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Number of revolutions and direction of rotation detecting device

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Publication number
DE19814758A1
DE19814758A1 DE1998114758 DE19814758A DE19814758A1 DE 19814758 A1 DE19814758 A1 DE 19814758A1 DE 1998114758 DE1998114758 DE 1998114758 DE 19814758 A DE19814758 A DE 19814758A DE 19814758 A1 DE19814758 A1 DE 19814758A1
Authority
DE
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
signal
sensor
revolutions
direction
rotation
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE1998114758
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Rainer Gengenbach
Udo Gillich
Guenther Horsak
Tilo Marschall
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Original Assignee
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01PMEASURING LINEAR OR ANGULAR SPEED, ACCELERATION, DECELERATION, OR SHOCK; INDICATING PRESENCE, ABSENCE, OR DIRECTION, OF MOVEMENT
    • G01P3/00Measuring linear or angular speed; Measuring differences of linear or angular speeds
    • G01P3/42Devices characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means
    • G01P3/44Devices characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring angular speed
    • G01P3/48Devices characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring angular speed by measuring frequency of generated current or voltage
    • G01P3/481Devices characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring angular speed by measuring frequency of generated current or voltage of pulse signals
    • G01P3/487Devices characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring angular speed by measuring frequency of generated current or voltage of pulse signals delivered by rotating magnets
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D5/00Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D5/12Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means
    • G01D5/14Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing the magnitude of a current or voltage
    • G01D5/142Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing the magnitude of a current or voltage using Hall-effect devices
    • G01D5/147Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing the magnitude of a current or voltage using Hall-effect devices influenced by the movement of a third element, the position of Hall device and the source of magnetic field being fixed in respect to each other
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D5/00Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D5/12Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means
    • G01D5/244Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing characteristics of pulses or pulse trains; generating pulses or pulse trains
    • G01D5/245Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing characteristics of pulses or pulse trains; generating pulses or pulse trains using a variable number of pulses in a train
    • G01D5/2451Incremental encoders
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01PMEASURING LINEAR OR ANGULAR SPEED, ACCELERATION, DECELERATION, OR SHOCK; INDICATING PRESENCE, ABSENCE, OR DIRECTION, OF MOVEMENT
    • G01P13/00Indicating or recording presence, absence, or direction, of movement
    • G01P13/02Indicating direction only, e.g. by weather vane
    • G01P13/04Indicating positive or negative direction of a linear movement or clockwise or anti-clockwise direction of a rotational movement

Abstract

The device includes a stationary, analog sensor (1), and a rotating signal generator (2) which moves with its evenly subdivided contour (4) in different distances past the sensor, and which produces a signal form (11) with each contour section (5). An evaluation arrangement (3) evaluates the produced signals of the sensor, and the signal generator produces an asymmetrical signal form, whose flank rise is evaluated to determine the number of revolutions and the rotation direction (8, 9).

Description

Die Erfindung betrifft eine Vorrichtung zum Erfassen einer Drehzahl nach dem Oberbegriff von Anspruch 1. The invention relates to a device for detecting a rotational speed according to the preamble of claim. 1

In der Antriebstechnik ist es häufig erforderlich, sowohl die Drehzahl als auch die zugehörige Drehrichtung eines rotierenden Bauteils zu erfassen. In drive technology, it is frequently necessary to detect both the rotational speed and the corresponding direction of rotation of a rotating component. Hierzu wird eine Vorrichtung verwendet, die einen Signalgeber, zwei Sensoren und eine elektronische Auswerteeinheit umfaßt. For this purpose, a device is used which comprises a signal transmitter, two sensors and an electronic evaluation unit. Der Signal geber ist in der Regel eine Zahnscheibe, deren Zähne im Querschnitt ein zur Zahnmittellinie symmetrisches Profil (z. B. Rechteck oder Evolventenprofil) haben und mit einem geringen Abstand an den Sensoren vorbei bewegt werden. is the encoder signal is usually a toothed pulley whose teeth in cross-section a symmetrical profile to the tooth center line (z. B. rectangle or involute) and have to be moved a short distance past the sensors. Der unterschiedliche Abstand des Signalgebers im Bereich des Zahnkopfes und im Bereich der Zahnlücken von den Sensoren erzeugt als Signalform einen rechteckigen Spannungsimpuls, der bei einer Umdrehung entsprechend der gleichmäßig über den Umfang verteilten Zähnezahl einen entsprechenden Si gnalverlauf ergibt. The different spacing of the signal generator in the region of the tooth tip and in the region of the tooth gaps generated by the sensors as a waveform of a rectangular voltage pulse of a corresponding Si results in one revolution in accordance with the evenly distributed over the circumference number of teeth gnalverlauf.

