DE19607151C1 - Regeneration of nitrogen oxide storage catalyst - Google Patents

Regeneration of nitrogen oxide storage catalyst

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Publication number
DE19607151C1
DE19607151C1 DE1996107151 DE19607151A DE19607151C1 DE 19607151 C1 DE19607151 C1 DE 19607151C1 DE 1996107151 DE1996107151 DE 1996107151 DE 19607151 A DE19607151 A DE 19607151A DE 19607151 C1 DE19607151 C1 DE 19607151C1
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DE
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
catalyst
nitrogen
quantity
regeneration
storage
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
DE1996107151
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Willibald Dipl Ing Dr Schuerz
Erwin Dipl Ing Dr Achleitner
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Continental Automotive GmbH
Original Assignee
Siemens AG
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Filing date
Publication date
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/0807Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by using absorbents or adsorbents
    • F01N3/0828Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by using absorbents or adsorbents characterised by the absorbed or adsorbed substances
    • F01N3/0842Nitrogen oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/92Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases
    • B01D53/94Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases by catalytic processes
    • B01D53/9404Removing only nitrogen compounds
    • B01D53/9409Nitrogen oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/92Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases
    • B01D53/94Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases by catalytic processes
    • B01D53/9495Controlling the catalytic process
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D41/00Electrical control of supply of combustible mixture or its constituents
    • F02D41/02Circuit arrangements for generating control signals
    • F02D41/021Introducing corrections for particular conditions exterior to the engine
    • F02D41/0235Introducing corrections for particular conditions exterior to the engine in relation with the state of the exhaust gas treating apparatus
    • F02D41/027Introducing corrections for particular conditions exterior to the engine in relation with the state of the exhaust gas treating apparatus to purge or regenerate the exhaust gas treating apparatus
    • F02D41/0275Introducing corrections for particular conditions exterior to the engine in relation with the state of the exhaust gas treating apparatus to purge or regenerate the exhaust gas treating apparatus the exhaust gas treating apparatus being a NOx trap or adsorbent
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D41/00Electrical control of supply of combustible mixture or its constituents
    • F02D41/02Circuit arrangements for generating control signals
    • F02D41/14Introducing closed-loop corrections
    • F02D41/1438Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor
    • F02D41/1444Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases
    • F02D41/146Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases the characteristics being an NOx content or concentration
    • F02D41/1461Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases the characteristics being an NOx content or concentration of the exhaust gases emitted by the engine
    • F02D41/1462Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases the characteristics being an NOx content or concentration of the exhaust gases emitted by the engine with determination means using an estimation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D41/00Electrical control of supply of combustible mixture or its constituents
    • F02D41/02Circuit arrangements for generating control signals
    • F02D41/14Introducing closed-loop corrections
    • F02D41/1438Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor
    • F02D41/1444Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases
    • F02D41/146Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases the characteristics being an NOx content or concentration
    • F02D41/1463Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases the characteristics being an NOx content or concentration of the exhaust gases downstream of exhaust gas treatment apparatus
    • F02D41/1465Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases the characteristics being an NOx content or concentration of the exhaust gases downstream of exhaust gas treatment apparatus with determination means using an estimation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2250/00Combinations of different methods of purification
    • F01N2250/12Combinations of different methods of purification absorption or adsorption, and catalytic conversion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D2200/00Input parameters for engine control
    • F02D2200/02Input parameters for engine control the parameters being related to the engine
    • F02D2200/08Exhaust gas treatment apparatus parameters
    • F02D2200/0806NOx storage amount, i.e. amount of NOx stored on NOx trap
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D2200/00Input parameters for engine control
    • F02D2200/02Input parameters for engine control the parameters being related to the engine
    • F02D2200/08Exhaust gas treatment apparatus parameters
    • F02D2200/0811NOx storage efficiency

Abstract

Nitrogen oxides storage catalyst (4) is regenerated in accordance with the operational state of the catalyst (4). During regeneration, the mixture supplied to the internal combustion engine corresponds to a stoichiometry ratio less than one (rich), ahead of the catalyst. The operational state corresponds to at least a limiting quantity of NOx compounds issuing from the catalyst. The quantity of NOx is evaluated from a characteristic diagram, which is a function of the loading and rotary speed of the engine.

Description

Die Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Regeneration eines NOx-Speicherkatalysators gemäß dem Oberbegriff des Anspruchs 1. The invention relates to a method for regenerating an NOx storage catalyst according to the preamble of claim 1.

