EP0376643A2 - Flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications - Google Patents

Flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0376643A2
EP0376643A2 EP19890313506 EP89313506A EP0376643A2 EP 0376643 A2 EP0376643 A2 EP 0376643A2 EP 19890313506 EP19890313506 EP 19890313506 EP 89313506 A EP89313506 A EP 89313506A EP 0376643 A2 EP0376643 A2 EP 0376643A2
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EP
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
flat
plate
strip line
line resonator
antenna
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP19890313506
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0376643A3 (en )
EP0376643B1 (en )
Inventor
Kazuhiko Nakase
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Harada Kogyo KK
Original Assignee
Harada Kogyo KK
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/27Adaptation for use in or on movable bodies
    • H01Q1/32Adaptation for use in or on road or rail vehicles
    • H01Q1/325Adaptation for use in or on road or rail vehicles characterised by the location of the antenna on the vehicle
    • H01Q1/3275Adaptation for use in or on road or rail vehicles characterised by the location of the antenna on the vehicle mounted on a horizontal surface of the vehicle, e.g. on roof, hood, trunk
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/30Resonant antennas with feed to end of elongated active element, e.g. unipole
    • H01Q9/40Element having extended radiating surface

Abstract

A flat-plate antenna for mobile communications used in automobiles, etc. including a table form antenna ele­ment (10) made up of a conductive flat-plate section (10A) and a plurality of leg sections which connect to the flat-plate section to a ground plate (20), a strip line resonator (30) provided beneath the table form antenna with a space in between, and a capacitor electrode (40) provided on the strip line resonator directly under the center of the table form antenna ele­ment. A feeding line (60, 61) is connected to the strip line resonator.

