DE102017218799B3 - Method for producing a security element or security document - Google Patents

Method for producing a security element or security document

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Publication number
DE102017218799B3
DE102017218799B3 DE102017218799.9A DE102017218799A DE102017218799B3 DE 102017218799 B3 DE102017218799 B3 DE 102017218799B3 DE 102017218799 A DE102017218799 A DE 102017218799A DE 102017218799 B3 DE102017218799 B3 DE 102017218799B3
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
arranged
microlenses
respective
printing
pixels
Prior art date
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Active
Application number
DE102017218799.9A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Robert Stewart
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Koenig and Bauer AG
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Koenig and Bauer AG
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Koenig and Bauer AG filed Critical Koenig and Bauer AG
Priority to DE102017218799.9A priority Critical patent/DE102017218799B3/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE102017218799B3 publication Critical patent/DE102017218799B3/en
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/351Translucent or partly translucent parts, e.g. windows
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41FPRINTING MACHINES OR PRESSES
    • B41F1/00Platen presses, i.e. presses in which printing is effected by at least one essentially-flat pressure-applying member co-operating with a flat type-bed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41FPRINTING MACHINES OR PRESSES
    • B41F11/00Rotary presses or machines having forme cylinders carrying a plurality of printing surfaces, or for performing letterpress, lithographic, or intaglio processes selectively or in combination
    • B41F11/02Rotary presses or machines having forme cylinders carrying a plurality of printing surfaces, or for performing letterpress, lithographic, or intaglio processes selectively or in combination for securities
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41FPRINTING MACHINES OR PRESSES
    • B41F19/00Apparatus or machines for carrying out printing operations combined with other operations
    • B41F19/001Apparatus or machines for carrying out printing operations combined with other operations with means for coating or laminating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41FPRINTING MACHINES OR PRESSES
    • B41F19/00Apparatus or machines for carrying out printing operations combined with other operations
    • B41F19/002Apparatus or machines for carrying out printing operations combined with other operations with means for applying specific material other than ink
    • B41F19/005Apparatus or machines for carrying out printing operations combined with other operations with means for applying specific material other than ink with means for applying metallic, conductive or chargeable material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41FPRINTING MACHINES OR PRESSES
    • B41F19/00Apparatus or machines for carrying out printing operations combined with other operations
    • B41F19/02Apparatus or machines for carrying out printing operations combined with other operations with embossing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/324Reliefs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/40Manufacture
    • B42D25/405Marking
    • B42D25/425Marking by deformation, e.g. embossing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/22Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus for producing stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B3/00Simple or compound lenses
    • G02B3/0006Arrays
    • G02B3/0037Arrays characterized by the distribution or form of lenses
    • G02B3/0056Arrays characterized by the distribution or form of lenses arranged along two different directions in a plane, e.g. honeycomb arrangement of lenses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41MPRINTING, DUPLICATING, MARKING, OR COPYING PROCESSES; COLOUR PRINTING
    • B41M1/00Inking and printing with a printer's forme
    • B41M1/14Multicolour printing
    • B41M1/20Multicolour printing by applying differently-coloured inks simultaneously to different parts of the printing surface
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41MPRINTING, DUPLICATING, MARKING, OR COPYING PROCESSES; COLOUR PRINTING
    • B41M3/00Printing processes to produce particular kinds of printed work, e.g. patterns
    • B41M3/06Veined printings; Fluorescent printings; Stereoscopic images; Imitated patterns, e.g. tissues, textiles

Abstract

The invention relates to an arrangement comprising a printed image and an optically imaging structure consisting of a plurality of plano-convex microlenses, wherein the printed image has a multiplicity of picture elements, wherein in each case a plurality of picture elements are arranged under at least one of the microlenses of the relevant optically imaging structure, wherein these are each under at least one of the microlenses of the respective optically imaging structure arranged pixels are arranged side by side along a lens width and each extend in the direction of this lens width each over a shorter length than the respective lens width, said pixels between the respective microlens and their focus in a parallel to Main plane of the respective microlens lying sectional plane are arranged, wherein the cutting plane a cone or an angle field of each by the respective microlens in the direction of juxtaposed Pixels of incident light is arranged intersecting, wherein in the cutting plane within the cone or the angular field at the same time several mutually different pixels are arranged lined up.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for producing a security element or security document according to claim 1.
  • By the US 2009/0310185 A1 a security element or a security document is in each case with an arrangement with a printed image and an optically imaging structure consisting of several plano-convex microlenses removed and a method for producing this security element or this security document.
  • By the DE 11 2013 002 927 T5 A security element is known which comprises a plurality of focusing elements, a plurality of image regions, each image region being associated with a focusing element, each image region being printed with at least two layers, the first layer being offset from a reference axis in the image region by a first predetermined amount second layer is offset from a reference axis in the image region by a second predetermined amount, each layer has a different color, and each image region comprises at least a first and a second subregion, wherein a first image in a first viewing angle range from the first subregion and a second Image is formed in a second viewing angle area from the second subregion.
  • By the DE 20 2004 021 712 U1 For example, a film material is known in which a regular two-dimensional array of non-cylindrical lenses is used to magnify microimages and to form a synthetically magnified image by the combined performance of a plurality of individual lens and microimage imaging systems; the total thickness of the film material being less than 50 μm; wherein the lenses have a diameter of less than 50 microns; wherein the lenses have a base geometry that is substantially circular; the lenses having an F-number less than 4, say less than 2; with a space between the lenses that does not directly contribute to the synthetic enlargement of the images; the microimages being formed by the voids in a microstructure or the solid areas; wherein there is an optical spacer between the lenses and the microimages, the optical spacer being a separate substrate; wherein the synthetically magnified image appears to rest on a plane in space that is optically deeper than the thickness of the film material, and the effect that the synthetically magnified image appears to rest on a plane in space that is optically deeper than the thickness of the film material is visible from all azimuthal viewing positions and over a wide range of altitude positions, from vertical height down to a shallow elevation angle, which is typically less than 45 °; wherein the synthetically magnified image changes shape or shape or combinations of these properties when the material is viewed from different viewpoints; wherein the synthetically enlarged image is colorless; the background around the synthetically magnified image being transparent or translucent; wherein the material is at least partially overprinted by having a pressure applied to the uppermost surface of the material, such as the uppermost lens surface; and wherein the film material is laminated with paper or provided as a thread or patch.
  • By the DE 11 2010 000 957 T5 For example, a lens array is known for imaging a plurality of pixels in an object plane, the lens array including a plurality of microlenses formed in or on one side of a transparent or translucent material with the pixels on the opposite side, the lens array having a gauge thickness which corresponds to the distance from the apex of each microlens to the object plane, each microlens having a set of lens parameters, wherein the measurement thickness and / or at least one lens parameter are optimized such that each microlens has a focus size in the object plane that is substantially equal to that Size of the picture elements in the object plane is, or differs from the size of the picture elements by a predetermined amount. The measuring thickness of the lens array is preferably smaller than the focal length of all microlenses. The picture elements can z. B. take the form of points or lines. The lens array of DE 11 2010 000 957 T5 is formed such that in a cone or angle field of the incident in the respective microlens in the direction of the pixels parallel to the main plane of the respective microlens sectional plane always only one of the juxtaposed pixels is arranged, whereby for a print image below a certain Viewing angle viewers at a given time always only a single frame is perceptible.
  • The WO 2007/042919 A2 discloses a printing unit with printing units, by which substrate to be printed on a same pressure point on a same page at the same time with multiple form cylinders originating, superimposed different-colored partial printing images is printed or can be.
  • From the EP 2 996 885 B1 For example, there is known a method for producing a security document, wherein applying a curable material to a first region of the substrate on its first surface, forming the curable material such that its from the substrate removed surface follows the contours of an optically variable effect-generating relief structure, and curing of the curable material, so that the relief structure is held by the cured material.
  • The invention has for its object to provide a method for producing a security element or security document, which each allow complex and / or differentiated animations.
  • The object is achieved by a method having the features of claim 1. The dependent claims each show advantageous embodiments and / or developments of each found solution.
  • Embodiments are shown in the drawings. Show it:
    • 1 a document having a security element having an optically imaging structure;
    • 2 a greatly enlarged sectional view of an arrangement comprising a printed image and an integrated in an optically imaging structure single plano-convex microlens with a light incidence from a first viewing angle;
    • 3 the arrangement according to the 2 with a light incident from a second viewing angle;
    • 4 a plan view of a formed in the form of a geometric figure optically imaging structure;
    • 5 a plan view of an assembled from lens grids optically imaging structure;
    • 6 an optically imaging structure consisting of a group of microlenses arranged in a grid of square grid cells;
    • 7 an optically imaging structure consisting of a group of microlenses arranged in a grid of hexagonal grid cells;
    • 8th a picture element of a microlens underlying printed image perceivable by a viewer through a microlens;
    • 9 a picture element of a printed image which is not visible to the viewer by means of a microlens;
    • 10 periodically recurring picture elements in unequal phase to a lattice-like arrangement of microlenses;
    • 11 a die for producing roughened areas between individual microlenses;
    • 12 microlenses positioned relative to pixels of a printed image;
    • 13 Manufacturing steps for the formation of microlenses with, not colored by these microlenses on the surface of the geometric figure, in particular white colored areas;
    • 14 an arrangement of a plurality of superimposed planes of a security element or a security document;
    • 15 an array of masked color zones;
    • 16 an optically imaging structure consisting of a plurality of groups of microlenses arranged in a grid;
    • 17 an arrangement for forming structures in the micrometer range in a picture element of a microlens to be printed image to be printed;
    • 18 a schematic representation of a collective printing unit for the simultaneous two-sided multi-color printing;
    • 19 a schematic representation of a printing unit with a designed as a collective printing unit for the simultaneous two-sided multi-color printing engine and an advance in the substrate path or subordinate indicated application device;
    • 20 a schematic representation of a printing unit with a designed as a collective printing unit for the simultaneous two-sided multi-color printing engine and inline in the substrate path integrated application device.
