DE102015109967A1 - Device and method for bidirectionally connecting two power grids - Google Patents

Device and method for bidirectionally connecting two power grids

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Publication number
DE102015109967A1
DE102015109967A1 DE102015109967.5A DE102015109967A DE102015109967A1 DE 102015109967 A1 DE102015109967 A1 DE 102015109967A1 DE 102015109967 A DE102015109967 A DE 102015109967A DE 102015109967 A1 DE102015109967 A1 DE 102015109967A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
power
dc
time
network
controller
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Withdrawn
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DE102015109967.5A
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German (de)
Inventor
Bernd REIFENHÄUSER
Antonello Monti
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GIP AG
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GIP AG
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Priority to DE102015109967.5A priority Critical patent/DE102015109967A1/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/005Arrangements for selectively connecting the load to one among a plurality of power lines or power sources
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J13/00Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network
    • H02J13/0096Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network for networks combining AC and DC power
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/04Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks for connecting networks of the same frequency but supplied from different sources
    • H02J3/06Controlling transfer of power between connected networks; Controlling sharing of load between connected networks
    • H02J1/002
    • H02J2203/20
    • H02J3/003
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M3/00Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
    • H02M3/22Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac
    • H02M3/24Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters
    • H02M3/28Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode to produce the intermediate ac
    • H02M3/325Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode to produce the intermediate ac using devices of a triode or a transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal
    • H02M3/335Conversion of dc power input into dc power output with intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode to produce the intermediate ac using devices of a triode or a transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only

Abstract

The present invention relates to a device, a method for bidirectionally connecting two power grids and an electrical network with such a device. The goal is to connect subnets to existing parts of the network using packet-based, power-flow-based power transmission to take advantage of the new technology without over-capitalizing on investment. In addition, the object is to connect two power grids, both based on the new technology, across different voltage levels with respect to the prior art. The invention enables, in one embodiment, to connect a packet-based, power-controlled power grid to a conventional power grid, wherein electrical power can flow in both directions between the two networks.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a device and a method for bidirectionally connecting two power grids.
  • The increasing regenerative production on the one hand and the increasing demands on the individualized, highly dynamic provision of power at the end nodes on the other hand, are particularly noticeable in the area of the electrical distribution network. In the future, the greatest dynamic can be expected there, and the most far-reaching changes are necessary here as well. A distribution network designates the MV voltage level, e.g. B. with a voltage of 10 kV, and here especially urban mesh networks, with which the local network stations are linked, as well as the LV voltage level, for example, formed from the 0.4 kV leads emanating from the individual local network stations.
  • Today, the distribution network is rigid and integrated into the top-down architecture of the classic 50 Hz AC grid, in which the electrical energy of a few producers over the networks of different voltage levels from "top" to "bottom" to a very large number is distributed by end nodes.
  • In future, for example, it will be necessary to compensate for the higher dynamics through regenerative generation in the distribution network, which can be achieved through grid expansion and massive intervention by consumers or local producers.
  • A central element in the use of renewable energy sources in a power grid, but also in the supply of energy to mobile consumers, such as motor vehicles with electric drive, are buffer storage. These are used to compensate for the volatility in the supply of electrical power through the sources and consumption by sinks for electrical power. Without a buffer memory, only the amount of electrical power can be transported and / or provided to the consumers or sinks that are being generated at the given time at any given time. Due to the volatility of both sources and sinks, security of supply can not be guaranteed.
  • Increasingly, sources such. As solar generators, batteries and sinks such. LED lamps, etc., in their essence DC elements, so it is expected that the power transmission through DC networks is realized.
  • Known electrical supply networks usually ensure the supply of the individual consumers or customers through a plurality of paths and corresponding static circuits of the network or networks. In doing so, the network is switched to connect one or a plurality of customers via a plurality of intermediate stations to one or more power generators, e.g. a large power plant or a decentralized system for generating renewable energy, such as a wind turbine, connects over several paths. The power transmission in such a network is through the power flow along a path in that network as it results according to the laws of Ohm and Kirchhoff. In such an ohmic network, generation and consumption must always be in balance and sufficient line capacities must be available so that the power can be transferred.
