EA031284B1 - Multi-layer wall structure and method for erection of the multi-layer wall structure (embodiments) - Google Patents

Multi-layer wall structure and method for erection of the multi-layer wall structure (embodiments) Download PDF

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Publication number
EA031284B1
EA031284B1 EA201501117A EA201501117A EA031284B1 EA 031284 B1 EA031284 B1 EA 031284B1 EA 201501117 A EA201501117 A EA 201501117A EA 201501117 A EA201501117 A EA 201501117A EA 031284 B1 EA031284 B1 EA 031284B1
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EA
Eurasian Patent Office
Prior art keywords
wall
elements
horizontal
supporting
blocks
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EA201501117A
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Russian (ru)
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EA201501117A1 (en
Inventor
Александр Иосифович Дыдышко
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Александр Иосифович Дыдышко
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Priority to EA201501117A priority Critical patent/EA031284B1/en
Publication of EA201501117A1 publication Critical patent/EA201501117A1/en
Publication of EA031284B1 publication Critical patent/EA031284B1/en

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Abstract

The invention is related to civil engineering and can be used in erection of new ventilated-facade buildings and in cladding or outfitting of ventilated facade of buildings erected earlier. The invention proposes a multi-layer wall structure wherein means for fixing outer cladding elements comprise a plurality of measured shaped sections (4) fixed in respect of the load-bearing wall with formation of guide channels (8) for side surfaces (11) of slots (10) in cladding blocks (3) disposed, vertically and/or obliquely, in a plane parallel to the plane of the load-bearing wall, the guide channels being arranged at a predetermined pitch. Each shaped section (4) includes at least one flange (13) fixed in respect of the wall, and at least one inclined flange (14) that are configured to transfer to the side surface (11) of the slot (10) a pressing force directed to the load-bearing wall. The shape and the size of the cross-section of each shaped section (4) are selected so as to allow fixing the cladding block (3) on the side of its back surface in the zone of at least one side surface (11) of the slot (10) with a gap in respect of the load-bearing wall, and the pitch of the guide channels (8) is selected so as to provide fixing of each block (3) in the zone of at least two side surfaces (11) of the same slot (10) or of different slots (10). The structure has also means for fixing the angular position of blocks (3) of at least the bottom row in a plane parallel to the plane of the load-bearing wall. The invention proposes also different versions of the method for erection of the above-described multi-layer wall structure. The multi-layer wall structure, while featuring maximum simplicity of each individual element and the structure as a whole, provides lower cost, higher manufacturability, reliability and safety, and the possibility of outfitting a ventilated surface in parallel with erection of the main load-bearing wall or on an earlier erected load-bearing wall within a shorter period of time.

Description

The invention relates to the construction and can be used both in the construction of new buildings with ventilated facades, and when cladding or arranging a ventilated facade of previously erected buildings. A multilayered wall structure is proposed in which the means of fastening the exterior cladding elements are made in the form of a plurality of dimensional profile sections (4) fixed relative to the load-bearing wall with forming the guide channels (8) of the lateral surfaces (11) of the grooves (10) blocks (3) located in a plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall vertically and / or inclined. Each profile (4) contains at least one shelf (13) fixed with respect to the wall and at least one inclined shelf (14), made with the possibility of transfer to the lateral surface (11) of the groove (10) of the clamping force directed to the carrier the wall. The shape and size of the cross section of each profile (4) are selected with the possibility of fixing the facing unit (3) on the side of its rear surface in the area of at least one side surface (11) of the groove (10) with a gap relative to the supporting wall, and the spacing position guide channels (8) is selected to ensure fixation of each block (3) in the area of at least two side surfaces 11 of the same groove (10) or different grooves (10). The design also includes means for fixing the angular position in a plane parallel to the plane of the load-bearing wall of the blocks (3) of at least the bottom row. Various ways for the construction of the described multi-layer wall structure are also proposed. Multilayer wall construction with maximum simplicity of each element separately and the design as a whole provides lower cost, higher manufacturability, reliability and safety, as well as the possibility of arranging a ventilated facade in parallel with the construction of the main supporting wall, and on the previously erected supporting wall for more a short time.

031284 B1

The invention relates to the construction, in particular, to a multi-layered wall structure and various options for its construction and can be used both in the construction of new buildings with ventilated facades arranged parallel to the construction of load-bearing walls, and in lining or arranging the ventilated facade of previously erected buildings.

One of the most widely used recent solutions in construction, which effectively solve the problem of facing buildings, is a ventilated facade, which is a multi-layered wall structure, which consists of a supporting wall layer with monolithic ceilings with frame elements fixed to them, which, in turn serves to fix the lining, and located between the supporting wall and the cladding elements of the layers of insulating, etc. materials. This design allows you to solve several problems simultaneously - energy saving, noise insulation, improving environmental safety and the appearance of buildings.