Description

  • The present invention relates to an antenna for use in mobile communications such as automobile telephones and MCA (multi-channel access), etc. which is flat-plate shaped and installed in a flat portion such as roof, trunk lid, etc. of the body of a vehicle such as an automobile, etc.
  • Various types of wire-form or linear antennas have been used in the past as antennas for mobile com­munications. The reasons for this are that wire-form antennas have maximum radiative characteristics in the horizontal direction, as required for mobile communica­tions, and such antennas can easily be endowed with characteristics which are non-directional in the hori­zontal plane. Furthermore, antennas used for automobile telephones and MCA require broad-band characteristics, and since broad-band techniques have been well established for wire-form antennas, the design and development of such antennas are relatively easy.
  • In recent years, flat-plate antennas have received attention as antennas for use in mobile communications. The reason for this is that when a flat-plate antenna is attached to an automobile, there is no projecting object as in the case of conventional and antennas, and there is no deleterious effect on the style of the automobile, and wind noise occurring during operation of the automo­bile is decreased. Furthermore, since there is no danger that the antenna will contact car-wash machinery, garages or roadside trees, etc., the problem of damage to the antenna from such sources is eliminated. In these and other respects, such antennas have great prac­tical merit.
  • In flat-plate antennas it is necessary to endow the antenna with broad-band characteristics. For this reason, antennas with a multi-layer structure have been proposed in the past. Such multi-layer antennas, however, has a complex integral structure and is there­fore difficult to adapt as a commercial product.
  • Accordingly, the object of the present invention is to provide a flat-plate antenna for use in mobile com­munications which has sufficient broad-band charac­teristics and has a simple structure.
  • In the present invention, a strip line resonator is provided inside or underneath a table type antenna ele­ment and a capacitor electrode is installed on the strip line resonator at a position directly facing the center of the table type antenna element.
  • Thus, since in the present invention, a strip line resonator is inside a table type antenna element and a capacitor electrode is installed on the strip line reso­nator so that it directly faces the center of the table type antenna element. The structure of this antenna is simple and has adequate broad-band characteristics.
  • This invention can be more fully understood from the following detailed description when taken in con­junction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
    • Fig. 1A is a perspective view of one embodiment of the present invention;
    • Fig. 1B is a front view thereof.,
    • Fig. 1C is a circuit diagram which illustrates an equivalent circuit thereof;
    • Fig. 2A is an explanatory diagram of a table type antenna element of Fig. 1A operating in the monopole mode;
    • Fig. 2B is an equivalent circuit diagram of the impedance characteristics in the vicinity of the reso­nant frequency as viewed from the center of the circular plate;
    • Fig. 3A is a perspective view which illustrates a strip line resonator of Fig. 1A;
    • Fig. 3B is an equivalent circuit diagram of the impedance characteristics thereof as viewed from the feeding point of the feeder line in this case;
    • Fig. 4A is a perspective view of another embodiment of the present invention;
    • Fig. 4B is a front view thereof;
    • Fig. 5, Fig. 6A and Fig. 6B are perspective views of modifications of the table type antenna element of the present invention;
    • Fig. 7 is a graph which illustrates the reflection loss characteristics with varying coupling capacitance in the embodiment;
    • Figs. 8A and 8B are graphs which respectively illustrate the reflection loss characteristics and impedance characteristics in the embodiment; and
    • Fig. 9 is a graph which illustrates the direc­tionality of the antenna in the vertical plane in the embodiment.
  • Fig. 1A is a perspective view of the antenna of the present invention and Fig. 1B is a front view thereof with a connecting plate omitted. Fig. 1C is a circuit diagram showing an equivalent circuit of the antenna of Fig. 1A.
  • The antenna of the present invention includes the following components: A table type antenna element 10, a ground plate 20 which is under the antenna element 10, a strip line resonator 30 which is installed inside or underneath the table type antenna element 10, and a capacitor electrode 40 which is installed on the strip line resonator 30 in a position opposite the central portion of the table type antenna element 10. In other words, the electrode 40 is directly below the center of the antenna element 10. Furthermore, the antenna of the present invention includes a feeder line 60 which has a feeding point at a prescribed position on the strip line resonator 30.
  • In particular, the table type antenna element 10 includes a circular or oblong conductive flat-plate 10A and a multiple number of connecting parts 11, 12, 13 and 14, which electrically connect the flat-plate 10A to the ground plate 20. This antenna element 10 is excited in the monopole mode.
  • Both ends of the strip line resonator 30 are grounded to the ground plate 20 via legs 30A. This strip line resonator 30 also serves as an impedance transformer. The electrostatic capacitance Cc is pro­vided between the capacitor electrode 40 and the table type antenna element 10 and indicated by the capacitor symbol in Fig. 1B. Moreover, in Fig. 1A, the feeder line 60 is shown as being led out from beneath the ground plate 20; however, it may also be installed parallel to the ground plate 20 as indicated by reference numeral 61 in Fig. 1A.
  • Fig. 2A illustrates the relationship between the feeder line 60 and the table type antenna element 10 excited in the monopole mode in the embodiment.
  • In cases where the table type antenna element 10 is excited in the monopole mode, i.e., where the current flowing through the flat-plate 10A flows uniformly from the center toward the periphery, and the top plate reso­nates in the lowest-order mode (λ/2), the voltage dis­tribution reaches the maximum in the central portion of the table type antenna element 10, and the impedance characteristics as viewed from the center of the flat plate 10A may be treated as those of a parallel reso­nance circuit of the type shown in Fig. 2B in the vicinity of the resonant frequency.
  • Fig. 3A shows the strip line resonator 30 which has both ends grounded and is equipped with the capacitor electrode 40 in the above-described embodiment.
  • When the resonator shown in Fig. 3A resonates in the lowest-order mode (λ/2), the voltage in the area of the capacitor electrode 40 reaches the maximum, and the impedance characteristics as viewed from the feeding point 50 of the feeder line 60 may be treated as those of a tapped parallel resonance circuit of the type shown in Fig. 3B in the vicinity of the resonant frequency.
  • The embodiment illustrated in Figs. 1A and 1B may be viewed as a combination of the table type antenna element 10 shown in Fig. 2A and the strip line resonator shown in Fig. 3A. In this case, the feeder line 60a of Fig. 2A is omitted, and the feeder line 60 is used instead. As a result, a primary resonance circuit formed by the strip line resonator 30 and a secondary resonance circuit formed by the table type antenna ele­ment 10 are electrostatically coupled by the electrosta­tic capacitance Cc between the electrode plates. Accordingly, in the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1A, a double tuning circuit based on capacitive coupling is formed in apparent terms in the vicinity of the resonant frequency, as shown in Fig. 1C.