  • In optics, the term "lens" refers to a component which is transparent to light and has at least one refractive surface arranged in the beam path of the light. The term light is understood here as the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation to the human eye. In the electromagnetic spectrum, the range of light wavelengths from about 380 nm (purple) to 780 nm (red). The following are based on converging lenses, ie incident light bundling lenses, in particular plano-convex lenses. Preferred designs are, on the one hand, rotationally symmetrical spherically or aspherically formed lenses and, on the other hand, axisymmetric rod-shaped lenses, the respective axis of symmetry of the relevant lens and its optical axis in each case being congruent. The optical axis is thus a straight line passing through the center of curvature of a convex lens surface. at a plane lens surface is the optical axis perpendicular to her. The curvature of a refractive z. B. convex surface is indicated by its radius of curvature, wherein the radius of curvature has its origin on the optical axis. A plane lens surface is defined by an infinite radius of curvature.
  • Rod-shaped lenses are designed in the form of either a rod length halved according to either straight circular cylinder or elliptical cylinder, wherein the respective axis of symmetry of such a lens extends orthogonal to their respective rod length. In a spherically shaped lens, the refractive surface is formed as a surface section of a sphere, ie z. B. in the form of a spherical cap. An aspherically formed lens has at least one refractive surface deviating from the spherical or planar shape. The shape of rotationally symmetric aspherical surfaces is usually given as a conic (circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola) plus a correction polynomial for higher order deformations.
  • A lens has two cut from the beam path of the light surfaces, so-called envelope surfaces, with respect to the light bundling is defined by the fact that the light enters a plano-convex convex lens respectively at the convex curved envelope surface and the light exit from this lens at the plan envelope surface. The envelope surfaces are in each case interfaces between different media in which the light propagates in each case. One of these media is represented by the material, i. H. formed the material of the lens in question. At least one other medium is the i. d. R. Air-filled space in which the lens in question is located. Since at least two of the arranged in the beam path of the light media at least their respective optical material properties are different from each other, the light is refracted at the interface between these adjacent media. Thus, in each case a refraction of light, in particular at the curved envelope surface, takes place on at least one of the envelope surfaces of the respective lens. The refractive index-related optical material property is expressed by the refractive index of the respective medium. The refractive index is a dimensionless physical quantity that indicates by what factor the wavelength and the phase velocity of the light in the respective medium are smaller than in a vacuum. Of two media forming a common interface with different refractive indices, the medium with the higher refractive index is called the more dense one. The Abbe number, also called the Abbe number, is a dimensionless quantity for characterizing the optical dispersive properties of a lens and indicates how strongly its refractive index changes with the wavelength of the light. The property of a lens to be able to produce an optical image from an object viewed through the relevant lens depends on the refractive index of the material of the respective lens and on the shape of its respective enveloping surfaces forming between different media.
  • The main plane of a lens is a plane arranged orthogonally to the symmetry axis of the relevant lens in this device. For a thin lens with its largest dimension along the symmetry axis, i. H. the thickness of the lens is to be regarded as very small compared to the radius of curvature of its convex envelope surface, because the radius of curvature of the convex envelope surface z. B. at least five times greater than this thickness, can be based on mostly sufficient accuracy for a consideration of properties of the lens in question only a single major level. In a plano-convex lens, this major plane coincides with the planar lens surface. The focal length of a lens is the distance between the main plane of the lens in question and its focus (focal point), which is to be understood by the lens of an intersection point of the lens bundled, parallel to this lens incident light beams. In this case, the light rays incident in parallel into the lens do not necessarily coincide parallel to their optical axis, but under an arbitrary, in particular acute, angle of incidence with respect to the main plane of the respective lens. A plane orthogonal to the optical axis in focus is called focal plane or focal plane.
  • The envelope of the respective lens serving for the entrance of light has axially opposite to its optical axis two oppositely bounding enveloping surfaces, e.g. B. lying in the main plane of this lens edge points, wherein the distance between these two edge points determines a width of the lens in question (= lens width). The aperture or opening width of a lens designates its free opening or its diameter, through which light beams can be received unhindered and corresponds at most to the lens width. The point which lies at the intersection of the optical axis with the enveloping surface of the lens in question is called the vertex. The vertex is located furthest away from the focus of this lens on the enveloping surface serving for light entrance.
  • A rotationally symmetrical spherical or aspherical lens focused light in them incident light in a cone or cone, the diameter of the base of this cone or cone maximum of the lens width and the vertical correspond to the height of the focal length of the lens in question at the base of this cone or cone. An axially symmetric rod-shaped lens focuses light incident thereon in an acute angular field, the origin of the angular field being in the focus of this lens. The numerical aperture describes the ability of a lens to focus light. It determines the minimum size of the light spot which can be generated in its focus and is thus an important quantity limiting the resolution.
  • Several respectively rotationally symmetrical spherically or aspherically formed lenses, which are arranged in a preferably even grid consisting of either square or hexagonal grid cells, in particular each gapless and without overlapping, form a lens group, which is also referred to as a lens array. Several respective axially symmetrical rod-shaped lenses, which are each orthogonal to their rod length also preferably each strung together without gaps and without overlapping, form a lenticular, which is also referred to as a lenticular. Several lenses arranged in a latticed lens group and / or a plurality of lenses arranged in a lenticular grid each form in their respective composite an optically imaging structure in the form of a geometric figure which extends over a plane or curved surface. The surface of the optically imaging structure may have any desired contour, for. B. rectangular, round, oval or polygonal. In geometry, a geometric figure is understood as a set of points. With respect to the optically imaging structure, a lens is arranged at least at a subset of the points forming the geometric figure.
  • In an optically imaging structure, only one or more respectively lattice-shaped lens groups or only one or more lenses arranged in a lenticular array as well as these two lens arrangements can be arranged mixed together with the respective other lens arrangement, so that both lattice-shaped lens groups in the same optically imaging structure as well as arranged in a lenticular lenses are arranged together. In this case formed in the relevant optically imaging structure lenticular z. B. also each having a different orientation, wherein the respective orientation of the lens raster concerned is determined by the respective direction of the rod length of the lenses involved in the construction of the lens raster concerned.
  • A microlens is a miniaturized form of a conventional lens. The term microlens is to be understood here as meaning a lens whose lens width is less than 100 μm and preferably in the range between 20 μm and 65 μm. Microlenses have a focal length of less than z. B. 100 microns, preferably at most 95 microns. Microlenses are industrially manufacturable today. Microlenses made of a plastic or resin can, for. Example, using a (spray) casting or (injection) embossing process or printing process can be produced. Microlenses existing optically imaging structures are also referred to as micro-optical structures.
  • If an optically imaging structure formed in particular of microlenses is arranged in combination with a preferably areally formed print image or if, for example, by this optically imaging structure z. B. is applied to a print image exhibiting substrate or is, can be produced for the print image by the optically imaging structure viewing viewer various effects. Thus, a consisting of at least one printed image and at least one optically imaging structure arrangement z. B. so-called alternating images or Wackelbilder (flips) and / or spatial, d. H. create three-dimensional effects and / or morphing effects and / or zoom effects and / or animations. These effects are perceptible to a viewer without optical aids when viewing the print image alternately at different viewing angles. The perception presented to the observer by different viewing angles is also called a lenticular image.
  • The I. d. R. surface print image is z formed on the preferably two-dimensional substrate. B. formed in an industrial manufacturing process, preferably with a printing press. The substrate is z. B. formed a printing material or as a sheet. The print image is z. B. applied in a punctiform or linear grid on the substrate. The print image is therefore z. B. from several, in particular a plurality of pixels and / or lines. A pixel size or a line thickness is in a range of less than 100 .mu.m, preferably less than 50 .mu.m, in particular less than 20 .mu.m, z. B. in the range of about 5 microns to 10 microns. In the following, it is assumed that the pixel size of pixels and / or the line thickness of lines, which are each involved in the formation of a printed image used together with an optical imaging structure, each maximally as large, preferably smaller, in particular less than half as large are like the respective lens width of the lenses involved in the construction of the relevant optically imaging structure.
  • As resolving power one calls in the optics the distinctness of fine structures, thus the minimum distance, the z. For example, you may need to have two pixels or two lines from each other to perceive as separate pixels or lines. The resolution of the naked human eye varies from person to person. Normal-sighted adults at a distance of 25 cm can usually still distinguish structures at a distance of 150 μm. This corresponds to a viewing angle of about 2 angular minutes, which is referred to as angular resolution. With weak contrasts, the visual acuity of the human eye decreases markedly, with visual acuity representing the reciprocal of the resolution. The lens width of a microlens is thus usually less than the resolution of the naked eye of a normal adult.
  • To produce a colorful print image, the substrate is or is printed with a plurality of printing inks, for. B. are on the substrate designated as primary colors inks red, green, blue and optionally formed the ink black. As a rule, a print image consists of an arrangement of a plurality of small-area picture elements arranged at different positions of the relevant print image, wherein each picture element preferably has a plurality of pixels or lines and i. d. R. extending over a length of less than 100 microns. Each picture element or a group of neighboring picture elements forms z. B. an object to be viewed through the lens. The individual picture elements are in a printed image i. d. R. arranged to form a the informative content of a printed image defining print motif. Due to its limited i. d. Of insufficient resolution, individual pixels used in conjunction with a microlens are usually not perceptible singularly to the naked human eye. A perceived by a person color impression of the printed image or at least a portion of this printed image is created by taking place in the eye and brain of the observer additive color mixing printed in the respective pixels in each case different colors in pixels and / or lines. An overlay of two primary colors results in the color impressions yellow, cyan and magenta, which are called secondary colors. A superposition of all three primary colors gives the color impression white. A color register, d. H. a Passerhaltigkeit, d. H. an accuracy of fit of pixels and / or lines in each case of different printing inks in their relative arrangement to each other is in the embodiments of the invention considered here each less than 10 microns and is in particular in the range of about 5 microns.