More common are multi-layer wall constructions, in which mandatory fastening of each cladding element with appropriate fasteners (screws, screws, etc.) and special holders / clamps on special-purpose brackets are provided, which, in turn, are fixed with respect to the supporting wall . Thus, a multi-layered wall structure is known in the form of a system of insulated ventilated facade [1], containing a supporting structure formed by brackets, vertical bearing profiles, mounting brackets to the wall and mounting brackets to vertical bearing profiles, attached to the wall in the gaps between the brackets, a layer of insulation elements and lining of metal elements mounted on vertical supporting profiles with a ventilated gap relative to the layer of insulation elements. The system is also equipped with combs having sections in the form of L-shaped hooks, while the metal elements are made with elongated L-shaped and / or U-shaped butt edges that are dimensioned to mate with the L-shaped hooks and form a labyrinth mate on the junction of adjacent metal elements, and each comb mounted on a vertical bearing profile with consistent in the vertical direction, the location of the sections in the form of L-shaped hooks. Specified in the patent technical result is to simplify the installation technology while ensuring the required strength and quality of finish. However, taking into account the number of elements, as well as the complexity of their geometric shape, which leads to the complication of the technology of their production, a significant simplification of the technology cannot be achieved. In general, a disadvantage of the known structures of ventilated facades of this type is their rather high complexity and high labor intensity of installation, which significantly increases the cost of construction and the total cost of buildings.

The author has previously proposed the original construction of the building block [2], made preferably of vibro-pressed concrete, the use of which in the arrangement of ventilated facades at any stage ensures the achievement of all the above-mentioned technical results. This block is made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, on the back face of which, along the entire height of the block, there is a vertical groove with depth B, the side surfaces of which are at an angle a to the bottom surface and in cross-section form a dovetail. The dimensions of such a block, in particular, the length L p of the bottom surface of the groove and the length L 1> 2 sections of the rear face on both sides of the groove are interconnected by a certain ratio. In combination with the simplicity, manufacturability and relatively low price of the mentioned building block, these technical results achieved with the implementation of the invention become even more significant. Various options for wall structures with a ventilated facade using such a block and methods for the construction of wall structures were also proposed [3]. In particular, a multi-layered wall structure containing the main supporting wall and external cladding elements associated with the supporting wall by means of fastening and forming a facade located with an air gap relative to the supporting wall was proposed, and, if necessary, a thermal insulation layer placed between the supporting wall and facade. In this design, the outer cladding element is made in the form of the block described above, and the fastening means are made in the form of a plurality of interconnected fastening elements to the support wall and coupling elements, at least in part of the area, with the side surfaces of the groove of the outer cladding element. Despite the advantages of such a multi-layered wall structure compared to other structures of the prior art, it is difficult to perform in parallel, i.e. simultaneous erection of the supporting wall and installation of the elements of the external cladding.

Other building blocks are also known in the art, in particular facing blocks / panels (exterior cladding elements), which are based on the shape of a parallelepiped and which are provided with grooves of various shapes, including dovetail, as well as corresponding multi-layer wall structures.

Thus, a wall structure is known, in which the outer cladding element is made in the form of a block in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, on the back face of which, across the entire height of the block, a groove of variable width is formed with zigzag side walls forming a double dovetail

- 1 031284 tail (two located in series along the depth of the groove in the form of a dovetail) [4]. For fixing each such block in relation to the supporting wall, a special fastening element with a U-shaped cross-section is provided with free ends-clamps bent out at an acute angle. The fastener is fixed in relation to the supporting wall with threaded fasteners, and the block is fixed on the fastener by snapping the ends of the retainers into the groove of the double dovetail. A significant drawback of this design is its complexity and indiscriminate, because It is almost impossible to remove a separate block from a fastener (with the exception of only extreme blocks).

A multi-layered wall structure is also known, in which the elements of the outer facing are also made in the form of a block in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, on the back face of which, along the entire height of the block, a groove of variable width in the shape of a dovetail or other similar shape is made [5]. In such a multi-layered wall structure for fixing the blocks on the supporting wall, a special layer is provided - a panel with locking projections, the shape of which corresponds to the shape of a fragment of the groove in the zone of one of the side walls. Thus, the block, in fact, is simply hung on this panel, which cannot ensure the high reliability of the cladding as a whole and requires a special construction of the supporting wall.

On the basis of common technical features, the above-mentioned multi-layer wall structure can be adopted as a prototype for the claimed multi-layer wall structure [3]. Specified multilayer wall structure contains the main support wall from a variety of building elements, including at least masonry elements and horizontal lintels associated with the foundation and with elements of horizontal floors with the formation of the supporting structure, many elements of the exterior cladding associated with the elements of the supporting structure by means fastening with the formation of the facade, located with an air gap relative to the supporting wall, and, if necessary, a layer of insulation, displacements between the support wall and the facade. At the same time, the external facing elements are made in the form of ordinary blocks in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, on the back face of which, along the entire height of the block, at least one groove is made, the side surfaces of which are at an equal angle α to the bottom surface and form a dovetail in horizontal section. At the same time, from the rear surface of the zone, the grooves alternate with zones of protrusions. As mentioned above, such a multi-layered wall structure is erected only in stages: first, a support wall is erected, and then external cladding elements are mounted on it using various fastening elements. In addition, given that metal fasteners are used for installation, and each element of external cladding is subject to fastening, the cost of such wall structures still remains quite high. It uses a whole system of interrelated fasteners.

The objective of the invention is to create a multi-layered wall structure, which in combination with the maximum simplicity of each element separately and the structure as a whole would have even lower cost, higher workability and would allow the device to ventilate the facade in parallel with the construction of the main supporting wall. In addition, the proposed multi-layered wall structure should provide a significant reduction in the time of its construction, including the installation of external cladding, as well as almost complete safety (excluding the possibility of falling exterior cladding elements or their fragments due to their damage / destruction).

