DE102012023551A1 - Infinitely variable gear system for e.g. bicycles, has chain drive whose gear is located outside gear housing, and pinion bolt driven over chain of chain ring that is rotationally and axial fixedly connected to drive wheel of bicycle - Google Patents

Infinitely variable gear system for e.g. bicycles, has chain drive whose gear is located outside gear housing, and pinion bolt driven over chain of chain ring that is rotationally and axial fixedly connected to drive wheel of bicycle

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Publication number
DE102012023551A1
DE102012023551A1 DE201210023551 DE102012023551A DE102012023551A1 DE 102012023551 A1 DE102012023551 A1 DE 102012023551A1 DE 201210023551 DE201210023551 DE 201210023551 DE 102012023551 A DE102012023551 A DE 102012023551A DE 102012023551 A1 DE102012023551 A1 DE 102012023551A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
gear
bicycles
electric motor
ring
rotationally
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Withdrawn
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DE201210023551
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German (de)
Inventor
Anmelder Gleich
Original Assignee
Peter Strauss
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Application filed by Peter Strauss filed Critical Peter Strauss
Priority to DE201210023551 priority Critical patent/DE102012023551A1/en
Publication of DE102012023551A1 publication Critical patent/DE102012023551A1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62MRIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR SINGLE-TRACK CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES
    • B62M6/00Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles with additional source of power, e.g. combustion engine or electric motor
    • B62M6/40Rider propelled cycles with auxiliary electric motor
    • B62M6/55Rider propelled cycles with auxiliary electric motor power-driven at crank shafts parts

Abstract

Development of a stepless bottom bracket gearbox for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optional integrated electric motor with a total ratio greater than 200%, a total mass less than 5 kg including electric motor and an efficiency greater than 90%.
This is realized by the combination of a double-cone ring gear (friction gear) with an upstream spur gear as Hochtreiberstufe near the bottom bracket of a bicycle.
The gearbox can be used in bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes.