  • As a rule, the classic supply network consists of several networks with different voltage levels coupled rigidly above 50 Hz as well as a few large power plants. Networks and power plants are operated by a hierarchical system of central controls. Such centrally controlled and permanently connected supply networks can only ensure a lasting energy supply for all customers by permanently providing a deterministic reserve for generating electricity beyond the actual requirements of the customers. Although this oversupply can be roughly adjusted to the customers' known requirements with the aid of forecasting models, these electrical supply networks nevertheless prove to be inadequate, inflexible and inefficient.
  • Therefore, demand-oriented methods and systems for the transmission of electrical energy are already known from the prior art. What they have in common is that they primarily synchronize generation and consumption using information and communication technology. The power transmission is still done according to the old principles. Such systems are referred to in English as "smart grids". However, even these so-called "smart grids" only provide centrally controlled supply networks that do not make it possible, without prognostic methods, to react to changes, in particular short-term fluctuations, in the amount of energy generated on the producer side. However, especially with an increase in the share of renewable energy, there are considerable fluctuations on the supply side. For example, the amount of energy provided by a wind farm depends on the current wind conditions. The amount of energy provided is highly volatile. For example, during a doldrums to meet needs in the short term Energy provided by other energy producers.
  • This volatile character of regenerative generation is also counteracted by storage and by conventional power plants, which are available as reserve capacity. However, due to the unchanged concept of electricity transmission, it can neither be ensured that production and consumption take place locally, nor that storage facilities with optimal reserves be dimensioned, nor that networks can be managed more optimally. Not to be ignored is the aspect that the rigid coupling over the grid frequency of 50 Hz of the various grids can threaten a widespread blackout if the imbalance between the volatile regenerative generation and the consumption is too great.
  • Therefore, for example, describes the DE 10 2009 003 173 A1 a method and system for the transmission of electrical energy, which makes it possible to dynamically shape the distribution of energy in a supply network in order to meet these new challenges. This system also works without a central, higher-level control instance or institution.
  • It turns out, however, that in order to realize such a system comparatively elaborately designed network nodes are required. These network nodes make it possible to control the power flow through the power grid, so that the power is transported in the form of energy packets that can be routed within the power network in the manner of data packets in a data network.
  • It is therefore unlikely that the existing power grid with its different voltage levels can be switched to this new network technology all at once. On the contrary, it should be assumed that individual subnetworks, in particular individual voltage levels of the grids, will initially be converted to the new technology.
  • Among other things, it is therefore the task of how subnetworks can be connected to already existing parts of the network with a packet-based, power-flow-controlled energy transmission in order to be able to utilize the advantages of the new technology without excessively increasing the capital expenditure. In addition, the object is to connect two power grids, both based on the new technology, across different voltage levels with respect to the prior art.
  • To solve at least one of these objects, a device for the bidirectional connection of two power grids is proposed according to the invention with a first electrical power distributor for the first power grid with an electrical distribution circuit having a DC voltage connection and at least one other terminal, with the further connection a source or a drain which is part of the first power network, is connectable and wherein the DC voltage terminal and the further terminal are electrically connected such that an electric current can flow in any direction between them, a bidirectional DC-DC converter having an input connected to the DC voltage terminal of the first electric power distributor input stage for converting a first DC voltage of the first electric power distributor into a first AC voltage, a transformer for transforming the first AC voltage in a second AC voltage and an output stage for converting the second AC voltage to a second DC voltage, wherein the DC-DC converter comprises a power controller, which is set so that in operation of the device, the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter in response to time adjustable to at least three values is, a second electrical power distributor for the second power network with an electrical distribution circuit having a DC voltage connected to the output stage of the DC-DC converter and at least one further terminal, with the other terminal, a source or a drain, which is part of the second power network connectable is and wherein the DC voltage terminal and the further terminal are electrically connected to each other such that an electric current can flow in any direction between them, a communication device, the m it is connectable to a data network and adapted to receive data from a source or sink during operation of the device, and a controller for controlling a flow of electrical power as a function of time between the terminals of the first and second electrical power distributors the controller is connected to the communication device such that the data received from the communication device is processable by the controller, the controller being connected to the DC-DC converter, the controller being adapted to operate within the device at any future time within a period of observation over the DC-DC converter determined electric power from the data received from the sources or sink, and wherein the controller is arranged such that they in the operation of the device at any time within a viewing period above d The DC-DC converter controls electrical power so that it is equal to the power previously determined for that time.