  • The optically imaging structure provided in connection with the exemplary embodiments of the invention considered here is preferably arranged in combination with pixels and / or lines of different printing inks. The printed image is or is preferably produced as or by superposing a plurality of partial printed images, wherein several or preferably each of the partial printed images z. B. is printed in a different ink or is. In this case, the superposition by successive overprinting on the substrate or preferably by collecting the partial printing images on a printing element, for. On a cylinder, and simultaneous delivery to the substrate. The partial printing images in turn each consist of pixels and / or lines, wherein the pixel size of these pixels and / or the line thickness of the respective lines are each in the micrometer range, z. B. in the range of less than 20 microns. When viewing the print image observers are superimposed in his perception, the more involved in this print image partial printing z. B. to a color overall impression.
  • An arrangement comprising at least one print image and at least one optically imaging structure allows a viewer viewing the print image to perceive several different individual images at different viewing angles, wherein a sequence of individual images in the viewer's perception is a flip image and / or a spatial image , d. H. Three-dimensional effect and / or a morphing effect and / or a zoom effect and / or an animation can arise. Each of these frames is also referred to as a frame. The individual perceptible by the viewer at a certain viewing angle individual images formed by a defined by the optically imaging structure selection from the amount of perceptible at the respective positions of the microlenses due to the local at least one pixel or the local image elements partial pressure images, wherein the on a position of the printed image related overall impression of colors is created by superposition of all present at this position and perceptible partial print images. The optically imaging structure arranged in combination with a printed image is accordingly an optical masking of the partial printing images arranged in coincidence with the surface of the optically imaging structure and participating in the relevant printed image.
  • In order to allow a viewer viewing the printed image in each case at a certain viewing angle in each case several frames are perceived simultaneously, thereby z. For example, to realize more complex and / or differentiated animations, an arrangement comprising a printed image and one consisting of several plano-convex microlenses optically imaging structure is proposed in which under at least one microlens of the relevant optically imaging structure next to each other, preferably more than three, in particular between five and ten Are arranged between the extension of the lens width of the respective microlens and their focus in a plane parallel to the main plane of the respective microlens cutting plane, wherein the cutting plane of a cone or an angle field of the respectively through the lens width of the respective microlens in the direction of juxtaposed picture elements incident light is arranged intersecting, wherein in the cutting plane within the cone or the angular field simultaneously several mutually different picture elements are arranged in juxtaposition.
  • This results in an arrangement comprising a printed image and an existing multi-plano-convex microlenses optically imaging structure, each of these microlenses along the printed image has a lens width preferably less than 100 microns, wherein the printed image has a plurality of pixels, wherein at least one of Microlenses of the respective optically imaging structure are each arranged a plurality of picture elements, wherein said plurality of each arranged under at least one of the microlenses of the respective optically imaging structure pixels are arranged side by side along the lens width and each in the direction of the lens width each over a shorter length than the respective lens width extend, wherein between the extension of the lens width of the respective microlens and their focus in a cone or in the angular field of each by the lens width of the respective microlens in the direction of the side by side he arranged image elements of incident light parallel to the main plane of the respective microlens cutting plane simultaneously several, preferably at least three, in particular more than three mutually different pixels are arranged in a row. With this arrangement, a plurality of frames can be perceived simultaneously for a viewer looking at the print image at a particular viewing angle, resulting in complex and / or differentiated animations as well as sliding color transitions in corresponding color-formed picture elements and / or sliding frame transitions in the case of different print motifs formed from the picture elements ,
  • The substrate is z. As a fibrous substrate, especially paper, or a film, preferably a polymer film. The substrate may be opaque or transparent. The substrate may be single-layered or multi-layered, in particular multi-layered in sections. Various layers of a multilayer substrate may be formed of different materials, for. B. a layer of paper and another layer of a polymer film. The substrate or at least one respective layer of this substrate has a material thickness, d. H. Thickness z. B. of less than 100 microns, preferably less than 50 microns, in particular about 25 microns. A formed on the substrate printed image has a layer thickness z. B. of less than 10 microns, preferably less than 5 microns, in particular in the range of 1 micron to 2 microns. The substrate can be printed on one side or on both sides.
  • The arrangement of printed image and optically imaging structure is in the preferred embodiment of the invention part of a security element or a document, in particular a security document. These documents include, for example, banknotes, credit cards, checks, securities, stock certificates, passports, ID cards, driving licenses, title deeds, travel documents such as air or rail tickets, tickets, study receipts and other official or official documents such as birth, death or marriage certificates. This list is only an example and by no means exhaustive. However, these are preferably banknotes.
  • 1 shows an example of a document 02 , in particular a security document 02 on which at least one security element 01 is applied. The document 02 and / or the security element concerned 01 have at least part of the surface, preferably the entire surface at least one optically imaging structure 03 on, wherein the respective optically imaging structure 03 preferably as one of microlenses 11 formed micro-optical structure 03 is trained. The relevant optically imaging structure 03 at least partially covers one on the document 02 trained or applied print image 27 ,
  • 2 shows by way of example in particular as a section of the in the 1 illustrated security element 01 or document 02 in a greatly enlarged sectional view of an arrangement with a single plano-convex microlens 11 placed in a group or in a grid of microlenses 11 is involved. The microlens in question 11 has an axis of symmetry 12 on, which at the same time also the optical axis 12 this microlens 11 forms. The microlens 11 can be rotationally symmetrical spherical or aspherical or it is z. B. axially symmetrical rod-shaped, wherein in an axisymmetric rod-shaped microlens 11 the axis of symmetry 12 extending orthogonal to its rod length. The microlens 11 is z. B. made of a transparent plastic or resin injection or casting or embossing or printing technology. The microlens 11 has a convex envelope surface serving for the entry of light 13 , where a bundle of parallel light rays 14 on this envelope 13 meets. The microlens 11 has axisymmetric to its optical axis 12 two opposite the convex envelope surface 13 limiting edge points 16 ; 17 on, where the distance between these two boundary points 16 ; 17 one as the lens width 18 designated width of this microlens 11 certainly. The lens width 18 a microlens 11 is less than 100 μm. The two edge points 16 ; 17 the convex envelope surface 13 lie in an orthogonal to the optical axis 12 the microlens in question 11 arranged level, also called the main level 19 this microlens 11 referred to as. In the in the 4 illustrated embodiment forms the main plane 19 a flat envelope surface 21 the microlens in question 11 , A distance between the main plane 19 the microlens 11 and her focus 23 (Focal point) forms the focal length 22 the microlens in question 11 , where the focus 23 an intersection of the bundled, parallel in the microlens 11 incident light rays 14 is. The focal length 22 a microlens 11 is less than 100 μm. One in focus 23 orthogonal to the optical axis 12 arranged plane is called focal plane 24 ,
  • In the in the 2 illustrated embodiment is the microlens 11 Part of a lens array or a lenticular grid, in which with respect to a certain surface of any contour preferably each without gaps and without overlapping a plurality of microlenses 11 are arranged. The lens array or lenticular is on a substrate 26 arranged, wherein the substrate 26 z. B. as a fibrous substrate z. B. with a transparent window, in particular paper, or as a film, preferably a polymer film is formed. The substrate 26 has a material thickness 29 or thickness 29 z. B. of less than 100 microns, preferably less than 50 microns, in particular about 25 microns. The substrate 26 is preferably part of a security element 01 or a document 02 , in particular a security document 02 , The substrate 26 is at least in the plan of the envelope 21 the respective microlens 11 covered area formed transparent. In the in the 4 illustrated embodiment is on the back of the substrate 26 ie on the microlens 11 opposite side of this substrate 26 a printed image 27 low layer thickness 36 z. B. applied of less than 10 microns, this printed image 27 a plurality of individual mutually different picture elements 28 having. These individual picture elements 28 are formed very small area and extend parallel to the lens width 18 over only a few micrometers, z. B. over a maximum of 10 microns. Therefore, it is possible to have several, for. B. ten such picture elements 28a to 28j in the plane of the envelope 21 the microlens 11 covered area next to each other arranged in a row. At least one of the juxtaposed picture elements 28a to 28j preferably has pixels and / or lines printed in different printing inks, in particular as a function of the number of juxtaposed picture elements 28a to 28j their respective pixels have a pixel size and / or their lines a line thickness each in the range of a few microns, preferably in the range of less than 10 microns. The printed image 27 preferably consists of a superimposition or superimposition of several partial printed images each printed in different printing inks. The one in the plane of the envelope 21 the microlens 11 covered area, ie under the respective microlens 21 juxtaposed picture elements 28a to 28j are preferably each to different print motifs.
  • The under the microlens in question 11 juxtaposed picture elements 28a to 28j are advantageously closer to the microlens 11 arranged as their focus 23 , Preferably, these pixels are 28a to 28j between the microlens in question 11 and her focus 23 in a parallel to the main plane 19 the microlens in question 11 lying cutting plane 31 arranged, with the cutting plane 31 a cone 32 or a Winkelfeld 32 each by the lens width 18 the microlens in question 11 in the direction of the juxtaposed picture elements 28a to 28j incident light is arranged intersecting, being in the cutting plane 31 inside the cone 32 or the angle field 32 at the same time, preferably several of the picture elements 28a to 28j arranged in a row. In the in the 2 illustrated embodiment are within the cone 32 or the angle field 32 at the same time the z. B. five pixels 28c to 28g arranged in a row, whereas the others are arranged in the plane of the envelope 21 the microlens 11 covered area arranged picture elements 28a . 28b and 28h to 28j for a print picture 27 Viewing viewer under one with the incoming rays of light 14 corresponding z. B. acute first viewing angle 33 are not noticeable. If now for a print image 27 Viewing viewer the viewing angle to one from the first viewing angle 33 different z. B. obtuse second viewing angle 34 is changed, for him also the perceptible picture elements change 28a to 28j , This is in the 3 shown, the same arrangement with a printed image 27 and one of several plano-convex microlenses 11 existing optically imaging structure 03 as the 2 having. Because of the first viewing angle 33 different second viewing angle 34 are in the in the 3 illustrated embodiment for a print image 27 viewing observers only the picture elements 28d to 28h perceptible, while the others are not.
