B1 (en) 1999-08-25 2001-09-18 Jds Uniphase, Inc. Microelectromechanical device having single crystalline components and metallic components
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EP0478956B1 (en) 1995-05-17 grant
EP0478956A3 (en) 1992-11-25 application
DE4031248C2 (en) 1992-07-23 grant

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