DE102015117055A1 - Stack case ventilation, fuel cell system and vehicle - Google Patents

Stack case ventilation, fuel cell system and vehicle

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Publication number
DE102015117055A1
DE102015117055A1 DE102015117055.8A DE102015117055A DE102015117055A1 DE 102015117055 A1 DE102015117055 A1 DE 102015117055A1 DE 102015117055 A DE102015117055 A DE 102015117055A DE 102015117055 A1 DE102015117055 A1 DE 102015117055A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
fuel cell
stack
cathode
fan
ventilation
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102015117055.8A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Daniel Grundei
Christian Lucas
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Audi AG
Volkswagen AG
Original Assignee
Volkswagen AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Volkswagen AG filed Critical Volkswagen AG
Priority to DE102015117055.8A priority Critical patent/DE102015117055A1/en
Publication of DE102015117055A1 publication Critical patent/DE102015117055A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/04Auxiliary arrangements, e.g. for control of pressure or for circulation of fluids
    • H01M8/04082Arrangements for control of reactant parameters, e.g. pressure or concentration
    • H01M8/04089Arrangements for control of reactant parameters, e.g. pressure or concentration of gaseous reactants
    • H01M8/04111Arrangements for control of reactant parameters, e.g. pressure or concentration of gaseous reactants using a compressor turbine assembly
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2250/00Fuel cells for particular applications; Specific features of fuel cell system
    • H01M2250/20Fuel cells in motive systems, e.g. vehicle, ship, plane
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/30Application of fuel cell technology to transportation
    • Y02T90/32Fuel cells specially adapted to transport applications, e.g. automobile, bus, ship

Abstract

The invention relates to a stacked housing ventilation system (50) for a fuel cell (10) of a fuel cell system (1) having a ventilation section (51) leading through a stack housing (16) of the fuel cell (10) and one on / in the ventilation section (51) A stack case fan (52) for ventilating the stack case (16) of the fuel cell (10), the stack case fan (52) being surrounded by a fluid (3, 4) in an anode supply (20) for the fuel cell (10) and / or from a fluid (5, 6) in a cathode supply (30) for the fuel cell (10) is fluid-mechanically driven. Furthermore, the invention relates to a fuel cell system (1) and a vehicle, in particular an electric vehicle, with a fuel cell system (1), wherein the fuel cell system has a stack housing ventilation (50) according to the invention.

Description

  • The invention relates to a stack housing ventilation for a fuel cell of a fuel cell system. Furthermore, the invention relates to a fuel cell system for a vehicle, in particular an electric vehicle, and a vehicle, in particular an electric vehicle.
  • A fuel cell uses an electrochemical conversion of a fuel with oxygen to water to generate electrical energy. For this purpose, the fuel cell contains as a core component at least one so-called membrane electrode assembly (MEA for Membrane Electrode Assembly), which is a structure of an ion-conducting, often proton-conducting, membrane and on both sides of the membrane arranged electrodes, an anode electrode and a cathode electrode , In addition, gas diffusion layers (GDL) can be arranged on both sides of the membrane-electrode assembly on the sides of the electrodes facing away from the membrane.
  • In general, the fuel cell is formed by means of a plurality of arranged in a stack (English stack) membrane electrode assemblies, wherein add their electrical power in an operation of the fuel cell. Bipolar plates, also called flux field plates or separator plates, are usually arranged between the individual membrane electrode units, which supply and usually also supply the membrane electrode units, ie a supply of the individual cells of the fuel cell, with the operating media, the so-called reactants to serve a cooling. In addition, the bipolar plates provide electrical contact to the membrane-electrode assemblies.
  • In an operation of the individual cells of the fuel cell, the fuel, a so-called anode operating medium, in particular hydrogen (H 2 ) or a hydrogen-containing gas mixture, fed to the anode electrodes via an anode side open flow field of the bipolar plates, where an electrochemical oxidation of H 2 to H + under a release of electrons (e - ) takes place (H 2 -> 2H + + 2e - ). Through the membranes or electrolytes of the membrane-electrode units, which gas-tightly separate and electrically isolate the reaction spaces, water-bound or anhydrous transport of protons (H + ) from the anode electrodes (composite anode of the fuel cell) takes place in the anode spaces of the individual cells the cathode electrodes (composite cathode of the fuel cell) in the cathode spaces of the single cells. The electrons provided at the anode are fed via an electrical line and an electrical load (electric motor) of the cathode.
