DE19621512A1 - Polarisation establishment with respect to wavelength of source spectra - Google Patents

Polarisation establishment with respect to wavelength of source spectra

Info

Publication number
DE19621512A1
DE19621512A1 DE1996121512 DE19621512A DE19621512A1 DE 19621512 A1 DE19621512 A1 DE 19621512A1 DE 1996121512 DE1996121512 DE 1996121512 DE 19621512 A DE19621512 A DE 19621512A DE 19621512 A1 DE19621512 A1 DE 19621512A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
grating
characterized
polarization
radiation
arrangement according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE1996121512
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Ernst-Bernhard Dr Kley
Heike Dipl Phys Huebner
Bernd Dipl Phys Schnabel
Uwe Detlef Dipl Phys Zeitner
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Friedrich Schiller Universtaet Jena
Original Assignee
Friedrich Schiller Universtaet Jena
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Friedrich Schiller Universtaet Jena filed Critical Friedrich Schiller Universtaet Jena
Priority to DE1996121512 priority Critical patent/DE19621512A1/en
Publication of DE19621512A1 publication Critical patent/DE19621512A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J4/00Measuring polarisation of light
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/28Investigating the spectrum
    • G01J3/447Polarisation spectrometry
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B5/00Optical elements other than lenses
    • G02B5/30Polarising elements
    • G02B5/3025Polarisers, i.e. arrangements capable of producing a definite output polarisation state from an unpolarised input state

Abstract

The method involves enabling a radiation (1) from the source to impinge on a micro-optically structured polarisation lattice (2). This may be a circular or may be a polygonal plate having a surface contour to suit the application. The polarised electromagnetic waves strike a diffraction grating (3) in which the dispersal occurs according to wavelength, and the intensity of the various spectra is registered by a CCD matrix camera.

Description

The invention relates to a method and arrangement for evaluating the wavelength gene-dependent polarization state of radiation. The state of polarization for different wavelength ranges of light is in science and technology often of great importance and must be provided by suitable measuring arrangements or devices are determined.

It has long been known the direction of vibration of an electromagnetic to determine the wave (light) in a so-called polarimeter, in the beam lengang a rotatable analyzer is arranged. This analyzer influences in Depending on the direction of vibration of the light, the intensity of the transmitted Radiation. From the angular position of the analyzer, in which an intensity maximum or minimum occurs, the direction of polarization of the light can be determined. The Radiation intensity is thereby by a photodetector, for. B. a photodiode, opto evaluated electronically.

The disadvantage is that these polarimeters due to the mechanically moved analyzer are relatively large and slow to evaluate. The latter disadvantage falls especially important if not only the extreme intensity values, but also one Intensity distribution of the polarization state is to be determined. In this case are the radiation intensities in several to many angular positions of the Analysa to measure and evaluate tors.

Modern measuring devices for polarization analysis (e.g. ellipsometers) work automatically and above all without manual rotation of the analyzer. Nevertheless, these work Polarimeter with mechanically moving parts. In addition, the Messanordnun gene large and space-consuming, so that their use in particular for micro-optical Sy limited or not possible.

A polarimeter without a mechanically moved analyzer is also known (DE 3.523.641), in which a plastic cone, the surface of which in a favorable Nei angle to the incident light, acts as a polarizer or as an analyzer.  

With suitable detection of the light deflected at the cone, mechanical light can be used Analyzer movement a polarization analysis can be performed. As a result of spatial beam deflection at the cone is the intensity evaluation of the beam elaborate, since the detection must take place around the cone. Besides, is exact beam positioning on the cone is required. The possible uses are the means for a quick and complete polarization analysis also restricted.

In the event that the polarization of radiation in individual wavelength ranges of the radiation to be determined, the aforementioned measurements are for each wavelength of radiation by performing the radiation beforehand for the specific Wavelength range was separated.

It has been known for a long time (e.g. Stenkamp et al., Grid polarizer for the visible spectral region, SPIE Vol. 2213, 288-296, 1994) that metallic gratings, the Peri or approximately equal to the light wavelength or even smaller, polarizing egg own properties. If you use a corresponding one from straight, metallic bars ben existing grating, no diffraction orders occur after passage of the light except for the so-called zero diffraction order. Ideally, this only contains nor the component of the electric field that swings across the bars. The other polarization component is absorbed by the grating. With real ones Lattice may not be completely absorbed, which means that the trans centered and reflected components are not ideally polarized.

