EP0282616B1 - Ultrasonic liquid sprayer - Google Patents

Ultrasonic liquid sprayer Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0282616B1
EP0282616B1 EP19870103907 EP87103907A EP0282616B1 EP 0282616 B1 EP0282616 B1 EP 0282616B1 EP 19870103907 EP19870103907 EP 19870103907 EP 87103907 A EP87103907 A EP 87103907A EP 0282616 B1 EP0282616 B1 EP 0282616B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
cap
characterized
cap part
housing
ultrasonic liquid
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
EP19870103907
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0282616A1 (en
Inventor
Lothar Bendig
Frieder Hofmann
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Lechler GmbH and Co KG
Original Assignee
Lechler GmbH and Co KG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Lechler GmbH and Co KG filed Critical Lechler GmbH and Co KG
Priority to EP19870103907 priority Critical patent/EP0282616B1/en
Publication of EP0282616A1 publication Critical patent/EP0282616A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0282616B1 publication Critical patent/EP0282616B1/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B17/00Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups
    • B05B17/04Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods
    • B05B17/06Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations
    • B05B17/0607Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations generated by electrical means, e.g. piezoelectric transducers
    • B05B17/0623Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations generated by electrical means, e.g. piezoelectric transducers coupled with a vibrating horn
    • B05B17/063Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations generated by electrical means, e.g. piezoelectric transducers coupled with a vibrating horn having an internal channel for supplying the liquid or other fluent material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B17/00Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups
    • B05B17/04Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods
    • B05B17/06Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations
    • B05B17/0607Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations generated by electrical means, e.g. piezoelectric transducers
    • B05B17/0623Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids or other fluent materials, not covered by the preceding groups operating with special methods using ultrasonic or other kinds of vibrations generated by electrical means, e.g. piezoelectric transducers coupled with a vibrating horn