  • The cathode electrodes are supplied via a cathode field open flow field of the bipolar plates, a so-called cathode operating medium, in particular oxygen (O 2 ) or an oxygen-containing gas mixture, for example air, with a reduction of O 2 to O 2- takes place under a recording of electrons (½O 2 + 2e - -> O 2- ). At the same time, oxygen anions (O 2- ) formed on the cathode electrodes react with the protons transported through the membranes or electrolytes to form water (O 2- + 2H + -> H 2 O).
  • In order to supply a fuel cell stack, hereinafter referred to mainly as a fuel cell, with operating media, this or these has, on the one hand, an anode supply and, on the other hand, a cathode supply. The anode supply includes an anode supply path for supplying the anode operating medium into the anode spaces of the fuel cell and an anode exhaust path for discharging an anode off-gas from the anode spaces. Similarly, the cathode supply includes a cathode supply path for supplying the cathode operating medium into the cathode chambers of the fuel cell and a cathode exhaust path for discharging a cathode exhaust gas out of the cathode compartments.
  • In a fuel cell system, hydrogen can not be prevented from diffusing into the environment from the fuel cell or other hydrogen-carrying components. This is basically not problematic as long as the hydrogen does not concentrate in certain places and together with oxygen could form an ignitable mixture. To protect the fuel cell and optionally other components, a stack housing for the fuel cell is additionally necessary, which may optionally concentrate hydrogen within the stack housing. To avoid a combustible mixture inside the stacking housing, appropriate ventilation must be provided.
  • There are known concepts in which the ventilation takes place in different ways, but with additional electrical energy being required. Another problem is that the fuel cell system cools down after a shutdown and can form condensate, which can lead to corrosion especially in closed areas such as the stack housing. To prevent this, a ventilation must also be provided or the stack housing must be designed so that no corrosion can occur.
  • For the problems just mentioned (ventilation and corrosion) exist in the prior art following solutions. A ventilation of the stack housing is done in the prior art by means of an electrically driven stack housing fan. This results in an additional electrical energy consumption with a need for regulation and control (development of complex operating strategies) of an additional electrical assembly (electric motor, electronics, electrical cabling et cetera), which ultimately entails increased (operating) costs and a relatively large space requirement , Another solution is the use of a jet pump, which, however, is not separately controllable due to their passive properties depending on a driving volume flow and always requires another machine driving the volume flow. Operation with the fuel cell system turned off is therefore not possible.
  • Furthermore, the problem of corrosion by a natural discharge by convection, a condensate trap, a corresponding corrosion protection of the relevant components (relatively expensive corresponding choice of materials) and / or an open stack housing, can be met, so that condensate and corrosion can be avoided. The disadvantage here is insufficient component protection in open stack housings, additional measures to prevent corrosion (choice of materials, additional components, higher costs et cetera) et cetera.
  • It is an object of the invention to provide a ventilation and / or corrosion protection for a stacked housing of a fuel cell of a fuel cell system. In this case, a stack housing ventilation according to the invention should take up little installation space, have a comparatively simple operating strategy and / or be operable without an additional expenditure of energy. Furthermore, it should optionally be possible to dispense with additional measures for corrosion prevention, such as a selection of materials, a condensate trap, et cetera, wherein a closed stack housing should be applicable to the fuel cell.
  • The object of the invention is achieved by means of a stacked housing ventilation for a fuel cell of a fuel cell system, by means of a fuel cell system, and / or by means of a vehicle, in particular an electric vehicle, according to the independent claims. Advantageous developments, additional features and / or advantages of the invention will become apparent from the dependent claims and the following description.
  • The stack housing ventilation according to the invention has a through the fuel cell or a stacked housing of the fuel cell passing ventilation section and on and / or in (hereinafter: on / in) the ventilation section arranged stack housing fan for ventilating the stacked housing of the fuel cell, wherein the stack housing fan is fluid-mechanically driven by a fluid in an anode supply for the fuel cell and / or by a fluid in a cathode supply for the fuel cell. This also means that the stack case fan is not primarily electrically driven; it is of course possible, if necessary, in addition, ie secondary, mechanical, fluid mechanical or electrically driven to provide the stack case fan (see below).
  • According to the invention, a separate stack housing fan is used for the stack housing ventilation, wherein this is driven by a recovered from the fuel cell system energy or enthalpy (pressure, temperature) of the fluid; The stack case fan may therefore also be referred to as a self-powered stack case fan. The enthalpy of the fluid is composed additively of an internal energy and a displacement work of the fluid (gas or gas mixture optionally including liquid water), which is present in the anode supply and / or the cathode supply.