Um die Drehrichtung zu erfassen, sind zwei digitale Sensoren erforderlich, die um eine halbe Zahnbreite in Um fangsrichtung versetzt montiert sind. In order to detect the direction of rotation, two digital sensors are required which are mounted offset by half a tooth width in order circumferential direction. Erfaßt der erste Sen sor z. Detects the first Sen sor z. B. eine positive Flanke, dh wenn sein Signal von "low" auf "high" wechselt, fragt die Auswerteeinheit den Zustand des Signals am zweiten Sensor ab. B. a positive edge, that is, when its signal from "low" to "high" changes, the evaluation unit interrogates the state of the signal from the second sensor. Ist dieses Signal "high", wird die Drehrichtung z. If this "high" signal, the direction of rotation z. B. als positiv oder links drehend und im entgegengesetzten Fall als negativ oder rechts drehend interpretiert. interpreted as positive or counter-clockwise and in the opposite case as negative or right handed. Gleichzeitig wird die Anzahl der Impulse eines Sensors pro Zeiteinheit gezählt und als Drehwinkel oder Drehzahl pro Zeiteinheit ausgegeben. At the same time the number of pulses of a sensor per unit time is counted and output as an angle of rotation or rotational speed per unit time.

Der Meßwert muß ständig aktualisiert werden, wozu ei nige Zählimpulse notwendig sind. The measured value must be updated constantly, for which ei nige counts are necessary. Daraus folgt, daß sich die Aktualisierungsrate für die Drehzahl- und Drehrichtungser fassung reziprok zur Drehzahl verhält, dh je geringer die Drehzahl ist, desto länger ist die Zeit, um einen neuen Meßwert zu erhalten. It follows that the update rate for speed and Drehrichtungser replaced by the reciprocal of the speed acts, ie the lower the speed is, the longer the time to obtain a new measured value. Deshalb können Drehzahlen in der Nähe von null Umdrehungen pro Minute, die bei einem kriechenden Fahrzeug auftreten, praktisch nicht mehr erfaßt werden. Therefore speeds can no longer be detected in the vicinity of zero revolutions per minute, which occur in a creeping vehicle practical. Dadurch wird die Regelung des Antriebs erschwert. Thereby, the control of the drive is more difficult.

Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, mit nur ei nem Sensor die Drehzahl und die Drehrichtung zu erfassen und eine konstante Aktualisierungsrate unabhängig von der Drehzahl zu erhalten. The invention has for its object to detect with only egg nem sensor the speed and direction of rotation and to maintain a constant update rate independent of the speed. Sie wird gemäß der Erfindung durch die Merkmale des Anspruchs 1 gelöst. It is achieved according to the invention by the features of claim 1. Weitere Ausgestaltun gen ergeben sich aus den Unteransprüchen. More Ausgestaltun gen emerge from the dependent claims.

