DE19827271B4 - On-line acquisition system with evaluation part for wheel and track related data for high speed trains - Google Patents

On-line acquisition system with evaluation part for wheel and track related data for high speed trains Download PDF

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Publication number
DE19827271B4
DE19827271B4 DE1998127271 DE19827271A DE19827271B4 DE 19827271 B4 DE19827271 B4 DE 19827271B4 DE 1998127271 DE1998127271 DE 1998127271 DE 19827271 A DE19827271 A DE 19827271A DE 19827271 B4 DE19827271 B4 DE 19827271B4
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bogie
sensors
wheel
track
data
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DE19827271C5 (en
DE19827271A1 (en
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Andreas Mueller
Dietmar Weider
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Knorr Bremse Systeme fuer Schienenfahrzeuge GmbH
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MÜLLER, Andreas
Dietmar Weider
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L23/00Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains
    • B61L23/04Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains for monitoring the mechanical state of the route
    • B61L23/042Track changes detection
    • B61L23/044Broken rails
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61KOTHER AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT FOR RAILWAYS
    • B61K9/00Railway vehicle profile gauges; Detecting or indicating overheating of components; Apparatus on locomotives or cars to indicate bad track sections; General design of track recording vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61KOTHER AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT FOR RAILWAYS
    • B61K9/00Railway vehicle profile gauges; Detecting or indicating overheating of components; Apparatus on locomotives or cars to indicate bad track sections; General design of track recording vehicles
    • B61K9/12Measuring or surveying wheel-rims
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L23/00Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains
    • B61L23/04Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains for monitoring the mechanical state of the route
    • B61L23/042Track changes detection
    • B61L23/045Rail wear
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L23/00Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains
    • B61L23/04Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains for monitoring the mechanical state of the route
    • B61L23/042Track changes detection
    • B61L23/047Track or rail movements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L23/00Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains
    • B61L23/04Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains for monitoring the mechanical state of the route
    • B61L23/042Track changes detection
    • B61L23/048Road bed changes, e.g. road bed erosion
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M17/00Testing of vehicles
    • G01M17/08Railway vehicles
    • G01M17/10Suspensions, axles or wheels

Abstract

Device for online acquisition and evaluation of wheel and track-related data for high-speed trains to increase train safety and reduce track test runs, sensors being arranged on the bogie or undercarriage above the running surface of the rail and measuring the distance to the running surface during the train journey.

Description

  • The invention relates to a device for online acquisition and evaluation of wheel and track-related data for high-speed trains.
  • It is known that the ICE-s and other trains no special wheel and track sensors for online detection of damage and other hazards to the bike and track system (while driving); the exact structure of the chassis of ICE trains with bogie is found e.g. in "Train the Future "by Wolfram O. Martinsen, Theo Rahn, Hestra Verlag, 3rd edition, 1997, ISBN 3-771-0272-5. The Drive diagnostics including Wheelset diagnosis is carried out there as part of routine maintenance measures. The track system itself is viewed and recorded after a oral Inquiry by the authors to the Deutsche Bundesbahn, (Cologne / Leverkusen 1997) about regular test runs; so the track geometries with the help of special track measuring trains depending on Track type checked at regular intervals; on ICE routes, this maintenance activity takes place every 3 months. The Sighting the tracks for breaks and cracks occur over so-called track test trains with the help of ultrasonic measurements.
  • The DE 195 44 217 C2 Refers to an ultrasound test device for testing a test body, in particular in the form of a railroad track, with at least one test head, designed as an electromagnetic ultrasound transducer, with a transmitting / receiving side facing the test body, with which ultrasound can be coupled into the test body, characterized in that in the area of a on a A large number of test heads are arranged on the surface of the test body rolling off the rolling surface of a test wheel, the transmission / receiving sides of which facing the test body come to rest in the contact area between the rolling surface and the surface of the test body when the test wheel is rolled on the test head.
  • An online recording of track and bike-related data during a train journey has not yet taken place. But this would become essential increase safety when traveling by train by responding in good time Threats / damages on the wheel track system (e.g. by initiating a braking maneuver).
  • In addition, such an online registration system could with (radio) connection to a central database system with evaluation part part of the regular Track test runs to reduce.
  • The object of the invention is that Train security (while the ride) and a reduction in test drives to be reached on the track system.
  • This task is accomplished with a device solved the features of claim 1.