The invention is based on the object, the most complete and uncomplicated falsified polarization state of radiation for different wavelength ranges to determine with little effort and in the shortest possible time.

The evaluation should be as universally applicable as possible, especially with mi crooptic systems, and is intended to capture the instantaneous state of polarization allow for the wavelength ranges.

This object is achieved in that the radiation is location-dependent both by an optical grating with preferably lithographically produced Mi Crostructures with different line orientations in several vibration directions  micro-optically polarized as well as by a diffractive deflection grating in the bottom different wavelengths is split and that the intensity of the polarization and wavelength influenced radiation by a spatially spatially resolved De tector is recorded and evaluated.

Modern lithography enables the production of very fine lattice structures that enable largely undistorted polarization of the radiation. The grid has microstructures of different line orientations (for example circularly curved, radial or star-shaped microstructures), whereby the beam tion simultaneously in several directions of vibration on a preferably level Detector surface (e.g. a CCD matrix known per se) can be projected. On In this way, one that is frequently used in technology can be used for evaluation CCD camera chip can be used.

A diffractive deflection of the radiation additionally results in a spectral beam splitting and a wavelength-dependent projection onto different surfaces range of the detector.

With the intensity evaluation of the detector that is spatially resolved on the surface and local polarization-influenced and color-deflected radiation can cause this can be evaluated directly depending on polarization and wavelength. The Polari States for different wavelength ranges therefore need in the ver equal to the prior art, not in time for the individual wavelengths to be measured, but can be used for the momentary evaluation (in-situ measurement solution) of the radiation can be detected together. The wavelength-dependent Be Influence of the radiation for polarization measurement does not exist, as is known, in the Color filtering of the radiation, but in its wavelength-specific deflection. The grids can be circular or polygonal. For optoelectronic Beam evaluation can be a direct image on the detector or an image via a projection optics, the grids per se or grating and project optics can be structurally united.

It has also proven to be advantageous if before the spatially resolved polarization due to the microstructured optical grating the phase position between ver distinguished polarized components of the radiation in one or more sections Chen is changed. For this purpose, elements are particularly suitable that (possibly area  abundant) the properties of known birefringent phase plates have ten.

The invention is intended below with reference to the embodiment shown in the drawing tion examples are explained in more detail.

Show it:

Fig. 1 is a basic arrangement of a polarization grating, a spectral deflection grating and a detector in the beam path of the radiation to be examined without the projection optics;

Fig. 2 shows a schematic arrangement of a projection optical system before the detector;

Fig. 3 principle arrangement with structural union of the spectral deflection ters and the projection optics;

Fig. 4 principle arrangement with structural union of the polarization grating and the spectral deflection grating;

Fig. 5 principle arrangement with a blazed spectral deflection grating;

Fig. 6 is structurally combined with principle arrangement of the blazed spectral Ablenkgitters and the projection optics;

Fig. 7 principle arrangement with insertion of an axicon the projection optics;

Fig. 8-17 selected design options for the grating structure;

Fig. 18 principle arrangement as Figure 1 with an additional grid, the birefringent phase plate is mounted in front.

Fig. 19 principle arrangement as shown in FIG. 1 with an upstream element, which is rich in the property of a birefringent phase plate be.

In Fig. 1 the principle structure of the arrangement according to the invention. In the beam path of radiation 1 , the polarization state of which is to be determined for different wavelength ranges, a micro-optically structured polarization grating 2 (e.g. a metallic grating of the period 220 nm), a spectral deflection grating 3 and a CCD camera chip 4 are arranged. The polarization grating 2 and the spectral deflection grating 3 can be circular or polygonal, among other things. Examples for the polarization grating 2 are shown in FIGS . 8 to 17. Because of these microstructures with different line orientations, the radiation 1 is differentiated in its polarization. The locally differently polarized radiation 1 is projected via the spectral deflection grating 3 onto the spatially spatially resolved CCD camera chip 4 , through which the radiation intensity is detected depending on the location. From the spectral deflection grating 3 (diffractive grating), the radiation which is locally influenced by the polarization grating 2 is additionally deflected in a wavelength-dependent manner with a diffraction angle. It would also be conceivable to arrange the polarization grating 2 and the spectral deflection grating 3 in the reverse order. It is decisive that the radiation 1 for the spatially spatially resolved intensity evaluation is both polarized differently locally and diffracted depending on the local wavelength.