  • Since it is not about adjusting an exact volume flow in a ventilation of the stacked housing of the fuel cell, but merely to discharge hydrogen and moisture from the stack housing, no exact control of the stack housing fan is needed. Since the energy from the fuel cell system is always available when the fuel cell system is activated, and is always available during operation of the fuel cell system, no additional control or regulation is needed. Cables for an electrical power supply and a controller can be omitted.
  • In exemplary embodiments, the stack housing ventilation is designed such that the stack housing fan can be driven in a fluid-mechanical manner by means of an anode operating medium, an anode exhaust gas, a cathode operating medium and / or a cathode exhaust gas. An enthalpy for driving the stack housing fan is preferably the anode operating medium, preferably the cathode exhaust or preferably a purge gas (exhaust gas) removable.
  • Since the stack housing fan only has to promote a low volume flow and thus requires only a small amount of energy, an energy at the appropriate points of the fuel cell system is sufficient. It is of course possible to use the enthalpy to drive the stack case fan of a majority of these gases or to take gas mixtures, which may be the case, for example, with a common exhaust device of the anode supply and the cathode supply.
  • In exemplary embodiments, the stacked-shell fan can be driven in a fluid-mechanical manner by means of a fan turbine at / in the anode supply, in particular at / in an anode supply path, or by means of a fan turbine at / in the cathode supply, in particular at / in a cathode exhaust path. According to the invention, a device for the actual ventilation of the stack housing can be designed as a stacked-fan with fan turbine, wherein the stack case fan is mechanically driven by the fan turbine, which in turn is fluid-mechanically driven. No additional drive is required, but can be additionally provided (see below). With a suitable positioning, the fan turbine can be arranged space neutral.
  • In embodiments, the fan turbine is disposed upstream of a fuel recirculation line in the anode supply path, the fan turbine in the cathode exhaust path is fluidically coupled in series with a cathode turbine, the fan turbine is fluid mechanically coupled to the cathode turbine at the cathode exhaust path, or is the fan turbine in one Fluid path between an anode and a cathode of the fuel cell arranged.
  • In embodiments, an energy at a pressure reduction of the hydrogen from a fuel storage (usually about 700bar to about 12bar) or subsequently with a relaxation to an operating pressure (ie then about 12bar) is used. Furthermore, in embodiments, an exhaust gas enthalpy in the cathode exhaust gas downstream or upstream of a cathode turbine is used. Since the cathode exhaust gas has a higher temperature and a higher pressure than the environment in all operating states, this energy can be used. Furthermore, in embodiments, a purge energy from the anode to the cathode is used. In such a case, the fan is intermittently operable, but this can often be sufficient.
  • According to the invention, the stack case fan and the fan turbine may be provided together or separately. Thus, in embodiments, the fan turbine is arranged with the stack housing fan on a common shaft. Furthermore, a mechanical coupling of the fan turbine with the stack housing fan by means of a transmission is possible.
  • In embodiments, the stack case ventilation, the stack case fan, or the fan turbine on an energy storage for driving the stack case fan on. This allows operation of the stack case fan when the fuel cell system is turned off, e.g. B. in a follow-up time after switching off the fuel cell system, in the case of start-stop operation of the fuel cell system or at system start, before the fuel cell system is fully powered up. The energy storage can be a mechanical, a fluid mechanical or an electrical energy storage.
  • In embodiments, the stack case fan is further electromechanically driven, for which the stack case ventilation, the stack case fan or the fan turbine has an electric motor and optionally includes a device for storing electrical energy, by means of which the electric motor is driven.
  • In embodiments, the stack case ventilation is additionally provided with the excess energy storage device, as there are likely to be operating conditions in which energy recovered from the fuel cell system is greater than energy needed to drive the stack case ventilation. This storage can be done for example by means of a rechargeable battery or a capacitor. Here, the electric motor can be operated as a generator, whereby the means for storing electrical energy can be charged.
  • In embodiments, a further component and / or a further assembly can be ventilated or cooled by means of the stack housing ventilation. The further component or the further module is preferably a housed component or a cushioned assembly, which can be ventilated or cooled according to the invention. Such a further assembly is, for example, a turbocharger, an electric motor or a drive for a cathode compressor et cetera. Such a further component is, for example, a hydrogen-conducting component (depending on the system), a power electronics et cetera.
  • In embodiments, the stack case fan is provided directly on or in the stack housing of the fuel cell. The fuel cell system according to the invention for a vehicle, in particular an electric vehicle, or the vehicle according to the invention, in particular the electric vehicle, has a stack housing ventilation according to the invention.