  • Here, the resonant frequency on the primary side and the resonant frequency on the secondary side are tuned to the frequency being used, the coupling capaci­tance Cc is set at the critical coupling value, and the position of the feeding point 50 is selected, so that the impedance of the flat-plate antenna of Fig. 1A and the impedance of the feeder line are in a matched state. As a result, the reflection loss of the flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications shown in Fig. 1A can be reduced, and a good VSWR value can be obtained across a broad band.
  • Normally, the necessary conditions for a flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications such as automo­bile telephones, etc. is that the antenna must be excellent in certain respects: First, the antenna must have superior directional characteristics. In other words, the antenna must show maximum radiative charac­teristics in the horizontal direction and must be non-­directional within the horizontal plane. Second, the antenna must have broad-band characteristics. For example, in the case of an automobile telephone, the band width must adequately cover 80 MHz band. In Addition, the antenna must have superior impedance matching (matching between the feeder line 60 and the flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications must be adequately achieved across a broad band), and the antenna should also be superior in terms of its mechani­cal structure. That is, the structure should be simple and easy to manufacture, and mechanical errors occurring in the manufacturing process should not have any great effect on the antenna characteristics.
  • First, in regard to the directional characteris­tics, the table type antenna element 10 is shaped so that it is excited in the monopole mode. In other words, the antenna is shaped so that it has an axially symmetrical flat-plate 10A and a multiple number of con­necting parts which electrically connect this flat-plate 10A to the ground plate 20. As a result, the required directional characteristics can be obtained.
  • Secondly, in regard to broad-band characteristics, flat-plate antennas which are excited in the monopole mode generally have a narrow band width. Broad-band characteristics can be obtained to some extent by con­necting the circular plate to a ground plate via a grounding post. However, there are limits to the impro­vement that can be achieved in this way. Accordingly, in the above-mentioned embodiment, broad-band charac­teristics are obtained by installing a strip line reso­nator 30 inside the table type antenna element 10, and electrostatically coupling this resonator 30 with the antenna element 10.
  • The next thing to be considered is an impedance matching. In order to cause stable excitation in the monopole mode, it is ordinarily necessary to position the feeding point in the central portion of the antenna. However, since the center of the antenna is where the voltage is at the maximum, it is difficult to achieve matching between the antenna and the feeder line 60. Accordingly, in the above-described embodiment, feeding is accomplished with the table type antenna element 10 and strip line resonator 30 coupled via the electrosta­tic capacitance Cc. Consequently, the impedance of the flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications and the impedance of the feeder line 60 can be matched by varying the position of the feeding point 50 between one grounded end of the strip line resonator 30 and the capacitor electrode 40. By using a method in which impedance matching is accomplished by varying the posi­tion of the feeding point 50, i.e., by varying the posi­tion of the tap, any effect on the antenna proper in terms of directional characteristics and broad-band characteristics, etc., is minimized. Accordingly, the most appropriate position for the feeding point can be selected relatively easily in the development and design stages of the flat-plate antenna.
  • The mechanical structure of the above-described embodiment is as follows: The table type antenna ele­ment 10 and strip line resonator 30 are finished separa­tely from each other in mechanical terms and then these two parts are simply combined. As a result, the mechanical demand in the antenna manufacturing process is minimal. Accordingly, the cost of the product is reduced, and as long as ordinary working precision is maintained, there is no deterioration in the antenna characteristics or insufficiency in terms of the mecha­nical strength of the antenna. Furthermore, if there is a mechanical dimensional error at the time of assembly tends to result in a change in the coupling capacitance. Even in such cases, however, the only effect will be a certain change in the band width; accordingly, there is no essential effect on the antenna characteristics.
  • Fig. 7 is a graph which shows the change in the reflection loss of the antenna that occurs when the coupling capacitance Cc is varied in the above described embodiment.
  • Fig. 8A is a graph which shows measurements of the reflection loss in the embodiment; and Fig. 8B is a graph which shows one example of impedance charac­teristics in the embodiment indicated by means of a Smith chart. As for the radiative directional charac­teristics of the antenna in the embodiment, the direc­tion of maximum radiation of a table-form flat-plate antenna resonating in the monopole mode is more or less horizontal, and such an antenna is more or less non-­directional within the horizontal plane.
  • Fig. 9 is a graph which shows one example of direc­tional characteristics in the vertical plane in a case where the flat-plate antenna of the embodiment is attached to a circular plate-form ground plate with a diameter of 1.5 m.
  • In the characteristics shown in Fig. 9, the direc­tionality is oriented slightly upward, since a ground plate of finite length is used. However, in cases where a ground plate of an undefined much greater length is used, the directionality is more or less horizontal.
  • Fig. 4A is a perspective view which illustrates another embodiment of the present invention. Fig. 4B is a front view thereof with the connecting part 14 shown in Fig. 4A omitted.
  • In this embodiment, a strip line resonator 31, which is approximately half the length of the strip line resonator 30 of the previous embodiment, and is installed on one side only, is used instead of the strip line resonator 30. In this case as well, the capacitor electrode 40 is positioned so that it is located roughly in the center of the table type antenna element 10. Furthermore, in this case as well, an equivalent circuit is formed which is similar to that shown in Fig. 1C.
  • Moreover, in the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 4A, the strip line resonator 31 resonates at one-fourth (λ/4) the wavelength of the frequency used.
  • Figs. 5, 6A and 6B illustrate modifications of the table type antenna element 10.
  • In the table type antenna element 10a of Fig. 5, the positions of the connecting parts 11a, 12a, 13a and 14a are set not at the edges of the table type antenna element 10a, but rather at prescribed points which are all substantially equidistant from the center of the antenna. Furthermore, the table type antenna element 10b is constructed using a flat-plate which has the shape of a regular octagon. Connecting parts 11b, 12b, 13b and 14b are connected to this flat-plate 10b. In addition to circular and octagonal flat-plates, it would also be possible to use the flat-plate design with other regular polygonal shapes, e.g., hexagonal, etc. Furthermore, the table type antenna 1°C may have rod-­form connecting parts 11c, 12c, 13c and 14c.
  • In addition, the resonant frequency of the table type antenna can be adjusted by adjusting the size (length, width, diameter) of the connecting parts. Furthermore, it would also be possible to use three connecting parts, or five or more connecting parts, instead of four connecting parts as in the case of the aforementioned connecting parts 11 through 14, 11a through 14a, 1lb through 14b and 11c through 14c.
  • As in detail, the structure of the antenna is simple and has adequate broad-band characteristics.