The evaluation of the radiation intensity as a function of the location of the detector surface from the CCD camera chip 4 thus provides immediate information about the instantaneous state of the radiation 1 which is dependent on polarization and wavelength.

In FIG. 2, in addition to FIG. 1, a projection lens 5 is arranged in front of the CCD camera chip 4 , which projects the radiation 1 that influences the local direction of vibration and color deflection onto the CCD camera chip 4 . As a result, a sharp ring-shaped focus 6 is imaged on the CCD camera chip 4 for each shaft length and good intensity utilization of the radiation 1 is achieved in the evaluation. Where appropriate, the distance between the bars 2, 3 and the CCD camera chip 4 can then be enlarged.

In Fig. 3, the spectral deflection grating 3 and the projection lens 5 are combined to form an optical element 7 . Fig. 4 shows the structural union of the two circular or polygonal grids 2 , 3 to form an optical element 8 with a corresponding circular or polygonal diffraction figure.

To improve the diffraction efficiency, it is possible to design the spectral deflection grating 3 in a manner known per se as a blazed diffractive grating 9 ( FIG. 5), which, as shown in FIG. 6, together with the projection lens 5 to form an annular off-axis -Cylinder lens 10 can be summarized.

The first (and higher) diffraction order of the spectral deflection grating 3 used for color splitting are created at a certain angle to the optical axis of the arrangement. Since the detector area is limited in the case of CCD chips, this could possibly lead to problems in the detection. FIG. 7 shows how the angle at which the diffraction orders to the optical axis arise can be changed by inserting an axicon 11 known per se, which leads to better surface utilization of the CCD camera chip 4 .

In FIGS. 8 to 17 are examples of selected microstructures illustrated different line orientations for the polarizing grid 2 to the radiation per 1 to polarize different location-dependent weils.

Fig. 8 shows two square-shaped surfaces 19, the microstructures 12 having linear orientation in two different directions. 13

n Fig. 9 are circular microstructures 14 is shown, that the grating lines are con centric circles whose radius difference corresponds to the grating period.

Fig. 10 shows radial or star-shaped microstructures 15, the grid lines that run from the center ver extending radially outward.

In Fig. 11 a polygonal microstructures 16 are shown, that the grating lines are polygons arbitrary but constant number of corners with the same center.

FIGS. 12 to 14 show surface fillings of different types, these being filled with microstructures of different orientations (circular surfaces 17 in FIG. 12, honeycomb surfaces 18 in FIG. 13 and surfaces 20 in FIG. 14 with any delimitation).

Figs. 15 to 17 show "patchwork" -like combinations of surfaces having different lattice orientations union. The surfaces can be rectangular ( FIGS. 15 and 17) or circular ( FIG. 16).

If a distinction is to be made with the polarimeter between elliptically polarized light on the one hand and a mixture of linearly polarized and unpolarized light on the other hand, it is expedient to expand the previously described arrangements (FIGS . 1 to 7). As Fig. 18 shows, in the beam path next to the polarization grid 2, another same type polarization grating 2 is inserted a, before a birefringent λ / 4 phase plate 21 is disposed. This causes a change in the polarization state of the incident light received by the stationary been solved polarization caused by the polarization grid 2 a a change of the individual transmitted intensities. By comparing the two images recorded with the CCD camera chip 4 (with or without birefringent λ / 4 phase plate 21 ), the above distinction between different polarization states can be made.

The arrangement described in FIG. 18 can also be changed in that only the polarization grating 2 is located in the beam path in front of the spectral deflection grating 3 and in front of this there is an element 22 which does not have the properties of a birefringent λ / 4 phase plate, but only in regions ( Fig. 19). The element 22 has two areas with different phase shifts, the polarized components of the radiation 1 being shifted in a first area 23 by the amount λ / 4, while the radiation 1 passes through a second area 24 without such a phase shift.