  • 4 shows a plan view of a z. B. on a security element 01 or one document 02 , in particular a security document 02 ( 1 ) applied optically imaging structure 03 in the form of a geometric 37 whose preferably flat surface at least substantially, ie macroscopically considered, a z. B. rectangular contour 38 having. Spread over the entire surface of the geometric 37 extending optically imaging structure 03 has a plurality of preferably each planoconvex formed microlenses 11 on. Here is a first subset of these microlenses 11 in a z. B. square grid cells 39 existing in particular uniform grating preferably each gapless and arranged without overlapping, said microlenses arranged in the grid 11 are each formed rotationally symmetrical spherical or rotationally symmetric aspherical. The grid cells 39 are through a lot of grid points 41 defined among themselves by a set of grid lines 42 are connected. The concrete number of grid points 41 and grid lines 42 depends on the shape of the selected grid. In the case of square grid cells 39 each result in four grid points 41 and four grid lines 42 , in the case of hexagonal lattice cells 39 there are six of them. The grid points 41 are each at points from the set amount of the optically imaging structure 03 descriptive geometric 37 educated. At each of the one grid cell 39 spanning grid points 41 is in each case a microlens 11 arranged, the vertex 44 ( 2 or 3 ) of the microlens in question 11 preferably in each case congruent with the respective grid point 41 is arranged, with the vertex 44 the microlens in question 11 each at the intersection of their optical axis 12 with its convex envelope surface serving for the entrance of light 13 located. A second subset of the relevant optical imaging structure 03 belonging to microlenses 11 is in at least one, preferably in several lens grids 43 with a plurality of each axisymmetric rod-shaped microlenses 11 arranged, these being in a lenticular grid 43 arranged microlenses 11 each orthogonal to their rod length preferably each are lined up gapless and without overlap. In case of several within the area of geometric 37 arranged lenticular grid 43 have these lenticular grids 43 z. B. on each one different orientation. In an advantageous arrangement, the respective orientation are different within the surface of the same optically imaging structure 03 arranged lenticular grid 43 z. B. at right angles or at an acute angle or obtuse to each other. In the geometric 37 an optically imaging structure 03 With a rectangular, in particular square, surface, the orientation of a lens grid formed within this surface can be determined 43 also be arranged diagonally. The within the surface of the same optically imaging structure 03 arranged lenticular grid 43 are in their respective form and / or in their respective area fraction z. B. differently formed.
  • 5 shows by way of example greatly enlarged in a plan view of a plurality of lens grids 43 composite optically imaging structure 03 , There are several of each of several microlenses 11 existing lenticular grid 43 each formed as a preferably square rectangular area each formed in a rectangular surface lenticular 43 are each arranged in at least one row and / or in at least one column, in particular each gapless and without overlap. Adjacent lenticular grid 43 are each arranged in mutually different orientation, wherein lenticular 43 same first orientation and other lenticular 43 the same from the first orientation of different second orientation z. B. are each arranged alternately. The several the optically imaging structure 03 forming lenticular grid 43 Together form in the preferred embodiment together a underlaid preferably multi-colored print image 27 from, with this printed image 27 preferably in the manner described above consists of a superimposition or a superimposition of several partial printed in each case in different printing colors partial printing images and is formed in the form of several pixels and / or lines. The printed image 27 is z. B. formed such that a frame, ie a single image z. B. an animation, each of two different fields line by line, that is constructed in an interlaced process (English: interlacing). Each one of the optically imaging structure 03 involved lenticular 43 has an edge length in the range of 100 microns to a maximum of 300 microns, preferably of about 250 microns. The respective lens width 18 in the respective lens grids 43 this optically imaging structure 03 arranged microlenses 11 is less than 100 microns and is preferably in the range between 20 microns and 65 microns. Due to the limited in the range of about 150 microns resolution of the naked human eye normal-sighted adult can at a distance of z. B. 25 cm, the several together the optically imaging structure 03 forming lenticular grid 43 ie their respective mappings of the respective affected picture elements 28 of the underlying print image 27 individually not be perceived, but the respective of a particular individual lenticular 43 imaged picture elements 28 of the relevant print image 27 merge in the perception of the printed image 27 Viewing viewer with at least one of the respective images of lens grids 43 related to this optically imaging structure 03 to the particular lenticular screen concerned 43 are arranged adjacent. The in the 5 exemplified in the form of a square shaped geometric 37 illustrated optically imaging structure 03 with a total of z. B. sixteen in their respective orientation each alternately arranged lens grids 43 measures side lengths in each case z. B. in the range of 0.6 mm to 1.5 mm, preferably of about 1 mm. An advantage of the arrangement consisting of a printed image 27 and one according to the 5 formed optically imaging structure 03 is that through a group of one-dimensionally oriented lens grids 43 two-dimensional lenticular images can be generated.
  • As shown, the printed image results for one 27 in combination with the optically imaging structure 03 viewing observers very complex, z. B. for different directions and different animations, if the z. B. in the form of a geometric 37 formed optically imaging structure 03 with at least some of them based on the 4 or 5 indicated features is used. If within the area one as a geometric 37 formed optically imaging structure 03 differently oriented lenticular grid 43 used as it is in the 4 and 5 is exemplified, in the manufacturing process, the printing process to be carried out such that in the underlying print image 27 the above-described type whose color register is adhered to two-dimensional, z. B. both in the transport direction of the moving through the printing press substrate and across it. This causes the Passerhaltigkeit of the structure of the relevant printed image 27 each involved in different printing inks printed pixels and / or lines in two orthogonal directions is less than 10 microns and in particular in the range of about 5 microns.
  • 6 shows an optically imaging structure 03 consisting of a group of rotationally symmetric spherical or rotationally symmetric aspherical microlenses 11 placed in a grid of square grid cells 39 are arranged without gaps and without overlapping, ie edge points 16 ; 17 neighboring microlenses 11 are in contact with each other. The square grid cells 39 have four grid points 41 on top of each other by two pairs of parallel grid lines 42 are connected. At each of the one grid cell 39 spanning grid points 41 is in each case a microlens 11 arranged, the vertex 44 the microlens in question 11 each congruent with the respective grid point 41 is arranged. Based on the area of the square grid cell 39 results in a packing density of a maximum of π / 4 ≈ 78.5%, with the result that at least about 21% of the area of the respective grid cell 39 no contribution to the image of one of the microlens in question 11 underlying print image 27 but at a print image 27 through the optically imaging structure 03 viewing observer creates a rather unwanted disturbing perception.
  • As 7 can also be seen, an optically imaging structure 03 consisting of a group of rotationally symmetric spherical or rotationally symmetric aspherical microlenses 11 that in contrast to 6 in a grid of hexagonal grid cells 39 are arranged without gaps and without overlapping, ie edge points 16 ; 17 neighboring microlenses 11 are in contact with each other, the problem of surface areas between the microlenses 11 do not solve the rather unwanted disturbing perception. Although the packing density reaches a maximum of π / 6 √3 ≈ 90.6%, this still means that about 10% of the area of the respective grid cell 39 no contribution to the image of one of the microlens in question 11 underlying print image 27 can afford.
  • The unwanted optical effects of the limited packing density of arranged in a group each rotationally symmetric spherical or rotationally symmetric aspherical trained microlenses 11 be in the 8th and 9 clarified. In each two-part 8th and 9 is shown in each case simplified, what a viewer perceives, from two different viewing angles in each case by the same group of microlenses 11 on a microlenses 11 underlayed print image 27 looks, with this printed image 27 at least two different picture elements 28a ; 28b wherein, in the 8th and 9 each on an optically neutral substrate 26 in each case at least one first picture element 28a each from the convex envelope surface 13 the microlens in question 11 is completely covered and at least one other second picture element 28b each at the same position in a corner of a z. B. square grid cell 39 arranged and therefore of the respective microlens 11 is not or only partially covered by less than 50%.
  • According to the 8th the viewer looks z. B. vertically through the microlens in question 11 and takes that from the microlens in question 11 covered and thus imaged at least a first picture element 28a true, since that is at least a first of the microlens in question 11 captured picture element 28a lies in the beam path of the viewer and the microlens 11 visually apparent filling. Different is the one in the 9 illustrated situation. Due to the oblique viewing angle of the viewer, z. B. under the viewing angle 33 ( 2 ), the beam path concerned does not focus the at least one first of the respective microlens 11 completely covered picture element 28a or the beam path does not even hit it, so that the viewer is not a picture of the at least one first picture element 28a through the microlens in question 11 perceives. The microlens in question 11 stays in the 9 illustrated situation against the background of the optically neutral substrate 26 optically inactive. In both in the 8th and 9 However, situations shown remain the at least one other second picture element 28b , each at the same position in a corner of a z. B. square grid cell 39 arranged and therefore of the respective microlens 11 only partially covered, perceptible to the viewer. Such arranged picture elements 28b that is outside of the convex envelope 13 the microlens in question 11 arranged at least almost completely covered area, lead in the perception of the observer to optical disturbances such. B. to so-called ghosting or to a crosstalk effect or to a loss in contrast or sharpness with respect to the intended as a useful signal perceptible print image 27 , It can also come to low-contrast and / or blurred moire appearances when the printed image 27 periodically recurring picture elements 28 However, with the arranged in a uniform grid microlenses 11 are not arranged in phase, but where parts of at least some periodically recurring picture elements 28 are each disposed outside of that area, that of the respective convex envelope surface 13 the respective microlenses 11 at least almost completely covered. The latter is through the 10 through the periodically recurring star-shaped picture elements 28 in their non-in-phase relationship to the lattice-like arrangement of the microlenses 11 illustrated.