  • The hardware and software design of the Acquisition system with evaluation part can partly in existing systems, such as. the train diagnosis system DAVID for ICE-s (see "Train the Future "by Wolfram O. Martinsen, Theo Rahn, Hestra Verlag, 3rd edition, 1997, ISBN 3-771-0272-5) be embedded. The mechanical integration of the sensors can (in principle) into the existing ICE-s bogie or bogie system (see "Train the Future ", Wolfram O. Martinsen, Theo Rahn, Hestra Verlag, 3rd edition, 1997, ISBN 3-771-0272-5 and the following chapters) or other train chassis. The The invention itself can be applied to other high speed trains (e.g. TGV) transmitted and be realized.
  • Embodiments of the invention are shown in the accompanying figures and are described in the following Chapters / sections closer described.
  • Show it:
  • 1 : Concept overview
  • 2 : ICE middle car
  • 3 : Measuring sensors / bogie computer (DGR)
  • 4 : Measurement example
  • 5 : Possible event cataloging
  • 6 : ICE train
  • 7 : Power car
  • The basic principle of the invention is here in 1 reproduced: The data recorded by suitable sensors during the train journey are forwarded to local or bogie-related local computers (so-called bogie computers) for evaluation, see 3 , The incoming measured values are subjected to a temporal and geometric correlation analysis on the bogie computers and interpreted as an "event" (eg derailment of a wheel set) and forwarded to a central computer in the drive head (drive head computer). There, all incoming events / data are in turn subjected to a temporal and geometric correlation. This allows the events reported locally by the individual bogie computers to be further classified globally, see For this 5 , This data interpreted in this way can then be sent via radio interface to a central database server (track database computer) for track monitoring, see 1 ,
  • 1 Applicable sensors
  • The sensors are used to record various measured variables that are used for evaluation be. Different measuring sensors are required for different physical quantities.
  • 1.1 Distance sensor
  • The distance sensor is used for the measurement the distance between the wheel bearing or bogie to the rail. The Distance measurement is the central component in the measuring system of their quality the overall result of the system is dependent. Possibly. be in the field of the powered bogie requires additional sensors.
  • For the detection of the distance come different measuring systems in question, which will be discussed briefly here. For the technical implementation favors the inductive distance measurement. It should be determined whether it is actually for that for this task is most suitable sensor.
  • Inductive measurement
  • The inductive distance measurement sees an electrical resonant circuit in which a coil determines the frequency Component is. The resonant circuit vibrates at a high frequency (e.g. 100kHz), which increases with increasing distance from the rail attenuation gets smaller. The sensor contains a transmitter, which is one of the oscillation frequency proportional voltage supplies. So the sensor delivers one Distance proportional voltage.
  • Interferometer (laser)
  • A semiconductor laser sends one Beam on the rail. An optics catches part of the from the rail reflected beam and brings it with one out of the transmitted beam decoupled part for interference. The resulting interference pattern will scanned by photodiodes. The diodes must be arranged so that the direction of movement of the pattern is recognizable. By counting the light pulses the change in distance be determined.
  • Mechanical measurement (role carried with feather)
  • An additional role is emerging the track with. The roller is mounted so that with a sensor (e.g. rotary encoder or linear displacement sensor) the movement using standard systems into a measurement signal is converted.
  • Capacitive measurement
  • For the sake of completeness mentioned here.
  • ultrasonic measurement
  • For the sake of completeness mentioned here.
  • 1.2 speed sensor
  • It must be the rotational speed of the Wheels one Axis to be measured. A sensor is required for each axle (wheel set). For that one can Standard sensor (angle encoder) can be used. It may an existing sensor in the system can also be used.
  • 1.3 Measuring the spring immersion depth
  • It may be useful to add some springs to measure the spring immersion depth. To do this, a corresponding Sensor required. If necessary, a commercially available one linear transducers are used.
  • 1.4 Structure-borne noise sensor
  • A certain technical charm has the use of structure-borne noise sensors (Microphones) at certain points in the bogie. With the appropriate Hardware and software (see bogie calculator) can be simple and not very sensitive System that may be implemented however technically harder to is realizing and will not work as precisely. It stays however additionally in contemplation.
  • 1.5 Other sensors
  • At first, it remains open whether there are additional sensors needed become. Security can be measured by measuring other sizes still be increased. To what extent that makes sense remains one Subject to practical testing.