NOx-Speicherkatalysatoren werden verwendet, um bei Motorkon zepten mit magerer Verbrennung die geforderten Abgasgrenzwer te einhalten zu können. NOx storage catalysts are used in Motorkon concepts lean burn the required Abgasgrenzwer th to comply. Die NOx-Speicherkatalysatoren absor bieren die bei magerer Verbrennung erzeugten NOx-Verbin dungen. The NOx storage catalysts sublingually beers decisions NOx Verbin generated during lean combustion. Da jedoch die Speicherkapazität eines NOx-Speicher katalysators begrenzt ist, ist es notwendig eine bedarfsge rechte Regeneration des Speicherkatalysators durchzuführen. However, since the storage capacity of a NOx trap catalyst is limited, it is necessary to bedarfsge right regeneration of the storage catalyst carried out. Dies erfolgt durch kurzzeitiges Betreiben des Motors mit ei nem fetten Gemisch, wodurch die gespeicherten NOx-Verbin dungen im Katalysator abgebaut werden. This is done by temporarily operating the engine with egg NEM fat mixture, be degraded in the catalyst whereby the NOx stored Verbin applications.

Aus der EP 0 597 106 A1 ist bereits ein Verfahren zur Regene ration eines NOx-Speicherkatalysators bekannt, bei dem die vom Speicherkatalysator absorbierte Menge an NOx-Verbindungen in Abhängigkeit von der angesaugten Luft und der Motorlast berechnet wird. From EP 0597106 A1 a method for Regene ration of an NOx storage catalytic converter is already known in which the absorbed from the storage catalytic amount of NOx compounds in function of the sucked air and the engine load is calculated. Bei Überschreiten einer vorgegebenen Grenz menge von im NOx-Speicherkatalysator gespeicherten NOx-Ver bindungen wird der Brennkraftmaschine ein fettes Gemisch zur Regeneration des Speicherkatalysators zugeführt. When exceeding a predetermined limit amount of data stored in the NOx storage catalyst NOx Ver bonds of the internal combustion engine is supplied with a rich mixture for the regeneration of the storage catalyst. Auf diese Weise ist jedoch ein zuverlässiges Einhalten der Abgasgrenz werte nicht gewährleistet. In this way, however, a reliable compliance with the emission limit values ​​is not guaranteed.

DE 195 11 548 A1 beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Regeneration eines NOx-Speicherkatalysators, bei dem die Regenerationspha se gestartet wird, wenn die vom NOx-Speicherkatalysator aus gegebene Menge an NOx-Verbindungen über einen vorgegebenen Grenzwert liegt. DE 195 11 548 A1 describes a process for regenerating a NOx storage catalytic converter, in which the Regenerationspha se is started when the NOx trap catalyst is from from given amount of NOx compounds above a predetermined limit. Die NOx-Verbindungen werden mit einem Sensor im Abgasstrom nach dem NOx-Speicherkatalysator gemessen. NOx compounds are measured with a sensor in the exhaust stream after the NOx storage catalyst. Bei der Regenerationsphase wird der Brennkraftmaschine ein Kraft stoffgemisch zugeführt, das einer Luftzahl < 1 vor dem NOx- Speicherkatalysator entspricht. During the regeneration phase of the internal combustion engine is supplied to a fuel mixture which corresponds to an air ratio of <1 before the NOx storage catalyst.

Die Aufgabe der Erfindung beruht darin, ein Verfahren zur Re generation eines NOx-Speicherkatalysators zur Verfügung zu stellen, das eine sichere Einhaltung der Abgasgrenzwerte ge währleistet und eine verbesserte, bedarfsgerechte Regenerati on des NOx-Speicherkatalysators ermöglicht. The object of the invention is based is to provide a method for re-generation of a NOx storage catalytic converter is available which allows a safe compliance with the emission limits ge ensured and improved to meet requirements Regenerati on the NOx storage catalyst.

Die Aufgabe der Erfindung wird durch die Merkmale des An spruchs 1 gelöst. The object of the invention is solved by the features of to claim 1. Ein wesentlicher Vorteil der Erfindung be ruht darin, daß die Regeneration des NOx-Speicherkatalysators in Abhängigkeit vom NOx-Ausstoß gestartet wird. An essential advantage of the invention be rests in the fact that the regeneration of the NOx storage catalyst is started depending on the NOx emissions. Auf diese Weise ist eine sichere Einhaltung der Abgasgrenzwerte gewähr leistet. In this way, a secure compliance with the emission limits makes guarantees.

Vorteilhafte Ausbildungen und Verbesserungen der Erfindung sind in den Unteransprüchen angegeben. Advantageous embodiments and improvements of the invention are specified in the subclaims.

Die Erfindung wird anhand der Figuren näher erläutert; The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to the figures; es zeigen: show it:

Fig. 1 eine schematische Anordnung einer Brennkraftmaschine mit einem NOx-Speicherkatalysator, Fig. 1 shows a schematic arrangement of an internal combustion engine having an NOx storage catalytic converter,

Fig. 2 eine schematische Darstellung des erfindungsgemäßen Verfahrens, Fig. 2 is a schematic representation of the method according to the invention,

Fig. 3 ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung des NOx-Ausstoßes und Fig. 3, a method for determining the NOx emissions and

Fig. 4 ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Beladung des Spei cherkatalysators. Fig. 4 cherkatalysators a method for determining the loading of the SpeI.