The problem is solved multilayer wall structure containing the main support wall of a variety of building elements, including at least masonry elements and horizontal lintels associated with the foundation and with elements of horizontal floors with the formation of the supporting structure, a set of exterior cladding associated with the elements of the bearing construction by means of fastening with the formation of the facade, located with an air gap in relation to the supporting wall, and, if necessary, thermal insulation layer placed between the supporting wall and the facade. At the same time, the elements of the outer facing are made in the form of blocks in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, on the back face of which, along the entire height of the block, at least one groove is made, the side surfaces of which are at an angle α to the bottom surface and form a dovetail in horizontal section. At the same time, from the rear surface of the zone, the grooves alternate with zones of protrusions. The task is solved due to the fact that the means of fastening the elements of the outer cladding are made in the form of a set of dimensional sections of profiles, successively fixed with respect to the supporting wall, at the rate of at least two fixation elements for one segment, with the formation of guide channels arranged with a given step for the side surfaces of the grooves facing blocks, located in the plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall vertically and / or inclined. In addition, each profile contains at least one shelf fixed against the wall and at least one inclined shelf made with the possibility of transfer to the lateral surface of the groove pressing force directed to the supporting wall. The shape and size of the cross section of each profile is selected with the possibility

- 2 031284 fixing cladding unit from its back surface in the area of at least one side surface of the groove with a gap relative to the supporting wall. The spacing of the guide channels is selected so that each block is fixed in the zone of at least two side surfaces, where the side surfaces are selected from the group including side surfaces of one groove and side surfaces of different grooves. Moreover, the design provides for means of fixing the angular position in the plane parallel to the plane of the load-bearing wall of the blocks, at least the bottom row.

In preferred forms of implementation of the inventive multilayer wall structure, the shape and size of the cross section of the profile are selected with the possibility of fixing the facing unit from its rear surface in the area of two side surfaces of two adjacent grooves of at least one facing unit. This profile is made with the possibility of coverage of the protrusion of one facing unit or the extreme areas of the protrusion of two adjacent facing blocks.

In such preferred forms of implementation, the profile is preferably symmetrical with respect to its longitudinal axis and has a complex cross-sectional shape formed by a central portion of the U-shaped form with closely connected fixed with respect to the wall and two side shelves defining the gap between the facing blocks and the supporting wall, and inseparably connected with the central two side sections, each of which contains a shelf parallel fixed to the wall and bent down at an angle β in the direction SRI central portion of the inclined shelf. The total length l fixed with respect to the wall and parallel to it the shelves of the central and two lateral sections is no less than the length L of the protrusion zone, and β <α.

Also alternative are preferred forms of implementation of the proposed solution, in which the profile is designed as an angle, fixed with respect to the wall and whose inclined shelves are at an angle γ <α with respect to each other, and the length li fixed with respect to the wall of the shelf is chosen from the condition l 1 <L, preferably l 1 <1 / 2L.

Also alternative are preferred forms of implementation in which the shape and size of the cross section of the profile are selected with the possibility of fixing the facing unit from its back surface in the zone of two side surfaces of the same groove, while the profile is made with the possibility of placing its inclined shelves in the groove with contact with the side groove walls.

In the proposed multi-layered wall structure in at least one zone selected from the group including the floor slab zone and the zone of horizontal bridges, the means of fastening the exterior cladding elements are made in the form of a set of horizontally oriented profiles fixed in the horizontal direction relative to the supporting wall with the formation of guides channels for the side surfaces of the grooves facing blocks.

In the proposed multi-layer wall structure, the means for fixing the angular position in a plane parallel to the plane of the load-bearing wall of the blocks of the lower row are preferably selected from the group comprising at least a horizontal bearing surface of the foundation and a supporting surface of horizontal overlapping elements.

In a number of preferred forms of implementation, the inventive multilayer wall structure may additionally comprise means for fixing the angular position of the blocks in a plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall, made in the form of a supporting rod element mounted on the profile through the inclined profile walls in the lower part of the corresponding protrusion zone of the block. In this case, if necessary, in the block in the installation zone of the supporting rod element, a corresponding reference cutout can be made.

In preferred forms of implementation of the proposed solution of a multi-layer wall structure, the means for fixing a section of a profile can be selected from the group that includes fixing elements fixed in relation to the elements of the supporting wall, and horizontal connections, including support brackets fixed in relation to the supporting surface of the horizontal overlap elements, and L-shaped stripes fixed in relation to the elements of the supporting wall.

The inventive multilayer wall structure may additionally contain locks of small length, the cross-sectional shape of which corresponds to the shape of the cross-section of the profile, installed in the area of the protrusion of two adjacent butt-mounted blocks in a horizontal row.

In addition, the inventive multilayer wall structure may additionally contain a plurality of dimensional sections of profiles, successively fixed with respect to the horizontal elements of the supporting structure with the formation of horizontal guide channels similar to the guide channels formed on the supporting wall.