It would be conceivable (not shown in the drawing) to implement the element 22 with several of these regions 23 , 24 , the mode of operation according to the invention not being limited to a λ / 4 phase shift. The arrangement according to FIG. 19 thus also enables the aforementioned differentiation between different polarization states. In comparison to the arrangement according to FIG. 18, the utilization of the light intensity is improved and the area requirement is reduced.

Reference list

1 radiation
2 , 2 a polarization grating
3 spectral deflection gratings
4 CCD camera chips
5 projection lens
6 ring-shaped focus
7 , 8 optical element
9 blazed diffractive grating
10 ring-shaped off-axis cylindrical lens
11 Axicon
12-16 microstructures
17-20 areas of different line alignment of the microstructures
21 birefringent phase plate
22 element
23 , 24 areas of the birefringent phase plate

Claims (14)

1. A method for evaluating the wavelength-dependent polarization state of a radiation, in which the radiation influences in its polarization and wavelength, and is then measured and evaluated in terms of its intensity, characterized in that the radiation is polarized, depending on the location, both in different directions of oscillation and also wavelength-dependent is and that the intensity of the radiation locally influenced in the direction of vibration and color deflection is also detected and evaluated depending on the location.
2. Arrangement for evaluating the polarization state of radiation, in which an optical polarization grating, an optical element for influencing the wavelengths and a radiation detector are arranged in the beam path, characterized in that the polarization grating ( 2 ) is preferably lithographically produced microstructures ( 12 , 13 ) Different line orientations has that a known spectral deflection grating ( 3 ) is used for wavelength splitting as an optical element for influencing the wavelength and that a spatially spatially resolved detector ( 4 ) is used as the radiation detector.
3. Arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that the polarization grating ( 2 ) has circularly curved structures ( 14 ).
4. Arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that the polarization grating ( 2 ) have radial or star-shaped structures ( 15 ).
5. Arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that the polarization grating ( 2 ) at least two, arbitrarily designable surfaces of different line alignment of the microstructures, such as sectors ( 16 ), rings ( 17 ), honeycomb ( 18 ), squares ( 19 ) or any has limited areas ( 20 ).
6. Arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that a known CCD matrix ( 4 ) is used as a detector.
7. Arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that projection optics ( 5 ) is arranged in front of the detector ( 4 ).
8. Arrangement according to claims 2 and 7, characterized in that the polarization grid ( 2 ), the spectral deflection grating ( 3 ) and the projection optics ( 5 ) are partially or completely structurally combined.
9. Arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that the spectral deflection grating ( 3 ) is designed as a blazed grating ( 9 ).
10. Arrangement according to claims 7 and 9, characterized in that the blazed grating ( 9 ) and the projection optics ( 5 ) are structurally united.
11. The arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that an axicon ( 11 ) is inserted in front of the detector ( 4 ).
12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before the simultaneous Polarization in several vibration directions additionally the phase position between differently polarized components of the radiation in one or more parts rich is changed.
13. Arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that at least one further polarization grating ( 2 a) is arranged in the beam path min, which also has microstructures of different line orientations and which is preceded by at least one birefringent phase plate ( 21 ) known per se.
14. Arrangement according to claim 2, characterized in that in the beam path in front of the polarizing grating ( 2 ) in addition at least one element ( 22 ) is arranged, which in some areas has the properties of a known birefringent phase plate.
DE1996121512 1996-05-29 1996-05-29 Polarisation establishment with respect to wavelength of source spectra Withdrawn DE19621512A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE1996121512 DE19621512A1 (en) 1996-05-29 1996-05-29 Polarisation establishment with respect to wavelength of source spectra

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE1996121512 DE19621512A1 (en) 1996-05-29 1996-05-29 Polarisation establishment with respect to wavelength of source spectra

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DE19621512A1 true DE19621512A1 (en) 1997-12-04