Claims (9)

1. A flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communi­cations characterized in that said antenna comprises:
a table type antenna element (10) which is equipped with a conductive flat-plate part (10A) and a multiple number of connecting parts (11, 12, 13, 14) which elec­trically connect said flat-plate part to a ground plate (20);
a strip line resonator (30) which is installed inside said table type antenna; and
a capacitor electrode (40) which is installed on said strip line resonator and directly under the central portion of said table type antenna element.
2. A flat-plate antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that both ends of said strip line reso­nator are grounded, and said capacitor electrode is installed substantially at the center of said strip line resonator, said strip line resonator as a whole being installed at substantially the central location inside said table type antenna, and said strip line resonator being caused to resonate at one-half (λ/2) the wave­length of frequency used.
3. A flat-plate antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that one end of said strip line resona­tor is grounded while the other end of said strip line resonator is open, said capacitor electrode is connected to said open portion of said strip line resonator, said strip line resonator as a whole is positioned so that said capacitor electrode is located at a substantially central position inside said table type antenna element and said strip line resonator is caused to resonate at one-fourth (λ/4) the wavelength of frequency used.
4. A flat-plate antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that a feeding point is installed between one grounded end of said strip line resonator and capacitor electrode.
5. A flat-plate antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that the impedance of said flat-plate antenna element and the impedance of the feeder line of said antenna are matched by varying the position of said feeding point in the area between one grounded end of said strip line resonator and capacitor electrode.
6. A flat-plate antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that said flat-plate portion of said table type antenna element is circular or regular poly­gon in shape.
7. A flat-plate antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that said connecting parts are rod-form or plate-form conductors.
8. A flat-plate antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that the resonant frequency of said table type antenna element is adjusted by adjusting the size (length, width and/or diameter) of said connecting parts.
9. A flat-plate antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that said capacitor electrode is installed so that the electrostatic capacitive coupling between said table type antenna and strip line resonator is more or less in a state of critical coupling.
EP19890313506 1988-12-27 1989-12-22 Flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications Expired - Lifetime EP0376643B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP33058988A JPH0821812B2 (en) 1988-12-27 1988-12-27 Mobile communication for the flat antenna
JP330589/88 1988-12-27

Publications (3)

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EP0376643A2 true true EP0376643A2 (en) 1990-07-04
EP0376643A3 true EP0376643A3 (en) 1990-11-28
EP0376643B1 EP0376643B1 (en) 1994-02-16

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EP19890313506 Expired - Lifetime EP0376643B1 (en) 1988-12-27 1989-12-22 Flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications

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EP (1) EP0376643B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH0821812B2 (en)
DE (2) DE68913180D1 (en)
ES (1) ES2051376T3 (en)

Cited By (33)