Description

  • Die Erfindung bezieht sich auf einen Ultraschall-Flüssigkeitszerstäuber nach dem Oberbegriff des Patentanspruchs I. The invention relates to an ultrasonic liquid atomizer according to the preamble of patent claim I.
  • Ein Ultraschall-Flüssigkeitszerstäuber, der einen Teil der vorbezeichneten Merkmale aufweist, ist durch die DE-PS 32 33 901 bekannt geworden. An ultrasonic liquid atomizer which comprises a part of the above-mentioned features is known from DE-PS 32 33 901. FIG. Eine teilweise Weiterentwicklung dieses bekannten Ultraschall-Flüssigkeitszerstäubers zeigt die BE-A 902.301. A partial development of this known ultrasonic liquid sprayer shows the BE-A 902,301. Sie besteht in einer auf dem Zerstäuberteller aufliegenden siebartigen Membran, die bewirkt, daß die vom Zerstäuberteller abnebelnden Tröpfchen über eine bestimmte Strecke in gezieltem Strahl geführt werden. It consists of a sieve-like resting on the atomizer diaphragm which causes the abnebelnden from the atomizer droplets are guided over a certain distance in a targeted jet. Die strahlförmig gerichtete Abnebelung bedeutet einen entscheidenden Vorteil in dem Bestreben, die Tröpfchen möglichst an diejenigen Stellen des zu besprühenden Gegenstands zu bringen, an denen ihr Auftreffen erwünscht ist. The jetted directed Abnebelung is an important advantage in an effort to bring the droplets as possible to those parts of the area to be sprayed object to which it is desired impact. Im einzelnen besteht die bekannte Vorrichtung nach BE-A 902.301 aus einem festen, die siebförmige Membran tragenden Aufsatzstück, das über eine starre Verbindung auf dem Gehäuse des Uitraschall-Flüssigkeitszerstäubers befestigt ist. In detail, the known apparatus according to BE-A 902 301 consists of a fixed, the sieve-like membrane supporting attachment piece which is attached via a rigid connection to the housing of the Uitraschall-liquid sprayer. Hierdurch ist, bedingt durch die unvermeidlichen Toleranzen aller Bauteile, nicht gewährleistet, daß die Membran immer mit einer definierten Vorspannung auf dem Zerstäuberteller aufliegt. In this way, by the unavoidable tolerances, caused all components, does not ensure that the membrane always rests with a defined prestress on the atomizer. So hat eine etwaige zu starke Vorspannkraft die nachteilige Wirkung, daß der Zerstäuberteller gebremst wird und somit nicht mehr schwingen kann. Thus the possible excessive biasing force of the adverse effect that the atomizer is braked and thus can no longer oscillate. Eine zu geringe Vorspannung oder gar ein Luftspalt zwischen Membran und Zerstäuberteller dagegen würde den Nachteil bedeuten, daß die angestrebte Wirkung der Membran, nämlich den Flüssigkeitsfilm gleichmäßig auf dem Zerstäuberteller zu verteilen, nicht mehr zum Tragen kommt und die vom Zerstäuberteller abgenebelten Tropfen vielmehr in der Membran hängen bleiben. Too low bias, or even an air gap between the membrane and atomizer, however, would mean the disadvantage that the desired effect of the membrane, that is to distribute the liquid film uniformly on the atomizer, no longer takes effect, and the abgenebelten from the atomizer drops rather in the membrane get stuck.
  • Ausgehend von dem geschilderten Stand der Technik ist es die Aufgabe der vorliegenden Erfindung, einen Ultraschall-Flüssigkeitszerstäuber der eingangs bezeichneten Gattung zu schaffen, bei dem die Membran immer mit einer genau definierten Vorspannung auf dem Zerstäuberteller aufliegt und der somit die bei bisherigen Ultraschall-Flüssigkeitszerstäubern der in Rede stehenden Art noch nicht erreichte Betriebssicherheit gewährleistet. Starting from the described prior art it is the object of the present invention to provide an ultrasonic liquid atomizer of the aforementioned type, in which the membrane always rests with a well-defined bias on the atomizer and thus the case of previous ultrasonic liquid sprayers of not yet reached at issue standing type operational safety guaranteed.
  • Gemäß der Erfindung wird die Aufgabe durch die im kennzeichnenden Teil des Patentanspruchs I angegebenen Merkmale gelöst. According to the invention the object is achieved by the features specified in the characterizing part of claim I characteristics.
  • Vorteilhafte Ausgestaltungen der Erfindung können den Unteransprüchen entnommen werden. Advantageous embodiments of the invention may be taken from the subclaims.
  • Zur Veranschaulichung der Erfindung dient ein in der Zeichnung dargestelltes Ausführungsbeispiel, das nachstehend beschrieben ist. a shown in the drawing embodiment described below serves to illustrate the invention. Die Zeichnung zeigt im einzelnen - teils in Seitenansicht, teils im vertikalen Längsschnitt - eine Ausführungsform eines Ultraschall-Flüssigkeitszerstäubers. The drawing shows in detail - partly in side view, partly in vertical longitudinal section - an embodiment of an ultrasonic liquid sprayer.