  • 2 Geometric attachment of the sensors
  • The sensors are at certain Positions arranged in the bogie. Not every car has a bogie, it can also be the bogie act. Since the concept first However, focusing on the ICE will be without limitation versions continuously spoken of the bogie.
  • 2.0 distance sensors
  • Different points are conceivable to which the sensors can be attached. The best should be experimental be determined. The sensors have to exactly about the tread the rail to position the exact distance to be able to. It may be possible be that too more or less than 2 sensors per wheel set are used. Here is the first assuming the use of 2 distance sensors.
  • The 2 shows schematically an ICE middle car with its 2 bogies from the side. 2 sensors are required per wheel set, 4 per bogie. Since this is a side view, only 2 sensors can be seen per bogie. There are several ways to attach it. A constellation should prove to be sufficient in the practical test. Two conceivable arrangements are described below:
  • Attachment point A
  • The sensors are with your suspension on the edge of the bogie and are therefore already vibrationally behind the first damping. Advantage is likely smoother running be disadvantageous, however, the decoupling from the wheelset, whereby fine movements of the wheelsets are rather difficult to grasp.
  • Attachment point B
  • The sensors are with your suspension at the bearing point of the wheelset and thus get every relative movement to the rail exactly with. Advantage is likely the more accurate recording of all movements could be disadvantageous the bigger vibration and be vibration.
  • Other attachment points
  • In addition, there are other positions of the sensors conceivable (e.g. between the wheel sets). The number of sensors can be dependent the results of experimental experiments still vary.
  • 2.1 speed sensor
  • The speed sensor (angle encoder) sits anywhere on or on the axle of each wheel set of the bogie. Because the wheelset sprung against the bogie is stored, the rotary encoder is preferably in the bearing point of the Attach and secure axis. Shouldn't be a convenient point to be found can be tried, existing To use components for speed generation. For this, e.g. on Hall sensor above the interior ventilation a brake disc. Possibly. can do this commercially available Sensor are used.
  • 3 Sensor bracket
  • The sensor suspension is used to fix the Sensors over their position the rail and the attachment to the wheel suspension on the bogie. Hereinafter the distance and angle sensors are discussed as examples.
  • 3.1 Distance sensors
  • The suspension depends on the attachment point. Depending on this, different mounting frames are required, which are connected to the wheel set / bogie at different points. In 2 various possible suspension points are shown.
  • The sensor suspension should be as possible be low in mass, torsion and vibration so that the sensor is as possible exactly the movement of the suspension point follows, and one if possible experiences little own movement. This gives great accuracy reached.
  • 3.2 Speed sensor
  • If the rotary encoder in the bearing point of the No special suspension is required. Should the encoder between the wheels the fixed part can sit in the area of the brake discs the encoder with a special, if necessary sprung, guide on Bogie can be attached, or on the bracket of the brake calipers to be attached.
  • 4 Properties of the sensors
  • Due to the "rough" area of application to the measuring sensors (especially for the distance measurements) have special requirements:
  • Robust housing
  • The sensor should be as possible compact in its housing sit. A metal tube with molded electronics is conceivable and cable entry at one end, similar existing initiators.
  • Water-resistance / dirt tightness
  • The sensor must be watertight in a robust environment (Rain, humidity, ...) and thus also be dirt-tight. Water and pollution are allowed no significant influence the measurement result to have.
  • temperature independence
  • The sensor must correspond to the area of application Temperature fluctuations are insensitive. This can also be done by electronic temperature compensation can be achieved.
  • For who focused on here Distance and speed sensors have to be specially requested:
  • 4.1 Distance sensor
  • spatial resolution
  • The spatial resolution must also with high Ge speeds (eg 500 km / h) are so high that, for example, the "gap" on a switch frog can be clearly identified.
  • intrinsic safety
  • It is not enough, just that Measurement signal of Evaluate sensors. The online information on functionality of the sensor can e.g. can be realized in that the inductive Sensor a frequency-divided digital signal on an additional wire with which it can be recognized whether the resonant circuit is still works properly.
  • Low weight
  • Since the wheel / rail system is in motion, oscillations and vibrations must be taken into account when recording measured values. To one if possible size To achieve accuracy, the sensor should be as light as possible to its suspension possible little to vibrate. He should follow the movement of his suspension as precisely as possible. The sensor electronics should therefore be designed as small and compact as possible his.
  • 4.2 Speed sensor
  • The rotation angle resolution of the sensor used should be as possible be high (≪ 360 °) by as much as possible quick and precise changes to be able to recognize the speed and non-circular running.