  • Such an apparatus, in one embodiment, enables a packet-based, power-controlled power grid to be connected to a conventional power grid, with electrical power being able to flow in both directions between the two networks.
  • The biggest challenges due to the increasing use of renewable energy are in the distribution network, where many substations will have to be renewed in the future. So there is the idea, on the medium voltage levels over which the local network stations are meshed to introduce a packet-based, power flow controlled power transport with a necessary network infrastructure and replace the local network stations with new network nodes, as they are formed by embodiments of the present invention.
  • Thus, one goal for which the apparatus and method of the present invention is to be used is the construction of a packet-based power flow controlled power grid. This is referred to in the present application as a quantum grid. As already mentioned, it makes sense, for example, to design the medium-voltage level in the form of such a quantum grid. Such a quantum grid is formed by the network nodes connected via lines. Such a node is provided with a control plane for routing the data and energy packets, the control of the power plane and the communication with all connected and accessible sources, sinks and nodes in the power grid and with a power plane with appropriate interconnection topology for the power transmission by means of the so-called Quantum Flow Controller equipped via the connected lines. The networking of the nodes, which are also called Quantum Grid Routers, forms the control and power plane of the Quantum Grid. The device according to the invention forms in one embodiment a full node within such a quantum grid. Moreover, in one embodiment, the device according to the invention and the method according to the invention make it possible to connect such a quantum grid to an existing conventional network. Therefore, the device according to the invention is also referred to in one embodiment as Quantum Grid Gateway.
  • A central aspect of an embodiment of the present invention is the design of the power plane, such that on the one hand energy packets can be transmitted across voltage levels, to other conventional networks, sources and sinks, possibly at all voltage levels, can be connected to the quantum grid but also the tasks of a node within the Quantum Grid can be met.
  • Memory is indispensable in embodiments of the present invention. Therefore, in embodiments, the device also has the ability to control and manage electrical energy storage devices attached to the device. In the case of a quantum grid, the question arises like an energy packet for forwarding power from one node to the next node, this is also called a transport packet, is generated from energy packages of multiple sources or from multiple memories. This object of orchestration is also part of embodiments according to the present invention and is solved by the control plane and thus the control of the device according to the invention and the corresponding method. A corresponding description can be found in the following text.
  • With the device according to the invention and the method according to the invention, in embodiments thereof a quantum grid can thus be realized on the MV level and / or on the LV level and the quantum grid on the MV level and / or the LV level on one or more connect conventional networks. In addition, in one embodiment, the invention has a device for connecting and managing stores and / or for generating energy packets from forecasts for connected conventional grids and / or for managing underfunding or overlapping by deviating an actual output from the forecast arises.
  • In this sense, the device according to the invention for bidirectionally connecting two power grids in one embodiment forms a gateway between a first packet-based, power-controlled power grid and a conventional power grid. In order for the device according to the invention to be able to fulfill this gateway function, it has, on the one hand, a DC-DC converter whose power flow can be controlled and, on the other hand, via a controller which can be connected via a communication device to a data network of the first packet-based, power-controlled power network.
  • Determining the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter or via one of the further terminals at a given time, ie, a power profile, comprises, on the one hand, extracting a power profile from a data packet assigned to an energy package, and, on the other hand, also calculating the electrical power in dependence from time, data present in the controller. The determination of a power profile comprises in particular also calculating a transport profile for transmitting power from one node to the next of one or a plurality of incoming performance profiles, generating individual performance profiles from an incoming transport profile, orchestrating a plurality of sources associated with the inventive device, and predicting a performance profile as described in detail elsewhere in the text.
  • Depending on the direction of the power flow and its configuration, the gateway can either take energy packets from the first packet-based, power-controlled power grid and feed it into a second conventional power grid or take power from the second conventional power grid and in the form of energy packets in the first packet-based, power-controlled Feed in the power grid.