  • The invention is explained in more detail below with reference to exemplary embodiments with reference to the accompanying schematic drawing. Elements, components or components which have an identical, univocal or analogous design and / or function are provided with the same reference symbols in the description of the figures, the list of reference numerals and the claims and / or are identified by the same reference symbols in the figures of the drawing. Possible, not explained in the description, not shown in the drawing and / or non-exhaustive alternatives, static and / or kinematic reversals, combinations et cetera to the illustrated embodiments of the invention or individual assemblies, parts or portions thereof, the list of reference numerals can be found ,
  • All explained features, including those of the list of reference numerals, are applicable not only in the specified combination or the specified combinations, but also in a different combination or other combinations or in isolation. In particular, it is possible on the basis of the reference symbols and their associated features in the description of the invention, the description of the figures and / or the list of reference numerals, to replace a feature or a plurality of features in the description of the invention and / or the description of the figures. Furthermore, a feature or a plurality of features in the patent claims can thereby be designed, specified and / or substituted. In the figures of the drawing show:
  • 1 a simplified block diagram of a preferred embodiment of a fuel cell system according to the invention;
  • 2 a block diagram of a separate ventilation according to the prior art for a stacked housing of a fuel cell and a cathode supply for this fuel cell;
  • 3 a block diagram of a first embodiment according to the invention a ventilation for a stacked housing of a fuel cell, wherein a ventilation line is connected to a cathode supply of the fuel cell;
  • 4 a block diagram of a second embodiment of the invention ventilation for the stack housing, wherein the ventilation path is in turn connected to the cathode supply of the fuel cell; and
  • 5 a block diagram of a third embodiment of the invention ventilation for the stack housing, wherein the ventilation path is connected to an anode supply of the fuel cell.
  • The invention is based on three embodiments of a stacked housing ventilation 50 a fuel cell 10 a fuel cell system 1 explained in more detail for a vehicle. However, the invention is not limited to such embodiments and / or the embodiments explained below, but is of a more fundamental nature, so that they apply to all stacked housing vents 50 , for example, for stationary fuel cell systems, can be applied. Although the invention has been described in detail by way of preferred embodiments and embodiments are illustrated in detail, the invention is not limited by the disclosed embodiments. Other variations can be deduced therefrom without departing from the scope of the invention.
  • The 1 shows a fuel cell system 1 according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. The fuel cell system 1 is preferably part of a vehicle not shown in detail, in particular a motor vehicle or an electric vehicle, which preferably has an electric traction motor, which or by the fuel cell system 1 can be supplied with electrical energy.
  • The fuel cell system 1 includes as a core component a fuel cell 10 or a fuel cell stack 10 , Which or which preferably a plurality of stacked individual fuel cells 11 - below as single cells 11 designated - has and in a stack housing 16 is housed. Every single cell 11 includes an anode compartment 12 and a cathode compartment 13 , wherein the anode compartment 12 and the cathode compartment 13 from a membrane (part of a membrane-electrode assembly 14 see below), preferably an ion-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane, spatially and electrically separated from each other (see detail). The fuel cell stack 10 is also easy as a fuel cell 10 designated.
  • The anode rooms 12 and the cathode rooms 13 the fuel cell 10 each have a limiting catalytic electrode (part of the membrane-electrode unit 14 see below), that is, an anode electrode and a cathode electrode, each of which catalyzes a partial reaction of a fuel cell reaction. The anode electrode and the cathode electrode each comprise a catalytic material, such as platinum, supported on an electrically conductive substrate having a large surface area, such as a carbon based material.
  • A structure of a membrane and associated electrodes is also called a membrane-electrode unit 14 designated. Between two such membrane-electrode units 14 (in the 1 is only a single membrane electrode assembly 14 indicated) is in the 1 also a bipolar plate 15 indicated, which a supply of operating media 3 . 5 into a relevant anode compartment 12 a first single cell 11 and a respective cathode compartment 13 a directly adjacent second single cell 11 serves and beyond an electrical connection between the two directly adjacent individual cells 11 realized.
  • Between a bipolar plate 15 and a directly adjacent anode electrode of a membrane-electrode assembly 14 is an anode room 12 and between a cathode electrode of the same membrane-electrode assembly 14 and a second bipolar plate directly adjacent thereto 15 is a cathode compartment 13 educated. Optionally, gas diffusion layers between the membrane-electrode assemblies 14 and the bipolar plates 15 be arranged. In the fuel cell stack 10 or in the fuel cell 10 So are membrane electrode units 14 and bipolar plates 15 alternately arranged or stacked (fuel cell stack 10 ).
