DE102018008464A1 - Drive train with two separate, coupled by means of intermediate gear shift transmissions - Google Patents

Drive train with two separate, coupled by means of intermediate gear shift transmissions

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Publication number
DE102018008464A1
DE102018008464A1 DE102018008464.8A DE102018008464A DE102018008464A1 DE 102018008464 A1 DE102018008464 A1 DE 102018008464A1 DE 102018008464 A DE102018008464 A DE 102018008464A DE 102018008464 A1 DE102018008464 A1 DE 102018008464A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
characterized
gears
gear
bottom bracket
transmission
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102018008464.8A
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German (de)
Inventor
Anmelder Gleich
Original Assignee
Wilfried Donner
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102017012265.2 priority Critical
Priority to DE102017012265 priority
Priority to DE102017012264 priority
Priority to DE102017012264.4 priority
Application filed by Wilfried Donner filed Critical Wilfried Donner
Priority claimed from PCT/DE2018/000314 external-priority patent/WO2019086064A1/en
Publication of DE102018008464A1 publication Critical patent/DE102018008464A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62MRIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR SINGLE-TRACK CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES
    • B62M11/00Transmissions characterised by the use of interengaging toothed wheels or frictionally-engaging wheels
    • B62M11/04Transmissions characterised by the use of interengaging toothed wheels or frictionally-engaging wheels of changeable ratio
    • B62M11/14Transmissions characterised by the use of interengaging toothed wheels or frictionally-engaging wheels of changeable ratio with planetary gears
    • B62M11/145Transmissions characterised by the use of interengaging toothed wheels or frictionally-engaging wheels of changeable ratio with planetary gears built in, or adjacent to, the bottom bracket
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62MRIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR SINGLE-TRACK CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES
    • B62M11/00Transmissions characterised by the use of interengaging toothed wheels or frictionally-engaging wheels
    • B62M11/04Transmissions characterised by the use of interengaging toothed wheels or frictionally-engaging wheels of changeable ratio
    • B62M11/14Transmissions characterised by the use of interengaging toothed wheels or frictionally-engaging wheels of changeable ratio with planetary gears
    • B62M11/16Transmissions characterised by the use of interengaging toothed wheels or frictionally-engaging wheels of changeable ratio with planetary gears built in, or adjacent to, the ground-wheel hub
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62MRIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR SINGLE-TRACK CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES
    • B62M6/00Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles with additional source of power, e.g. combustion engine or electric motor
    • B62M6/40Rider propelled cycles with auxiliary electric motor
    • B62M6/55Rider propelled cycles with auxiliary electric motor power-driven at crank shafts parts

Abstract

Drive train for muscle-driven single or multi-lane vehicles with a crank-driven bottom bracket, the output side is connected to a chain or belt drive, of which a chain directly or switchable respectively leads to a Ritsel to a rear hub, wherein in the drive train except the bottom bracket, which is designed as a primary gearbox (G01) with n gears or with variable ratio, nor a secondary gear (G02) are arranged as a switchable rear-wheel transmission with m = two or m = three gears, where n and m are natural numbers. in the drive train except the bottom bracket, which is designed as a primary gearbox (G01) with n gears, still a secondary gear (G02) are arranged as a switchable rear-wheel with m = two or m = three gears.

Description

  • The invention relates according to the preamble of the main claim a drive train for single- or two-lane vehicles with a crank-driven bottom bracket, the output side is connected to a chain or belt drive, of which a chain or a belt directly or switchable in each case to a Ritsel on a Rear hub leads, which also contains a switchable transmission. Advantageous embodiments are specified in the dependent claims.
  • Switchable transmissions are known from the prior art. The feature of all these transmissions is that either all gears are housed in the rear hub or all gears in a bottom bracket gearbox.
    A disadvantage of rear wheel hub gears (eg EP 0 915 800 B1 ) is that their mass reaches or exceeds about two kilograms in virtually all known Fahradmodellen and that thus only only 130 Nm peak input torque can be transferred and they are therefore unsuitable for full suspension bikes. Modern derailleurs with 11 or 12-speed cassettes with 10 to 51 teeth, together with a rear hub, longer chain and derailleur have about 1 kg of unsprung mass.