The task is also solved by the claimed method of construction of the above multilayer wall structure, in the first embodiment including the construction of the main support wall from a variety of building elements, including at least masonry elements and horizontal bridges associated with the foundation and with elements of horizontal floors with the formation of the carrier constructions, with simultaneous installation in a series-parallel mode of external cladding elements by fixing on the main support wall at a predetermined pitch by means of horizontal links of the set of segments dimensional profiles formirova

- 3 031284 by installing the first sections of guide channels located in the plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall vertically and / or obliquely, installing facing blocks with placing side surfaces of their grooves along the guide channels of profiles with fixation and with a gap in relation to the supporting wall of the first and subsequent rows along the entire height of the first section of the guide channel, and the repetition in a series-parallel mode of the said operations of fixing sections of the profiles of the next sections of the guide channels and setting ovochnyh blocks with placing the side surfaces of the grooves of the guide channels with locking profiles and with a clearance with respect to the supporting wall of the first and subsequent rows over the entire height of the next portion of the guide channel until it reaches the design height of the structure.

In preferred forms of implementation of the proposed method of erecting a multilayer wall structure in the first embodiment, additionally in the zone of horizontal floors and horizontal bridges of the supporting structure, as well as on the horizontal surfaces of the horizontal elements of the supporting structure in accordance with the project sequentially fix a lot of dimensional sections of the profiles channels and install horizontally oriented facing blocks were by placing the side surfaces of the grooves along the horizontal guide channels.

The task is also solved by the claimed method of construction of the above multilayer wall structure, in the second embodiment including the construction of the main support wall from a variety of building elements, including at least masonry elements and horizontal bridges associated with the foundation and with elements of horizontal floors with the formation of the carrier construction until reaching the design height of the construction, with the subsequent installation of the exterior cladding elements by fixing on the main a fixed wall with a given step by means of corresponding fixation elements of a plurality of dimensional sections of profiles with the formation of the first sections of guide channels located in a plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall vertically and / or obliquely, the installation of facing blocks with the placement of the side surfaces of their grooves along the guide channels of the profiles with fixation and a gap with respect to the support wall of the first and subsequent rows across the entire height of the first section of the guide channel, and repetition in sequential mode notifications mentioned segments fixing operations profiles successive portions of guide channels and installation covering modules with placing the side surfaces of the grooves of the guide channel profiles with locking and with a clearance with respect to the supporting wall of the first and subsequent rows over the entire height of the next portion of the guide channel until a project design height.

To illustrate the advantages and advantages of the claimed invention, a number of examples of the implementation of a multi-layer wall structure will be given below. Examples will be explained by the drawings and, if necessary, accompanied by a more detailed description with reference to the positions of the drawings. In this case, both graphic images and text description of examples should be considered as explaining, but not limiting the scope of the claims.

In the drawings are schematically presented:

FIG. 1 - a general view of a fragment of a multi-layered wall structure with vertically fixed facing blocks;

FIG. 2-5 - a fragment of a multi-layered wall structure in the fixation zone of the cladding unit for various forms of dimensional sections;

FIG. 6 is a general view of a fragment of a multi-layered wall structure with facing blocks resting on a floor slab;

FIG. 7-8 are views A and B of FIG. 1 (on an enlarged scale).

FIG. 1 schematically shows a general view of a fragment of the relative position of the structural elements of the inventive multi-layer wall structure in one of the forms of implementation, and FIG. 2-5 is a fragment of a multi-layered wall structure in the fixing zone of the facing unit for various forms of measuring lengths of profiles. The drawings, in particular, show the main support wall of a variety of building elements - the floor slab 1, the support wall consisting of blocks 2, and a variety of exterior cladding elements - cladding blocks 3 connected to the supporting structure elements by means of fastening - dimensional profile sections 4 with the formation of the facade, located with an air gap in relation to the supporting wall, and fixed by means of Z-shaped brackets 5 and fasteners (dowel-nails, anchor bolts, etc.) 6, and, if necessary , Insulation layer 7 disposed between the support wall and the facade. Dimensional sections of the profile 4 are fixed in relation to the bearing wall with the formation of the guide channels 8 arranged with a given step for the side surfaces of the grooves of the facing blocks. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 the implementation form of the inventive multilayer wall structure further comprises small length clamps 9, the cross-sectional shape of which corresponds to the cross-sectional shape of the profile 4 placed in the projection zone of two adjacent in the horizontal row of blocks 3, butt-mounted and in the joints of the lengths of the profile 4. Facing blocks 3 made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, on the back side of which along the entire height of block 3

- 4 031284 Four slots 10 are made in this form of realization; they are located with a given step. The side surfaces 11 of each of the grooves 10 are located at equal angles a to the bottom surface and, accordingly, to the back surface of the block 3 in the area of the protrusion 12 and dovetail in the horizontal section. In the present implementation form, the facing blocks 3 are fixed without shifting adjacent blocks 3 in vertical rows and form through vertical channels in the zones of the grooves 10.

Profiles 4, of which cut lengths are cut, contain at least one shelf 13 fixed against the wall and at least one inclined shelf 14 adapted to transmit a pressing force directed to the supporting wall to the side surface 11 of the groove 10. The shape and size of the cross section of each profile 4 are selected in each particular case with the possibility of fixing the facing unit 3 on the side of its rear surface in the zone of at least one side surface 11 of the groove 10 with a gap relative to the supporting wall. To ensure the reliability of fixation, each block 3 is fixed in the zone of not less than two side surfaces 11 of one groove 10 (Fig. 3, 4, 5) or different grooves 10 (Fig. 2).