  • 5 bogie computer (DGR)
  • There is a bogie computer (DGR) in each bogie (possibly bogie if there is no bogie). The DGR has the task of processing the measured values recorded by the sensors. The sensors installed in the bogie are connected to the DGR (see 1 and 3 ).
  • For the bogies of the powered heads may the same sensors are used as in the bogies the middle car. It is conceivable to install additional sensors in the power car, to capture sizes that are not for security, but additional information about the Deliver track:
  • Gauge measurement
  • The track gauge can be measured by distance sensors be made from the inside the distance between Bogie or wheel suspension measure to the rail.
  • Other additional sensors
  • By attaching further sensors Is it possible, to record further track sizes here.
  • The power car is therefore suitable because it only exists twice on a train. This additional Sensors would make less sense in the middle car.
  • 5.1 Hardware
  • A cross-car connection of the bus system must be implemented. This connects all DGRs with each other and connects them to the power unit computer, which is only required in one of the power units ( 1 and 6 ). Each DGR is assigned a unique ID (DGR-ID for short) for the bogie measurement analysis.
  • 5.1.1 Basic equipment
  • The DGR consists e.g. from a microcontroller (MCU) with flash ROM and AD converter. The measured values of the Distance sensors converted into digital values and processed by the MCU. The sample rate must be high enough to be almost punctual even at high speeds route-related resolution to ensure. All DGR's are over one galvanically isolated bus system connected to each other across the cars. For this, e.g. a CAN bus. The measuring sensors connected to the DGR e.g. monitored by continuously measuring the current consumption. This measure is part of self-monitoring of the system and ensures that electronic failure or a sensor tear as soon as possible is noticed. When using the inductive distance measurement by e.g. through a counter counted down the divided signal for each sensor in order to perform a function check of the sensors (see distance sensor).
  • The software is in a flash ROM stored and should be programmable externally (if necessary via the Bus system). So that could a software update can even be carried out from the power unit. It is also possible, that no ROM is included, and each DGR has its own operating program fetched from the power train computer by bootstrap.
  • For structure-borne noise sensors (as additional if necessary needed Components), a digital signal processor (DSP) system is required to perform the required Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) can. The DSP system is over an interface connected to the MCU of the DGR.
  • 5.1.2 Other properties
  • Almost the same requirements apply here as for sensors. If it turns out to be too complex to install the DGR in the bogie, it can also be optionally installed in the car body. However, this would have the disadvantage that the sensors are further away from the DGR and all measuring lines have to be routed over the bogie to the car body. Should However, if this construction proves to be useful, it would also be conceivable to use only one DGR per car, which then serves both bogies. However, it is initially assumed that a DGR is used for each bogie.
  • vibration resistance
  • The DGR must be vibration-proof. There he is in the bogie, he is increased mechanical stress exposed.
  • water resistance
  • Because the DGR is outside of the car body, it is exposed to harsh environmental influences, and therefore must Completely be encapsulated. Particular attention is paid to the implementation of the connections to watch out for, as there are increased pressure ratios can result from wind.
  • temperature compensation
  • The DGR must be reliable over the whole possible Temperature range work. Various circuit parts may also be necessary for this be (e.g. compensation on the flash converter)
  • design
  • The DGR should be implemented as a kind of "black box" be that has only a single connector. Possibly. is a Construction as a "plug advantageous in "component. The DGR is therefore easy to replace from below.
  • 5.2 Software
  • Here only those for the idea the design of relevant and necessary software components in the Listed in terms of a rough specification.
  • Those recorded by the DGR while driving readings are subjected to a temporal and geometric correlation analysis and above interpreted.
  • 5.2.1 Basic equipment / functional principle
  • The 4 distance sensors continuously deliver the Distance between bogie and rail. Due to the high sample rate of the AD converter can record the software almost continuously, what is the exact distance between the bogie and the rail.