    A disadvantage of the known bottom bracket transmissions that very high peak torques must be coped with largely undamped. That from the DE 10 2007 004 802 A1 known transmission has up to 18 gears and should be able to be loaded with a peak torque of 250 Nm. This torque can already apply to drivers in sporty driving. Thus, the transmission has no reserves for impact peaks on pedal attachments, tandem drive or coupling an additional motor drive or both
    Another disadvantage of both types of gear mentioned above is that in the plurality of gears with only one pawl per gear must be intervened in the inside of the seated on an axle gears in there introduced teeth, each with a punctiform load occurs with the further disadvantage, that these latches can also be switched unfavorably under load, because of their small contact surfaces.
  • The object of the invention is to provide a drive train which does not have the disadvantages described above. The solution provides a split transmission according to the main claim. Advantageous embodiments are specified in the dependent claims. The following embodiments are preferred embodiments.
  • The gearbox consists of two separate partial transmissions. The first partial transmission is a bottom bracket transmission through which the bottom bracket shaft passes. Here n equal tiered baselines are switched. The other gears are obtained via a secondary transmission with two or three gears, which is located in the rear hub. Therefore, the partial transmissions require little axial space and provide for the optionally provided coupling further drives in the driver of the bottom bracket gearbox so in the bottom bracket, such as an additional electric motor and / or a tandem drive, enough space. This ensures that a total of 2n or 3n gears can be switched one behind the other without a change in the gearshift and the bottom bracket gearbox is to be designed for all standard applications sufficient peak input torque of 400 Nm, for example.
    Preferably, both partial transmissions are coupled so that they can be switched by only one rotary handle. The power transmission is preferably carried out with shift cables, wherein the second partial transmission is controlled either by the first partial transmission by means of looping, or the second partial transmission as the first partial transmission from the rotary handle, but is controlled with its own cables.
  • Alternatively, switching pulses are electrically generated from a handset, e.g. transmitted to stepper motors, which cause the movement of the respective switching device of the individual partial transmission linear or rotary.
  • In a first, preferred embodiment, the drive train consists of a bottom bracket gearbox ( G01 ) with n gears, a secondary transmission ( G02 ) with a direct gear and a gear ratio in the slow, thus two gears and a secondary gear ( G04 ), which may be formed as chains or belt drive. The bottom bracket gearbox is preferably a manual transmission with coaxial with the bottom bracket shaft input and output, it is irrelevant whether it is a planetary gear or one with countershaft (s). Furthermore, the output shaft has a certain distance from the bottom bracket shaft, such as WO 2012/156613 A1 . DE10082555 B4 . DE 10 2007 013 443 A1 and DE 10 2004 045 364 B4 demonstrate. It is either a gear, a sprocket or a Friction gear as it is from the DE: 60 2004 029 557.4 or. EP: 04 71 5691.4 is known provided.
    Has the bottom bracket gearbox ( G01 ) n gears with nearly equal gear steps of s = 1 + p% / 100, then it has a gear ratio of s ^ (n-1), and thus has the secondary transmission ( G02 ) a translation of i = s ^ n. The total translation span ü is then ü = s ^ (2n-1). The beginning of this span is also determined by the translation of the secondary gear.
    A variant of the embodiment uses another secondary transmission ( G02 ) in the rear hub, namely with three gears. The first gear translates into slow with i_1 = s ^ n, the second gear is the direct gear with i_2 = 1 and the third gear translates into fast with i_3 = s ^ (- n). This secondary transmission has only a slightly larger mass than one with two gears and triples the shiftable speed of the bottom bracket gearbox ( G01 ) without gear overlap while maintaining the gear jumps of the same. In the above-mentioned configuration, very high transmission spreads ü = s ^ (3n-1) can be achieved. For example, a bottom bracket transmission ( G01 ) with s = 1.1 twenty-one gears with a transmission range of ü = 1,1 ^ (21-1) = 6,7275 and therefore about 673%. The bottom bracket gearbox obviously requires fewer gear ratios, and with the gears saved, costs and mass are also reduced. The split transmission described above ( G01 with G02) can be realized with three ring gears, three double planets three times each and with five sun gears. A preferred design of the secondary transmission ( G04 ) is to select the translation so that under normal operating requirements, such as cycling on flat terrain and / or in the absence of luggage loads, the secondary transmission is operated mainly in direct gear.