  • Es bezeichnet 10 ein piezoelektrisches Wandlerteil, welches zur Umformung von elektrischer in mechanische Schwingungsenergie dient. 10 is referred to a piezo-electric transducer part, which serves for the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical vibration. Das piezoelektrische Wandlerteil 10 besteht aus zwei Keramikscheiben II, 12. Zwischen den beiden Keramikscheiben 11, 12 des piezoelektrischen Wandlerteils 10 liegt eine mit 13 bezeichnet Elektrode, die einen (in der Zeichnung nicht gezeigten) elektrischen Anschluß nach außen enthält. The piezoelectric transducer part 10 consists of two ceramic disks II, 12. Between the two ceramic disks 11, 12 of the piezoelectric conversion portion 10 is a designated 13 electrode containing a (not shown in the drawing), the electrical connection to the outside. Die piezoelektrischen Scheiben II, 12 sitzen konzentrisch auf einem Zapfenteil 14, welches ein Gewinde 15 besitzt. The piezoelectric discs II, 12 seated concentrically on a pin member 14 which has a thread 15 °. Nach der anderen Seite hin (in der Zeichnung rechts) verbreitert sich das Zapfenteil 14 absatzartig zu einem Wandlerelement 16, welches als rechtsseitiger axialer Anschlag für die drei piezoelektrischen Scheiben II, 12, 13 dient. According to the other side (right in the drawing), the tang portion 14 widened heel-like manner to a transducer element 16 which serves as a right-side axial stop for the three piezoelectric discs II, 12,. 13 An der linken Seite erfolgt die axiale Fixierung der piezoelektrischen Scheiben II, 12, 13 durch eine Mutter 17, die auf das Gewinde 15 aufgeschraubt ist. On the left side, the axial fixation of the piezoelectric discs II, 12, 13 takes place by a nut 17 which is screwed onto the thread 15 °.
  • Wie weiterhin aus der Zeichnung hervorgeht, besitzt das Wandlerelement 16 eine seitliche Anschlußbohrung 18, in die eine der Flüssigkeitszufuhr dienende Leitung 19 einmündet. As can further be seen from the drawing, the transducer element 16 has a lateral connecting bore 18, serving the one of the liquid supply pipe 19 opens. Die durch die Leitung 19 zugeführte Flüssigkeit gelangt in eine sich innerhalb eines Amplitudentransformators 20 erstreckende Axialbohrung (nicht gezeigt). The air supplied through the conduit 19 in a liquid enters within an amplitude transformer 20 extending axial bore (not shown). Der Amplitudentransformator 20 ist einstückig mit den Teilen 16 und 14 verbunden. The amplitude transformer 20 is integrally connected to the parts 16 and 14th Er geht an seinem Ende - ebenfalls einstückig - in einen Zerstäuberteller 21 über. He goes to its end - also in one piece - in an atomizer 21 over. Die Teile 20, 21 werden von der bereits erwähnten Bohrung mittig axial durchsetzt. The parts 20, 21 are penetrated centrally axially of the aforementioned bore. Die zu zerstäubende Flüssigkeit wird auf die Oberfläche des Zerstäubertellers 21 gefördert, wo aufgrund der hochfrequenten Schwingungen des Zerstäubertellers 21 eine feine Zerstäubung der Flüssigkeit erfolgt. The liquid to be atomized is fed onto the surface of Zerstäubertellers 21 where due to the high frequency vibrations of Zerstäubertellers 21 takes a fine atomization of the liquid.
  • Die Zeichnung macht weiterhin deutlich, daß die Teile 16, 20 und 21 konzentrisch von einem etwa zylindrischen Gehäuse umgeben sind, das insgesamt mit 22 beziffert ist. The drawing further makes it clear that the parts 16, 20 and 21 concentrically surrounded by an approximately cylindrical housing, which is generally estimated to 22nd Das Gehäuse 22 ist auf einen zwischen Amplitudentransformator 20 und Wandlerelement 16 ausgebildeten Flansch 23 aufgesetzt. The housing 22 is placed on a space formed between amplitude transformer 20 and transducer element 16 flange 23rd Beidseitig des Flansches 23 sind zwei ringförmige Dichtungen 24, 25 angeordnet, die eine Abdichtung zwischen dem hochspannungsführenden piezoelektrischen Wandlerteil 10 und dem mit Flüssigkeit in Kontakt stehenden Amplitudentransformator 20 gewährleisten. On both sides of the flange 23 are two annular seals 24, 25 which ensure a seal between the high-voltage piezoelectric transducer part 10 and the liquid in contact with amplitude transformer 20th Für die erforderliche Befestigung von Gehäuse 22 und Dichtungen 24, 25 am Flansch 23 sorgen eine Druckscheibe 26 und ein diese beaufschlagender Sicherungsring 27, der in einer Nut 28 des Gehäuses 22 fixiert ist. The required attachment of housing 22 and seals 24, 25 on the flange 23 provide a thrust washer 26 and a circlip this be impinged 27, which is fixed in a groove 28 of the housing 22nd Das Gehäuse 22 weist eine Radialbohrung 29 auf, die von der Flüssigkeitsleitung 19 durchsetzt ist. The housing 22 has a radial bore 29, which is penetrated by the liquid line nineteenth