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0987537A2 (en) * 1998-09-16 2000-03-22 NanoPhotonics AG Micropolarimeter and ellipsometer
DE10120425A1 (en) * 2001-04-26 2002-10-31 Leica Microsystems Method for examining a specimen uses two optical blending lines with a specimen excited optically with light of first and second wavelengths
EP1507137A1 (en) * 2003-08-12 2005-02-16 Sick Ag Method and apparatus for polarisation dependent and spatially resolved inspection of a surface or layer
EP1574904A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-14 ASML Netherlands B.V. Radial and tangential polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
WO2006021288A1 (en) * 2004-08-20 2006-03-02 Carl Zeiss Sms Gmbh Diffractive element for the polarization separation of nonpolarized electromagnetic radiation in the uv region, and method for producing a diffractive element of this type
US7206059B2 (en) 2003-02-27 2007-04-17 Asml Netherlands B.V. Stationary and dynamic radial transverse electric polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
US7221501B2 (en) 2003-02-27 2007-05-22 Asml Netherlands B.V. Stationary and dynamic radial transverse electric polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
SG135034A1 (en) * 2004-02-26 2007-09-28 Asml Netherlands Bv Stationary and dynamic radial transverse electric polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
US7304719B2 (en) * 2004-03-31 2007-12-04 Asml Holding N.V. Patterned grid element polarizer
US7916391B2 (en) 2004-05-25 2011-03-29 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Apparatus for providing a pattern of polarization
DE102010041814A1 (en) * 2010-09-30 2012-04-05 Carl Zeiss Ag ellipsometer
US8259393B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2012-09-04 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
US8279524B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2012-10-02 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
US8482717B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2013-07-09 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
DE10362349B3 (en) * 2003-08-12 2014-05-08 Sick Ag Optical examination of the surface or a layer of an object or medium, whereby the surface is illuminated with polarized visual radiation and reflected or scattered radiation is measured on an area by area basis
DE102017204363A1 (en) * 2017-03-16 2018-09-20 Robert Bosch Gmbh Optical system, miniature spectrometer, method for analyzing an object

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DE3212809A1 (en) * 1982-04-06 1983-10-13 Zeiss Carl Fa Beam splitter
DE3519764A1 (en) * 1985-06-01 1986-12-04 Gruen Optik Wetzlar Gmbh Device for decomposing optical radiation
DE3523641C1 (en) * 1985-07-02 1986-12-18 Max Planck Gesellschaft Device for selecting rotationally symmetrical polarization components of a light bundle and use of such a device
DE3707984A1 (en) * 1987-03-12 1988-09-22 Max Planck Gesellschaft Polarizing mirror for optical radiation
US5080486A (en) * 1989-09-12 1992-01-14 Fujitsu Limited Spectrum measuring equipment utilizing double-image polarizing element
US5235449A (en) * 1990-03-02 1993-08-10 Hitachi, Ltd. Polarizer with patterned diacetylene layer, method for producing the same, and liquid crystal display device including such polarizer
US5455712A (en) * 1992-04-08 1995-10-03 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Optical element and method of fabricating the same
US5502567A (en) * 1993-06-28 1996-03-26 International Business Machines Corporation Micropolarimeter, microsensor system and method of characterizing thin films
WO1996012941A1 (en) * 1994-10-21 1996-05-02 Therma-Wave, Inc. Spectroscopic ellipsometer
US5535055A (en) * 1993-02-16 1996-07-09 Nec Corporation Optical head device and birefringent diffraction grating polarizer and polarizing hologram element used therein

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3212809A1 (en) * 1982-04-06 1983-10-13 Zeiss Carl Fa Beam splitter
DE3519764A1 (en) * 1985-06-01 1986-12-04 Gruen Optik Wetzlar Gmbh Device for decomposing optical radiation
DE3523641C1 (en) * 1985-07-02 1986-12-18 Max Planck Gesellschaft Device for selecting rotationally symmetrical polarization components of a light bundle and use of such a device
DE3707984A1 (en) * 1987-03-12 1988-09-22 Max Planck Gesellschaft Polarizing mirror for optical radiation
US5080486A (en) * 1989-09-12 1992-01-14 Fujitsu Limited Spectrum measuring equipment utilizing double-image polarizing element
US5235449A (en) * 1990-03-02 1993-08-10 Hitachi, Ltd. Polarizer with patterned diacetylene layer, method for producing the same, and liquid crystal display device including such polarizer
US5455712A (en) * 1992-04-08 1995-10-03 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Optical element and method of fabricating the same
US5535055A (en) * 1993-02-16 1996-07-09 Nec Corporation Optical head device and birefringent diffraction grating polarizer and polarizing hologram element used therein
US5502567A (en) * 1993-06-28 1996-03-26 International Business Machines Corporation Micropolarimeter, microsensor system and method of characterizing thin films
WO1996012941A1 (en) * 1994-10-21 1996-05-02 Therma-Wave, Inc. Spectroscopic ellipsometer