    Has the secondary transmission in the rear hub three gears with eg i_1 = 1.9, i_2 = 1 and i_3 = 1 / 1.9, so the gear shifts s of the bottom bracket gearbox with z. B. n = 3, n = 4, n = 5 and n = 6 gears designed so that each time the same rear hub is used. For the step s (n) one obtains s (n) = {n} sqrt (i_1 = 1.9). The result is approx. For s (3) = 1.239, for s (4) = 1.174, for s (5) = 1.137 and for s (6) = 1.113. In the following tables exemplary embodiments are shown. Table 1: G02 afterglow gearbox with 3 gears [s = 1.9 <2] number of teeth comment Partial transmission 1 Teilgetriebe2 Partial transmission 1: ring gear -113 -113 Drive: ring gear 1; Downforce: Bridge 1 Partial transmission 2: Steg / planet 35 20 20 35 Drive: bridge2; Output: ring gear2 sun ---- 58 58 ---- Pegs coupled Table 2: 3-speed bottom bracket gearbox G01 [s (3) = 1,239] number of teeth comment All translations <= 1 ring gear -93 Drive: bridge; Output: ring gear Steg / planet 34 21 sun 36 48
    Table 3: 4-speed bottom bracket gearbox G01 [s (4) = 1,174] number of teeth comment Partial transmission 1 Teilgetriebe2 All translations <= 1 ring gear -84 -84 Ring gears coupled Steg / planet 23 17 17 23 Partial transmission 1: Drive: bridge1; Output: ring gear1 sun 42 51 ----- 42 Partial transmission 2: Drive: Hohlrad2 Downforce: Steg2
    Table 4: 5-speed bottom bracket gearbox G01 [s (5) = 1,137] number of teeth comment Partial transmission 1 Teilgetriebe2 Of the seven possible gears, five consecutive gears with the smallest gear ratios, for example, are used, otherwise the G01 4-speed gearbox G01 ring gear -90 -90 Steg / planet 32 24 24 32 sun 35 42 42 35
    Table 5: 6-speed bottom bracket gearbox G01 [s (6) = 1,113] number of teeth comment Partial transmission 1 Teilgetriebe2 All translations <= 1 ring gear -93 -93 Ring gears coupled Partial transmission 1: Steg / planet 17 26 21 21 (24) 26 (28) Drive: bridge1; Output: ring gear1 sun 54 44 51 - 44 (41) Partial transmission 2: Drive: Hohlrad2 Downforce: Steg2
  • For example, 7 gears of the bottom bracket with eg s (7) = 1.145 results for the secondary transmission s = 2.58. This configuration is shown in the following tables. Table 6: G02 afterglow gearbox with 3 gears [s = 2.58] number of teeth comment Partial transmission 1 Teilgetriebe2 Partial transmission 1: ring gear -96 -96 Drive: bridge1; Downforce: sun gear 1 Partial transmission 2: Steg / planet 25 21 21 25 Drive: sun gear 2; Downforce: Bridge2 sun ---- 51 51 ---- Coupled with sun wheels
    Table 7: Trolley bearing G01 with 7 gears [s (7) = 1,145] number of teeth comment Partial transmission 1 Teilgetriebe2 Ring gears coupled ring gear -92 -92 Partial transmission 1: Steg / planet 30 22 22 30 Drive: bridge1; Output: ring gear1 Partial transmission 2: sun 39 46 46 39 Drive: Hohlrad2 Downforce: Steg2
  • Another preferred embodiment of a bottom bracket with 7 gears has a gear jump s (7) of about 1.1627 where the secondary transmission 3 Has gears with s = 2.8824. The afterglow is built with simple planets, whereby the mass and the axial length are further reduced. With switched, consecutive 13 of 21 gears, a transmission span of approx. 610% is achieved. An exemplary configuration is shown in the following tables. Table 8: G02 follower gearbox with 3 gears [s = 2.8824] number of teeth comment Partial transmission 1 Teilgetriebe2 Partial transmission 1: ring gear -96 -96 Drive: bridge1; Downforce: sun gear 1 Steg / planet ---- 22 22 ---- Partial transmission 2: Drive: sun gear 2; Downforce: Bridge2 sun ---- 51 51 ---- Coupled with sun wheels
    Table 9: Trolley bearing G01 with 7 gears [s (7) = 1,1627] number of teeth comment Partial transmission 1 Teilgetriebe2 Ring gears coupled ring gear -84 -84 Partial transmission 1: Drive: bridge1; Output: ring gear1 Steg / planet 25 18 18 25 Partial transmission 2: Drive: Hohlrad2 Downforce: Steg2 sun 41 48 48 41
  • 01 shows an example of a powertrain according to the invention with the pedals ( P01 ), attached to crank arms ( P02 ). The bottom bracket gearbox ( G01 ) is for example by means of fastening tabs ( P03 ) attached to a bicycle frame (not shown) The sprocket housing also serves as a torque arm ( G06 ), where the chain ( G04 ) through openings ( G07 ), only the upper one is visible here, led out. A drive-side housing cover ( G08 ) completes the case. The two- or three-speed secondary transmission ( G02 ) is located in the rear hub. The gearbox is powered by a Ritsel ( G05 ). Shown is still a brake disc ( P04 ), which is attached to the hub shell.