Fig. 1 zeigt eine Anordnung, bei der das erfindungsgemäße Verfahren angewendet wird. Fig. 1 shows an arrangement in which the inventive method is applied. Eine Brennkraftmaschine 2 ist mit einem Ansaugtrakt 1 und einem Abgastrakt 3 verbunden. An internal combustion engine 2 is connected to an intake tract and an exhaust gas duct 1. 3 Im An saugtrakt 1 ist ein Temperaturfühler 9 und eine Lastmeßein richtung 11 , beispielsweise ein Luftmassenmesser oder ein Druckmesser, angeordnet. An intake system in Figure 1 is a temperature sensor 9 and a Lastmeßein direction 11, for example, an air mass sensor or a pressure gauge is arranged. Die Brennkraftmaschine 2 umfaßt eine Einspritzanlage mit einer Ventilanordnung und einen Kühl kreislauf. The internal combustion engine 2 comprises an injection system with a valve arrangement and a circulation cooling. Der Abgastrakt 3 führt zu einem NOx-Speicher katalysator 4 , an dem ein Temperatursensor 13 angeschlossen ist. The exhaust gas duct 3 leads to a NOx storage catalytic converter 4, in which a temperature sensor 13 is connected. Der NOx-Speicherkatalysator 4 wird im folgenden kurz als Speicherkatalysator 4 bezeichnet. The NOx storage catalyst 4 is referred to hereafter as the storage catalyst. 4 Weiterhin ist ein Steuerge rät 5 mit einem Speicher 6 dargestellt, wobei das Steuergerät 5 über eine Lastmeßleitung 12 mit der Lastmeßeinrichtung 11 , über eine Temperaturmeßleitung 10 mit dem Temperaturfühler 9 , über eine Daten- und Steuerleitung 8 mit der Brennkraftma schine 2 und über eine Meßleitung 7 mit dem Temperatursensor 13 verbunden ist. Furthermore, a Steuerge is advises 5 shown with a memory 6, wherein the control unit 5 machine via a load-sensing 12 with the load measuring device 11, a temperature sensing line 10 to the temperature sensor 9, via a data and control line 8 of the internal combustion 2 and via a measuring line 7 is connected to the temperature sensor. 13 Zudem ist eine Lambdasonde 14 in den Ab gastrakt 3 vor dem Speicherkatalysator 4 eingebracht und über eine zweite Meßleitung 15 mit dem Steuergerät 5 verbunden. Moreover, a lambda sensor 14 in the gas tract from 3 introduced upstream of the storage catalytic converter 4 and connected via a second measuring line 15 to the control unit. 5

Fig. 2 zeigt schematisch ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der NOx-Rohemission NR. Fig. 2 schematically shows a method for determining the NOx raw emission NR. Das Steuergerät 5 überprüft bei Programm punkt 20 vorzugsweise eine oder mehrere Startbedingungen, be vor weitere Berechnungen erfolgen. The control unit 5 checks at program point 20, one or more starting conditions, be made before further calculations. Dabei wird zuerst über prüft, ob sich die Brennkraftmaschine im Betriebszustand "Start" befindet. Here is first checked whether the engine is in the "start" position. Ist dies der Fall, so wird keine weitere Berechnung durchgeführt, sondern abgewartet, bis die Brenn kraftmaschine 2 den Betriebszustand "Start" verlassen hat. If this is the case, then no further calculation is carried out, but waited until the internal combustion engine 2 has exited the operating state "Start". Weiterhin wird überprüft, ob eine Nachstartsteuerung der Brennkraftmaschine 2 vorliegt. Furthermore, it is checked whether a having-the internal combustion engine 2 is present. Ist dies der Fall, wird mit weiteren Berechnungen so lange gewartet, bis die Nachstart steuerung beendet ist. If so, wait with further calculations until the Nachstart has control over. Zudem wird noch überprüft, ob die Ka talysatortemperatur KT größer als ein vorgegebener Mindest wert ist. In addition, it is checked if the Ka talysatortemperatur KT is greater than a predetermined minimum value. Ist dies der Fall, so wird noch überprüft, ob die Luftzahl im Abgas vor dem Katalysator einen Wert größer als 1 aufweist. If this is the case, it is still checked whether the air ratio in the exhaust gas before the catalyst has a value greater than the first Sind die genannten Bedingungen erfüllt, so wird nach Programmpunkt 21 verzweigt. If the conditions mentioned are met, the program branches to program point 21st In einer einfachen Ausfüh rung kann auch auf die bei Programmpunkt 20 abgefragten Be dingungen verzichtet werden. In a simple exporting tion may be waived conditions on the queried in program item 20 Be.

Bei Programmpunkt 21 wird die Berechnung der NOx-Rohemission NR oder der korrigierten NOx-Rohemission NRK durchgeführt. At program point 21, the calculation of the NOx raw emission NR or of the corrected NOx raw emission NRK is performed. Dies wird anhand eines Unterprogrammes, das in Fig. 3 darge stellt ist, ausgeführt. This is, is performed based on a subroutine that, in Fig. 3 Darge.