  • To reduce and / or avoid the aforementioned unwanted disturbing perceptions, it is proposed, in an arrangement of a plurality of rotationally symmetrical spherical or rotationally symmetrical aspherical microlenses 11 in one of grid cells 39 existing grid are arranged on at least one z. B. between adjacent microlenses 11 trained area, that of the respective convex envelope surface 13 the respective microlenses 11 not covered, incident light rays 14 diffuse diffusely and thus to scatter in a variety of different spatial directions. The microlenses arranged in a group 11 form an optically imaging structure 03 in the form of a geometric 37 with at least one of the respective convex envelope surface 13 the respective microlenses 11 uncovered area any, z. B. rectangular contour 38 from, wherein the respective of the respective convex envelope surface 13 the respective microlenses 11 uncovered area incident light rays 14 diffusely reflecting, that is designed to be scattering. In this case, a remission degree of this surface is in the range of z. 30% to 99%, preferably more than 60%.
  • The incident light rays 14 diffuse reflecting surface is z. B. roughened, that is, this surface has roughness structures with a roughness, with respect to the respective wavelength of the incident light rays 14 or with respect to the spectrum of the incident light in the same order of magnitude and thus has a value in the range of z. B. 380 nm to 780 nm. Preferably, the roughness of the diffuse reflective surface, indicated z. B. by a roughness average Ra or an average roughness depth Rz of the surface in question (in each case, for example, after DIN EN ISO 4288: 1998-04 ), about the same size as the wavelength of the incident light rays 14 , The roughness structures generally have a large number of scattering centers distributed over the surface for the incident light beams 14 on.
  • The roughening of at least one incident light rays 14 diffuse reflecting surface can, for. B. in a stamping process or casting process, which for the preparation of the plurality of microlenses 11 having optically imaging structure 03 is used, thereby be manufactured or trained that in one of the microlenses 11 embossing or pouring z. B. metallic die 46 z. B. by grinding or lapping or honing or sandblasting or pickling or etching or other abrasive methods roughened areas 49 between the hollows 47 for each microlens to be trained 11 with a roughness in one to the wavelength of the incident light rays 14 be formed of comparable magnitude, so that the roughness of these areas 49 z. B. when embossing the microlenses 11 by means of this template 46 on the for these microlenses 11 provided blank 48 or semifinished product 48 depict or z. B. when casting on a substrate 26 form. This blank 48 or this semi-finished product 48 is z. B. each formed of a UV-curable plastic or resin. This approach is through the 11 illustrated. The microlenses 11 uncovered roughened areas 49 on the surface of the geometric 37 appear to a viewer due to the diffuse reflection, ie the light scattering dull and / or pale and / or whitish.
  • Another solution for reducing and / or avoiding the aforementioned unwanted disturbing perceptions is z. B. therein, z. B. casting technology or embossed microlenses 11 in their manufacturing process relative to picture elements 28 a highlighted print image 27 to position. This is through the 12 illustrated. In this solution is for the z. B. casting technology or embossed microlenses 11 their respective ones on at least one picture element 28 a highlighted print image 27 related Position adjusted in their manufacturing process or at least adjustable, these arranged in a group of microlenses 11 an optically imaging structure 03 in the form of a geometric 37 form.
  • The abovementioned undesired disturbing perceptions can also be reduced and / or avoided, for example, by the microlenses 11 on the surface of the geometric 37 uncovered areas 49 especially are colored white. The coloring, especially whitening of the microlenses 11 on the surface of the geometric 37 uncovered areas 49 takes place for. B. in connection with the production of these microlenses 11 and is based on the 13 explained. 13 shows by way of example in four partial views a to d successive manufacturing steps for the formation of microlenses 11 with these microlenses 11 on the surface of the geometric 37 uncovered, in particular, white-colored areas 49 , In the first production step (a) troughs 47 one for the production of the microlenses 11 used die 46 , ie mold, z. B. filled with a respective UV-curable plastic or resin. Then the between the hollows 47 the matrix 46 arranged webs 51 to those of the microlenses 11 uncovered areas 49 z. B. characterized in particular white, that a particular white ink 52 carrying print carrier 53 on these from the microlenses 11 uncovered areas 49 is pressed, which is indicated in the first partial view by the directional arrow. The second partial representation b) shows that for the production of the microlenses 11 used die 46 each with z. B. filled with a plastic or resin troughs 47 and in particular white colored bars 51 after the white ink 52 supporting print carrier 53 - As indicated by the directional arrow - of the die 46 has been removed again. According to the third partial representation c) is the die 46 with their each with z. B. a plastic or resin filled wells 47 and their particular white colored bars 51 in the direction of the arrow on a substrate 26 pressed, with the white ink 52 on the jetties 51 still in a wet state. Both on the jetties 51 the matrix 46 applied in particular white printing ink 52 as well as the z. B. made of a plastic or resin castings for the production of microlenses 11 be on the substrate 26 transfer. As the fourth partial representation d) shows, the matrix becomes 46 with their emptied hollows 47 and after the transfer of the particular white printing ink 52 from the substrate 26 lifted off, which is indicated by the directional arrow. By the exemplary steps shown in the four partial views a) to d) one of an arrangement of a plurality of microlenses 11 existing optically imaging structure 03 in the form of a geometric 37 formed, wherein from the microlenses 11 on the surface of the geometric 37 uncovered areas 49 especially are colored white. The microlenses 11 on the surface of the geometric 37 uncovered, especially white colored areas 49 additionally have z. B. roughness structures with a roughness, with respect to the respective wavelength of the incident light rays 14 or with respect to the spectrum of incident light of the same order, so that these ranges 49 As a result of their coloring and their surface texture, they are each diffusely reflecting, that is, they are scattering.
  • In order to realize complex and / or differentiated animations and / or with appropriately colored picture elements 28 sliding color transitions and / or out of the picture elements 28 It is necessary, under the microlenses, to create sliding frame transitions formed by different print motifs 11 an optically imaging structure 03 each next to each other several, preferably more than three, in particular between five and ten or more pixels 28 to arrange, with the individual picture elements 28 in a printed image 27 are arranged to form a print motif. Because the lens width 18 every microlens 11 is less than 100 microns and preferably in the range between 20 microns and 65 microns, this means that the individual pixels 28 each have extremely small dimensions in the range of only a few micrometers. As a rule, each of these typographically formed picture element sets 28 from several pixels and / or lines together, wherein the pixel size of these pixels and / or the line thickness of these lines are preferably less than half as large as the respective lens width 18 the structure of the relevant optical imaging structure 03 involved microlenses 11 , In different colors, especially the same microlens 11 underlying picture elements 28 their pixels and / or lines are arranged with a color register of less than 10 microns, in particular in the range of about 5 microns. The formation of pixels and / or lines in the aforementioned order of only a few micrometers and / or their Passerhaltigkeit represents in an industrial manufacturing process a high printing challenge, especially with these dimensions and / or accuracy requirements a z. B. printing-related deformation of the printing material and preferably rheological properties of the ink used, in particular their spreading, ie their areal distribution and propagation on the surface of the printing material, form no longer negligible influencing variables for the formation of such pixels and / or lines.
  • In the preferred embodiment, the arrangement is printed image 27 and optically imaging structure 03 Part of a security element 01 or a security document 02 , Here is the security element 01 or the security document 02 z. B. constructed of several superimposed planes or layers, in the following the term "level" is used. One covers the observer of the security element 01 or the security document 02 facing upper level at least partially at least one underlying the viewer of the security element 01 or the security document 02 opposite lower level. In the viewer of the security element 01 or the security document 02 facing upper level is the at least one each more microlenses 11 having optically imaging structure 03 educated. This upper level is considered a substrate 26 z. B. formed in the form of a transparent polymer film, wherein on this substrate 26 made of plastic or resin z. B. casting technology or embossing technology microlenses 11 are arranged. The at least one lower level has another substrate 26 on, in their material z. B. is different from the upper level. The substrate 26 exists z. B. from a z. B. fibrous substrate, in particular of paper, with one in one of the lower levels z. B. on the substrate formed printed image 27 is at least partially covered by the upper level. The upper level and the at least one lower level are preferably still joined together in the production process in the printing press, preferably after printing on one of the lower levels forming printing material. In a further embodiment, it can be provided that the substrate 26 the upper level on the back, that is printed on the at least one lower level facing side before joining with the respective lower level.
  • As in this arrangement with an optically imaging structure 03 the respective lens width 18 every single microlens 11 and the respective dimensions of each picture element involved in the print motif 28 of the optically imaging structure 03 underlying print image 27 each smaller than the resolution of the naked human eye of a normal-sighted adult in the range of about 150 microns can be viewed by a viewer of the printed image 27 single microlenses 11 and / or individual picture elements 28 in each case individually, ie as such recognizing usually not be perceived. Rather, the viewer takes the print image 27 only one group each of several microlenses 11 with these microlenses 11 underlying picture elements 28 as a graphic element (pixel), this perception related to the respective pixel in terms of its shape and / or color being integrated via the image elements which are not individually resolvable by the eye 28 is.