  • For an advantageous embodiment, the drive train according to the invention has three torque inputs. All torque inputs are on one side, e.g. in the direction of travel left. That is, The normal single driver with cranks on the bottom bracket shaft; a motor drive, which is preferably arranged axially parallel to the bottom bracket and connected with gear, belt / chain coupling with the bottom bracket / impeller, or is arranged orthogonal to the bottom bracket and is connected to a bevel gear with the bottom bracket. The motor drive each has an overrunning clutch; everything that serves the drive feed is arranged fully encapsulated in a housing; a tandem drive is connected directly to the bottom bracket shaft rotatably. In this case, therefore, both drivers via a chain or a belt rotatably coupled in always the same relative crank position. Of course, fewer torque inputs can be set up and / or used.
  • 02 shows the drive train according to the invention without a housing. The illustrated chain ( D01 ), the associated sprocket ( D04 ), with the tandem adapter ( D06 ) is bolted, belong to the tandem drive. The tandem adapter is non-rotatable with the drive-side crank adapter ( A01 ) connected via a toothing. The Drehmomenteinkoppelung of the engine, not shown, arranged axially parallel starting from the Motorritsel ( D03 ) by means of the chain ( D02 ) on the sprocket ( D05 ), here largely hidden, and from there over the impeller ( G10 ) into the transmission. At standstill of the bottom bracket ( A02 ), the overrunning clutch ( D07 . D08 ) for the decoupling of the bottom bracket of the impeller, so that the cranks are not taken from the engine. If the engine is put out of operation, prevents another freewheel that the engine and its reduction gear be dragged. Both freewheels are also available at orthogonal to the bottom bracket shaft arranged motor shaft
  • The new bottom bracket consists of the middle part ( A 02 ) and the two crank adapters ( A01.1 . A 01.2 ), for example, each with a positive and self-centering spur toothing ( A 01.3 ) by means of axial screwing - not shown - are interconnected. The crank adapters carry a toothing ( A 01.4 ), with the help of the cranks are rotatably connected to the bottom bracket. On the crank adapter ( A 01.1 ) are possibly still the tandem adapter ( D 06 ), a retaining ring ( P 06 ) and a freewheel disk ( D 07 ) with spur toothing which has a blocking function in only one direction. The freewheel disk and the tandem adapter are screwed against each other ( D 06.1 ) and by the Retaining ring ( P 06 ) fixed axially. The adapter-fixed freewheel disk ( D 07 ) is via the plain bearing ( P 08 ) rotatable with the driver ( G 10 ) connected. The torque is transmitted to the driver by means of the axial in a toothing ( G 10.1 ) of the driver ( G 10 ) sliding freewheel disk ( D 08 ), which has a blocking function acting in one direction of rotation, in the teeth of the freewheel ( D07 ). The coiled spring ( P 07 ) ensures that a torque interruption takes place only when the engine is overtaking and during reverse pedaling. The responsible for the motor drive chain, belt or crown gear sits on the drive and is connected by decoupling freewheel and a rolling bearing with this. If the motor is put out of operation, the connection motor / driver is interrupted and the rolling bearing ensures low friction losses.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment, the bottom bracket gearbox ( G01 ) A planetary gear and corresponds, for example, the known structure of the first two stages of a transmission to EP 0 915 800 B1 , being a construction with tripartite planets 11 Gears or one with two-tier planets 7 Gears provides. For example, the gear jumps are 9% for triple and 13.6% for double stepped planets. The novel first partial transmission has no intermediate gear; but the bottom bracket coincides with the axis of rotation of the transmission.
    For a transmission of this new type, the following inventive features are provided:
    • - The bearing of the bottom bracket is located in each case in the crank arm level according to 03 and 04
    • - The bottom bracket rests on outer rings of the bearings ( P 05 ). The ends of the bottom bracket shaft have an annular circumferential groove in the axial direction.
    • - The bottom bracket therefore consists of at least two parts, but preferably of three parts namely:
      • a crank adapter driven side, ( A 01.2 )
      • a crank adapter drive side, ( A 01.1 )
      • an unsupported bottom bracket shaft. ( A 02 )
  • The connection of the three parts via z. B. a Hirtverzahnung ( A 01.3 ). The parts are braced against each other.