  • To supply the fuel cell stack 10 or the fuel cell 10 with the operating media 3 . 5 has the fuel cell system 1 on the one hand, an anode supply 20 and on the other hand, a cathode supply 30 on.
  • The anode supply 20 includes an anode supply path 21 , which is a supply of an anode operating medium 3 , a fuel 3 , for example hydrogen 3 or a hydrogen-containing gas mixture 3 , in the anode rooms 12 the fuel cell 10 serves. For this purpose, the anode supply path connects 21 a fuel storage 23 or fuel tank 23 with an anode input of the fuel cell 10 , The anode supply 20 further includes an anode exhaust path 22 , which is an anode exhaust 4 from the anode chambers 12 through an anode output of the fuel cell 10 through. An established anode operating pressure on an anode side of the fuel cell 10 is preferably by means of an actuating means 24 in the anode supply path 21 adjustable.
  • In addition, the anode supply points 20 preferably a fuel recirculation line 25 on which the anode exhaust path 22 with the anode supply path 21 fluid mechanically connects. A recirculation of the anode operating medium 3 , that is, the actually preferred to be fueled fuel 3 , is often set up, the most over-stoichiometric anode operating medium 3 the fuel cell 10 to be returned and used. Further, on / in the fuel recirculation line 25 a compressor may be provided (not shown).
  • The cathode supply 30 includes a cathode supply path 31 which is the cathode spaces 13 the fuel cell 10 an oxygen-containing cathode operating medium 5 , preferably air 5 , feeds, which in particular from the environment 2 is sucked. The cathode supply 30 further includes a cathode exhaust path 32 , which is a cathode exhaust 6 , in particular an exhaust air 6 , from the cathode rooms 13 the fuel cell 10 dissipates and this provides an optionally provided exhaust device (not shown).
  • For a promotion and compression of the cathode operating medium 5 is at / in the cathode supply path 31 preferably a cathode compressor 33 arranged. In embodiments, the cathode compressor 33 as an exclusively or an electric motor driven cathode compressor 33 designed, the drive by means of an electric motor 34 or a drive 34 takes place, which preferably with a corresponding power electronics 35 Is provided. The cathode compressor is preferred 33 as an at least electric turbocharger (English ETC for Electric Turbo Charger) is formed. The cathode compressor 33 can also be characterized by a in the cathode exhaust path 32 arranged cathode turbine 36 optionally with variable turbine geometry, supported by a common shaft (in 1 not shown, see the 3 to 5 ) be drivable. The cathode turbine 36 represents an expander, which is an expansion of the cathode exhaust gas 6 and thus causes a reduction in the fluid pressure (increase in the efficiency of the fuel cell 10 ).
  • The cathode supply 30 may also according to the illustrated embodiment, a wastegate 37 or a wastegate line 37 which or which the cathode supply path 31 or a cathode supply line with the cathode exhaust path 32 or a cathode exhaust pipe connects, so a bypass for the fuel cell 10 represents. The wastegate 37 allows a mass flow of the cathode operating medium 5 short term in the fuel cell 10 reduce without the cathode compressor 33 shut down or the fuel cell 10 with a corresponding mass flow of the cathode operating medium 5 which is outside an operating range of the cathode compressor 33 lies. One in the wastegate 37 arranged adjusting means 38 allows adjustment of a volume flow of the fuel cell 10 optionally immediate cathode operating medium 5 ,
  • All adjusting means 24 . 38 . 55 (see also below) of the fuel cell system 1 can be designed as controllable, controllable or non-controllable valves, flaps, throttles et cetera. For further insulation of the fuel cell 10 from the surroundings 2 at least one further corresponding adjusting means (not shown) on / in an anode path 21 . 22 and / or a cathode path 31 . 32 or on / in a line of the anode path 21 . 22 and / or a line of the cathode path 31 . 32 be arranged.
  • The preferred fuel cell system 1 also has a moisture transmitter 39 on. The moisture transmitter 39 On the one hand, this is the case in the cathode supply path 31 arranged it from the cathode operating medium 5 can be flowed through. On the other hand, the moisture transmitter is so in the cathode exhaust path 32 arranged it from the cathode exhaust 6 can be flowed through. The moisture transmitter 39 is on the one hand in the cathode supply path 31 preferably between the cathode compressor 33 and a cathode input of the fuel cell 10 and on the other hand in the cathode exhaust path 32 between a cathode output of the fuel cell 10 and the optionally provided cathode turbine 36 arranged. A moisture carrier (not shown) of the moisture 39 preferably has a plurality of membranes, which are often formed either flat or in the form of hollow fibers.