  • Wie des weiteren aus der Zeichnung hervorgeht, ist der vordere Teil des Amplitudentransformators 20, einschließlich Zerstäuberteller 21, innerhalb des Gehäuses 22 von einem insgesamt mit 30 bezeichneten Aufsatz umgeben, der an seiner Vorderseite eine siebförmige Membran 31 trägt. Further, as is apparent from the drawing, the front part of the amplitude transformer 20, including atomizer 21, enclosed within the housing 22 by a designated generally at 30, article carrying a sieve-like diaphragm 31 at its front side. Der Aufsatz 30 ist - wie weiter unten im einzelnen erläutert - so am Gehäuse 22 gehalten, daß die Membran unter federnder Vorspannung auf dem Zerstäuberteller 21 aufliegt. The article 30 is - as explained in more detail below - so held on the housing 22 such that the membrane rests under resilient bias on the atomizer 21st
  • Der Aufsatz 30 besteht aus zwei konzentrisch zueinander angeordneten Teilen, wobei ein innenliegender erster Aufsatzteil 32 die Membran 31 trägt und ein außenliegender zweiter Aufsatzteil 33 zur Befestigung des gesamten Aufsatzes 30 am Gehäuse 22 dient. The cap 30 consists of two concentrically arranged parts, wherein a first internal attachment portion 32 supports the membrane 31 and with an external second attachment part 33 serves to secure the entire attachment 30 on the housing 22nd Der erste Aufsatzteil 32 besitzt einen radial nach außen gerichteten Bund 34, und der zweite Aufsatzteil 33 weist einen radial nach innen gerichteten Absatz 35 auf. The first attachment part 32 has a radially outwardly directed collar 34, and the second attachment part 33 has a radially inwardly directed shoulder 35 on. Zwischen den beiden Aufsatzteilen 32, 33 und diese in zueinander entgegengesetzten Axialrichtungen beaufschlagend ist eine Schraubendruckfeder 36 so angeordnet, daß die siebförmige Membran 31 federnd mit dem Zerstäuberteller 21 in Anlage gehalten und die Reaktionskraft der Schraubendruckfeder 36 in den gehäusefesten zweiten Aufsatzteil 33 eingeleitet wird. Between the two attachment parts 32, 33 and this in mutually opposite axial directions of a helical compression spring is beaufschlagend 36 are arranged so that the sieve-like diaphragm 31 is resiliently held by the atomizer 21 in conditioning and the reaction force of the compression coil spring is introduced into the housing-fixed second attachment part 33 36th Hierbei stützt sich die Schraubendruckfeder 36 einerseits am Bund 34, andererseits am Absatz 35 ab. Here, the compression coil spring 36 on the one hand rests on the collar 34, on the other hand on the shoulder 35 on. Zwischen der Außenwandung des zylindrischen ersten Aufsatzteils 32 und der Innenwandung des Gehäuses 22 ergibt sich durch die im Vorstehenden beschriebenen Konstruktionsmerkmale ein Ringspalt 37, der zur Aufnahme der Schraubendruckfeder 36 dient. Between the outer wall of the cylindrical first cap part 32 and the inner wall of the housing 22, an annular gap 37 which serves for receiving the helical compression spring 36 is obtained by the methods described in the foregoing construction features.
  • Wie die Zeichnung weiterhin zeigt, ist der zweite Aufsatzteil 33 als Überwurfmutter ausgebildet und auf ein entsprechendes Außengewinde 38 des Gehäuses 22 aufgeschraubt. As the drawing also shows, the second attachment part 33 is formed as a union nut and screwed onto a corresponding external thread 38 of the housing 22nd Alternativ zum Gewindeanschluß kann die Überwurfmutter 33 durch eine Bajonett- oder Schnappverbindung an dem Gehäuse 22 befestigbar sein. Alternatively, the threaded connection, the union nut may be fastened by means of a bayonet or snap connection to the housing 22 33rd
  • Die Schraubendruckfeder 36 ist bei 40 durch einen Preßsitz im zweiten Aufsatzteil 33 unlösbar befestigt. The helical compression spring 36 is permanently attached by an interference fit in the second attachment part 33 in the fortieth
  • Bei dem dargestellten Ausführungsbeispiel ist die Membran 31 am vorderen Ende des ersten Aufsatzteils 32 befestigt. In the illustrated embodiment, the diaphragm 31 is fixed to the front end of the first attachment part 32nd Der erste Aufsatzteil 32 erstreckt sich demgemäß - ausgehend vom Zerstäuberteller 21 - nach rückwärts. The first attachment part 32 extends accordingly - starting from the atomizer 21 - backwards. Hierbei besteht der erste Aufsatzteil 32 aus zwei konzentrischen Hülsen 41, 42, wobei die äußere Hülse 41 einen die innere Hülse 42 am vorderen Ende übergreifenden Bund 43 aufweist. Here, the first attachment part 32 consists of two concentric sleeves 41, 42, wherein the outer sleeve 41 has an inner sleeve 42 overlapping the front end of collar 43rd Die Membran 31 ist zwischen der vorderen Stirnfläche der inneren Hülse 42 und dem Bund 43 eingeklebt. The membrane 31 is glued between the front end surface of the inner sleeve 42 and the collar 43rd
  • Nach einer denkbaren anderen Ausführungsform kann aber auch der erste Aufsatzteil 32 einteilig als Kunststoff-Spritzteil ausgebildet und die Membran 31 an ihrem Rand von dem Material des ersten Aufsatzteils 32 umspritzt sein. According to a possible other embodiment, however, the first attachment part 32 can in one piece as a plastic injection molding and the membrane may be injection-molded around at its edge on the material of the first attachment part 32 31st