Nach Programmpunkt 21 folgt bei Programmpunkt 22 die Abfrage, ob die NOx-Emission NA, die den Speicherkatalysator 4 ver läßt, größer als ein vorgegebener Grenzwert NE ist. After program point 21, follows in program step 22 to confirm whether the NOx emission NA, which makes the storage catalytic converter 4 ver, is greater than a predetermined threshold value NE. Ist dies der Fall, so wird nach Programmpunkt 23 verzweigt. If this is the case, then the program branches to point 23rd Die NOx- Emission NA wird nach folgender Formel berechnet: The NOx emission NA is calculated according to the following formula:

NA (n) = NRK (n) · TA · (1-KEK(n)) · (1-NO), NA (n) = NRK (s) · TA · (1-KEK (n)) · (1-NO),
wobei NRK die korrigierte Rohemission, TA das vorgegebene Zeitintervall zwischen den Zeitpunkten n und n+1, KEK den korrigierten Speicherwirkungsgrad, und NO einen Korrekturfak tor darstellt, der den Anteil der NOx-Emissionen berücksich tigt, der durch den Speicherkatalysator 4 chemisch reduziert wird. wherein NRK the corrected raw emission, TA the predetermined time interval n between the time points n and n + 1, KEK represents the corrected storage efficiency, and NO a Korrekturfak gate, the into account Untitled the amount of NOx emissions, which is chemically reduced by the storage catalyst. 4 In einer einfachen Ausbildung der Erfindung wird an stelle der korrigierten NOx-Rohemission NRK die NOx-Roh emission NR verwendet werden. In a simple embodiment of the invention, the NO x raw emission NR are used in place of the corrected NOx raw emission NRK.

Nach Berechnung der NOx-Emission NA(n) erfolgt die Abfrage, ob die NOx-Emission NA(n) den Grenzwert NG überschreitet. After calculation of the NOx emission NA (s), the query as to whether the NOx emission NA (n) exceeds the limit NG. Ist dies nicht der Fall, so wird nach Programmpunkt 20 zurückver zweigt. This is not the case, then branches to program point zurückver 20th Überschreitet jedoch die NOx-Emission NA(n) den Grenzwert NG, so wird bei Programmpunkt 23 die Regeneration des Speicherkatalysators 4 eingeleitet, in der der Brenn kraftmaschine 2 ein Kraftstoff/Luftgemisch zugeführt wird, das im Abgastrakt 3 vor dem Speicherkatalysator 4 zu einer Luftzahl kleiner als 1 führt. However, where the NOx emission NA (s) the limit NG, the regeneration of the storage catalytic converter 4 2, a fuel / air mixture is supplied at program point 23 is introduced in which the internal combustion engine, the in the exhaust line 3 upstream of the storage catalytic converter 4 to an air ratio less than 1 leads. Anschließend wird zu Programm punkt 20 zurückverzweigt. Then branches back to program point 20th

Fig. 3 zeigt einzelne Schritte des Programmpunktes 21 zur Berechnung der NOx-Rohemission NR. Fig. 3 shows the individual steps of the program point 21 for calculating the NOx raw emission NR. Bei Programmpunkt 30 er folgt die Abfrage, ob die im Abgastrakt 3 vor dem Speicherka talysator 4 gemessene Luftzahl λ größer als ein vorgegebener Startwert LS, beispielsweise 1,0 ist. At program point 30, he follows the query whether the in the exhaust line 3 before the Memory Car talysator 4 measured air ratio λ is greater than a predetermined start value LS, for example, 1.0. Ist dies nicht der Fall, so wird nach Programmpunkt 20 zurückverzweigt. This is not the case, then back to the program point 20th Ergibt jedoch die Abfrage bei Programmpunkt 30 , daß die Luftzahl λ größer als der vorgegebene Startwert LS ist, so wird bei Pro grammpunkt 31 aus einem last- und drehzahlabhängigen ersten Kennfeld die NOx-Rohemissionsmasse NR ausgelesen. However, If the interrogation in program step 30 that the air ratio λ is greater than the predetermined start value LS, then at point 31 per gram read from a load-dependent and rotational speed-dependent first map, the NOx raw emission mass NR. Das erste Kennfeld ist im Speicher 6 abgelegt. The first map is stored in memory. 6 In einer einfachen Aus führung der Erfindung kann nach der Abarbeitung des Programm punktes 31 zu Programmpunkt 22 zurückverzweigt werden. In a simple From the invention can guide after the execution of the program point 31 are branches back to program point 22nd Eine Verbesserung des erfindungsgemäßen Verfahrens wird jedoch da durch erreicht, daß mindestens einer der Programmschritte 32 , 33 , 34 oder 35 durchgeführt wird. An improvement of the process of the invention is that at least one of the program steps 32, 33, 34 or 35 is performed, however, as achieved by.