Description

  • The current state of the art knows various, infinitely variable in their ratio gearbox, which operate non-positively or frictionally, also called friction gear or Wälzgetriebe. The drive power is transmitted by circumferential forces, which act between rotationally symmetrical friction bodies under a contact force in the radial direction of rotation of the friction body disposed contact surfaces. The resulting flattening at the Reibkörperberührstellen under the contact force can be calculated according to Hertz or Stribeck and are point, elliptical or linear. The realized friction gear designs have in common that they realize the stepless change of the translation by a stepless change of the effective radius of the contact surfaces relative to the Reibkörperrotationsachsen. The friction bodies are essentially conical or spherical. The change in the radius is realized in Kugelreibgetrieben mostly by the tilting of the ball axis of rotation relative to a drive / driven body and Kegelreibgetrieben essentially by the displacement of the friction surface along the cone axis. Depending on the usable friction coefficient and the circumferential force to be transmitted high contact forces are necessary, which burden the friction body.
  • For bicycles there is recently a stepless gear hub of the company Fallbrook from USA. It is called NuVinci N360 and works with a friction gear stage with spherical friction bodies whose rotation axis can be tilted. As a result, the effective radii of the friction balls are changed on the input and output side and thus realized a stepless transmission change. Due to the single-stage, very large torque requirements are placed on the transmission (drive wheel for bicycles up to 250 Nm) which require very high contact pressure and thus high hertzian pressure. In addition, the axial contact forces, which can be several tens of thousands of Newtons, must be supported via the hub shell, which must be correspondingly stable and therefore heavy-duty. Another disadvantage of this design is the small and large gear ratios towards sharply increasing Bohr- / Wälzverhältnis, due to the tilting of the axis of rotation of the Reibkugeln and thus a strong increase in power loss.
  • In addition, enjoy bicycles with electric drive, so-called pedelecs or e-bikes, increasing popularity, as the cyclist is relieved by the support of the electric motor of the pedaling a piece far. In addition, he will be able to achieve higher speeds, or to climb larger slopes, among other things.
  • An additional aspect that speaks in favor of the further expansion of electric-powered bicycles is the increasing global urbanization. More and more people live in densely populated urban areas. Individual mobility must therefore take place in ever-smaller space and with low emissions, otherwise there will be either logistical or ecological collapse.
  • The task is therefore under the above aspects, a low-emission powertrain (transmission / engine - combination) for a light and small means of transport (eg: bicycle) to develop, which combines muscle power (the lowest emission driving force) with electric driving force.
  • Currently, there are a variety of form and frictional transmission variants (essentially derailleurs / hub gears) for bicycles, on the other hand, a variety of concepts in which an electric motor supports driving (in the front, in the rear or in the vicinity of the bottom bracket) , According to current knowledge, however, there is no drive concept which offers an integrated system that combines a transmission for the translation of muscle power with an electric motor. On the following pages, a continuously variable bottom bracket transmission is presented in which an electric motor can be integrated. This is shown on the variant with integrated electric motor.
  • The requirement for a bottom bracket gear for bicycles here is the largest possible translation range (>> 200%, especially when operating in combination with an electric motor), low weight (possibly less than two kilograms), high efficiency (between 90 and 98%) and a low price ,
  • An electric drive should also not be too heavy (possibly less than two kilograms), and develop an effective torque (around 20-30 Nm) at normal bicycle speeds (18-25 km / h). Radial small and thus lightweight engines require a slow-speed transmission, (usually planetary) to adapt the speed / torque characteristics to the needs of a bicycle. This can be considered a disadvantage as an additional transmission adds weight, cost and complexity. Also available on the market so-called direct drive motors without gearbox, build the diameter very large (> 200 mm) and are usually very heavy. (Weight about 5 kg)
  • In addition to the above requirements on the powertrain, the pave width is limited by the clear width between the cranks. In addition is on one side to consider the chain line, which describes the distance of the center of the bicycle to the middle of the chain or the teeth of the chainring in the direction of travel. This is about 50 mm. If you want to place the gearbox symmetrically over the middle of the bike, this results in a usable width of max. 90 mm. Other boundary conditions are the drive power of the cyclist of max. 1,500 watts, the maximum torque at the crank of 235 Nm, the maximum of a rear wheel on a bicycle transmissible torque of 250 Nm and the usual cadence of a cyclist of 50-80 revolutions per minute (values from the literature).