  • The functionality of the software should are explained using the following example:
  • Passing a gap in the heart of a switch ( 4 )
  • It is in 3 Assume that the bogie moves slowly on the track from left to right, and that on one side of the track there is the heart of a switch with a short system-related recess / notch in the rail. The named notch is in this example on the in the 3 specified side with sensors 1 and 2. The distance sensor 1 first passes the gap (see 4 ). The distance between the sensor and the rail increases significantly for a short time in order to then measure the original distance again for a short time. The first wheel set now passes the gap. The wheel slumps down a little into the gap and returns to its previous height after passing the gap. This "descent" is noticed by the distance sensor 1, it comes closer to the rail for a short moment. The second wheel set now approaches the gap and the process is repeated accordingly. The wheel "descends" and the associated sensor 2 approaches briefly the rail, and finally the sensor 2 itself passes over the gap, and delivers a short but large change in distance to the DGR. This overall process can be interpreted by the DGR as a turnout event; the qualitative course of measurement can be found in 4 played.
  • Possibly. additionally required components
  • Should the structure-borne noise sensor with DSP be used come is for the DSP system also requires software. The signal from the structure-borne noise sensor is digitized with a high sampling rate and a Fast Fourier Undergone transformation (FFT) to the amplitude values over the Gain frequency spectrum. This makes a differentiation the vibrations occurring in the bogie possible and an assignment of Sounds to known events (e.g. noise comes from grinding the wheel flange on the inside of the rail, ...) can be manufactured. The DSP compares the spectrum obtained error tolerant against one Collection of standard spectra that were determined on test drives. It must also the overlap from several known events. Stay spectra that cannot be interpreted after the assignment is assume that a so-called event (special event) has occurred. This event is handed over to the actual DGR. It is also conceivable that here for fast signal processing and comparison of several systems with division of responsibilities.
  • 5.2.2 Events
  • An event is a software from the DGR Interpreted analysis of measured values, which can correspond to a movement of a wheel set or the entire bogie that deviates from normal behavior (driving straight ahead on an idealized track). Disruptions in the rail or normal system-related events (e.g. on switches) can also be an event. Most events are also dependent on the current speed of travel with regard to signal acquisition. Important system-specific processes in the DGR can also be an event (e.g. reboot of the DGR, detected sensor failure, ...). All events are forwarded to a central location as event packets via the bus system. The actual event-defining raw data (sample values) are not sent as such. Only important parameters of the event are sent. Additional information is added to the event-related data. The following list does not claim to be complete at the moment. The following information can be useful:
  • Event related data
  • Event type, length of the event, maximum Amplitude, DGR-ID
  • timestamp
  • The DGR gives its current timestamp with to enable an exact time allocation of all events, and thus a chronological comparison with events delivered by other DGR's to be able to do.
  • Current event accompanying values
  • Exact current speed wheel set 1 and 2
  • Alive events
  • The DGR generates at regular intervals (e.g. an alive event every 60 seconds, even if there are no other events were recognized. The DGR thus signals its correct function. Due to the timestamp (s) contained in the event, it is also possible to central point in another system (power car computer) Times of all DGR's to synchronize.
  • 5.2.3 Software detection of events and systemic influences
  • The following events play a role in error detection. Are certain held in the system sliding limit values exceeded, an event is reported. The DGR differentiates here by what for one Type of event. It becomes between fatal and normal Events.
  • The following list has no claim to completeness but should currently explain possible events.
  • 5.2.3.1 Detection of fatal error
  • Fatal mistakes that could result in an accident can cause have to be clearly recognizable and deliver a corresponding event. It it is important that the DGR clearly recognizes these events as an event because of events of this kind of danger can be in execution. A clean detection of the Event type is important here.
  • Damage to wheel tires
  • Have damage to the tread on the one hand result in a non-circular run, which may also result from the corresponding rotary encoder can be recognized, or leads to a distance change of the corresponding correlated with the wheelset rotation angle Sensor. This event is clearly recognizable. Furthermore likely the differentiated amplitude values differ greatly from those of a normal one Differentiate rolling.
  • Loss of wheel tires
  • The loss of a wheel tire through Jump off and drag along or complete loss of the tire becomes reliable due to high distance changes the associated Distance sensor detected. Again, there is a correlation with that Wheelset rotation angle possible, but probably not as synchronous as if the tread was damaged. Possibly. the force of the flaking can also damage the sensor or tear.
  • Achsbruch
  • A broken axle is likely to occur next to the asynchronous Behavior of the rotation angle signals even in strong vibrations of the make the corresponding wheel set noticeable. These are about the belonging to the wheelset Distance sensors detected.
  • Derailing wheelsets
  • A wheel set can be derailed by brief one-sided increase in distance at the moment of rolling over the rail through the flange with subsequent lack of the distance signal on the corresponding wheelset, since none after the derailment There is more rail under the wheelset, the wheelset "hangs" in the Air.