Bei Programmpunkt 32 wird ein Zündwinkelkorrekturfaktor KZ für eine Korrektur der NOx-Rohemissionsmasse NR, unter Be rücksichtigung des Parameters Zündwinkel berechnet. At program point 32, an ignition angle correction factor KZ for correcting the NOx raw emission mass NR, under loading of the parameter into account ignition angle calculated. Dazu wird zuerst aus dem Speicher 6 aus einem zweiten Kennfeld, das in Abhängigkeit von der Last und der Drehzahl einen Sollzündwin kel ZS enthält, entsprechend der Last und der Drehzahl der Brennkraftmaschine 2 der vorgegebene Sollzündwinkel ausgele sen und der aktuelle Zündwinkel ZG wird gemessen. For this purpose, first from the memory 6 of a second map that includes an Sollzündwin kel ZS depending on the load and speed, according to the load and the speed of the internal combustion engine 2, the predetermined setpoint ignition angle ausgele sen and the current ignition angle ZG is measured. Zudem wird aus einem dritten Kennfeld in Abhängigkeit von der Last und der Drehzahl der Brennkraftmaschine 2 ein Korrekturfaktor KF aus dem Speicher 6 ausgelesen. In addition, a correction factor KF is read out from the memory 6 from a third characteristic field depending on the load and the speed of the internal combustion engine. 2 Anschließend wird der Zündwin kelkorrekturfaktor KZ nach folgender Formel berechnet: Subsequently, the Zündwin kelkorrekturfaktor KZ is calculated according to the following formula:

KZ = 1+KF · (ZG - ZS) KZ = 1 + KF · (ZG - ZS)

Anschließend wird nach Programmpunkt 36 oder nach Programm punkt 33 verzweigt. Subsequently, to the program point 36 or to program point 33rd

Bei Programmpunkt 33 wird ein Luftzahlkorrekturfaktor KL für eine Korrektur der NOx-Rohemission NR ermittelt, bei dem die Luftzahl λ berücksichtigt wird. At program point 33, an air ratio correction factor KL is calculated for a correction of the NOx raw emission NR, wherein the air ratio λ is considered. Dazu wird aus einem vierten Kennfeld in Abhängigkeit von der Last und der Drehzahl eine entsprechend der Last und der Drehzahl der Brennkraftmaschine 2 vorgegeben Solluftzahl LS ausgelesen. For this purpose, a correspondingly the load and the speed of the internal combustion engine 2 given Solluftzahl LS is read from a fourth characteristic map as a function of load and speed. Zudem wird die tat sächliche Luftzahl LG gemessen. Moreover, did neuter air ratio LG is measured. Anschließend wird eine Diffe renzluftzahl LD nach folgender Formel berechnet: Subsequently, a Diffe Renz air ratio LD is calculated according to the following formula:

LD = LS - LG LD = LS - LG

Anhand der Differenzluftzahl LD und der Motorlast ML wird aus einem fünften Kennfeld im Speicher 6 ein Luftzahlkorrektur faktor KL ausgelesen. Using the difference LD air ratio and the engine load ML an air speed correction factor is of fifth characteristic field in the memory 6 is read out KL.

Anschließend wird entweder nach Programmpunkt 36 oder nach Programmpunkt 34 verzweigt. It then branches to program point either 36 or to program point 34th

Bei Programmpunkt 34 wird ein Temperaturkorrekturfaktor FT berechnet, bei dem die Kühlwassertemperatur TL und die An sauglufttemperatur TA berücksichtigt werden. At program point 34, a temperature correction factor FT is calculated in which the cooling water temperature TL and the intake air temperature TA to be considered. Anhand der Kühl wassertemperatur TL und der Ansauglufttemperatur TA wird aus einem sechsten Kennfeld, das im Speicher 6 abgelegt ist, ein Temperaturkorrekturfaktor FT ausgelesen. Based on the cooling water temperature TL and the intake air temperature TA, a temperature correction factor FT is made of a sixth characteristic map which is stored in the memory 6 is read out. Anschließend wird nach Programmpunkt 36 oder nach Programmpunkt 35 verzweigt. Subsequently, to the program point 36 or to program point 35th

Bei Programmpunkt 35 wird ein Korrekturfaktor für die Ventil überschneidung für eine Korrektur der NOx-Rohemission NR un ter Berücksichtigung der Ventilüberschneidung bei der Ein spritzung berechnet. At program point 35, a correction factor for the valve overlap ter for correcting the NOx raw emission NR un consideration of the valve overlap in the calculated A spraying. Dazu wird aus einem siebten Kennfeld, das im Speicher 6 abgelegt ist, ein Sollwert VS in Abhängig keit von der Last und der Drehzahl für die Ventilüberschnei dung ausgelesen und die Differenz zu einem gemessenen Wert VG für die Ventilüberschneidung berechnet. For this purpose, a target value VS in Depending speed of the load and the speed for the dung is Ventilüberschnei of a seventh characteristic map which is stored in the memory 6 is read out and calculates the difference from a measured value VG for the valve overlap. Aus der Differenz VD = VS - VG wird aus einem achten Kennfeld in Abhängigkeit von der Motorlast ML und der Differenz VD der Ventilüberschnei dung eine Korrekturfaktor KV für die Ventilüberschneidung ausgelesen. From the difference VD = V - VG is of an eighth characteristic diagram as a function of the engine load ML and the difference VD of the dung Ventilüberschnei a correction factor KV for the valve overlap read out. Anschließend wird nach Programmpunkt 36 ver zweigt. Subsequently ver branches to program point 36th

Bei Programmpunkt 36 wird die Korrektur der NOx-Rohemission NR durchgeführt. At program point 36, the correction of the NOx raw emission NR is performed. In Abhängigkeit von den durchgeführten Pro grammpunkten 32-35 werden die darin berechneten Korrektur faktoren berücksichtigt. Depending on the performed per gram score 32-35 in the calculated correction factors are taken into account.