  • If one examines the possibilities of using known Regelreibgetriebebauformen from all these points of view, it makes sense first to ask for the efficiency, since this represents an exclusion criterion. The efficiency can basically be read on a so-called Bohr / Wälzverhältnis. Wherein small Bohr / Wälzverhältnisse basically for a high efficiency in the frictional force transmission and thus usually for a high efficiency. This Bohr / Wälzverhältnis usually changes with the translation. If you want to realize efficiencies of more than 90% with a large transmission ratio, only the following types are considered: tapered-disc gearbox, double-cone ring gearbox, full and half toroidal gearbox, bevel ring gearbox as well as push and pull belt transmission. If one examines these designs with regard to the boundary conditions of weight, construction volume and performance for use in a bicycle according to the above assumptions, the transmission types double-cone-ring transmission and full-half-toroidal transmission remain. Since in full and half-toroidal gearboxes the storage of the so-called. Rollers and their tilt angle adjustment for a ratio change is mechanically very expensive, fall even these two types.
  • The indicated in the claims invention is based on the problem above to realize total translation, efficiency, weight, size, and power requirements in a continuously adjustable bottom bracket gear in which also an electric motor can be integrated.
  • This problem is solved by the combination of a double-cone ring gear ( 2 ) as a friction gear with a spur gear ( 3 ) as a positive gear, this as a Hochtreiberstufe ( 3 ) in front of the friction gear ( 2 ) is arranged.
  • By using a friction gear ( 2 ) with double conical friction bodies ( 2 B ), the gear ratio remains almost constant when the gear ratio is changed from that of the Fallbrook continuously variable transmission (NuVinci N360), since the axes of rotation of the tapered friction elements do not change their angular positions when the gear ratio changes. Thus, the power loss in the underdrive or overdrive does not increase so much.
  • The combination of non-positive and positive power transmission through a friction ( 2 ) and a gear transmission ( 3 ) also allows the reduction in the friction gear ( 2 ) to be transmitted torque, which generally represents a limiting factor in the power transmission of friction gears. The transmission of high torque and thus high circumferential forces also always requires high contact forces, which in turn lead to high hertzian pressure in the friction surfaces and thus increased wear. By the upstream of a spur gear as Hochtreiberstufe ( 3 ) reduces the high torque (235 Nm) of the pedal crank axle ( 1 ) at the friction gear input.
  • A weight / cost and complexity savings according to the invention by sharing the sprocket ( 11 ) and chainring formed on the drive wheel of a bicycle Reduzierstufe by the friction gear ( 2 ) and the electric motor ( 20 ) realized. Both electric motor ( 20 ) as well as friction gear ( 2 ) provide comparatively low torques. The friction gear ( 2 ) due to the translation into fast through the high driver level ( 3 ) for low hertzian pressure in the friction surfaces, the electric motor ( 20 ) due to its limited radial size and low weight.
  • Description of how it works:
  • The pedal crankshaft rotatably driven by the driver via cranks ( 1 ) drives the big gear ( 3a ) of a spur gear stage ( 3 ), which is a small gear ( 3b ) drives, which via a rotatably and axially fixedly connected Mitnehmerkranz ( 4 ) the support ring ( 16a ) of the expansion coupling ( 16 ) and thus the large friction ring ( 2c ) of the double-cone ring gear ( 2 ) drives. In one embodiment, a large toothed belt wheel drives on the pedal crankshaft ( 1 ) via a toothed belt to a small toothed belt wheel. In a further embodiment drives a large chainring on the pedal crankshaft ( 1 ) on a chain on a small pinion.
  • The crankshaft ( 1 ) is on the side of the large gear ( 3a ) in the transmission housing ( 30 ) radially and axially roller bearings. The big gear ( 3a ) of the spur gear stage ( 3 ) is torsion and axle with the Tretkurbewelle ( 1 ) connected. The small gear ( 3b ) of the spur gear stage ( 3 ) is on a hollow shaft ( 6 ) radially and axially roller bearings. The hollow shaft ( 6 ) is on the side of the small gear ( 3b ) Rotationally and axially fixed with the gear housing ( 30 ) connected. The footbridge ( 2a ) of the friction gear ( 2 ) is internally toothed and on the externally toothed ( 6az ) Hollow shaft ( 6 ) axially displaceable and rotatably connected thereto. (Drawings 1 and 2)
  • The in the jetty ( 2a ) roller bearing double cone rollers ( 2 B ) stand with the friction rings ( 2c and 2d ) in frictional connection ( 2 B - 2c and 2 B - 2d ). The friction rings ( 2c and 2d ) are by the Spreizkupplungen ( 16 and 17 ) axially against the double-cone roller shell surfaces springing. This is realized by several compression springs ( 16d and 17d ) in the spreader couplings ( 16 and 17 ), which between their support rings ( 16a and 17a ) and the friction rings ( 2c and 2d ) are arranged. In one embodiment, the Spreizkupplungen ( 16 and 17 ) over their races ( 16b and 17b ) against the transmission housing ( 30 ) or inner housing ( 40 ) is spring-loaded by means of wave spring or spiral compression springs.