  • Derailing bogies
  • Derailing a complete bogie stands for similar to the DGR represents how for derailing a wheelset, just that (probably out of sync) both wheelsets show the same behavior.
  • 5.2.3.2 Detection of normal events
  • Normal events are events that can occur in the wheel / rail system at any time, and possibly also in terms of interpretation May have relevance. Some of these events have a very similar appearance, so here not always a neat classification of events per se possible will be, but the event is still recorded cleanly. The following are examples of normal events:
  • bogie roll in the track (translational / rotary)
  • The bogie is not rigid, but has a certain dynamic. This should be as long as it doesn't exceed a certain threshold, not one Lead event. Since all four sensors are equally affected by the roll movement correct detection should be possible. If exceeded certain differentiated amplitude values becomes a bogie event recognized. At this point it may also be useful to do so to use an FFT.
  • Out of round wheels / wheel tires
  • Out-of-round wheels or wheel tires can go through lightweight wheelsets or wheelsets, synchronized with the associated rotary encoder ongoing changes in distance be recognized. U.U. it is also possible to go through this event additionally a slight jitter in proportion to detect the two rotation angle signals synchronously with the wheel set speed. An overshoot a predefined threshold value causes this event to occur.
  • Loose wheel tires
  • Loose wheel tires are heavy to recognize. The greatest opportunity could arise during the braking process, if by turning a wheel tire the rotary encoder for a short time (for the period of rotation) an overly asynchronous Deliver signal. The distance sensors will probably not be used for this deliver evaluable signal. Such an event may be only to be seen speculatively, but should be taken seriously if it occurs frequently become.
  • Damage to the rail surface
  • Damages in the rail surface run along Bogie speed on one side under the distance sensors by. This process should be clearly recognizable, and if exceeded generate an event at a certain threshold.
  • Damage to welds
  • Damage to welds is likely in the same form as general damage in the Rail surface. With a crack can however, possibly another signal obtained with the distance sensors because the small gap changes the magnetic properties. This Operation will be exceeded generate an event at a certain threshold.
  • Larger rail cracks
  • Larger rail cracks give that same "picture" as the general damage on a rail, only with a larger amplitude.
  • Driving over lashed rail connections
  • Driving over lashed rail connections creates a similar one Signal like the above operations. However, it may be possible that through the possibly larger distance of the two rails and the height difference a signal is generated.
  • This is rather an exception, since this type of connection is used almost only in construction phases is, and therefore actually has no relevance. But not there excluded is that a High-speed train also (slowly) drives through one he here of completeness half mentioned.
  • Passing turnouts
  • When driving over switches on the the centerpiece passing rail the gap measured. It is a clear one Rail event that is recognized as the weld event but with a much larger amplitude and greater length.
  • Lowering in the track bed
  • Lowering in the track is rather difficult to detect with the DGR alone. The distance sensors located in the direction of travel measure when entering the depression because they are not perpendicular to the wheelset storage, for a short period of time a flat, slight increase in the distance to the rail, and when moving out of the depression a similarly running An approximation. This process will generate an event when a certain threshold is exceeded.
  • 5.2.3.3 Compensation of known effects
  • Known effects are events that can occur in the wheel / rail system at any time and also in terms of measurement technology are relevant, but should not lead to an event since they do not indicate existing uncertainties can still give orientation serve. To be mentioned here:
  • Interference fields due to inductive train protection or other rail-specific detectors
  • Such interference fields become similar to those General rail damage described above, but have a clear weaker Signal due to the relatively large spatial extent of the detector rather longer and is only measured twice per bogie, as the process no effect on the wheel sets itself has.
  • Driving over welding points
  • Welds may have other magnetic Properties than the normal rail material and therefore when driving over measured by the sensors. The DGR can clearly identify this event Recognize as a track event, because the seam is successively on both Sensors comes over. A counter calculation against the current speed (angle encoder) documents this event.
  • Different rail materials
  • Because the rails are not exactly the same have magnetic properties, one after each weld slight other distance can be measured. This is unlikely to be worth mentioning Have influence, and should work through even action can be recognized on all sensors and not an event to lead.
  • Inductive interference fields by e.g. Track return currents
  • Such interference fields are usually very low frequency (e.g. 16 2/3 Hz) and act on all distance sensors almost simultaneously and with the same intensity. Such fields should be recognizable by software.