Nach der Erfindung wird ein Signalgeber verwendet, der eine asymmetrische Signalform erzeugt, deren Flankenstei gung ausgewertet wird, um die Drehrichtung und/oder die Drehzahl zu erfassen. According to the invention, a transducer is used which generates an asymmetric waveform whose Flankenstei supply is evaluated to detect the rotational direction and / or speed. Hierzu eignet sich besonders gut als Sensor ein analoger elektromagnetischer Wandler, z. For this is particularly suitable as a sensor, an analog electromagnetic transducer, for. B. Halleffekt, und als Signalgeber ein Polrad mit Zähnen, de ren Flanken asymmetrisch zur Zahnmittellinie verlaufen. B. Hall effect, and the signal generator is a pole wheel with teeth de ren edges extending asymmetrically with respect to the tooth center line. Je nach Drehrichtung erzeugen die Flanken eine Signalform mit einer positiven oder negativen Flankensteigung, und zwar gegensinnig. Depending on the direction of rotation, the flanks produce a waveform with a positive or negative edge slope, namely in opposite directions. Die flachere Flanke erzeugt also in der einen Drehrichtung eine geringere positive Flankensteigung, wäh rend in der Gegendrehrichtung die dem Betrag nach gleiche Flankensteigung negativ ist. that is, the shallower flank generated in one direction of rotation a smaller positive flank lead, currency rend in the opposite direction of rotation which is negative with a value of the same tooth pitch. Die steilere, kürzere Flanke verhält sich gerade umgekehrt. The steeper and shorter flank behaves just the opposite. Somit kann man der positiven bzw. negativen Flankensteigung jeweils eine Drehrichtung zuordnen, da sich beim Drehrichtungswechsel bei einer dem Betrag nach gleichen Flankensteigung das Vorzeichen wech selt. Thus it can be the positive or negative edge slope in each case assign a direction of rotation, since the sign of rare wech when changing direction at the same amount to edge gradient.

Mit dem Sensor kann nach der Erfindung sowohl die An zahl der von den Zähnen erzeugten Signal formen pro Zeitein heit gezählt werden, als auch die Veränderung des Signal wertes an einer Zahnflanke erfaßt werden. With the sensor according to the invention, both in number of the generated signal from the teeth can form per SET TIME are counted uniform, and the change of the signal value can be detected at a tooth flank. Da die Signal wertdifferenz einem Drehwinkel entspricht, kann daraus ein Drehwinkel bzw. eine Drehzahl pro Zeiteinheit abgeleitet werden. Since the signal value difference corresponding to an angle of rotation can be derived from a rotational angle or a rotational speed per unit time. Dies kann besonders genau und zuverlässig erfolgen, wenn zum Auswerten des Signalverlaufs nur Anteile der Si gnalform mit einer konstanten Flankensteigung herangezogen werden. This can be particularly accurate and reliable place if only parts of the Si gnalform used with a constant tooth pitch to evaluate the waveform.

Weitere Vorteile ergeben sich aus der folgenden Zeich nungsbeschreibung. Further advantages result from the following description undersigned voltage. In der Zeichnung ist ein Ausführungsbei spiel der Erfindung dargestellt. In the drawing, a play is Ausführungsbei the invention. Die Beschreibung und die Ansprüche enthalten zahlreiche Merkmale in Kombination. The description and the claims contain numerous features in combination. Der Fachmann wird die Merkmale zweckmäßigerweise auch einzeln betrachten und zu sinnvollen weiteren Kombinationen zusam menfassen. The expert will consider the features expediently also individually and summarized together to make useful further combinations.

Es zeigt: It shows:

Fig. 1 eine schematisch dargestellte, erfindungsge mäße Vorrichtung und Fig. 1 is a schematically illustrated apparatus and erfindungsge Permitted

Fig. 2 einen Verlauf eines erzeugten Spannungs signals über einen Drehwinkel. Fig. 2 is a curve of a generated voltage signal over a rotation angle.

Die in Fig. 1 dargestellte Vorrichtung umfaßt einen Sensor 1 , der zweckmäßigerweise als analoger Halleffektsen sor ausgebildet ist, einen Signalgeber 2 , nämlich ein Pol rad mit Zähnen 5 , und eine elektronische Auswerteeinrich tung 3 , die über eine Signalleitung mit dem Sensor 1 ver bunden ist. The apparatus shown in Fig. 1 includes a sensor 1, which is expediently constructed as an analog Halleffektsen sor, a signal generator 2 which is a pole wheel with teeth 5, and an electronic Auswerteeinrich tung 3, connected via a signal line with the sensor 1 ver is. In der Regel hat die Auswerteeinrichtung 3 ein Display zur analogen und/oder digitalen Anzeige der erfaß ten und ausgewerteten Größen. In general, the evaluation unit 3 has a display for analogue and / or digital display of sensing th and evaluated sizes.