Claims (12)

1. An ultrasonic atomizer for liquids, comprising a piezoelectric transducer mechanically coupled to an amplitude transformer (also called "horn" or "blowpipe"), further an atomizing disk mounted on the free end of the amplitude transformer, further a housing enclosing at least the amplitude transformer and a cap supporting a sieve-like diaphragm and so mounted on the housing that the diaphragm rests on the atomizing disk, characterized in that the cap (30) consists of two parts mounted mutually concentrically, an inner first cap part (32) supporting the diaphragm (31) and an outer, second cap part (33) serving to mount the entire cap (30) on the housing (22) and in that spring means (36) are mounted between the two cap parts (32, 33) and loading them into mutually opposite axial directions in such a manner that the sieve-like diaphragm (31) is held elastically against the atomizing disk (21) and that the opposing force from the spring means (36) is transmitted thereby into the second cap part (33) fixed in the housing.
2. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 1, characterized in that the first part (32) comprises a radially outward collar (34) and the second cap part (33) comprises a radially inward offset (35) and in that the spring means (36) act on one hand on the collar (34) and on the other on the offset (35).
3. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 2, characterized by an annular gap (37) receiving the spring means (36) being present between the outer wall of the cylindrical first cap part (32) and the inner wall of the housing (22).
4. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 3, characterized in that the annular gap (37) is axially bounded at its front end on the side of the atomizing disk by the offset (35) of the second cap part (32) and at its rear end by the collar (34) of the first cap part (32) and in that a helical compression spring (36) is present in the annular gap (37).
5. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 2, characterized in that the spring means (36) is undetachably mounted by a press-fit into the second cap part (33).
6. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 1, characterized in that the diaphragm (31) is fastened to the front end of the first cap part (32) and in that the first cap part (32) - starting from the atomizing disk (21) - extends rearward.
7. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 6, characterized in that the first cap part (32) consists of two concentric sleeves (41, 42), the outer sleeve (41) comprising a bead (43) overlapping the inner sleeve (42) at the front end, and in that the diaphragm (31) is bonded between the front end face of the inner sleeve (42) and the collar (43).
8. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 1, characterized in that the first cap part (32) is integrally injection-molded and in that the diaphragm (31) is enclosed at its edge by the injection-molded material of the first cap part (32).
9. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 1, characterized in that the second cap part (33) in the form of a cap-nut is screwed onto a corresponding outer thread (38) of the housing (22).
10. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 1, characterized in that the second cap part (33) is a screw-cap and comprises a bayonet-connection to the housing (22).
11. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 1 characterized in that the second cap part (33) in the form of a screw-cap comprises a snap-in connection to the housing (22).
12. Ultrasonic liquid-atomizer defined in claim 1, characterized in that the housing (22) is mounted on a flange (23) formed between the converter (16) and the amplitude transformer (20) and is sealed relative to the converter (16) by sealing rings (24, 25) mounted on both sides of the flange (23) and is fastened by a pressure disk (26) with securing ring (27) to the flange (23).
EP19870103907 1987-03-17 1987-03-17 Ultrasonic liquid sprayer Expired EP0282616B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP19870103907 EP0282616B1 (en) 1987-03-17 1987-03-17 Ultrasonic liquid sprayer

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19873760650 DE3760650D1 (en) 1987-03-17 1987-03-17 Ultrasonic liquid sprayer
EP19870103907 EP0282616B1 (en) 1987-03-17 1987-03-17 Ultrasonic liquid sprayer
AT87103907T AT46836T (en) 1987-03-17 1987-03-17 Ultrasonic liquid atomizer.
JP975188A JPS63252569A (en) 1987-03-17 1988-01-21 Ultrasonic liquid atomizer
BR8800272A BR8800272A (en) 1987-03-17 1988-01-25 liquid atomizer ultrasound
US07/167,136 US4796807A (en) 1987-03-17 1988-03-11 Ultrasonic atomizer for liquids

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0282616A1 EP0282616A1 (en) 1988-09-21
EP0282616B1 true EP0282616B1 (en) 1989-10-04

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EP19870103907 Expired EP0282616B1 (en) 1987-03-17 1987-03-17 Ultrasonic liquid sprayer

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US (1) US4796807A (en)
EP (1) EP0282616B1 (en)
JP (1) JPS63252569A (en)
AT (1) AT46836T (en)
BR (1) BR8800272A (en)
DE (1) DE3760650D1 (en)

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Also Published As

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EP0282616A1 (en) 1988-09-21
JPS63252569A (en) 1988-10-19
US4796807A (en) 1989-01-10
DE3760650D1 (en) 1989-11-09
AT46836T (en) 1989-10-15
BR8800272A (en) 1988-09-27

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