  • Signal interpretation at accelerated movements
  • By immersing the bogies and wheelsets the distances when accelerating and Braking with a delay-dependent offset afflicted. This effect can be changed by changing the axle speed Angle of rotation encoder of the wheel sets be compensated.
  • Interference fields due to reverse and coupling currents
  • The inductive distance sensors induce in the rail has a low eddy current caused by the movement of the measuring system a reverse flow in the direction of travel generated in the sensor. This should be algorithmically compensable.
  • Earth's magnetic field, local Earth's magnetic field effects (e.g. inhomogeneities)
  • The low earth magnetic field should no significant influence have the sensor signal, as it is almost constant locally. If this is not the case, it acts equally on all sensors, and can be compensated with it.
  • Coriolis force
  • The Coriolis force may mainly on routes in north-south direction one-sided wear arise on the track. Because this is a very slow acting Effect acts, and probably no significant on the measuring system Has influence he can probably be neglected become.
  • 5.2.4 Redundancy in the Meßwertertassung
  • To one in the event of a failure Sensors do not waive the reliable detection of events to have to, another through over-interpretation Generating an event that does not exist is a plausibility check of the Sensor signals recommended.
  • distance sensors
  • Track-related events always pass under at least 2 distance sensors. In addition to normal sensor monitoring, two events can always be monitored against each other via such events ( 3 , Sensors 1 and 2, sensors 3 and 4).
  • Rotary encoder
  • The angle encoder of the wheel sets should be under provide an almost identical signal under normal conditions if one presupposes that between the two wheelsets an almost negligible There is slippage. An incorrect measurement can at least be recognized. A total failure of a rotary encoder is due to the failure of Angular pulses can be seen.
  • If there is too big a difference between the two angle signals, there is either an acute problem (event!) Or an encoder is de fect. A track event can be used to determine which of the two sensors provides the wrong information. Since a track or rail event "passes" one after the other under the two wheel sets, the speed can be determined on the basis of the known distance between the distance sensors. This information is compared with that of the rotary encoder.
  • 6 power car computer (TKR)
  • The TKR has the task of evaluating and collecting the local events reported by the DGRs. A schematic representation of the TKR is in 7 ,
  • 6.1 Hardware
  • The hardware is in the broadest sense a commercial computer with a hard drive, which has an interface to the DGR's bus system. A display is available for the train driver. A direct connection to the quick brake system should also be consist. additionally the TKR can optionally via a radio data connection a connection to a central track database system build up track-related events for further evaluation to deliver. This system is an optional addition to the Concept. It could make sense to design the TKR redundantly, or error tolerant Use hardware (e.g. ECC RAM, ...).
  • 6.2 Software
  • Here only those for the idea the design of relevant and necessary software components in the Listed in terms of a rough specification.
  • The TKR processes all events reported by the DGRs and carries out a temporal and geometric correlation analysis. The events interpreted locally by the DGR can thus be further classified or classified globally ( 5 ).
  • In principle, all events set in a database via the radio data connection optionally sent to a central track database system can. enumerate are here:
  • Track Event
  • Track events are events the all DGR's one after the other noticed in the direction of travel. Based on the in the event messages contained timestamps can have a clear chronological relationship between different events reported by the DGR's become. The time offset corresponds to the current speed, based on the distance between the bogies. These events are summarized and entered as an individual track event in the TKR's database.
  • Bogie event
  • Bogie events are events that only come from a bogie, and possibly with problems point out the corresponding bogie. With frequent events of this kind from the same DGR must be from a problem in the bogie or wheelset (depending on the event) become. These events are of higher relevance (frequent occurrence) also entered in the database, and a message to the motorman triggered
  • The software has the following additional functions
  • redundancy
  • Track events by one or not a few DGR's be reported, and track events by only one or a few DGR's are reported may interpret to a problem of the respective DGR's. Clarity can be found here in the TKR provide concurrent reporting statistics.
  • Information Display / Alarm Detectors at the train driver
  • The train driver should have the option have slight disorders Decide what to do in the bogie area. To the TKR is connected to a display on the train driver on the corresponding one Messages can be issued. Optional is additional to provide an alarm lamp / horn.
  • Connection to the quick braking system
  • Massive disruptions, such as derailment of wheelsets or Bogies produce a high number of corresponding ones in a short time Events (wheelset / bogie derailment, possibly also in combination with further events). In the case of massive disruptions, it could make sense to use a To initiate a quick braking connection to the rapid braking system.