  • Various other details of the fuel cell system 1 or the fuel cell 10 / of the fuel cell stack 10 , the anode supply 20 and the cathode supply 30 are in the simplified 1 not shown for reasons of clarity. So can the moisture transmitter 39 from the cathode supply path 31 (See a moisture transmitter bypass 40 in the 3 to 5 ) and / or the cathode exhaust path 32 be bypassed by means of a bypass line. There may also be a turbine bypass line from the cathode exhaust path 32 be provided, which is the cathode turbine 36 bypasses (compare the 4 ).
  • Furthermore, in the anode exhaust path 22 and / or in the cathode exhaust path 32 a water separator be installed, by means of which a from the relevant partial reaction of the fuel cell 10 resulting product water is condensable and / or separable and optionally derivable into a water collector. Furthermore, the anode supply 20 alternatively or additionally to the cathode supply 30 analog humidity transmitter 39 exhibit. Furthermore, the anode exhaust path 22 in the cathode exhaust path 32 or vice versa, the anode exhaust gas 4 and the cathode off-gas 6 optionally can be removed via the common exhaust device. Moreover, in embodiments, the cathode operating medium 5 a on / in the cathode supply path 31 provided intercooler 41 (see the 3 to 5 ) flow through.
  • For protection of the fuel cell 10 or the fuel cell stack 10 is additionally their or its stack case 16 necessary, whereby optionally hydrogen and / or condensate within the stack housing 16 can accumulate. To avoid a combustible gas mixture within the stack housing 16 to avoid formation of condensate in the stack housing 16 and / or for discharging hydrogen or condensate from the stack housing 16 out is a stack case ventilation 50 with one through the stack housing 16 passing ventilation route 51 intended. The 2 shows such a stack housing ventilation 50 according to the prior art, with a ventilation line 51 and one on / in the ventilation section 51 arranged stack housing fan 52 , which is drivable exclusively by means of an electric motor.
  • According to the invention (see the 3 to 5 ) operation of the stack case fan 52 through one from the fuel cell system 1 available energy. This may be the stack case fan 52 be formed without an electric prime mover. Preferably, the stack case fan 52 from a fan turbine 53 drivable. In this case, in particular, an enthalpy of the cathode exhaust gas 6 ( 3 or 4 ), an energy at a relaxation of the hydrogen ( 5 ) and / or an energy for a purge (gas exhaust, not shown) for a drive of the fan turbine 53 and thus the stack case fan 52 be used. Furthermore, an energy storage in the stack housing ventilation 50 for a preferably comparatively short-term operation of the stack housing fan 52 in preferably inactive fuel cell system 1 be provided (secondary drive).
  • In all illustrated embodiments of the invention, the stack case fan sucks 52 on an air filter 42 or on an air filter box 42 Air from the environment 2 and transports them through a fuel cell-upwards section of the ventilation section 51 through the stack case 16 and through a fuel cell downstream section of the ventilation section 51 through, and flushes the fuel cell 10 with air. This can be the fan turbine 53 and the stack case fan 52 sitting on a common wave (see the 3 to 5 ). It is of course possible between the fan turbine 53 and the stack case fan 52 to provide a transmission (not shown).
  • In the first embodiment ( 3 ) of the invention is the fan turbine 53 through the cathode exhaust 6 drivable, the fan turbine 53 downstream of the cathode turbine 36 on / in the cathode exhaust path 32 is arranged. It is of course possible, the fan turbine 53 upstream of the cathode turbine 36 to arrange (not shown). That means that the fan turbine 53 and the cathode turbine 36 fluid-mechanically connected in series.
  • In the second embodiment ( 4 ) of the invention is the fan turbine 53 also through the cathode exhaust 6 drivable, the fan turbine 53 on / in a cathode turbine bypass 54 is arranged, by means of which the cathode turbine 36 in the cathode exhaust path 32 is bypassable. That means that the fan turbine 53 and the cathode turbine 36 fluidmechanisch are connected in parallel. Preference is given to / in the cathode turbine bypass 54 an actuating agent 55 for adjusting a volume flow of a cathode exhaust gas 6 provided by the cathode turbine bypass 54 can be flowed through. Here is the actuating means 55 preferably upstream of the fan turbine 53 on / in the cathode turbine bypass 54 intended.