  • When the gateway is used to feed power from a conventional power grid into a packet-based, power-driven power grid, the gateway forms the power packs by associating with each power pack with electrical power a data packet containing at least information about a receiver of the power pack and a power profile, i. a description of the electrical power provided by this energy pack as a function of time. The data packet and the energy packet are then transmitted in the packet-based, power flow-controlled power grid such that the data packet arrives at all nodes of the power network before the energy packet.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the first power grid and the second power grid are at the same voltage level. Therefore, in one embodiment of the invention, the first DC voltage is equal to the second DC voltage and / or the first AC voltage is equal to the second AC voltage. In such an embodiment, in which the first and the second power grid are in the same voltage level, the bidirectional DC-DC converter of the device takes over the power control between the first and the second power grid without causing a transformation between the voltage levels. In other words, in one embodiment, the transformer then has identical numbers of windings of the primary and secondary coils.
  • In an alternative embodiment, however, the DC-DC converter also serves the transition between two voltage levels. In one embodiment, the transformer for transforming the first alternating voltage into a second alternating voltage has different numbers of turns of its primary and secondary coils.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the first power network is a medium-voltage network (MV network) with a voltage of 1 kV to 52 kV. In one embodiment of the invention, the second power grid is then a high voltage network (HV grid) with a voltage of 60 kV to 150 kV or a high voltage grid (HV grid) with a voltage of more than 100 kV. Alternatively, the second power grid is a low voltage (LV) network with a nominal voltage of less than 1 kV, in particular with a voltage of 230 V, 400 V, 500 V or 690 V.
  • Depending on in which voltage level the first power grid and the second power grid are operated, the device according to the invention forms in one embodiment a substation (between MV grid and HV grid) or a so-called local grid station (between MV grid and LV grid) ,
  • In one embodiment, the device according to the invention does not fulfill any gateway function between a conventional power grid and a power grid with the new technology. Instead, in one embodiment, both the first power grid and the second power grid are a packet-based power flow controlled power grid. In such an embodiment, the device according to the invention serves the connection of the two power grids over two voltage levels or else exclusively for power flow control between two power grids on the same voltage level.
  • In a simple embodiment of the invention, the first electrical power distributor and / or the second electrical power distributor only comprise an electrical distribution circuit with a DC voltage connection and at least one, preferably exactly one, further connection.
  • While the DC voltage connection according to the invention provides the transition from the first power grid to the second power grid or vice versa, the one or more further terminals form the interfaces of the device according to the invention to the other components of the first and second power network.
  • It is understood that if, in one embodiment, the first or second network is an AC voltage network, the first or second electrical power distributor comprises an AC / DC converter, so as to ensure that the DC voltage terminal is a DC voltage.
  • The first and second electric power distributors may be of identical construction, but need not necessarily be in embodiments of the invention. This will be explained below with reference to various configurations of the device according to the invention in detail.
  • The DC voltage connection in this sense is an excellent connection of the electrical distribution circuit and forms part of a connection between the first power network and the second power network, which provides the device according to the invention.
  • An electrical distribution circuit according to the present invention may, in a first, simple embodiment, be a bus bar with which all the terminals of the respective electrical power distributor, i. the DC voltage terminal and the at least one further terminal are connected in parallel.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, the electrical distribution circuit comprises at least two further connections which can be connected to sources or sinks which are connected to one another via a so-called cross-bar switching network. A switching network was formerly known as a crossbar distributor. For the purposes of the present application, the switching matrix serves for switching through the power provided by each source connected to the power distributor to at least one sink connected to the power distributor or to the DC voltage connection. Coupling fields for weak currents are known from communications technology and are among the so-called space multiplexing methods. A switching matrix designates an interconnected matrix (so-called coupling multiple) of incoming and outgoing lines. In communication technology, switching networks switch the connection for each signal exclusively between the inputs and outputs. In contrast, the term "switching network" in the sense of the present application also includes switching networks which combine several power flows or divide power flows.
  • An embodiment of the distribution circuit as a switching matrix has the advantage over an embodiment in which all the connections are connected in parallel to a busbar, irrespective of the voltages which they provide to the power distributor, and thus any voltage level or any time curve of the power at the terminals, which are connected to sinks, can be provided.
  • In a further embodiment of the first or second electric power distributor, all terminals, i. the DC terminal and the other terminals for sources or sinks, connected to a distribution circuit which is an electrical coupling field, which selectively allows any interconnection of the terminals with each other.