    (Drawings 1, 2, 3 and 4)
  • The expansion coupling ( 16 ) is supported axially in the interior of the transmission housing ( 30 ) and in the inner housing ( 40 ) over its raceway ( 16b ) and with its support ring ( 16a ) rotatably but axially displaceable via grooves ( 16an ) and cones ( 4Z ) with the entrainment ring ( 4 ) connected. The expansion coupling ( 17 ) is supported axially in the interior of the transmission housing ( 30 ) over its raceway ( 17b ) and with its support ring ( 17a ) radially in the transmission housing ( 30 ) roller-mounted. The support ring ( 17a ) of the expansion coupling ( 17 ) rotates with the friction ring ( 2d ) With. The support ring ( 17a ) of the expansion coupling ( 17 ) has an internal thread ( 17aIG ) and is about this with the pinion ( 11 ) screwed. (Drawings 1, 3 and 4)
  • The pinion ( 11 ) drives over a chain the chainring of a drive wheel of the bicycle. In one embodiment, the support ring ( 17a ) screwed to a small toothed belt wheel, which drives the large toothed belt wheel on a drive wheel of a bicycle via a toothed belt.
  • Is by the pedal crank axle ( 1 ) introduced a torque, the large friction ring ( 2c ) of the friction gear ( 2 ) over the big gear ( 3a ), the small gear ( 3b ), the entrainment ring ( 4 ) and the support ring ( 16a ) is rotated and drives over the friction contacts ( 2c - 2 B ) the double tapered rollers ( 2 B ) at. The axial preload of the Spreizkupplungen ( 16 and 17 ) ensures that the double tapered rollers ( 2 B ) not between the two friction rings ( 2c and 2d ) but slip on you. When torque is applied to the friction ring ( 2c ), the spreader coupling ( 16 ) a torque-proportional axial force which the friction ring ( 2c ) presses on the conical surfaces and thus the necessary normal force on the friction surfaces ( 2c - 2 B ) for transmitting the torque resulting from the circumferential force. The expansion coupling ( 17 ) generates in turn a torque-proportional axial force (induced by the circumferential force in the friction points ( 2 B - 2d )), which the friction ring ( 2d ) presses on the conical surfaces and thus the necessary normal force on the friction surfaces ( 2 B - 2d ) for transmitting the peripheral force.
  • The invention specified in the claims addresses the problem of an electric motor ( 20 ) within the gearbox, which also includes pinions ( 11 ) and chainring on the drive wheel of the bicycle formed Hochtreiberstufe for speed reduction or torque increase uses.
  • This problem is solved by the rotationally and axially fixed integration of the rotor ( 20a ) of the electric motor ( 20 ) on the support ring ( 17a ) and the rotationally and axially fixed integration of the stator ( 20b ) in the transmission housing ( 30 ) and inner housing ( 40 ) which with the transmission housing ( 30 ) connected is. This also makes it possible for the motor to act as a generator and as a brake. In addition, a ride on an empty battery is possible. Only the drag torque of the engine would be overcome in this case. To avoid this, in one embodiment, a freewheel (eg sprag or pawl freewheel) between rotor ( 20a ) and support ring ( 17a ) Installed.
  • The invention specified in the claims is based on the problem of realizing the ratio change of the transmission from outside the transmission and this with a low torque, which can be conveniently generated on a hand twist grip on the handlebar of a bicycle by the driver.
  • This problem is solved by the axial adjustment of the web ( 2a ) by means of a trapezoidal threaded nut connected thereto in a rotationally and axially fixed manner ( 7 ) and a trapezoidal threaded spindle ( 8th ), which is rotationally driven on the left outside of the transmission as seen in the direction of travel and in the hollow shaft ( 6 ) is mounted radially on roller bearings. In one embodiment, the axial drive of the web ( 2a ) realized by a recirculating ball nut and recirculating ball screw, which are Wälzgelagert theirs. (Drawing 1)
  • The invention specified in the claims addresses the problem of manufacturing and assembly tolerances in the positioning of the web ( 2a ) during initial assembly of the gearbox.
  • This problem is solved by a fine thread (FG) between trapezoidal nut ( 7 ) and bridge ( 2a ) which is coated with thread protection before initial assembly. During initial assembly and uncured thread lock can thus be the position of the web ( 2a ) and thus compensate the manufacturing and assembly tolerances. After setting, the thread lock hardens and the bridge ( 2a ) is rotationally and axially fixed with the trapezoidal nut ( 7 ) and can be moved axially with this.
    (Drawing 5)
  • The invention specified in the claims is based on the problem that the trapezoidal thread goes with small pitch in self-locking. Would a rotation of the trapezoidal threaded spindle ( 8th ) from the outside and thus an axial displacement of the web ( 2a ) take place against a fixed stop inside the housing, it could lead to a jamming of the trapezoidal threaded spindle ( 8th ) in the trapezoidal nut ( 7 ) come.
  • This problem is solved by the arrangement of two cylindrical pins ( 7a and 7b ) in the trapezoidal nut ( 7 ) at the level of the threaded running surface against which the threaded ends ( 8a and 8b ) of the trapezoidal threaded spindle ( 8th ) nudge. (Drawings 5 and 6)