  • 14 shows schematically and greatly enlarged an arrangement of several, for. B. three superimposed lower levels of a security element 01 or a security document 02 , in a first representation a) in a section and in a second representation b) in an associated plan view. An associated the optically imaging structure covering the lower levels 03 having upper level, which is an observer of the security element 01 or the security document 02 is facing, is in 14 not shown for reasons of clarity. Possible embodiments of this optically imaging structure 03 will be on the 2 to 13 referenced with respective description text. As the lowest and thus the viewer of the security element 01 or the security document 02 far-off level is according to 14 a ) a substrate 26 z. B. in the form of a z. As provided fibrous substrate, on which a multi-color printed image 27 applied or arranged. The printed image 27 is in accordance with his print motif of several different, usually different, especially different colored picture elements 28 together, on the substrate 26 partly arranged in different pressure layers one above the other. In a first embodiment, for. B. directly on the substrate 26 a lower pressure layer 54 applied or arranged, wherein in this lower printing layer 54 several id R. different in each case several pixels and / or lines width, in particular different colored color zones 61 are each preferably arranged without gaps and without overlapping next to each other. On this lower print layer 54 is at least one upper print layer 56 arranged or applied, in which in each case preferably several different, usually different, especially differently colored picture elements 28 each on the color zones 61 z. B. evenly spaced next to each other. The color zones 61 are preferably formed strip-shaped or rectangular; but they can also have any other surface geometry. The in the upper printing layer 56 arranged picture elements 28 are at most half as wide as those extending in the same direction in the lower print layer 54 arranged color zones 61 , Preferably, the width is in the upper printing layer 56 arranged picture elements 28 each less than 30% of the rectified width of the respective in the lower printing layer 54 arranged color zone 61 , So at least two of these are in the upper printing layer 56 arranged picture elements 28 such on one of the lower print layer 54 arranged color zone 61 arranged in a plan view of the security element 01 or security document 02 between the at least two in the upper print layer 56 each spaced apart pixels arranged 28 each one of these picture elements 28 in the lower printing layer 54 arranged color zone 61 is visible. How through the 14 b ) is shown in the plan view of this security element 01 or security document 02 an arrangement apparently in the lower printing layer 54 formed picture elements 28 and indeed through the upper print layer 56 formed picture elements 28 are arranged alternately strung together. In this arrangement, several different pairs of each alternately arranged picture elements arise 28 , each from one through the respective color zone 61 represented picture element 28 the lower printing layer 54 and a picture element 28 the upper print layer 56 are formed. In the plan view of the relevant 14 b ) are pairs of picture elements formed by the same inks 28 exemplary for different frames 57 a to 57e summarized, with each of these frames 57a to 57e in combination with the arranged in the upper level of microlenses 11 existing optically imaging structure 03 for a print picture 27 viewing observer creates a two-color alternating image (flip). As another embodiment of the in the 14 arrangement shown can be provided that an upper level, the observer of the security element 01 or the security document 02 is facing and z. B. is formed of a transparent polymer film, the front side, the optically imaging structure 03 and on the back first with the particular differently colored spaced apart picture elements 28 is printed, these individual pixels 28 subsequently with larger-area ink zones 61 be overprinted. In this way, a multi-level arrangement is also provided, but not a substrate as in the first described embodiment 26 as substrate z. B. of paper must have. This second embodiment thus performs z. B. to a security element 01 or a security document 02 lower material thickness. Both embodiments have in common that the respective individual picture elements 28 can be applied or arranged relatively positionally tolerant, since the ink zones underlaid 61 compared to these picture elements 28 are formed over a large area. This is just the case in each case in the micrometer range dimensions of the picture elements 28 very advantageous in terms of the manufacturing process for such a security element 01 or security document 02 ,
  • Alternatively to the one in the 14 shown arrangement is proposed on a in a lower level of a security element 01 or a security document 02 arranged substrate 26 in a lower printing layer 54 several different colored color zones 61 to arrange next to each other, one transverse to the longitudinal direction of the respective color zone 61 extending width preferably the lens width 18 corresponds, these color zones z. B. in the printing inks red, green and blue are formed, these different colored ink zones 61 through an upper pressure layer 56 are masked. The masking is z. B. formed by the fact that the upper pressure layer 56 an arrangement of holes 59 or slits 59 having.
  • 15 shows in a top view on the left the lower printing layer 54 with several, z. B. three each in lens width 18 trained z. B. parallel, preferably different colored ink zones 61 on which lower printing layer 54 - indicated by the plus sign - the right in the 15 pictured mask 58 , in particular shadow mask or stripe mask as the upper printing layer 56 is or is. The color zones 61 are z. B. by the printing inks R (red); G (green); B (blue) formed. In the mask 58 is in association with the respective color zones 61 each an individual pattern of holes 59 or slits 59 introduced through which holes 59 or slots 59 through the respective printing ink R ; G ; B the highlighted color zone 61 is perceptible or is. Each of these is preferably in different printing inks R; G; B trained color zones 61 another, in each case from the other color zones 61 different pattern of holes 59 or slits 59 assigned, so that all holes 59 or slots 59 in their respective individual positions depending on the color zone 61 differ from each other. All these holes 59 or slots 59 have at least transversely to the longitudinal direction of the respective color zone 61 , ie in the direction of the width of the relevant color zone 61 each have an extent, each smaller than the respective lens width 18 those microlenses 11 is this mask 58 cover. In addition shows 15 how the depending on the color zone 61 differently masked preferably different colors formed three color zones 61 in combination with the mask 58 represent. Out 15 It can be seen that the differently colored ink zones 61 through the different patterns of holes 59 or slits 59 the mask 58 be clearly coded. The holes 59 or slots 59 the mask 58 are z. B. arranged in a grid of preferably square grid cells distributed, said grid in shape and / or size preferably corresponds to that grid in which the microlenses 11 the optically imaging structure 03 are arranged. This is in the 15 indicated by the dashed lines representing the mask 58 divide into rows and columns.
  • An advantage in the masking of color zones 61 is that only these color zones 61 are to be printed in register, even in one single direction, namely orthogonal to its longitudinal extent, moreover, here the requirements for the color register are far from being as high as those in the embodiment of 14 , There were the picture elements 28 the lower printing layer 54 and the picture elements 28 the upper print layer 56 to position each other in a very accurate color register to selectively generate certain alternating images or other perceptions. In the embodiment of 15 however, just make sure that the respective holes 59 or slots 59 the masking in the selected assignment to the relevant in each case in lens width 18 from Z. B. 20 microns to 65 microns formed ink zones 61 remain, which is much easier to accomplish in a printing production process than the compliance of a color register in the range of less than 10 microns, rather of about 5 microns.
  • The optically imaging structure 03 facing surface of the mask 58 is preferably white, in particular formed by a white printing ink, for a viewer of the printed image 27 reduce or avoid unwanted disturbing perceptions that in another color design of areas between the arranged in a group rotationally symmetric microlenses 11 could result.
  • 16 shows an optically imaging structure 03 in the form of a z. B. formed as a rectangle geometric 37 , wherein the optically imaging structure 03 several groups of rotationally symmetric microlenses 11 which groups are arranged in a grid consisting of rows and columns. These groups of microlenses 11 are z. B. uniformly formed, wherein in each case a plurality of microlenses 11 each z. B. are grouped into a rectangle, in particular to a square. Between each group of microlenses 11 are z. B. webs 62 formed, which free of microlenses 11 are. In the in the 16 illustrated embodiment are rotationally symmetric, preferably plano-convex microlenses 11 each with a lens width 18 from Z. B. 20 microns in preferably square groups of two dimensions in each case more, z. B. six times six microlenses 11 These groups, in turn, are arranged in a rectangular grid of several, usually a plurality of columns and a plurality, usually of a multiplicity of rows. The formation of the optically imaging structure 03 according to 16 causes each group of microlenses 11 in the perception of a viewer, that of the optically imaging structure 03 underlaid print image 27 as a graphic element (pixel) becomes perceptible, since each of these groups of microlenses 11 extends in both dimensions each over a length which is in the range of 120 microns to 150 microns, and thus approximately in the range of the resolution of the naked human eye normal-sighted adult. When such an optically imaging structure 03 on a white mask 58 is arranged, the individual groups of microlenses 11 between each white webs 62 on, which improves the contrast between the individual pixels. Of course, optically imaging structures can also be used 03 according to the 4 or 5 in conjunction with the arrangements according to the 14 or 15 be used.
  • Based on 17 Now, an arrangement for forming structures in the micrometer range in a picture element 28 of a microlens 11 to be backed up print image 27 and a method explained as on a substrate 26 applied picture elements 28 a printed image 27 can be encoded, the printed image 27 after encoding at least some of its picture elements 28 one more microlens 11 having optically imaging structure 03 to form a security element 01 or a security document 02 is underlaid. In this arrangement and this method is in each case a laser 63 , preferably a gas laser, in particular an excimer laser 63 used to print ink selectively from a selected picture element 28 ablate. One from the laser 63 outgoing laser beam 66 is through a mask 64 on the picture element to be edited 28 directed, this mask 64 z. B. in one to the laser beam 66 orthogonal plane encoding in the form of one in this mask 64 formed pattern, which is determined based on this pattern, at which points of the selected picture element 28 Print ink is selectively removed. The mask 64 is z. B. formed from a partially transparent quartz, in which the pattern by appropriately positioned passages for the laser beam 66 is trained. This in the mask 64 trained pattern is transferred in this respect to the pixel to be processed 28 , as according to the pattern of the mask 64 in this picture element 28 Printing ink upon impact of the laser beam 66 z. B. is selectively removed by evaporation. The picture element in question 28 having substrate 26 is thus freed at certain points again from the previously applied ink. The laser 63 , in particular excimer laser 63 is preferably operated pulsed with a pulse duration in each case in the range of z. 1 ns to 40 ns, preferably about 20 ns. The wavelength of the laser beam 66 is preferably in the ultraviolet spectral range, for. B. in the range between 100 nm and 360 nm. With an excimer laser 63 Structures with a width in the range of 0.25 microns to 1 microns can be formed, so that in one pixel 28 finest patterns can be made from selectively worn places.