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US5181044A (en) * 1989-11-15 1993-01-19 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Top loaded antenna
EP0400872B1 (en) * 1989-05-23 1994-01-19 Harada Industry Co., Ltd. A flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications
US5294938A (en) * 1991-03-15 1994-03-15 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Concealedly mounted top loaded vehicular antenna unit
WO1995007557A1 (en) * 1993-09-07 1995-03-16 Universite De Limoges Monopolar wire-plate antenna
WO1999022418A1 (en) * 1997-10-23 1999-05-06 Andrew Jesman Matching device for a multi-frequency antenna
WO2002001674A1 (en) * 2000-06-27 2002-01-03 Robert Bosch Gmbh Slot antenna
DE10045634A1 (en) * 2000-09-15 2002-04-04 Hella Kg Hueck & Co Control system for data transmission in vehicle has antenna with lambda/2 antenna piece whose both ends are connected to strip conductor arrangement on printed board
WO2009001351A1 (en) * 2007-06-26 2008-12-31 Galtronics Ltd. Omni directional top loaded monopole
US7679565B2 (en) 2004-06-28 2010-03-16 Pulse Finland Oy Chip antenna apparatus and methods
US7903035B2 (en) 2005-10-10 2011-03-08 Pulse Finland Oy Internal antenna and methods
US7916086B2 (en) 2004-11-11 2011-03-29 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna component and methods
US8004470B2 (en) 2004-06-28 2011-08-23 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna, component and methods
US8466756B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2013-06-18 Pulse Finland Oy Methods and apparatus for matching an antenna
US8473017B2 (en) 2005-10-14 2013-06-25 Pulse Finland Oy Adjustable antenna and methods
US8564485B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2013-10-22 Pulse Finland Oy Adjustable multiband antenna and methods
US8618990B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2013-12-31 Pulse Finland Oy Wideband antenna and methods
US8629813B2 (en) 2007-08-30 2014-01-14 Pusle Finland Oy Adjustable multi-band antenna and methods
US8648752B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2014-02-11 Pulse Finland Oy Chassis-excited antenna apparatus and methods
US8786499B2 (en) 2005-10-03 2014-07-22 Pulse Finland Oy Multiband antenna system and methods
US8847833B2 (en) 2009-12-29 2014-09-30 Pulse Finland Oy Loop resonator apparatus and methods for enhanced field control
US9406998B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2016-08-02 Pulse Finland Oy Distributed multiband antenna and methods
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Cited By (40)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0400872B1 (en) * 1989-05-23 1994-01-19 Harada Industry Co., Ltd. A flat-plate antenna for use in mobile communications
US5181044A (en) * 1989-11-15 1993-01-19 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Top loaded antenna
US5294938A (en) * 1991-03-15 1994-03-15 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Concealedly mounted top loaded vehicular antenna unit
WO1995007557A1 (en) * 1993-09-07 1995-03-16 Universite De Limoges Monopolar wire-plate antenna
US6750825B1 (en) 1993-09-07 2004-06-15 Universite De Limoges Monopole wire-plate antenna
WO1999022418A1 (en) * 1997-10-23 1999-05-06 Andrew Jesman Matching device for a multi-frequency antenna
WO2002001674A1 (en) * 2000-06-27 2002-01-03 Robert Bosch Gmbh Slot antenna
US6750826B2 (en) 2000-06-27 2004-06-15 Robert Bosch Gmbh Slotted antenna
DE10045634A1 (en) * 2000-09-15 2002-04-04 Hella Kg Hueck & Co Control system for data transmission in vehicle has antenna with lambda/2 antenna piece whose both ends are connected to strip conductor arrangement on printed board
DE10045634B4 (en) * 2000-09-15 2005-08-25 Hella Kgaa Hueck & Co. Resonant antenna for a control device for a motor vehicle and their use
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US7733274B2 (en) 2007-06-26 2010-06-08 Galtronics Ltd. Omni directional top loaded monopole
WO2009001351A1 (en) * 2007-06-26 2008-12-31 Galtronics Ltd. Omni directional top loaded monopole
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US9680212B2 (en) 2013-11-20 2017-06-13 Pulse Finland Oy Capacitive grounding methods and apparatus for mobile devices
US9948002B2 (en) 2014-08-26 2018-04-17 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna apparatus with an integrated proximity sensor and methods
US9973228B2 (en) 2014-08-26 2018-05-15 Pulse Finland Oy Antenna apparatus with an integrated proximity sensor and methods
US9722308B2 (en) 2014-08-28 2017-08-01 Pulse Finland Oy Low passive intermodulation distributed antenna system for multiple-input multiple-output systems and methods of use
US9906260B2 (en) 2015-07-30 2018-02-27 Pulse Finland Oy Sensor-based closed loop antenna swapping apparatus and methods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP0376643A3 (en) 1990-11-28 application
EP0376643B1 (en) 1994-02-16 grant
ES2051376T3 (en) 1994-06-16 grant
DE68913180T2 (en) 1994-05-26 grant
DE68913180D1 (en) 1994-03-24 grant
JPH0821812B2 (en) 1996-03-04 grant
JP2117879C (en) grant
JPH02174404A (en) 1990-07-05 application

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