Dimensional sections of the profile 4 presented in FIG. 1, the implementation form is fixed in relation to the bearing wall with the formation of guide channels 8 located in a plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall vertically. In the General case, the measured sections of the profile 4 can be fixed with respect to the carrier wall with the formation of the guide channels 8, located in the plane parallel to the plane of the carrier wall vertically and / or inclined, and / or horizontally, etc. To set the angular position of the guide channels 8 in the claimed design means are provided for fixing the angular position in a plane parallel to the plane of the load-bearing wall of the blocks 3 located at least in the bottom row 15.

FIG. 6 shows a general view of a fragment of a multi-layer wall structure with facing blocks 3 resting on the floor slab 1. In this case, the angular position of the blocks 3 located in the bottom row 15 is given by the horizontal surface of the floor slab 1.

In the inventive wall structure in accordance with the embodiment of FIG. 1 means for fixing the angular position of the blocks 3 in a plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall, made in the form of a supporting rod element, in particular a supporting bolt 16 (FIG. 7 is a view A in FIG. 1 on an enlarged scale) or a supporting rod 17 (FIG. 8 - type B in Fig. 1 on an enlarged scale) mounted on the profile 4 through the inclined walls 14 of the profile 4.

As mentioned above, in FIG. 2-5 shows the options section of the profile 4.

Thus, in FIG. 2 and 3, the shape and size of the cross section of the profile 4 are selected with the possibility of fixing from the back surface of the cladding unit 3 in the zone of two side surfaces 11 of two adjacent grooves 10 (FIG. 2) or not adjacent (FIG. 3); the area of the protrusion 12 of one facing unit 3 (or the extreme areas of the protrusion 12 of two adjacent facing units 3, which is not shown in the drawings, but should be obvious to those skilled in the art).

FIG. 2 shows a D-shaped profile 4, made symmetrical about its longitudinal axis and having a complex cross-sectional shape, formed by a central section of the U-shaped form with closely connected fixed relative to the wall and two side shelves. Two side sections are connected with the central section of the profile 4, each of which contains a shelf 13 parallel to and fixed with respect to the wall and an inclined shelf 14 bent down at an angle β in the direction of the central section. The total length l fixed in relation to the wall and parallel to it the shelves of the central and two lateral sections is not less than the length L of the protrusion zone 12, and β <α.

FIG. 3 shows the profile 4 fixed by the anchor bolt 6, made in the form of an angle, parallel to the fixed with respect to the wall 13 and the inclined 14 shelves of which are at an angle γ <α with respect to each other, and the length l 1 of the parallel fixed with respect to the wall of the shelf 13 is selected from the condition lj <L, preferably l | <1 / 2L, where L is the length of the zone of the protrusion 12.

In the implementation forms according to FIG. 4 and 5, the shape and size of the cross section of the profile 4 are selected with the possibility of fixing the facing unit 3 on the side of its back surface in the area of two side surfaces 11 of one groove 10, while the profile 4 is configured to accommodate its inclined shelves 14 in the groove 10 with contact with side walls 11 of the groove 10.

FIG. 4 shows an Ω-shaped profile 4, fixed by an anchor bolt 6, mounted in the zone of the groove 10 on adjacent protrusions 12 and made symmetrical about its longitudinal axis and having a complex cross-sectional shape formed by the central section of the P-shaped with closely connected and fixed with respect to the wall and two side shelves. The side shelves, in turn, are inextricably linked with parallel shelves 13 fixed in relation to the wall, directed towards the inside of the profile 4, and connected with the side inclined shelves 14, which envelope the projection 12.

FIG. 5 shows the X-shaped profile fixed by the anchor bolt 6, mounted in the zone of the groove 10 on the adjacent protrusions 12 and made symmetrical about its longitudinal axis and having a complex cross-sectional shape formed by the central section and two

- 5 031284 sloping shelves, inextricably linked, as with the central section, and with two side sloping shelves 14, covering the projections 12.

As mentioned above, in FIG. 6 shows a general view of a fragment of a multi-layer wall structure with facing blocks 3 resting on the floor slab 1. As in the implementation form of FIG. 1, shown in FIG. 6, the wall structure consists of a set of building elements - floor slab 1, wall blocks 2, facing blocks 3 forming the facade and connected to the supporting structure elements by dimensional profile sections 4. The first (lower) row 15 of facing blocks 3 of each span rests on the corresponding slab 1 overlap. In the facing blocks 3 of the lower row 15 in the zone of contact with the slab 1, special ventilation holes 18 are provided. In the presented implementation form, the facing blocks 3 are fixed with a shift of the blocks 3 adjacent in the vertical rows.

To prevent the ingress of moisture (precipitation) between the slab 1 (or in the zone of horizontal bridges) and the facade of the facing blocks 3 perform rows with horizontally oriented channels 8, formed by dimensional sections of the profile 4, and vertically installed facing blocks 3, and set the ebb 19 between the two indicated rows of blocks 3.

To ensure the reliability of fixation of dimensional sections of profile 4 with facing blocks 3, horizontal links 20 are provided in the construction, installed in the contact zones of wall blocks 2 and representing L-shaped strips fixed relative to blocks 2 of the supporting wall. The slab 1 contains thermal inserts 21, which improve the thermoregulation of the building, and is lined with blocks 22 installed in the slots 23 of the slab 1.

In addition to the above-described ordinary facing blocks 3 in the design are also used additional and corner facing blocks 24.

Both versions of the method of construction of the inventive multi-layer wall structure will be discussed below with reference to the positions of the drawings.

The method for erecting a wall structure in the form of the embodiment of FIG. 6 is implemented as follows.