  • 05a : For the second bottom bracket of a tandem, the same construction as in the above is used in principle. Instead of a multi-part transmission axle, two stub axles ( T1 ) and ( T2 ) 05a bolted or pressed with the corresponding bearing seats directly into the bottom bracket shell, or made in one piece and screwed into the bottom bracket shell or formed as a one-piece bottom bracket. On the crank adapter ( A01.1 ), as described above, the tandem adapter for receiving a chain / pulley is mounted. Another preferred embodiment is the permutation of the crank adapter such that the tandem adapter is mounted on the right in the direction of travel. Thus this new bottom bracket shaft can be installed in all bicycles. The length of the bottom bracket shaft depends on the structural requirements of the bike.
  • The transmission axis is newly designed as follows, 05 , The inside hollow transmission axle consists of two parts ( A 03 ) and ( A 04 ), wherein at the end of each part of a bearing journal is mounted on which the ball bearings ( P 05 ) of the bottom bracket shaft are pushed. The transmission-side part accommodates the pawls or novel the axial couplings that can connect the sun gears in each case rotationally fixed to the axis. (AZ: DE-10 2018 007 326.3 )
    The 05 . 06 and 07 show more details: Within the two-part transmission axis is coaxially freely rotatable the bottom bracket ( A02 ). Both of these parts are by means of the aforementioned, within the crank adapter ( A01.1 ; A01.2 ), ball bearings ( P05 ), rotatably connected to each other.
    Coaxial between the bottom bracket and the transmission axle is a shift drum ( S 02 ) of known type freely rotatable. This contains switching cams ( S 02.1 ) and / or cams ( S 02.2 ); but prefers only cams, with only axial clutches are used to fix the sun gears (AZ: DE-10 2018 007 326.3 ). At the output end of the shift drum is a toothing ( S 02.3 ) for the purpose of coupling a control drive of the same.
    In the area of the connection plane of the two axle parts is a planetary gear ( S 03 ), which is designed as a standstill, with stepped planetary, when more than one revolution of the shift drum are needed for all gears or with single planetary, if at most one revolution of the same is required for switching all gears ( S 04.1 ; S 04.2 ) as a manual transmission. Its ring gear ( S 04.1 ) gives the drive, and a sun gear ( S 02.3 ), the non-rotatably with the switching drum ( S 02 ), provides the output. A circumferential gap between the two halves of the axle, by the attached to the ring gear Claws ( S 03.1.1 ), allows the indexing drum to be driven, for example, by a pulley containing corresponding recesses. The overall ratio of a rotary handle of the gear shift on the handlebars to the shift shaft, for example, 1: 2 or 1: 1.
  • 06 shows a switching rotor and a switching ring for a Eleven transmission. The switching rotor (S 05) and the switching ring ( S 07 ), together with eg 11 ball racks ( S 06 ) the switching pauses. The switching ring also centers the two halves of the axle, which are bolted together. The number of locking positions corresponds to the number of switchable at a switching drum rotation gears.
  • 01 shows a torque arm ( G 06 ), which introduce the transmitted from the fixed sun gears by means of Axialkupplungen or pawls on the axis counter moments via the gear housing in the frame. This is advantageously designed so that it also serves as a sprocket housing; she is with breakthroughs ( G 07 ), the chain (the belt) ( G 04 ) allow entry / exit to / from the housing. The torque arm is bolted to the axle and the housing. If the sprocket ( G 11 02 ) is to be changed, the torque arm can be easily removed. The pulley ( S 01 . 03 ), which rotates in a circumferential groove of the torque arm, it remains in this. Thus, the shift control is simply disconnected from the transmission without opening it.
  • 02A shows an embodiment of the transmission ( G01 ) with an engine orthogonal to the bottom bracket shaft ( G09 ), a further embodiment ( G10 ) of the torque arm ( G10 ) with Schaltzugaußenspiralen ( G13 ), a pulley ( G12 ), a housing flange ( G14 ) and a housing ( G15 ).
  • 02B shows the drive side of the gearbox with a tandem adapter ( D06 ) and a pulley ( G16 ) and a well-known BCD 104mm bolt circle diameter connection.
  • 02C shows the transmission plan for the reduction gear consisting of the Motorritsel ( M02 ), the spur gear ( M03 ) which with the spur gear ( M04 ) is rotatably connected and the Konenrad ( M05 ). The crown wheel is connected to the rolling bearing ( M06 ) on the impeller / bridge with planets ( M09 ) stored. A decoupling freewheel consisting of the coupling parts ( M07A ) M07b ) and the spring ( M08 ) works automatically. That is, the freewheeling function is triggered in a known manner when the motor is stopped and the crankshaft continues to rotate. The coupling ( M07A ) is rotatably connected to the crown wheel, wherein the coupling part ( M07b ) rotatably but slidably connected to the driver / bridge is connected. The position ( M09 ) symbolically shows the bridge / driver with planets and a ring gear.