  • Such a design has the highest complexity of the circuit, but it also offers the greatest possible flexibility of the switching states. In particular, in such an embodiment it is not necessary to pay attention to whether a source, a sink or a power supply is connected to a further connection of the distribution circuit. In particular, an energy store can also be connected to each of the connections in this case, which can be both discharged and charged via the power distributor. Embodiments of a power distributor with an electrical coupling distributor as part of the distribution circuit are in the DE 10 2014 119 431 A1 described.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, all nodes of the switching network are formed by a regulated power controller, as will be described below. In an alternative embodiment, all nodes of the switching matrix are formed by on / off switches.
  • Embodiments of the device according to the invention, in which the distributor circuit has a coupling field, are expedient if a memory for electrical energy managed by the controller of the device is connected to a further connection. This memory then serves to handle over- and undercover.
  • In one embodiment of the power distributor according to the invention, the distributor circuit has a first and a second section, wherein the first section comprises a coupling field which is configured such that all connections of the coupling field that can be connected to a source or a drain are connected in parallel or in series connected to the second portion of the distribution circuit are connectable. For this purpose, the nodes of the switching matrix of the first section of the distributor circuit are formed in an embodiment of regulated power controllers, as will be described below. In one embodiment, the second section of the distributor circuit can be designed optionally as a passive busbar or as a switching network, which has simple on / off switches at the node. The first paragraph Such a distribution circuit is referred to as "physical abstraction layer" in the context of the present application. The advantage of an embodiment of a physical abstraction layer distribution circuit is that it has high flexibility while reducing circuit complexity.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the distribution circuit of the first or the second electric power distributor has at least two further terminals.
  • Combinations of the first and the second distribution circuit are conceivable in which both the first and the second distribution circuit have at least two further connections, but embodiments are also possible in which only the first distribution circuit, preferably the one whose power grid has a higher voltage level , At least two further terminals, while the distribution circuit of the second electric power distributor has only a single further connection.
  • In such an embodiment, sources or sinks for electrical energy are connectable to the further terminals, wherein the DC voltage connection and the further terminals are electrically connected to each other such that an electric current can flow in any direction between them, and wherein at least one of the further terminals, Preferably, however, each of the further connections comprises a power controller, which is set up such that, during operation of the apparatus, the electrical power flowing through the respective further connection can be set to at least three values as a function of time, the controller being connected to each of the power controllers is, wherein the controller is arranged such that it determines the operation of the device, the electrical power flowing through the other terminals in dependence on the data received from the sources, sinks and networks, and wherein the control is turned on is directed that it controls the operation of the device over the respective further connection flowing electrical power as a function of time.
  • While embodiments of the present invention are possible in which only one power controller is provided in the other terminals of the first or second electric power distributors, embodiments in which the power controller is part of a quantized power flow controller (Quantum Flow Controller; QFC) is in one of the other terminals of the distribution circuit. Such a QFC in the sense of the present application can also be described as a regulated power controller whose power level is regulated by means of a control signal predetermined by the controller of the device according to the invention.
  • In one embodiment, such a QFC has, in addition to the power controller, control that is connected, on the one hand, preferably via a data network, to the (central) controller of the device and, on the other hand, connected to the power controller of the QFC so that it can operate during operation of the device Condition of the power controller controls or regulated in one embodiment thereof.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the control of the QFC is arranged to convert each value for the power flow P (t) of the corresponding port which the control of the QFC receives from the (central) control of the device into a control signal for driving the power controller implements. Such a control signal for driving the power controller is, in one embodiment, the pulse width of the voltage signals with which the gates of the controllable switches, for example thyristors, MOSFETs or IGBTs, of the power controller are operated.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, a connection of the first or second electric power distributor has, in addition to the power controller, a measuring device for detecting an electrical actual power flowing via the connection.
  • This measuring device is in one embodiment part of the QFC and connected to the control of the QFC, wherein the controller of the QFC is arranged to regulate the actual power through the connection of the first or second power distributor to be equal to one of the central one Control of the device predetermined power P (t), which represents the target power in this sense. Only a measuring device in each of the terminals allows control of the current flowing through the other terminal power.
  • In contrast, in one embodiment of the device according to the invention, the further connection additionally has a voltage converter. This voltage converter is expediently part of the QFC. In one embodiment, the voltage converter is arranged between the measuring device and the power controller in the QFC.
  • Such voltage transformers are capable of converting an input voltage to a higher or lower output voltage. Voltage transformer, which has an input voltage to a higher Transform voltage, are also referred to as boost converter. Voltage transformers that convert an input voltage to a lower voltage are also referred to as a buck converter. Step-up converters and step-down converters are typically present as direct current elements, so that when using step-up converters and step-down converters in an alternating current system, a direct or alternating direction preferably takes place behind such a voltage converter.