A slab 1 of overlap is installed on the foundation (not shown in the drawings) and they begin to erect the main support wall from a variety of building elements, for example from blocks 2, in order to form a supporting structure. At the same time, in a series-parallel mode, on the main support wall 2 with a predetermined pitch, for example, by means of horizontal links 20, Z-shaped brackets 5 and fasteners 6, a plurality of dimensional sections of profiles 4 are formed, forming many vertical sections of channels 8 for this form of realization. the side surfaces 11 of the grooves 10 facing blocks 3. The facing blocks 3 are installed with the placement of the side surfaces 11 of their grooves 10 along the guide channels 8 of the profiles 4 with fixation and with a gap in relation to the support structure not 2 of the first and subsequent rows across the entire height of the first portion of the guide channel. Fixing the blocks in the guide channels 8 is achieved by transmitting to the lateral surface 11 of the groove 10 a clamping force directed to the supporting wall, since angles β and γ (in various forms of realization), formed between parallel fixed with respect to the wall 13 and inclined 14 sections of the profile 4, less than the angle a (between the back surface of the protrusion 12 and the side surface of the groove 10). In this case, the bottom row 15 of the facing blocks 3 (provided with ventilation holes 18) is installed with support on the horizontal surface of the floor slab 1, laid on the foundation. The vertical wall of the lit 1 of the overlap is lined with blocks 22.

Further, depending on the length of the measuring sections 4, or form the second and, if necessary, the subsequent vertical section of the guide channel 8 by fixing on the erected support wall of the second and, if necessary, the subsequent measuring sections 4 (the length of the measuring segment is a multiple less than the height of interfloor span) and fixing on it the next rows of facing blocks 3, or by installing on the bearing wall of a regular slab 1 of overlap with repeating the above-described operations for the construction of a support wall from building blocks shafts 2 and (in a series parallel mode) fixation of dimensional sections of the profile 4 with the formation of guide channels 8 and the consistent installation of the facing blocks 3.

In the joints of the measuring sections 4, in order to increase the strength of the structure, clamps 9 of small length are installed on it.

Thermal insulation 7 is placed in the gaps between the supporting wall and the fixed facing elements.

In the zone of horizontal lintels (window, door openings), the guide channels 8 are formed in the horizontal direction and the facing blocks are fixed in them in a vertical position with a casting 19 between the two horizontal rows.

All the above mentioned operations are repeated in a series-parallel mode until reaching the design height of the structure.

In addition, in accordance with the project for installation of horizontally oriented facing blocks 3 on the horizontal surfaces of the horizontal elements of the supporting structure after

- 6 031284 fix a lot of dimensional segments of profiles 4 with the formation of sections of guide channels 8 and fix blocks in them by placing side surfaces 11 of their grooves 10 along horizontal guide channels 8. These forms of implementation are not illustrated by drawings, but should be obvious to specialists in this field of technology.

The considered variant of the method is especially effective in the construction of new buildings, which, in accordance with the project, are being built with a hinged ventilated facade.

The method for erecting a wall structure in the form of the embodiment of FIG. 1 is implemented as follows.

On the foundation, a main support wall is erected from a variety of building elements, for example, from blocks 2 and horizontal overlapping elements (floor slab 1, horizontal lintels, etc.) with the formation of a supporting structure to achieve the design height of the structure. After the support wall has been erected on it, it is fastened with appropriate fixation elements, for example, fasteners 6 (dowel-nails, anchor bolts, etc.) with a predetermined pitch of a plurality of dimensional sections 4, forming guide channels 8. In the lower area of the guide channels 8 in the inclined walls 14 of the profile 4 perform through holes for the supporting core elements. In the case of vertically oriented guide channels 8, all openings are flush. Supporting rod elements are mounted into these holes by a supporting bolt 16 or a supporting rod 17. Thereafter, in the guide channels 8, the lower row 15 of facing blocks 3 is fixed from the supporting row to the supporting rod elements. If necessary, in blocks 3 in the installation area of the supporting core element perform the corresponding reference cutout (not shown in the drawings). Facing blocks 3 are installed so that the side surfaces 11 of their grooves 10 are placed along guide channels 8 profiles with a gap relative to blocks 2 of the supporting wall of the first and subsequent rows along the entire height of the first section of the guide channel 8. Fixation of blocks 3 in the guide channels 8 is achieved due to the transfer to the side surface 11 of the groove 10 of the pressing force directed to the load-bearing wall, since angles β and <(in various forms of implementation), formed between parallel fixed relative to the wall 13 and inclined 14 sections of the profile 4, is less than the angle a (between the back surface of the protrusion 12 and the side surface 11 of the groove 10). Further, in the sequential mode, the above-mentioned operations of fixing sections of profiles 4 of successive sections of guide channels 8 and installing facing blocks 3 are repeated with placing side surfaces 11 of their grooves 10 along guide channels 8 formed by profiles 4 with fixation and with a gap in relation to blocks 2 of supporting walls the first and subsequent rows across the entire height of the next section of the guide channel to achieve the design height of the structure.

In the joints of the measuring sections 4, in order to increase the strength of the structure, clamps 9 of small length are installed on it.

Thermal insulation 7 is placed in the gaps between the supporting wall and the fixed facing elements.

The considered variant of the method is particularly effective when performing cladding and / or arranging a hinged ventilated facade on previously erected buildings.