  • 02D shows a three-quarter section of the transmission ( G01 ) without a gearbox block.
  • 08 shows examples of the possibilities of the transmission concept. The gear ( G01 ) is designed so that the gear blocks after 8A to 8D into the module 2d can be installed. Hereby poses 8A a three-gear block according to Table 2, 8B a four-speed block according to Table 3, 8C Five- or seven-speed blocks according to Tables 4,7 and 9, as well 8D a six-speed block in accordance with Table 5. A three-quarter section of constructed according to Table 2 transmission show the 09A and 09B in different views, but without housing.
  • The drive train according to the invention also provides an advantageous embodiment of a drive train rocker. Full suspension bicycles are known for the rear end numerous constructions. All have in common is that, the axis of rotation of the rear triangle with the built-there rear wheel is placed at least near the axis of rotation of the bottom bracket. As you know, there are two types of wings:
    Either the bottom bracket is pivotable by means of multi-joints, virtually around the bottom bracket axle or another suitable point; or in the second variant, the rocker is articulated by means of a more or less remote from the bottom bracket bearing bearing on the frame.
    None of the abovementioned solutions remains without impact on the pedals as a result of compression, or the driving torque of the driver has repercussions on the suspension. There is a drive-train swing known (https://www.mtb-news.de/news/2015/07/27/ hnf-heisenberg-xfl-e-mtbpedelec-bmw-i-nicolai /), which contains the entire powertrain including engine in a rocker with numerous elements of a linkage. This version requires a complicated kinematics, many joints with appropriate bearings to keep the rocker pivotable about the axis of the bottom bracket. The above-described embodiments according to the invention of coupling the rear structure avoid the aforementioned disadvantages and can be produced with low kinematic complexity and few parts. It is required for the movement of the rocker only one bearing unit (without the damper / spring bearing). When frame-mounted arranged Tretlagergetriebe upon rotation of the rocker to the gear housing and a secondary ratio of the chain or belt transmission of i_Sek = 1, the pedal movement remains unaffected by compression processes of the rocker.
    10 shows the main frame ( F01 ), consisting of the frame tubes ( F01.1 ) to ( F01.4 ), the adapter ( F01.5 ), the clamp ( F01.6 ) and screws ( F01.6.1 ). The rolling bearings ( F01.6.2 ) and ( F01.6.3 ) serve for the storage of the transmission, if this is rotatably connected to the rocker.
    11 shows the complete frame with the rear triangle ( F02 ), consisting of the parts ( F02.1 ) and a spring and a damper ( F03 ).
    Muscle-driven single or multi-lane vehicles, with or without a supporting engine, require only moderate power to drive, but at very low speeds, namely between about 60 to 120 revolutions per minute. This requires high torques, which often reach several hundred Nm. Accordingly high are the requirements for manual transmissions with gears. Usually, involute gears are used which have an engagement angle of about 20 degrees and a symmetrical profile. If the requirements are high, they are matched by a suitable material selection, a subsequent treatment of the teeth, such as hardening and grinding, and a suitable choice of the tooth module and the tooth width, or a profile displacements, optimization of Zahnfußkontur and not least by increasing the pressure angle , As a result, the load capacity can be increased, to name just a few of the known possibilities. However, the increase in the pressure angle is limited (peak).
  • A further advantageous embodiment of a bicycle transmission or its drive train provides an asymmetric toothing of the gears.
    The fact that the teeth are predominantly loaded in only one direction is used to eliminate the abovementioned limitations according to the invention. According to the invention, the teeth are asymmetric, ie, that the load-absorbing, under tension flank has a large pressure angle -. B. 30 to 45 degrees and above - and the unloaded, under pressure stress flank such from about 20 degrees or less. Thus, one flank is strengthened at the expense of others. In conjunction with Zahnfußoptimierungen can be significantly improved resilience achieve. 12 shows the engagement situation for a pair of spur gears. Position ( 03 ) is the driving wheel, pos. 04 ) the driven wheel. The flank ( 01 ) has about 25 degrees and the flank ( 02 ) 35 degrees as pressure angle.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • EP 0915800 B1 [0002, 0013]
    • DE 102007004802 A1 [0002]
    • WO 2012/156613 A1 [0006]
    • DE 10082555 B4 [0006]
    • DE 102007013443 A1 [0006]
    • DE 102004045364 B4 [0006]
    • DE 602004029557 [0006]
    • EP 04715691 [0006]
    • DE 102018007326 [0016]

Claims (24)

  1. Drive train for muscle-driven single or multi-lane vehicles with a crank-driven bottom bracket, the output side is connected to a chain or belt drive, of which a chain or belt directly or switchable leads each to a Ritsel a rear hub, characterized in that in the drive train except the Trietlagerschaltgetriebe, which is designed as a primary gearbox (G01) with n gears or variable ratio, nor a secondary gear (G02) are arranged as a switchable rear-wheel transmission with m = two or m = three gears, where n and m are natural numbers.