  • Wireless data connection
  • about the TKR has an interface connected to a radio data transmitter. The radio data connection is optional and is not used to increase the Safety.
  • TKR creates something similar System like "Black Box "on the plane
  • By logging events in the TKR database, it would be conceivable to retrospectively collect the data collected there in the event of an accident evaluate, and thus to get a precise insight into the course of the accident. In this case, the TKR system is a similar system to the so-called black box (flight data recorder and voice recorder) on the aircraft.
  • Wireless data connection
  • The radio data connection is optional, and serves the transmission of track-related events to a central track database system further evaluation. It is sufficient if the radio link only during the Stop time used in larger train stations can be. So it is limited the establishment of fixed remote sites on a few points on the route network. records that have been sent are removed from the TKR database.
  • 7 central computer (track database computer, GDBR)
  • In the track database calculator they are about the respective Driving computer received measured values database to keep and evaluate centrally. Communication between the single power head computer and the central track database computer is (in addition to later Applications) for the Data transfer bidirectional. Basis of a hardware and Software specification for the concept proposed here is the exact elaboration of a Data model including a data flow analysis, with regard to data-based embedding in the already existing rail infrastructure. The (software) specification for the (Automated) evaluation of the track-relevant data received is also in connection with (possibly) already existing software components perform. A standard database system (e.g. Oracle) can be used for this be that over an interface connection to the radio interfaces of the stations for reading the power car computer data is connected. Another data link to existing rail systems (route data ...) must also will be realized. The software calculates from the transmitted Data of the power train computer the statistical route and the outlier values, automatic notifications for route improvements can be generated. This Database forms possibility for global Track network monitoring.
  • 7.1 Hardware
  • The hardware should be created or customized be that the from the individual TKR's sent data, e.g. due to system crash of one of the involved Hardware components (radio adapter, track database computer, network router, Hard disks (RAID), power supplies, ...) cannot be lost. A possibility is all for relevant to the data flow Hardware components to be designed multiple times. A UPS system is recommended against a power failure.

Claims (15)

  1. Device for online acquisition and evaluation of wheel and track related data for high speed trains to increase the Train safety and reduction of track test runs, with sensors on Bogie or chassis over the tread the rail are arranged and the distance to the tread during the Measure the train journey.
  2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that two sensors are provided for each wheel set.
  3. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that the sensors are arranged between the wheel sets are.
  4. Device according to one of the preceding claims characterized in that a rotation angle sensor detects the rotation angle of the wheels and there is a device that measures the angle of rotation with the distance to the tread compares to damage on the wheel, a broken axle, derailing of wheel sets, derailing of bogies or damage on the rails.
  5. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized that an inductive, interferometric (laser), mechanical, capacitive or ultrasonic-based distance measurement provided is.
  6. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized marked that for additional Obtaining information Sensors for measuring spring immersion depths, for the detection of vibrations or for the detection of the track width is provided.
  7. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized that two distance sensors for the plausibility check monitored against each other become.
  8. Device according to one of the preceding claims characterized that decentralized for the interpretation of the measured values Computing units (bogie computers) are used.
  9. Apparatus according to claim 8, characterized in that decentralized computing units (bogie computers) for evaluation and interpretation of the measured values to carry out a temporal and geometric correlation analysis are set up.
  10. Device according to one of claims 7 or 8, characterized in that that for recording the data from the decentralized computing units (bogie computers) reported local events for evaluation and storage be transferred to a central computer (power plant computer).
  11. Apparatus according to claim 10, characterized in that a track event is concluded when all decentralized Processing units (bogie computer) the event in the direction of travel one after the other notice while a problem in the bogie or a wheel set is inferred, if only one or a few decentralized computing units (bogie computers) report an event.
  12. Device according to claim 11, characterized in that for emergency braking is triggered in an emergency.
  13. Device according to one of claims 10-12, characterized in that that the central computer (power plant computer) with a radio data connection is equipped to collect the data in one place outside to report the train.
  14. Device according to one of claims 10-13, characterized in that that the determined data is stored in a train data recorder for accident analysis become.
  15. Device according to one of claims 10-14, characterized in that a cross-car bus system is used for central data evaluation becomes.
DE1998127271 1998-06-19 1998-06-19 On-line recording system with evaluation unit for wheel and track-related data for high-speed trains Expired - Lifetime DE19827271C5 (en)

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