  • It thus arises z. Example, a method for producing a printed image 27 having security element 01 or a security document 02 in which several picture elements 28 of the printed image 27 by applying printing ink to a substrate 26 be formed, in which by means of a laser 63 outgoing laser beam 66 at least one selected location of a selected picture element 28 of the printed image 27 the previously applied ink is removed. It is called a laser 63 z. As a gas laser, in particular an excimer laser 63 used. With the laser beam 66 will appear in the selected picture element 28 of the printed image 27 a structure having a width preferably formed in the range between 0.25 microns and 1 micron, said structures z. B. to those in the 12 or 16 may be similar. The laser 63 is advantageously operated pulsed with a pulse duration in the range between 1 ns and 40 ns and / or with a wavelength in the range between 100 nm and 360 nm. The at least one point at which by means of the laser beam 66 in the selected picture element 28 of the printed image 27 the previously applied ink is to be removed, is preferably selected by the fact that in the beam path of the laser beam 66 a mask 64 with at least one passage for the laser beam 66 is arranged, wherein the at least one passage in the mask 64 in accordance with the at least one point to be liberated in each case by printing ink in the selected picture element 28 of the printed image 27 is positioned. The printed image 27 of the security element 01 or the security document 02 In particular, a plurality of microlenses 11 having optically imaging structure 03 underlaid, this printed image 27 at least one picture element 28 with at least one each by means of the laser 63 outgoing laser beam 66 ink-free point, wherein the respective lens width 18 the microlenses 11 is less than 100 microns, and preferably in the range between 20 microns and 65 microns. The printing ink for forming the at least one picture element 28 of the printed image 27 becomes on an opaque or transparent substrate 26 applied and from there by means of the laser 63 outgoing laser beam 66 selectively removed. The microlenses 11 having optically imaging structure 03 is z. B. injection molding or casting technology or embossing technology or printing technology. The microlenses 11 the optically imaging structure 03 are preferably made of a plastic or a resin. Advantageously, the at least one picture element 28 formed with the at least one in each case of ink to be liberated point in white ink. The at least one picture element 28 with the at least one point to be liberated in each case by printing ink is in a preferred embodiment, a color zone 61 z. B. underlaid in one of the printing inks red or green or blue, that of the printing ink of the at least one picture element 28 with the at least one point to be liberated in each case by printing ink is formed in different colors, so that the freed from ink point of the at least one picture element 28 the this picture element 28 underlaid differently colored color zone exposes.
  • The stated security elements 01 or documents 02 , in particular security documents 02 with the optically imaging, in particular micro-optical structure 03 can in principle be produced using a wide variety of types and / or designs of printing presses or printing processes. Here, an embodiment is of particular advantage, in which several or all of the sub-images mentioned on the substrate 26 applied or printed while passing through a same guide element 118 ; 119 guided, for example, on a same guide element 118 ; 119 , z. B. a belt or belt system or preferably a transport cylinder 118 ; 119 , lying, by a printing unit 101 ; 102 is encouraged. That is, the printing of the substrate 26 on a same page with the at least two different frames, preferably different colored sub-images takes place on a transport path section with a continuous transport, ie without an intermediate transfer of the substrate 26 between different means of transport.
  • The printing with the at least two or more partial printed images preferably takes place simultaneously and / or at the same printing location 103 ; 104 in that they are initially superimposed on one another and in an indirect process on the substrate as a whole 26 be delivered.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the security element is in the production path of the security element 01 or document 02 underlying substrate 26 a printing press 100 with at least one printing unit 101 ; 102 provided by which the substrate 26 at least on one side, z. B. on the side of the micro-optical structure 03 in the finished security element 01 or document 02 opposite, at the same pressure point 103 ; 104 simultaneously with at least two or more imaging printing cylinders 106 ; 107 , z. B. form cylinders 106 ; 107 , originating, preferably differently colored print images, ie partial print images, can be printed (see, for example, US Pat. 18 . 19 and 20 ). The substrate 26 is thus - preferably on at least its micro-optical structure 03 in the finished security element 01 or document 02 opposite side - at the same pressure point 103 ; 104 on a same page at the same time with multiple cylinders 106 ; Printed 107stammenden, superimposed and preferably different colored partial print images. One such printing unit 101 ; 102 is also briefly referred to as a collective printing unit 101 ; 102 designated.
  • The collective printing unit 101 ; 102 includes a pressure point 103 ; 104 for the substrate to be printed 26 supplying printing cylinder 108 ; 109 through which substrate brought along along a transport path 26 by the contact between printing cylinder 108 ; 109 and substrate 26 can be printed with ink of the previously printed on its outer surface print image. In this case, the printed image is superimposed on several partial printing images, which of several imaging printing cylinders 106 ; 107 , in particular form cylinders 106 ; 107 , of the printing unit 101 . 102 come and on this the pressure point 103 ; 104 supplying printing cylinder 108 ; 109 or already upstream of each other upstream of the printed image to be transferred. These are two or more imaging cylinders 106 ; 107 , z. B. form cylinder 106 ; 107 , which comprises z. B. the handling of the partial pressure images collecting cylinder, in particular of the pressure point 103 ; 104 forming printing cylinder 108 ; 109 , arranged one behind the other and can be adjusted or adjusted to these. Preferably, to form the pressure point 103 ; 104 the relevant printing cylinder 108 ; 109 and a counter-pressure cylinder 118 ; 119 effective further printing cylinder 118 . 119 over the substrate 26 hired or adjustable. For example, this is another printing cylinder 118 . 119 as the substrate 26 conveying transport cylinder 118 ; 119 trained and also simultaneously the above-mentioned guide element 118 ; 119 on which the substrate 26 is supported while being printed by the at least two or more partial printing images.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the printing unit 101 ; 102 is that the pressure point 103 ; 104 forming printing cylinder 108 ; 109 at the same time as the collecting cylinder collecting the partial print images 108 ; 109 , in particular color collecting cylinders 108 . 109 , formed and preferably as a transfer or blanket cylinder 108 ; 109 executed. He has at the periphery one or more successively arranged printing blankets with a compressible and / or elastic layer.
  • The with the same collecting cylinder 108 ; 109 co-acting imaging printing cylinders 106 ; 107 be in the range of their effective lateral surface by respective inking units 111 ; 112 dyed, which in principle could be carried out in any way. Preferably, however, they are designed as lifting inking units. The imaging printing cylinders 106 ; 107 and the associated color works 111 ; 112 comprehensive partial printing unit strands can in principle all or in part by a dry offset method working, ie without dampening and / or using printing plates for dry offset executed. Preferably, however, all or at least two of the partial printing unit strands are operating as after the wet offset printing, ie with respective dampening units 113 ; 114 and / or using printing plates for wet offset.
  • In a preferred embodiment, at least two of the imaging cylinders 106 ; 107 formed and / or equipped in the region of its lateral surface with a printing form whose structure allows or allows printing with pixels of an above-mentioned pixel size or line thickness. When printing two partial images in the production above security elements 01 or documents 02 - If necessary, inter alia - picture elements with a line thickness of less than 100 microns, preferably less than 50 microns, in particular of less than 20 microns on the substrate 26 printed. In this case, for example, a registration accuracy of these two partial printing images is considered in the transport direction with a maximum relative deviation of less than 20 μm, preferably less than 10 μm. In the case of a printing forme designed as a high pressure form this includes, for example, effective for printing raised lands with a below 100 microns, preferably below 50 microns, especially below 20 microns lying width at the outer end. In the case of a printing plate designed as a planographic printing plate for wet offset, it comprises, for example, printing effective hydrophilic printing plate areas with a width of less than 100 μm, preferably less than 50 μm, in particular less than 20 μm.
  • In an advantageous alternative embodiment, which is not further detailed here, printing with the subimage images to be superimposed is in the production path of the substrate underlying the security element or document 26 a printing press 100 provided with at least one according to a Nonimpact method, ie pressure formless, working printing unit, for. B. an inkjet printing unit through which the substrate 26 at least on a same page, z. B. the side opposite to the micro-optical structure in the finished security element or document, in a pressure-free printing process, for. B. in inkjet printing, multi-color is printed or is printable. This is preferably done in the above-mentioned manner also on a transport path section with a continuous means of transport, ie without an intermediate transfer of the substrate 26 between different means of transport. The printheads and / or their arrangement in the printing unit are z. B. for printing with a resolution of at least 600 dpi, preferably at least 1200 dpi, in particular at least 2400 dpi trained or usable. In the production above security elements 01 or documents 02 be z. B. two or more partial printing images by printheads with a resolution of at least 600 dpi, preferably at least 1200 dpi, in particular at least 2400 dpi on the substrate 26 printed.
  • In the production path of the security element 01 or document 02 underlying substrate 26 is - in principle, regardless of the execution of the of the printing press 100 encompassed printing unit, but advantageous in connection with an above-mentioned embodiment - further at least one application device 116 ; 117 provided in which the substrate 26 with a micro-optical structure 03 is acted upon or acted upon. This can be the collective printing 101 ; 102 and the application device 116 ; 117 basically in separate, decoupled from each other processes or inline in a two processes in succession comprehensive overall process, such as a printing press 100 with a printing unit 101 ; 102 and an application device 116 ; 117 , be provided. In this case, the application device 116 ; 117 in the process basically before or after printing by the printing unit 101 ; 102 , in particular collective printing 101 ; 102 , be provided.
  • In a first group of embodiments, for example, for the application and the printing two separate units, namely a collective printing unit 101 ; 102 comprehensive printing unit and an application device 116 ; 117 provided (see eg 2 ). It can on only one side of the substrate path or on both sides of the substrate path such a collective printing unit 101 ; 102 with two or more cylinders 106 ; 107 be provided. In the second case, these may be implemented in a double printing unit and between their respective color collecting cylinders 108 ; 109 form a double pressure point. The two units can be provided in a first embodiment, for example, in separate machines, so that a printing and applying takes place in separate steps, or in a second embodiment inline in a common machine inline.
  • The - inline or offline provided - application device 116 can in a first embodiment by means for applying and connecting 116 of the substrate 26 with an optically imaging structure 03 forming and / or comprehensive layer, z. B. a plastic film or foil elements with the lenses 11 or with the micro-optical structure 03 , This application device 116 may be provided in the production path before or after printing with the partial print images. Preferably, the means for connecting 116 as a hot stamping device 116 executed by which the the micro-optical structure 03 comprehensive layer, z. As plastic film, on the printed or printed substrate 26 can be applied.
  • In a second group of embodiments advantageous with regard to the production process and / or the accuracy (see, for example, FIG. 3 ) takes place - in particular simultaneous - printing with the at least two partial printing images and the application of the micro-optical structure 03 while passing through a same guide element 118 ; 119 guided, for example, on a same guide element 118 ; 119 , z. B. a belt or belt system or preferably a transport cylinder 118 ; 119 , lying, being conveyed by the machine. That is, the printing of the substrate 26 on the same page with the at least two partial images as well as the application of the micro-optical structure 03 on this same or the opposite side of the substrate 26 takes place on a transport path section with a continuous means of transport, ie without an intermediate transfer of the substrate 26 between different means of transport. The printing with the at least two partial printing images takes place as already mentioned above, preferably simultaneously.