Werden alle in Fig. 3 dargestellten Programmpunkte durchge führt, so ergibt sich für die korrigierte NOx-Rohemission NRK folgender Wert: . Runaway all program points shown in Figure 3 results, it is clear for the corrected NOx raw emission NRK following value:

NRK = NR · KZ · KL · FT · KV. NRK = NR · · KZ KL · FT · KV.

Ein Fachmann wird bei der Berechnung der korrigierten NOx- Rohemission NRK die Anzahl der zu berücksichtigenden Korrek turfaktoren entsprechend den Gegebenheiten wählen, so daß in einfachen Verfahren die NOx-Rohemission z. One skilled in the calculation of the corrected NOx raw emission NRK the number of to be considered corrective turfaktoren choose according to circumstances, so that in simple method, the NOx raw emission z. B. nur mit Tempera turkorrekturfaktor KT korrigiert wird, so daß sich für die korrigierte NOx-Rohemission NRK folgende Berechnung ergibt: B. is corrected only with tempera turkorrekturfaktor KT, so that the following calculation for the corrected NOx raw emission NRK:

NRK = NR · KT. NRK = NR · KT.

Nach der Berechnung der korrigierten NOx-Rohemission NRK wird nach Programmpunkt 22 zurückverzweigt. After the calculation of the corrected NOx raw emission NRK is returned to the program point 22nd

In Fig. 4 ist schematisch die Berechnung des Beladungszu standes des Speicherkatalysators 4 dargestellt, der vorzugs weise als Startbedingung für eine Regenerationsphase für den Speicherkatalysator 4 verwendet wird. In FIG. 4, the calculation of the Beladungszu object is the storage catalytic converter 4 shown schematically, the preferential example is used as a start condition for a regeneration phase of the storage catalytic converter 4. Bei Programmpunkt 40 berechnet das Steuergerät 5 den Speicherwirkungsgrad KE des Speicherkatalysators 4 . At program point 40, the controller 5 calculates the storage efficiency of the storage catalyst KE. 4 Der Speicherwirkungsgrad KE wird in Abhängigkeit von der angesaugten Luftmasse LM und dem Bela dungsgrad KB des Speicherkatalysators aus einem neunten Kenn feld im Speicher 6 ausgelesen. The storage efficiency is KE field in dependence on the intake air mass and the LM Bela gearing ratio KB of storage catalytic converter from a ninth characteristic read in the memory. 6 Der Beladungsgrad KB des Spei cherkatalysators berechnet sich aus der aktuellen Beladung KA bezogen auf die Speicherkapazität KS des Speicherkatalysators 4 durch folgende Formel: KB = KA/KS. The degree of loading of the KB SpeI cherkatalysators is calculated from the current load KA based on the storage capacity of the storage catalyst KS 4 by the following formula: KB = KA / KS.

Die Speicherkapazität KS wird aus einem zehnten Kennfeld im Speicher 6 ausgelesen, das von der Katalysatortemperatur KT und der bereits erfolgten Anzahl von Regenerationsphasen SZ abhängt. The storage capacity of KS is read from a tenth characteristic field in the memory 6, which depends on the catalyst temperature KT and the already completed number of regeneration phases SZ. Die Regenerationsphasen, bei denen dem Speicherkata lysators 4 fettes Gemisch zugeführt wird, um die NOx-Spei cherung abzubauen, werden vom Steuergerät 5 gezählt und im Speicher 6 als Regenerationszahl abgelegt. The regeneration phases, in which the Speicherkata lysators 4 rich mixture is supplied to reduce the NOx SpeI insurance are counted by the control unit 5 and stored in the memory 6 as a regeneration speed.

Der Speicherwirkungsgrad KE wird vorzugsweise in Abhängigkeit von der Katalysatortemperatur KT und in Abhängigkeit von den bereits erfolgten Ladezyklen SZ korrigiert, wobei aus einem elften Kennfeld, das von den bereits erfolgten Ladezyklen SZ und der Katalysatortemperatur KT abhängt, ein Korrekturwert KS ausgelesen und der Speicherwirkungsgrad KE damit multipli ziert wird: The storage efficiency KE is preferably corrected in accordance with the catalyst temperature KT and, depending on the already completed charging cycles SZ, wherein read a correction value KS from an eleventh characteristic map that depends KT of the already completed charging cycles SZ and the catalyst temperature and the storage efficiency KE so multiplied is graced:

KEK = KE · KS, CEC = KE · KS,

wobei KEK den korrigierten Speicherwirkungsgrad darstellt. wherein KEK represents the corrected memory efficiency.