  2. to Claim 1 characterized in that the drive train comprises up to n times m gears, where n gears or in the bottom bracket gearbox and m gears are arranged in the Nachschaltgetrreibe.
  3. to Claim 1 or Claim 2 characterized in that the bottom bracket gear and the rear hub transmission each comprise switching means which are to be switched continuously from a single rotary or switching handle.
  4. to Claim 3 characterized in that the rotary or switching handle is connected to the switching means via a looped cable or each own associated cables.
  5. to Claim 1 , characterized in that the aforementioned gear planetary gear (epicyclic gear) are.
  6. according to one of Claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the primary gearbox (G01) has n gears with almost equal gear steps of s = (1 + p% / 100), ie a first gear ratio of s ^ (n-1) and the secondary transmission (G02) has two further gear ratios of i_1 = s ^ (n) and i_2 = 1, whereby a total transmission range of s ^ (2n-1) is provided or the secondary transmission has three equally stepped gears, the first Gear with i_1 = s ^ (n) translated to slow, the second gear with i_2 = 1 is the direct gear and the third gear with i_3 = s ^ (- n) translated into fast, bringing a total of a span of s ^ ( 3n-1).
  7. to Claim 6 characterized in that of 2n or 3n switchable gears only successive k_1 <2n or k_2 <3n gears are switched.
  8. to Claim 7 , characterized in that the bottom bracket gearbox (G01) is designed as a 7-speed gearbox, so that 21 gears can be switched throughout the drive train.
  9. to Claim 8 , characterized in that the gears have a leap in each case at least 12%.
  10. according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the chain or pulley with a respective associated Ritsel between two gear stages is switchable.
  11. to Claim 1 , characterized in that the bottom bracket (G01) is penetrated coaxially by a bottom bracket, which is connected to the drive side each with an auxiliary electric motor and / or a tandem drive.
  12. to Claim 11 , characterized in that on the bottom bracket shaft at least one further chain or pulley is arranged.
  13. to Claim 11 , characterized in that the additional electric motor is arranged together with an overrunning clutch and a decoupler freewheel parallel to the axis or achsorthogonal to the bottom bracket on the gear housing or bicycle frame.
  14. to Claim 11 , characterized in that the bottom bracket shaft is composed of three parts of a middle tubular part (A02) with end crank adapters (A01.1; A01.2) self-centering, rotationally fixed spur geared axially clamped or two parts only consists of matching long crank adapters.
  15. to Claim 14 , characterized in that on a crank adapter (A01.1) a tandem adapter (D06), a locking ring (P06) and a freewheel disc (D07) are arranged as part of a decoupling freewheel, which is bolted to the tandem adapter and by means of a toothing (G10.1 ) is axially displaceable coupled only in one direction of rotation with a driver (G10) of the bottom bracket gearbox (G01).
  16. to Claim 11 , characterized in that the bottom bracket (A02) is mounted by means of ball bearings (P05) on a hollow transmission axis (A03) in which a switching drum (S02) is rotatably mounted, the control cams (S02.2) or control grooves for gearshifting on the transmission axis (A03) arranged Planetengetiebes (G17) carries and ends to be driven via a planetary gear (S03) by a pulley (S01) for gear adjustment.
  17. to Claim 16 , characterized in that the transmission axis (A03, A04) is formed at least in two parts and a switching ring (S07) carries, which is rotatably mounted and recesses (S07.1) for ball catches (S06) carries mounted on a switching rotor (S05) the Determines shift positions of the shift drum.
  18. to Claim 1 , characterized in that the bottom bracket gearbox (G01) including the chain or pulley is enclosed by an at least three-part housing, wherein a housing part surrounds the chain or pulley and the passages for the chain or the belt and has as torque arm the axis rotatably connected with at least one of the other housing parts, which in turn are connected to a bicycle frame.