  • In the third embodiment ( 5 ) of the invention is the fan turbine 53 through the anode operating medium 3 drivable, the fan turbine 53 upstream of a gas jet pump 27 or upstream of the recirculation line 25 at the anode supply path 31 is arranged. It is of course possible, instead of the jet pump 27 another device for supplying the fuel cell 10 with the anode operating medium 3 to provide such. B. an actuating means, a pressure regulating and metering et cetera (not shown). Here is the fan turbine 53 preferably between the fuel storage 23 and the actuating means 24 intended. Also a downstream provision of the fan turbine 53 behind the actuating means 24 is possible (not shown).
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    Fuel cell system, fuel cell assembly, preferably for a vehicle with an electric motor, in particular an electric traction motor
    2
    Surroundings
    3
    Fluid, operating medium, reactant, in particular anode operating medium, actual fuel, preferably hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas mixture
    4
    Fluid, exhaust gas optionally including liquid water, in particular anode exhaust gas
    5
    Fluid, operating medium, reactant, in particular cathode operating medium, preferably air
    6
    Fluid, exhaust gas including, if appropriate, liquid water, in particular cathode exhaust gas, preferably exhaust air
    10
    Fuel cell, fuel cell stack
    11
    Single cell with an anode electrode of the anode of the fuel cell 10 and a cathode electrode of the cathode of the fuel cell 10 , Single fuel cell
    12
    Anode compartment of a single cell 11
    13
    Cathode space of the single cell 11
    14
    Membrane electrode unit, preferably with a polymer electrolyte membrane and an anode electrode and a cathode electrode
    15
    Bipolar plate, flow field plate, separator plate
    16
    Stack housing of the fuel cell 10
    20
    Fuel cell supply, anode supply, anode circuit of the fuel cell
    10
    or the fuel cell stack 10
    21
    Path, supply path, flow path, anode supply path
    22
    Path, exhaust path, flow path, anode exhaust path
    23
    Fuel storage, fuel tank with anode operating medium 3
    24
    Adjusting means, controllable, (controllable), not adjustable, in particular valve, flap, throttle et cetera
    25
    Fuel recirculation line
    27
    jet pump
    30
    Fuel cell supply, cathode supply, cathode circuit of the fuel cell 10 or the fuel cell stack 10
    31
    Path, supply path, flow path, cathode supply path
    32
    Path, exhaust path, flow path, cathode exhaust path
    33
    Compressor, cathode compressor, compressor, turbocharger
    34
    Motor, in particular electric motor or drive (if necessary including gear)
    35
    Electronics, in particular power electronics for the motor 34
    36
    Turbine with optionally variable turbine geometry, cathode turbine, expander
    37
    Wastegate, Wastegate pipe
    38
    Adjusting means, controllable, (controllable), not adjustable, in particular valve, flap, throttle et cetera
    39
    Humidity transformer, humidifier
    40
    Moisture exchanger bypass
    41
    Intercooler
    42
    Air filter, air filter box
    50
    Stacked housing ventilation of the fuel cell 10 or the fuel cell stack 10
    51
    ventilation path
    52
    Stack Case Fan
    53
    fan turbine
    54
    Cathode turbine bypass
    55
    Adjusting means, controllable, (controllable), not adjustable, in particular valve, flap, throttle et cetera

Claims (10)

  1. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) for a fuel cell ( 10 ) of a fuel cell system ( 1 ) with a through a stack housing ( 16 ) of the fuel cell ( 10 ) passing through ventilation section ( 51 ) and one on / in the ventilation section ( 51 ) stacked stacker fans ( 52 ) for aerating the stack housing ( 16 ) of the fuel cell ( 10 ), characterized in that the stack case fan ( 52 ) of a fluid ( 3 . 4 ) in an anode supply ( 20 ) for the fuel cell ( 10 ) and / or of a fluid ( 5 . 6 ) in a cathode supply ( 30 ) for the fuel cell ( 10 ) is fluid-mechanically driven.
  2. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) according to claim 1, characterized in that the stack housing ventilation ( 50 ) is designed such that the stack housing fan ( 52 ) by means of an anode operating medium ( 3 ), an anode exhaust gas ( 4 ), a cathode operating medium ( 5 ) and / or a cathode exhaust gas ( 6 ) is fluid-mechanically driven, wherein an enthalpy for driving the stack housing fan ( 52 ) the anode operating medium ( 3 ), the cathode exhaust ( 6 ) or a purge gas can be removed.