Anschließend wird bei Programmpunkt 41 die aktuelle Beladung KA des Speicherkatalysators 4 nach folgender Formel berech net: The current loading KA of the storage catalyst 4 according to the formula calculation net is then at program point 41:

KA (n) = KA (n + NRK (n) · TA · KEK (n) · 1(1-NO), KA (n) = KA (n + NRK (n) · · TA KEK (s) · 1 (1-NO),

wobei mit KA (n) die Beladung zum Zeitpunkt n, mit KA (n-1) die Beladung zu dem Zeitpunkt n-1, mit NRK die korrigierte NOx-Rohemission, mit TA der Zeitabstand zwischen zwei Berech nungszeitpunkten n und n-1, mit KEK der korrigierte Speicher wirkungsgrad und mit NO ein Korrekturfaktor bezeichnet ist, der den Anteil der NOx-Emissionen, die durch den Speicherka talysator 4 chemisch reduziert werden, berücksichtigt. eluting with KA (n) loading at time n, with KA (n-1) the loading at the time n-1, with NRK the corrected NOx raw emission, with TA of the time interval between two calculation drying time points n and n-1, KEK efficiency with the corrected memory, and a correction factor is designated by NO, which takes into account the proportion of NOx emissions, are chemically reduced by the memory Car the talysator 4.

Anschließend erfolgt bei Programmpunkt 42 die Abfrage, ob die aktuelle Beladung KA größer als eine vorgegebene Mindestbela dung KAM ist. Subsequently, at program point 42, the inquiry as to whether the current loading of KA is greater than a predetermined minimum Bela dung KAM. Ist dies der Fall, so wird bei Programmpunkt 43 eine Regenerationsphase für den NOx-Speicherkatalysator 4 ge startet. If this is the case, then in program step 43, a regeneration phase of the NOx storage catalytic converter 4 will start ge. Ist dies nicht der Fall, so wird nach Programmpunkt 40 zurückverzweigt. This is not the case, then back to the program point 40th Nach Durchführung der Regenerationsphase wird von Programmpunkt 43 nach Programmpunkt 40 zurückver zweigt. After carrying out the regeneration phase is zurückver branches of the menu item 43 to program point 40th

Eine vorteilhafte Weiterbildung der Erfindung beruht darin, eine Beladungsermittlung des Speicherkatalysators 4 während einer Regenerationsphase durchzuführen, um die Regenerati onsphase rechtzeitig abzubrechen. An advantageous further development of the invention resides in carrying out a loading determination of the storage catalytic converter 4 during a regeneration phase to cancel Regenerati onsphase time. Während der Regenerati onsphase wird die Beladung des Speicherkatalysators 4 um ei nen Wert KD dekrementiert und die Regenerationsphase wird be endet, wenn die Katalysatorbeladung KA unter einen vorgegebe nen Schwellwert fällt. During the Regenerati onsphase the loading of the storage catalytic converter 4 is decremented by ei nen value KD and the regeneration phase will be completed when the catalyst loading KA falls below a pre-admit nen threshold. Das Dekrement wird aus einem zwölften Kennfeld ausgelesen, das von der Ansaugluftmasse LM und der vor dem Speicherkatalysator 4 im Abgastrakt 3 gemessenen Luftzahl LG abhängt. The decrement is read out a twelfth characteristic map that depends on the intake air mass LM and the measured upstream of the storage catalytic converter 4 in the exhaust air 3 LG number. Die aktuelle Katalysatorbeladung wird in festgelegten Zeitabständen wie folgt berechnet: The current catalyst loading is calculated at fixed time intervals as follows:

KA (n) = KA (n-1) - KD, KA (n) = KA (n-1) - KD,

wobei KD das aus dem Kennfeld ausgelesene Dekrement, KA (n) die Beladung zum Zeitpunkt n und KA(n-1) die Beladung zum Zeitpunkt n-1 darstellt. KD wherein the read-out from the map decrement, KA (n) loading at time n and KA (n-1) represents the load at the time n-1.

In dem Speicher 6 ist ein Speicherfeld vorgesehen, in dem die Anzahl der bisher abgelaufenen Regenerationsphasen gezählt und nichtflüchtig als Regenerationszahl abgespeichert werden. In the memory 6, a memory array is provided, in which counts the number of the elapsed regeneration phases and will not be permanently stored as a regeneration speed. Um jedoch den Austausch eines Speicherkatalysators 4 zu be rücksichtigen, ist im Speicher 6 ein Bit vorgesehen, das mit Null oder Eins belegt werden kann, wobei bei einer Belegung mit Null die Regenerationszahl auf Null festgelegt wird und die Regenerationsphasen von Null ausgehend wieder hochgezählt werden. However, the replacement of the storage catalytic converter 4 to be taken into account in the memory 6, a bit is provided, which can be assigned zero or one, with the regeneration amount is set to zero with an occupancy of zero and regeneration phases are counted starting from zero again.