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Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0987537A3 (en) * 1998-09-16 2000-04-05 NanoPhotonics AG Micropolarimeter and Ellipsometer
EP0987537A2 (en) * 1998-09-16 2000-03-22 NanoPhotonics AG Micropolarimeter and ellipsometer
US6961124B2 (en) 2001-04-26 2005-11-01 Leica Microsystems Heidelberg Gmbh Method for examining a specimen, and scanning microscope system
DE10120425A1 (en) * 2001-04-26 2002-10-31 Leica Microsystems Method for examining a specimen uses two optical blending lines with a specimen excited optically with light of first and second wavelengths
DE10120425C2 (en) * 2001-04-26 2003-12-18 Leica Microsystems Scanning microscope
US7511884B2 (en) 2003-02-27 2009-03-31 Asml Netherlands B.V. Stationary and dynamic radial transverse electric polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
US7206059B2 (en) 2003-02-27 2007-04-17 Asml Netherlands B.V. Stationary and dynamic radial transverse electric polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
US7221501B2 (en) 2003-02-27 2007-05-22 Asml Netherlands B.V. Stationary and dynamic radial transverse electric polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
EP1507137A1 (en) * 2003-08-12 2005-02-16 Sick Ag Method and apparatus for polarisation dependent and spatially resolved inspection of a surface or layer
DE10362349B3 (en) * 2003-08-12 2014-05-08 Sick Ag Optical examination of the surface or a layer of an object or medium, whereby the surface is illuminated with polarized visual radiation and reflected or scattered radiation is measured on an area by area basis
US8711479B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2014-04-29 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Illumination apparatus for microlithography projection system including polarization-modulating optical element
US8289623B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2012-10-16 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
US8320043B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2012-11-27 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Illumination apparatus for microlithographyprojection system including polarization-modulating optical element
US9581911B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2017-02-28 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
US8482717B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2013-07-09 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
US9316772B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2016-04-19 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Producing polarization-modulating optical element for microlithography system
US8861084B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2014-10-14 Carl Zeiss Smt Ag Polarization-modulating optical element
US8259393B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2012-09-04 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
US8270077B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2012-09-18 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
US8279524B2 (en) 2004-01-16 2012-10-02 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Polarization-modulating optical element
SG135034A1 (en) * 2004-02-26 2007-09-28 Asml Netherlands Bv Stationary and dynamic radial transverse electric polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
EP1574904A1 (en) * 2004-03-08 2005-09-14 ASML Netherlands B.V. Radial and tangential polarizer for high numerical aperture systems
US7304719B2 (en) * 2004-03-31 2007-12-04 Asml Holding N.V. Patterned grid element polarizer
CN100388026C (en) * 2004-03-31 2008-05-14 Asml控股股份有限公司 Patterned grid element polarizer
US7916391B2 (en) 2004-05-25 2011-03-29 Carl Zeiss Smt Gmbh Apparatus for providing a pattern of polarization
WO2006021288A1 (en) * 2004-08-20 2006-03-02 Carl Zeiss Sms Gmbh Diffractive element for the polarization separation of nonpolarized electromagnetic radiation in the uv region, and method for producing a diffractive element of this type
WO2012042022A1 (en) 2010-09-30 2012-04-05 Carl Zeiss Ag Ellipsometer
DE102010041814A1 (en) * 2010-09-30 2012-04-05 Carl Zeiss Ag ellipsometer
DE102017204363A1 (en) * 2017-03-16 2018-09-20 Robert Bosch Gmbh Optical system, miniature spectrometer, method for analyzing an object

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