Thus, with the maximum simplicity of each element separately and the claimed multilayer wall structure as a whole, a higher manufacturability of the ventilated curtain wall arrangement or wall cladding is provided both in parallel with the erection of the main support wall and on the previously erected support wall. The proposed multi-layer wall construction allows you to save time and money on the veneering of the wall structure or arrangement of the ventilated facade, to ensure a long life of the wall structure without repair, comparable to the lifetime of the building itself, to ensure the resistance of the surface to any climatic influences. The absence of seasonal restrictions in the performance of work allows for a high degree of maintainability of the proposed construction: if necessary, the facade can be relatively easily removed without damaging individual components, and in addition, it is possible to carry out a simple and at the same time exhaustive quality control of work.

Information sources:

1) Patent RU No. 49864 U, publ. December 10, 2005.

2) CN Patent No. 2634003 Y, publ. 08.18.2004.

3) Patent EA No. 009754 B1, publ. 04/28/2008

4) CN Patent No. 2634003 Y, publ. 08.18.2004.

5) Application JP No. 200297518 A, publ. 10/24/2000

Claims (14)

  1. CLAIM
    1. A multi-layered wall structure containing a main support wall from a variety of building elements, including at least masonry elements (2) and horizontal bridges connected to the foundation and to elements (1) of horizontal floors with the formation of not
    - 7 031284 existing design, a lot of exterior cladding elements associated with the supporting structure elements by means of fastening with the formation of the facade, located with an air gap relative to the supporting wall, and, if necessary, a layer (7) of thermal insulation, placed between the supporting wall and the facade , while the exterior cladding elements are made in the form of blocks (3) in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, on the back face of which, along the entire height of the block, at least one groove (10) is made, the side surfaces (11) of which are Wives' tails form an angle α to the bottom surface and in horizontal section, and alternate with zones of projections (12) from the back surface of the grooves (10), characterized in that the fastening means of the outer facing elements are made in the form of a set of dimensional profiles (4), successively fixed with respect to the bearing wall, at the rate of at least two fixation elements (5) for one segment, with the formation of guide channels (8) arranged for a given step (8) for the side surfaces (11) of the slots (10) ovkous blocks (3) located in a plane parallel to the plane of the carrier wall vertically and / or inclined, each profile contains at least a shelf (13) fixed with respect to the wall (13) and at least one inclined shelf (14) made with the possibility of transfer to the side surface (11) of the groove (10) of the pressing force directed to the bearing wall, the shape and size of the cross section of each profile are selected with the possibility of fixing the facing unit (3) on its back surface in the zone at least one side surfaces (11) of the groove (10) with a gap in relation to the bearing wall, and the spacing of the guide channels (8) is selected so that each block (3) is fixed in the zone of at least two side surfaces (11), where the side surfaces (11 ) are selected from the group that includes side surfaces (11) of one groove (10) and side surfaces (11) of different grooves (10), and the design provides for means of fixing (16, 17) the angular position in a plane parallel to the carrier wall of the blocks (3 ), at least the bottom row (15).
  2. 2. Wall construction according to claim 1, characterized in that the shape and size of the cross section of the profile (4) are selected with the possibility of fixing the facing unit (3) on the side of its rear surface in the zone of two side surfaces (11) of two adjacent grooves (10) , at least one facing unit (3), while the profile (4) is made with the possibility of covering the area of the protrusion (12) of one facing unit (3) or the extreme areas of the protrusion (12) of two adjacent facing units (3).
  3. 3. Wall construction according to claim 2, characterized in that the profile (4) is made symmetrical about its longitudinal axis and has a complex cross-sectional shape formed by the central portion of the U-shaped form with closely connected fixed with respect to the wall (13) and two side shelves defining the gap between the cladding blocks (3) and the supporting wall, and inseparably connected to the central two side sections, each of which contains a shelf parallel to the wall fixed and fixed downwards at an angle β in the direction and the central section is an inclined shelf (14), with the total length l fixed relative to the wall (13) and parallel to it the shelves of the central and two lateral sections not less than the length L of the projection zone, and β <α.
  4. 4. Wall construction according to claim 1, characterized in that the profile (4) is made in the form of an angle, fixed with respect to the wall (13) and the inclined (14) shelves of which are at an angle γ <α relative to each other, and the length b of the shelf fixed with respect to the wall (13) is chosen from the condition l 1 <L, preferably l 1 <1 / 2L.
  5. 5. Wall construction according to claim 1, characterized in that the shape and size of the cross section of the profile (4) are selected with the possibility of fixing the facing unit (3) on the side of its rear surface in the zone of two side surfaces (11) of one groove (10), the profile (4) is made with the possibility of placing its inclined shelves (14) in the groove (10) with contact with the side walls (11) of the groove (10).
  6. 6. Wall construction according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that in at least one zone selected from the group including the zone of the slab (1) of the overlap and the zone of horizontal bridges, the means of fastening the outer facing elements are made in the form of a set horizontally oriented profiles (4) fixed in a horizontal direction with respect to the supporting wall with the formation of guide channels (8) for the side surfaces (11) of the grooves (10) of the facing blocks (3).
  7. 7. Wall construction according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the means for fixing the angular position in a plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall of the lower row blocks are selected from the group including at least the horizontal bearing surface of the foundation and the supporting surface of the elements horizontal overlap.