  • In the second group of embodiments, the application can basically also by an above applying a micro-optical structure 03 comprehensive, z. B. film-like layer. Preferably, however, is a means for molding the micro-optical structure 03 on the substrate 26 provided by which on the substrate 26 a layer not yet cured, z. B. polymer-containing plastic material, for. As a natural or synthetic resin-containing plastic, applied and at least in one or more areas in the still liquid or soft state to the micro-optically active structure 03 is malleable. For example, the material is partially or fully over an applicator 121 , z. B. a printing or coating unit 121 , in particular a screen printing unit 121 , on the substrate 26 applied and to the formation of the structure 03 guided with the previously applied side over a stamping tool, which on the lateral surface to a pattern of the micro-optical structure 03 complementary pattern of pits, e.g. B. og die 46 , having. In a preferred embodiment, this is the printing of the guide of the substrate 26 serving guide element 119 as an embossing tool, z. B. stamping cylinder 119 , executed and has on its lateral surface die 46 with the pits on. A printing of the substrate 26 Although, in principle, on the circumference of the guide element 119 take place before the impact with the plastic material, however, takes place preferably in the circumferential direction of the guide element es119 behind the application of the material to be molded and optionally a preferably UV-based intermediate drying instead. Here is the common guide element 119 not only as a transport cylinder 110 effective, but equally as embossing cylinder 119 and serves the color collection cylinder 109 as a collective printing unit 102 executed printing unit 102 as an impression cylinder 119 ,
  • The application and shaping of the micro-optical structure 03 and printing with multiple partial print images on a same guide element 119 can be followed by another one- or two-sided printing, this preferably also by a above-mentioned collective printing unit 101 ; 101 '; 102 he follows. Input side of the printing press 100 can be a feeder 122 , z. As a stack feeder, be provided, through which the substrate 26 in the form of a printing material 04 , z. B. a printing material or prefers him form of printing material sheet 04 , is supplied. On the width of the substrate 04 then, for example, several documents mentioned above 02 as a so-called benefit printed side by side at the same time and with the structure 03 Mistake. In a decrease facility 123 , z. B. sheet delivery, the intermediate products containing the benefits are combined into containers.
  • In this last embodiment, in the manufacture of the security element 01 or security document 02 the single or multilayer substrate 26 about a same guide element 119 guided and with both the micro-optical structure 03 as well as the at least two partial printing images acted upon. This satisfies the highest demands on the register or Passerhaltigkeit between the fields on the one hand and between the fields and the location of the micro-optical structure 03 on the other hand.
  • Regardless of whether the application of the micro-optical structure 03 by application of a solid layer, for. As plastic film, or by applying and molding soft or liquid plastic, is the substrate 26 in at least one area of the structure 03 comprehensive layer of covered substrate 26 transparent by putting in the substrate 26 itself transparent or this area a transparent window in the otherwise non-transparent substrate 26 is or is incorporated.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 01
    security element
    02
    The security document
    03
    optically imaging structure; micro-optical structure
    04
    Substrate, sheet
    05
    -
    06
    -
    07
    -
    08
    -
    09
    -
    10
    -
    11
    microlens
    12
    Axis of symmetry; optical axis
    13
    convex envelope
    14
    beam of light
    15
    -
    16
    boundary point
    17
    boundary point
    18
    lens width
    19
    main level
    20
    -
    21
    plane envelope surface
    22
    focal length
    23
    focus
    24
    focal plane
    25
    -
    26
    substratum
    27
    print image
    28
    Picture element (28a to 28j)
    29
    Material thickness; thickness
    30
    -
    31
    cutting plane
    32
    Cone; Winkelfeld
    33
    first viewing angle
    34
    second viewing angle
    35
    -
    36
    layer thickness
    37
    geometric figure of an optically imaging structure (03)
    38
    contour
    39
    grid cell
    40
    -
    41
    grid point
    42
    grid line
    43
    lenticular
    44
    vertex
    45
    -
    46
    die
    47
    trough
    48
    Blank; Workpiece
    49
    roughened area
    50
    -
    51
    web
    52
    printing ink
    53
    print carrier
    54
    lower pressure layer
    55
    -
    56
    upper print layer
    57
    Frame (57a to 57e)
    58
    mask
    59
    Hole; slot
    60
    -
    61
    color zone
    62
    web
    63
    Laser; excimer
    64
    mask
    65
    -
    66
    laser beam
    100
    press
    101
    Printing unit, collective printing unit
    102
    Printing unit, collective printing unit
    103
    bruise
    104
    bruise
    105
    -
    106
    Printing cylinder, imaging, form cylinder
    107
    Printing cylinder, imaging, form cylinder
    108
    Printing cylinder, color collecting cylinder, transfer cylinder
    109
    Printing cylinder, color collecting cylinder, transfer cylinder
    110
    -
    111
    Inking unit, lifting inking unit
    112
    Inking unit, lifting inking unit
    113
    dampening
    114
    dampening
    115
    -
    116
    application device
    117
    application device
    118
    Guide element, transport cylinder
    119
    Guide element, transport cylinder, embossing cylinder
    120
    -
    121
    Printing unit, coating unit, screen printing unit
    122
    feeder
    123
    removal device

Claims (8)

  1. Method for producing a security element (01) or security document (02), the security element (01) or the security document (02) each having an arrangement with a print image (27) and an optically imaging structure (03 ), wherein the printed image (27) has a multiplicity of picture elements (28a to 28j), wherein in each case a plurality of picture elements (28a to 28j) are arranged below at least one of the microlenses (11) of the respective optically imaging structure (03) a plurality of in each case at least one of the microlenses (11) of the respective optically imaging structure (03) arranged pixels (28a to 28j) along a lens width (18) are arranged side by side and each in the direction of this lens width (18) in each case over a shorter length extend as the respective lens width (18), these pixels (28a to 28j) between the respective microlens (11) and their focus (23) in a parallel to the main plane (19) of the respective microlens (11) lying cutting plane (31) are arranged, wherein the cutting plane (31) has a cone (32) or an angle field (32) of each by the respective microlens (11) in the direction of juxtaposed pixels (28a to 28j) incident light is arranged intersecting, wherein in the cutting plane (31) within the cone (32) or the angular field (32) simultaneously several mutually different pixels (28a to 28j) are arranged in juxtaposition, wherein the below the respective microlens (11) juxtaposed pixels (28a to 28j) are assigned to different print motifs, wherein a substrate is printed by at least one printing unit (101, 102) on a first side at the same time and / or at a same printing location with a plurality of superimposed partial printing images, - And on the same or on the other side of the substrate (26) by an application device (116, 117) inline the optic imaging structure (03) comprising the microlenses (11) is applied inline.
  2. Method according to Claim 1 , characterized in that each of the microlenses (11) along the side by side arranged picture elements (28a to 28j) of the printed image (27) each have a lens width (18) of less than 100 microns.
  3. Method according to Claim 1 or 2 , characterized in that at least one of the juxtaposed picture elements (28a to 28j) each have printed pixels and / or lines printed in different printing inks.
  4. Method according to Claim 3 , characterized in that each printed in different printing inks pixels and / or lines of the relevant picture element (28a to 28j) in their relative arrangement to each other have a fitting accuracy of less than 10 microns, in particular a fit accuracy in the range of about 5 microns and / or with regard to the relevant picture element (28a to 28j) whose pixels have a pixel size and / or whose lines have a line thickness in each case in the range of less than 20 μm.
  5. Method according to Claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 , characterized in that the printed image (27) consists of a superimposition of several partial printed in each case in different printing colors partial images.
  6. Method according to Claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 , characterized in that the microlenses (11) of the respective optically imaging structure (03) each have a focal length (22) of less than 100 μm.
  7. Method according to Claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 , characterized in that the microlenses (11) of the respective optically imaging structure (03) are each formed either rotationally symmetric spherical or aspherical or are formed axisymmetric rod-shaped, wherein the respective axis of symmetry (12) of the respective microlens (11) and its optical axis ( 12) are each arranged congruently extending.
  8. Method according to Claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 , characterized in that the security element (01) or security document (02) is a banknote or a credit card or a check or a passport or a passport or a security or a stock certificate or a driver's license or a title deed or as a travel document or as an admission ticket or as an official or official document.
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WO2007042919A2 (en) * 2005-10-13 2007-04-19 Kba-Giori S.A. Printing machine with modular additional printing group
US20090310185A1 (en) * 2006-12-19 2009-12-17 I6 Llc Credential and method and system of making same
DE202004021712U1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2010-07-22 Visual Physics, Llc Micro-optical security and image presentation system
DE112010000957T5 (en) * 2009-03-04 2012-08-02 Securency International Pty Ltd. Improvements to methods for producing lens arrays
DE112013002927T5 (en) * 2012-06-29 2015-03-12 Innovia Security Pty Ltd Optically variable color image
EP2996885B1 (en) * 2013-05-17 2017-06-21 De La Rue International Limited Security documents and methods of manufacture thereof

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE202004021712U1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2010-07-22 Visual Physics, Llc Micro-optical security and image presentation system
WO2007042919A2 (en) * 2005-10-13 2007-04-19 Kba-Giori S.A. Printing machine with modular additional printing group
US20090310185A1 (en) * 2006-12-19 2009-12-17 I6 Llc Credential and method and system of making same
DE112010000957T5 (en) * 2009-03-04 2012-08-02 Securency International Pty Ltd. Improvements to methods for producing lens arrays
DE112013002927T5 (en) * 2012-06-29 2015-03-12 Innovia Security Pty Ltd Optically variable color image
EP2996885B1 (en) * 2013-05-17 2017-06-21 De La Rue International Limited Security documents and methods of manufacture thereof

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