  19. to Claim 18 , characterized in that a rear frame (F02) about the rotationally fixed to the bicycle frame (F01) connected housing (G01) is mounted coaxially with the bottom bracket (A02) pivotally.
  20. to Claim 18 , characterized in that the housing (G01) is rotatably connected to a rear frame (F02) and coaxially pivotable about the bottom bracket (A02) is mounted in a bicycle frame (F01).
  21. to Claim 1 , characterized in that in at least one gearbox (G01) (G02) load-receiving flanks of the toothing (s) have a large pressure angle and unloaded flanks a small pressure angle.
  22. to Claim 21 , characterized in that the load-receiving flanks have an engagement angle of about 25 to about 45 degrees and unloaded flanks an engagement angle of at most 20 degrees.
  23. to Claim 5 or 6 , characterized in that the Hinterradnabengetriebe (G02) consists of two symmetrical partial transmissions with translations i_a = s ^ n <2 and i_b = 1 / i_a, whose input and output takes place via the web or ring gear, wherein the two partial transmission via whose webs are coupled and their ring gears accomplish the arrival and departure, or wherein the two partial transmissions are coupled via the ring gears, which are held in flight and whose webs accomplish the input and output.
  24. to Claim 5 or 6 , characterized in that the Hinterradnabengetriebe (G02) consists of two symmetrical partial transmissions with translations i_a = s ^ n> 2 and i_b = 1 / i_a whose input and output takes place via their respective sun gears or their webs wherein the sun gears connected to each other are and their webs accomplish the drive and take-off.
DE102018008464.8A 2017-11-02 2018-10-29 Drive train with two separate, coupled by means of intermediate gear shift transmissions Pending DE102018008464A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102017012265.2 2017-11-02
DE102017012265 2017-11-02
DE102017012264 2017-11-11
DE102017012264.4 2017-11-11

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/DE2018/000314 WO2019086064A1 (en) 2017-11-02 2018-10-30 Drive train comprising two separate shiftable gear mechanisms which are coupled by means of intermediate gear mechanisms

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Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0915800A1 (en) 1997-05-16 1999-05-19 ROHLOFF, Bernhard Multispeed bicycle gear system
DE102004045364B4 (en) 2004-09-15 2006-08-03 Nicolai, Karlheinz, Dipl.-Ing. (TU) Multiple transmission for a bicycle
DE10082555B4 (en) 1999-09-01 2007-11-08 Nicolai, Karlheinz, Dipl.-Ing. (TU) Bicycle with rear swingarm
DE102007004802A1 (en) 2007-01-22 2008-07-24 Christoph Lermen Multi-speed transmission
DE102007013443A1 (en) 2007-03-21 2008-09-25 Nicolai, Karlheinz, Dipl.-Ing. (TU) Traction mechanism with kidney-shaped form of traction means
DE102008007326A1 (en) 2008-02-02 2009-08-06 Manroland Ag Method for printing print substrate, involves generating print job dependent raster data in raster image processor on basis of print job dependent image data of pre-press, where computerized stimulation is carried out
DE602004029557D1 (en) 2003-02-28 2010-11-25 Fallbrook Technologies Inc Continuous adjustable transmission
WO2012156613A1 (en) 2011-05-18 2012-11-22 Guy Cavalerie Gear-shifting device for a bicycle

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0915800A1 (en) 1997-05-16 1999-05-19 ROHLOFF, Bernhard Multispeed bicycle gear system
DE10082555B4 (en) 1999-09-01 2007-11-08 Nicolai, Karlheinz, Dipl.-Ing. (TU) Bicycle with rear swingarm
DE602004029557D1 (en) 2003-02-28 2010-11-25 Fallbrook Technologies Inc Continuous adjustable transmission
DE102004045364B4 (en) 2004-09-15 2006-08-03 Nicolai, Karlheinz, Dipl.-Ing. (TU) Multiple transmission for a bicycle
DE102007004802A1 (en) 2007-01-22 2008-07-24 Christoph Lermen Multi-speed transmission
DE102007013443A1 (en) 2007-03-21 2008-09-25 Nicolai, Karlheinz, Dipl.-Ing. (TU) Traction mechanism with kidney-shaped form of traction means
DE102008007326A1 (en) 2008-02-02 2009-08-06 Manroland Ag Method for printing print substrate, involves generating print job dependent raster data in raster image processor on basis of print job dependent image data of pre-press, where computerized stimulation is carried out
WO2012156613A1 (en) 2011-05-18 2012-11-22 Guy Cavalerie Gear-shifting device for a bicycle

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