Die Zähne 5 unterteilen eine Kontur 4 des Signalge bers 2 am Umfang gleichmäßig, wobei der Abstand zwischen dem Sensor 1 und den Flanken 6 und 7 der Zähne 5 mit der Rotation des Signalgebers 2 variiert. The teeth 5 divide a contour 4 of the signal ge bers 2 uniformly on the circumference, wherein the distance between the sensor 1 and the edges 6 and 7 of the teeth 5 varies with the rotation of the signal transmitter. 2 Die Flanken 6 und 7 sind symmetrisch ausgebildet, und zwar verläuft die länge re Flanke 6 mit einer geringeren Neigung zur Drehrich tung 8 , 9 während die kürzere Flanke 7 verstärkt radial ausgerichtet ist. The edges 6 and 7 are symmetrically formed, namely, the length runs re flank 6 with a smaller inclination to the rotational Rich tung 8, 9 is aligned radially reinforced while the shorter edge. 7 Die positive Drehrichtung ist mit 8 und die Gegendrehrichtung mit 9 bezeichnet. The positive direction of rotation is 8 and refers to the opposite direction of rotation with. 9

Während der Rotation erzeugt der Signalgeber 2 im Sen sor 1 ein Spannungssignal U, dessen Signalverlauf in Dreh richtung 8 mit 10 und in Gegenrichtung 9 mit 14 bezeichnet ist. During rotation of the signal transmitter 2 in the sen sor 1 generates a voltage signal U, whose waveform is indicated in the direction of rotation 8 and 10 in the opposite direction 9 with the fourteenth Fig. 2 zeigt den Signalverlauf 10 mit einer durchgezo genen Linie und den Signalverlauf 14 mit einer gestrichel ten Linie in einem Diagramm, in dem die Spannung U über den Drehwinkel ϕ aufgetragen ist. Fig. 2 shows a waveform 10 with a durchgezo genes line and the waveform 14 with a gestrichel th line in a graph in which the voltage U is plotted over the rotational angle φ. Eine Signalform 11 , die von einem Zahn 5 erzeugt wird, ist entsprechend der asymmetri schen Zahnflanken 6 , 7 asymmetrisch ausgebildet und besitzt einen flach verlaufenden Bereich 12 , den die Zahnflanke 6 erzeugt und einen steileren Bereich 13 , den die Zahnflan ke 7 erzeugt. A waveform 11 which is generated by a tooth 5 is formed asymmetrically according to the asymmetri's tooth flanks 6, 7 and has a flat extending portion 12, the tooth flank 6 generates and a steeper portion 13 that generates the Zahnflan ke. 7

Für die Auswertung wird vorzugsweise ein Bereich 12 gewählt, in dem die Steigung der Signalform 11 im wesent lich konstant verläuft, dh daß in diesem Bereich die Spannung U proportional dem Drehwinkel ϕ ist. For the evaluation, preferably, an area 12 is selected, in which the slope of waveform 11 runs in constant Wesent Lich, ie that in this area the voltage U is proportional to the rotation angle φ. Dem Be reich 12 mit einer leichten positiven Steigung entspricht der Bereich 12 ' des Signalverlaufs 14 mit einer leicht ne gativen Steigung bei einer Rotation in der Gegendrehrich tung 9 . Be the rich 12 with a slight positive slope of the area 12 'of the waveform 14 with a slightly ne gativen slope corresponds to a rotation in the opposite rotational Rich tung. 9 Aus der Veränderung ΔU des Signalwerts in einer Zeiteinheit kann auf die Drehzahl geschlossen werden. From changes .DELTA.U the signal value in a time unit can be closed to the speed.