  3. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the stack case fan ( 52 ) by means of a fan turbine ( 53 ) at the anode supply ( 20 ), in particular on / in an anode supply path ( 21 ), or by means of a fan turbine ( 53 ) on / in the cathode supply ( 30 ), in particular on / in a cathode exhaust path ( 32 ), is fluid-mechanically driven.
  4. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) according to claim 3, characterized in that the fan turbine ( 53 ) upstream of a fuel recirculation line ( 25 ) in the anode supply path ( 21 ), the fan turbine ( 53 ) in the cathode exhaust path ( 32 ) fluid-mechanically in series with a cathode turbine ( 36 ), the fan turbine ( 53 ) at the cathode exhaust path ( 32 ) fluid mechanically parallel to the cathode turbine ( 36 ), or the fan turbine ( 53 ) in a fluid path between an anode and a cathode of the fuel cell ( 10 ) is arranged.
  5. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the stack housing fan ( 52 ) and the fan turbine ( 53 ) are provided together or separately.
  6. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the stack housing ventilation ( 50 ), the stack case fan ( 52 ) or the fan turbine ( 53 ) an energy storage for driving the stack case fan ( 52 ) having.
  7. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the stack housing fan ( 52 ) is also electromechanically driven, for which the stack housing ventilation ( 50 ), the stack case fan ( 52 ) or the fan turbine ( 53 ) comprises an electric motor and optionally comprises a device for storing electrical energy, by means of which the electric motor is drivable.
  8. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that by means of the stack housing ventilation ( 50 ) Furthermore, another component and / or a further module can be ventilated or cooled.
  9. Stack case ventilation ( 50 ) according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the stack housing fan ( 52 ) directly on or in the stack housing ( 16 ) of the fuel cell ( 10 ) is provided.
  10. Fuel cell system ( 1 ) or vehicle, in particular electric vehicle, with a fuel cell system ( 1 ), characterized in that the fuel cell system ( 1 ) a stack housing ventilation ( 50 ) according to one of claims 1 to 9.
DE102015117055.8A 2015-10-07 2015-10-07 Stack case ventilation, fuel cell system and vehicle Pending DE102015117055A1 (en)

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DE19955291B4 (en) * 1998-11-18 2005-03-03 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Jidoshokki, Kariya Fuel cell system with common scroll compressor and spiral regenerator
DE102007052831A1 (en) * 2006-11-09 2008-05-29 GM Global Technology Operations, Inc., Detroit Turbo Compressor shutdown
DE10306234B4 (en) * 2003-02-04 2009-09-17 Daimler Ag Method for supplying air to a fuel cell and apparatus for carrying out the method
DE102006049031B4 (en) * 2006-10-13 2009-10-22 Futuree Fuel Cell Solutions Gmbh Carrying container of a power supply unit with fuel cells, its use and method for risk reduction
DE102012001602A1 (en) * 2012-01-26 2013-08-01 Daimler Ag Anode circuit of fuel cell system mounted in vehicle, has recirculation conveying device for anode gas exhaust, which is provided in form of gas jet pump by which fuel flowing to fuel cell is driven as propellant gas stream

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DE19955291B4 (en) * 1998-11-18 2005-03-03 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Jidoshokki, Kariya Fuel cell system with common scroll compressor and spiral regenerator
DE19956376A1 (en) * 1999-11-24 2001-06-13 Xcellsis Gmbh Arrangement with fuel and gas supply system and method of operating the assembly
DE10024570A1 (en) * 2000-05-19 2002-04-18 Xcellsis Gmbh The fuel cell system and method of operating the fuel cell system
DE10306234B4 (en) * 2003-02-04 2009-09-17 Daimler Ag Method for supplying air to a fuel cell and apparatus for carrying out the method
DE102006049031B4 (en) * 2006-10-13 2009-10-22 Futuree Fuel Cell Solutions Gmbh Carrying container of a power supply unit with fuel cells, its use and method for risk reduction
DE102007052831A1 (en) * 2006-11-09 2008-05-29 GM Global Technology Operations, Inc., Detroit Turbo Compressor shutdown
DE102012001602A1 (en) * 2012-01-26 2013-08-01 Daimler Ag Anode circuit of fuel cell system mounted in vehicle, has recirculation conveying device for anode gas exhaust, which is provided in form of gas jet pump by which fuel flowing to fuel cell is driven as propellant gas stream

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102018209480A1 (en) * 2018-06-13 2019-12-19 Elringklinger Ag Fuel cell device, method for operating a fuel cell device and vehicle

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