Claims (10)

  1. Stepless bottom bracket gear for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optional integrated electric motor, characterized in that a rotationally driven by a driver pedal crankset crankshaft ( 1 ) via a large toothed wheel rotatably and axially connected thereto ( 3a ) and one on a hollow shaft ( 6 ) axially and radially roller-mounted small gear ( 3b ) of a spur gear ( 3 ), one with the small gear ( 3b ) rotatably and axially fixed entrainment ring ( 4 ) drives. This carrier wreath ( 4 ) over tenons ( 4Z ) and grooves ( 16an ) the support ring ( 16a ) a Spreizkupplung ( 16 ) which drives the large friction ring ( 2c ) of a double-cone ring gear ( 2 ) drives. The big friction ring ( 2c ) via the friction contacts ( 2c - 2 B ) the double tapered rollers ( 2 B ) drives. The in the jetty ( 2a ) of the double-cone ring gear ( 2 ) radially rolling double cone rollers ( 2 B ) in frictional connection with the friction rings ( 2c and 2d ) stand. The footbridge ( 2a ) via an internal toothing rotatably but axially displaceable with the externally toothed ( 6az ) Hollow shaft ( 6 ) connected is. The hollow shaft ( 6 ) Rotationally and axially fixed to the transmission housing ( 30 ) connected is. The friction rings ( 2c and 2d ) at idle and under load from the Spreizkupplungen ( 16 and 17 ) are pressed against the double bevel roller shell surfaces, at idle by in the Spreizkupplungen ( 16 and 17 ), between the friction rings ( 2c and 2d ) and the support rings ( 16a and 17a ) arranged compression springs ( 16d and 17d ) and under load by the of the Spreizkupplungen ( 16 and 17 ) torque proportional generated axial forces. The larger spreader coupling ( 16 ) over your race ( 16b ) axially in the transmission housing ( 30 ) and with the transmission housing ( 30 ) connected inner housing ( 40 ) is supported. The smaller spreader coupling ( 17 ) over your race ( 17b ) axially in the transmission housing ( 30 ) is supported. The double tapered rollers ( 2 B ) via the frictional contact ( 2 B - 2d ) the friction ring ( 2d ) drive rotationally. The friction ring ( 2d ) the support ring ( 17a ) of the expansion coupling ( 17 ) drives rotationally. The support ring ( 17a ) radially in the housing ( 30 ) is roller-mounted. The support ring ( 17a ) the bolted with him pinion ( 11 ) drives a chain drive whose teeth are located outside of the transmission housing. The pinion ( 11 ) via a chain which rotatably and axially fixed to the drive wheel of a bicycle connected chainring drives.
  2. Stepless bottom bracket gear for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optional integratable electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotor ( 20a ) of an electric motor ( 20 ) with the support ring ( 17a ) of the expansion coupling ( 17 ) is rotationally and axially connected. The stator ( 20b ) of the electric motor ( 20 ) with the transmission housing ( 30 ) and the inner housing ( 40 ) is rotationally and axially connected.
  3. Continuously variable pedal bearing gear for bicycles, pedelecs and E-bikes with optional integrated electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the axial displacement of the web ( 2a ) by a trapezoidal threaded nut connected thereto in a rotationally and axially fixed manner ( 7 ) he follows. The trapezoidal nut ( 7 ) by a trapezoidal threaded spindle ( 8th ) is moved axially, which is rotationally driven outside of the transmission. The trapezoidal thread spindle ( 8th ) in the hollow shaft ( 6 ) is mounted radially on roller bearings.
  4. Stepless bottom bracket gear for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optionally integrable electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the driving ring ( 4 ) Rotationally and axially fixed with the support ring ( 16a ) connected is.
  5. Stepless bottom bracket gear for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optionally integrable electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that between pedal crankshaft ( 1 ) and gear ( 3a ) a freewheel is mounted.
  6. Stepless bottom bracket gearbox for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optionally integrable Electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that between rotor ( 20a ) and support ring ( 17a ) a freewheel is mounted.
  7. Stepless bottom bracket gear for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optional integrated electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the drive of crankshaft ( 1 ) on entrainment ring ( 4 ) via a toothed belt or chain drive.
  8. Stepless bottom bracket gear for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optional integrated electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the axial springing of the Spreizkupplungen ( 16 and 17 ) via a wave spring or a plurality of helical compression springs between housings ( 30 ) and raceway ( 17b ) or housing ( 30 ) / inner casing ( 40 ) and raceway ( 16b ) he follows.
  9. Stepless bottom bracket gear for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optional integrated electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the positioning of the web ( 2a ) to compensate for manufacturing and assembly tolerances during initial assembly via a fine thread (FG) between trapezoidal nut ( 7 ) and bridge ( 2a ), which is coated prior to assembly with thread lock, which after the positioning of the web ( 2a ) and the trapezoidal nut ( 7 ) with the bridge ( 2a ) rotatably and axially connected.
  10. Stepless bottom bracket gear for bicycles, pedelecs and e-bikes with optionally integrable electric motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the axial travel of the web ( 2a ) by two cylindrical pins ( 7a and 7b ) in the trapezoidal nut ( 7 ) is limited to the height of the threaded path to which the threaded ends ( 8a and 8b ) of the trapezoidal threaded spindle ( 8th ) nudge.
DE201210023551 2012-12-01 2012-12-01 Infinitely variable gear system for e.g. bicycles, has chain drive whose gear is located outside gear housing, and pinion bolt driven over chain of chain ring that is rotationally and axial fixedly connected to drive wheel of bicycle Withdrawn DE102012023551A1 (en)

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DE201210023551 DE102012023551A1 (en) 2012-12-01 2012-12-01 Infinitely variable gear system for e.g. bicycles, has chain drive whose gear is located outside gear housing, and pinion bolt driven over chain of chain ring that is rotationally and axial fixedly connected to drive wheel of bicycle

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US20160040763A1 (en) * 2013-04-19 2016-02-11 Fallbrook Intellectual Property Company Llc Continuously variable transmission
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