  8. 8. Wall construction according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it further comprises means for fixing the angular position of the blocks in a plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall, made in the form of a supporting rod element (16, 17) mounted on a profile (4) through the inclined walls (14) of the profile (4) in the lower part of the corresponding zone of the protrusion (12) of the block (3), while, if necessary, in the block (3) in the installation zone of the supporting rod element (16, 17) a support cutout is made.
  9. 9. Wall structure according to any one of paragraphs.1-8, characterized in that the means of fixing the segment
    - 8 031284 profiles (4) are selected from the group that includes fasteners fixed with respect to the elements of the supporting wall, and horizontal connections, including supporting brackets fixed with respect to the supporting surface of the horizontal overlapping elements, and L-shaped strips fixed with respect to to the elements of the supporting wall.
  10. 10. Wall construction according to any one of paragraphs.2, 3, 6-9, characterized in that it further contains clamps (9) of small length, the cross-sectional shape of which corresponds to the cross-sectional shape of the profile (4), installed in the area of the protrusion (12) two adjacent horizontal rows of blocks (3) installed end-to-end.
  11. 11. Wall construction according to any one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that it further comprises a plurality of dimensional sections (4), successively fixed with respect to horizontal elements of the supporting structure with the formation of horizontal guide channels, similar to the guide channels (8), formed on the support wall.
  12. 12. The method of construction of a multilayer wall structure according to any one of claims 1 to 11, including the construction of the main support wall from a variety of building elements, including at least masonry elements and horizontal bridges associated with the foundation and with the elements of horizontal floors with the formation of the supporting structure , with simultaneous installation in the series-parallel mode of the elements of the external facing by fixing on the main supporting wall with a predetermined step by means of horizontal connections of a set of dimensional dimensions profile shears (4) with the formation of the first sections of guide channels (8) located vertically and / or obliquely in the plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall; installation of facing blocks (3) with placement of the side surfaces (11) of their slots (10) along the guide channels ( 8) profiles (4) with fixation and with a gap in relation to the support wall of the first (15) and subsequent rows along the entire height of the first portion of the guide channel (8), and repeating in a series-parallel mode the said operations of fixing sections of profiles (4) of the next at Astok guide channels (8) and installation of facing blocks (3) with the placement of the side surfaces (11) of their grooves (10) along the guide channels (8) profiles (4) with fixation and with a gap relative to the supporting wall of the first and subsequent rows along the entire height of the next section of the guide channel (8) to achieve the design height of the structure.
  13. 13. The method according to p. 12, characterized in that in the zone of horizontal overlappings (1) and horizontal bridges of the supporting structure, as well as on the horizontal surfaces of the horizontal elements of the supporting structure in accordance with the project consistently fix a lot of dimensional sections of profiles (4) with the formation of sections horizontally oriented guide channels and install horizontally oriented facing blocks (3) by placing the side surfaces (11) of their grooves (10) along horizontal guide channels.
  14. 14. The method of construction of a multilayer wall structure according to any one of claims 1 to 11, including the construction of the main support wall from a variety of building elements, including at least masonry elements and horizontal bridges associated with the foundation and with the elements of horizontal floors with the formation of the supporting structure to achieve the design height of the structure, with the subsequent installation of the exterior cladding elements by fixing on the main supporting wall with a given step by means of the corresponding fixing elements of the plasterboard Gaining dimensional sections of profiles (4) with the formation of the first sections of guide channels (8) located in a plane parallel to the plane of the bearing wall vertically and / or inclined; installation of facing blocks (3) with placement of side surfaces (11) of their slots (10) guide channels (8) of profiles (4) with fixation and with a gap in relation to the support wall of the first and subsequent rows along the entire height of the first section of the guide channel (8), and repeating in successive mode the said operations of fixing sections of profiles (4) of sections of guide channels (8) and installation of facing blocks (3) with placement of side surfaces (11) of their grooves (10) along guide channels (8) of profiles (4) with fixation and with a gap in relation to the supporting wall of the first and subsequent rows along the entire height of the next section of the guide channel (8) to achieve the design height of the structure.
    - 9 031284
    FIG. one
    FIG. 2 α> γ
    FIG. 3
    Οί> β
    FIG. four
    - 10 031284 b
    α> β
    FIG. five
    FIG. 6
    View '7
    FIG. 7
    Type B
    7
    FIG. eight
EA201501117A 2015-09-22 2015-09-22 Multi-layer wall structure and method for erection of the multi-layer wall structure (embodiments) EA031284B1 (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2123094C1 (en) * 1993-05-10 1998-12-10 Велинге Алюминиум АБ System for joining structural panels
CN2634003Y (en) * 2003-07-19 2004-08-18 李林支 Decorative board mounting fastening
RU2241101C1 (en) * 2004-01-14 2004-11-27 Морозов Геннадий Яковлевич Wall facing
EA009754B1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-04-28 Юрий Петрович Свирин The multilayer wall structure (variants) and the method of its erection (variants)

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2123094C1 (en) * 1993-05-10 1998-12-10 Велинге Алюминиум АБ System for joining structural panels
CN2634003Y (en) * 2003-07-19 2004-08-18 李林支 Decorative board mounting fastening
RU2241101C1 (en) * 2004-01-14 2004-11-27 Морозов Геннадий Яковлевич Wall facing
EA009754B1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-04-28 Юрий Петрович Свирин The multilayer wall structure (variants) and the method of its erection (variants)

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