Bezugszeichenliste LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

1 1

Sensor sensor

2 2

Signalgeber signaler

3 3

Auswerteeinrichtung evaluation

4 4

Kontur contour

5 5

Zahn tooth

6 6

Zahnflanke (flach) Tooth flank (flat)

7 7

Zahnflanke (steil) Tooth flank (steep)

8 8th

Drehrichtung direction of rotation

9 9

Gegendrehrichtung Against the direction of rotation

10 10

Signalverlauf waveform

11 11

Signalform waveform

12 12

proportionaler Bereich proportional range

12 12

' Bereich ' Area

13 13

proportionaler Bereich proportional range

14 14

Signalverlauf waveform

Claims (3)

1. Vorrichtung zum Erfassen einer Drehzahl und einer zugehörigen Drehrichtung ( 8 , 9 ) mittels eines feststehen den, analogen Sensors ( 1 ), eines rotierenden Signalge bers ( 2 ), der sich mit seiner gleichmäßig unterteilten Kon tur ( 4 ) in verschiedenen Abständen am Sensor ( 1 ) vorbei bewegt und mit jedem Konturenabschnitt ( 5 ) eine Signal form ( 11 ), erzeugt, und mittels einer Auswerteeinrich tung ( 3 ), welche die gewonnenen Signale des Sensors ( 1 ) nach Drehzahl und Drehrichtung ( 8 , 9 ) auswertet, dadurch gekennzeichnet , daß das Signalgeber ( 2 ) eine asymmetrische Signalform ( 11 ) erzeugt, deren Flanken steigung (ΔU/Δϕ) ausgewertet wird, um die Drehrichtung ( 8 , 9 ) und/oder Drehzahl (ϕ) zu erfassen. 1. A device for detecting a rotational speed and an associated direction of rotation (8, 9) by means of a fixed stand the analog sensor (1), a rotating signal ge bers (2) extending with its equally divided Kon structure (4) at different distances on sensor (1) moves past and with each contour portion (5) has a waveform (11) generated and processing by means of a Auswerteeinrich (3) that the obtained signals of the sensor (1) according to the speed and direction of rotation (8, 9) evaluates , characterized in that the signal generator (2) generates an asymmetric waveform (11), the flanks of which slope (.DELTA.U / Δφ) is evaluated to detect the direction of rotation (8, 9) and / or speed of rotation (φ).
2. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch ge kennzeichnet, daß der Sensor ( 1 ) ein analoger elektromagnetischer Wandler, z. 2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the sensor (1), an analog electromagnetic transducer, z. B. Hall-Effekt-Sensor, und der Signalgeber ( 2 ) ein Polrad ist, dessen Kontur ( 4 ) Zähne ( 5 ) mit in Drehrichtung ( 8 , 9 ) asymmetrischen Flanken ( 6 , 7 ) hat. B. Hall-effect sensor, and the signal transmitter (2) is a pole wheel, whose contour (4) of teeth (5) in the direction of rotation (8, 9) asymmetric flanks (6, 7).
3. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch ge kennzeichnet, daß zum Auswerten des Signal verlaufs ( 10 ) nur Anteile ( 12 , 13 ) der Signalform ( 11 ) mit einer konstanten Flankensteigung (ΔU/Δϕ) herangezogen wer den. Used 3. Device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that for the signal course (10) evaluating only units (12, 13) of the waveform (11) with a constant tooth pitch (.DELTA.U / Δφ) who the.
DE1998114758 1998-04-02 1998-04-02 Number of revolutions and direction of rotation detecting device Withdrawn DE19814758A1 (en)

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Cited By (20)

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EP1229336A1 (en) * 2001-02-06 2002-08-07 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Device for determining speed and direction of movement
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US6650110B2 (en) * 2001-06-04 2003-11-18 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Target wheel sensor assembly for producing an asymmetric signal and for determining the direction of motion of the target wheel based on the signal shape
DE10133381A1 (en) * 2001-07-10 2003-01-23 Bayerische Motoren Werke Ag Device for detecting speed, direction of motion of body, e.g. rotating shaft, has asymmetrical trigger so that signal recorded by signal pick-up is different according to direction of movement of body
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