Eine genauere Zählung der Regenerationsphasen wird dadurch erreicht, daß auch die Regenerationsphasen mitgezählt werden, die durch ein fettes Kraftstoffgemisch bei Instationärbe trieb, dhz B. bei Beschleunigung, durchgeführt werden. A more accurate counting of the regeneration phases is achieved in that the regeneration phases are counted, the driving by a rich fuel mixture at Instationärbe, ie, for example during acceleration, are performed.

Die Regenerationsphasen werden beispielsweise mit der Lam dasonde 14 im Abgastrakt 3 vor dem Speicherkatalysator 4 de tektiert (λ<1) und von dem Steuergerät 5 gezählt und als Re generationszahl im Speicher 6 abgespeichert. The regeneration phases are dasonde example, with the Lam 14 in the exhaust line 3 upstream of the storage catalytic converter 4 de tektiert (λ <1) and counted by control unit 5 and stored as the generation number Re in the memory. 6

Claims (5)

  1. 1. Verfahren zur Regeneration eines NOx-Speicherkatalysators ( 4 ), bei dem abhängig von einem Betriebszustand des NOx- Speicherkatalysators ( 4 ) eine Regenerationsphase gestartet wird, bei, der ein Kraftstoffgemisch der Brennkraftmaschine zugeführt wird, das einer Luftzahl kleiner als 1 vor dem NOx- Speicherkatalysator ( 4 ) entspricht, wobei der Betriebszustand mindestens einer Grenzmenge von NOx-Verbindungen entspricht, die vom NOx-Speicherkatalysator ( 4 ) ausgegeben wird, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die vom NOx-Speicherkatalysator ( 4 ) abgegebene Menge an NOx-Verbindungen aus mindestens einem Kennfeld ermittelt wird, das von der Last und/oder der Drehzahl der Brennkraft maschine ( 1 ) abhängt. 1. A method for regenerating an NOx storage catalytic converter (4), wherein depending on an operating state of the NOx storage catalytic converter (4) a regeneration phase is started, at which is supplied a fuel mixture of the internal combustion engine, an air ratio smaller than 1 before the NOx - storage catalytic converter (4), wherein the operational state corresponds at least to a limit amount of NOx compounds which is output from the NOx storage catalyst (4), characterized in that given by the NOx storage catalyst (4) amount of NOx compounds from at least is determined a characteristic map that depends on the engine load and / or the rotational speed of the internal combustion (1).
  2. 2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Betriebszustand mindestens einer Grenzspeicherung von NOx-Verbindungen im NOx-Speicherkatalysator ( 4 ) entspricht. 2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the operational state corresponds at least to a limit storage of NOx compounds in the NOx storage catalyst (4).
  3. 3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die abgegebene Menge an NOx-Verbindungen in Abhängigkeit vom Zündwinkel und oder von der Luftzahl und/oder von der Kühlwassertemperatur und/oder von der Ansauglufttemperatur und/oder von einer Ventilüberschneidung korrigiert wird. 3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the emitted amount of NOx compounds in function of the ignition angle and or the air ratio and / or corrected by the cooling water temperature and / or the intake air temperature and / or of a valve overlap.
  4. 4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß als Wert für die Grenzspeicherung der Beladungszustand des NOx-Speicherkatalysators ( 4 ) in Abhängigkeit vom Spei cherwirkungsgrad des NOx-Speicherkatalysators ( 4 ) berechnet wird, wobei der Speicherwirkungsgrad abhängig von der Anzahl der bereits durchgeführten Regenerationsphasen korrigiert wird. 4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that as the value for the boundary storing the loading state of the NOx storage catalytic converter (4) is calculated in dependence on the SpeI cherwirkungsgrad of the NOx storage catalyst (4), wherein the storage efficiency depends on the number of already carried out regeneration phases is corrected.
  5. 5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Beladungszustand des NOx-Speicherkatalysators ( 4 ) während der Regenerationsphase überprüft wird und die Regene rationsphase unterbrochen wird, wenn der Beladungszustand un ter eine vorgegebene Mindestbeladung fällt. 5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the loading state of the NOx storage catalytic converter (4) is checked during the regeneration phase and the Regene rationsphase is interrupted when the loading state falls un ter a predetermined minimum load.
DE1996107151 1996-02-26 1996-02-26 Regeneration of nitrogen oxide storage catalyst Expired - Fee Related DE19607151C1 (en)

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PCT/DE1997/000278 WO1997031704A1 (en) 1996-02-26 1997-02-13 PROCESS FOR REGENERATING AN NOx STORAGE CATALYTIC CONVERTER
EP19970914147 EP0822856A1 (en) 1996-02-26 1997-02-13 PROCESS FOR REGENERATING AN NOx STORAGE CATALYTIC CONVERTER

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