  • Such an embodiment with a power controller in at least one further connection makes it possible with the device according to the invention not only to control the power flow between the first power grid and the second power grid, but also to provide a power flow control within the first network or the second network, in which case first power distributor and / or the second power distributor are integral components of the first power grid or the second power grid and form in these power grids a regular network node, which is able to provide a packet-based, power-controlled power transport within the first power grid or the second power grid. This also without power between the first and the second power grid is transmitted.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, for this purpose, the controller is set up to calculate the electric power P (t) flowing through each of the further terminals and via the DC-DC converter during operation of the apparatus at the instant t of power source P del (t) of each source or network and the electrical power P dem (t) required at the time t of each drain or network, and controlling the power controllers such that the calculated electrical power P ( t) is set at time t in the respective further connection.
  • In this way, both the power flow over each of the further terminals and between the first and the second power network via the DC-DC converter is controlled by the controller.
  • In the context of the present application, sources of electrical energy are understood as meaning all electrical devices which, when connected to the first or second electrical power distributor, supply thereto electrical energy or power. This can be very concrete, for example, power plants of all kinds or rechargeable energy storage, which are discharged. In addition, sources of power can appear as sources, which are connected to one of the other terminals of the distribution circuit.
  • Correspondingly, sinks for electrical energy in the sense of the present application are all types or types of electrical consumers, for example a household connection, but also whole power grids which draw power from the first or second power distributor. A sink in the sense of the present application is thus any unit of a power network into which electric power flows from the first or second power distributor.
  • A power grid, part of which forms the first or second electrical power distributor in installed or built-in state, is for example an electrical supply network, in which a source and / or a sink is connected via an overhead line or a ground line to the power distributor, or an electrical system a vehicle, an aircraft, a ship or any other means of transport.
  • The heart of the device according to the invention for the bidirectional connection of two power grids forms a bidirectional DC-DC converter, which is configured so that the electrical power P (t) flowing through the DC-DC converter at a given time t is adjustable to at least three values as a function of the time t. Such a bidirectional power-controllable DC-DC converter is known for example from US 5,027,264 or in more complex form from the DE 10 2012 204 035 A1 known.
  • A bidirectional DC-DC converter includes an input stage connected to the DC terminal of the first electric power distributor for converting the first DC voltage of the first electric power distributor into a first AC voltage, a transformer for transforming the first AC voltage into a second AC voltage, and an output stage for converting the second AC voltage into a second AC voltage DC.
  • While typically AC grids, which in embodiments of the present invention form the first and / or the second power grid, have a grid frequency of 50 Hz, the frequency of the first and second AC voltages within the DC-DC converter is significantly higher. This to reduce the mass and size of the transformer. In one embodiment of the invention, the frequency of the first and second AC voltages within the DC-DC converter is greater than 500 Hz, preferably equal to or greater than 1 kHz.
  • In this case, the DC-DC converter according to the invention comprises a power controller, which makes it possible to adjust the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter as a function of time. Thus, control of the flow of electrical power between the first power grid and the second power grid may be provided via the bidirectional DC-DC converter. Adjustability of the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter in the sense of the present application means that the power flow can be set to at least three values. Therefore, the power controller differs from a conventional switch, which is either fully on or off, in that at least one intermediate value between no power flow and maximum power flow is adjustable. However, in one embodiment, the electrical power flowing across the DC-DC converter is adjustable to a plurality of discrete values, which are preferably an integer multiple of an elementary power unit dP. In a further embodiment, the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter is adjustable as a function of time to an arbitrary value between a complete disconnection of the DC-DC converter and a maximum transmitted power.
  • While in this application a distinction is always made linguistically between the input stage and the output stage, it is obvious that in one embodiment these are identical components. This in particular to provide the required bidirectionality.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the input stage of the DC-DC converter has at least one actively switched voltage bridge with a plurality of active switches for converting the first DC voltage into a first AC voltage, as well as the output stage of the DC-DC converter at least one actively switched voltage bridge with a plurality of active switches for converting the second Has AC voltage in the second DC voltage. The actively switched voltage bridge of the input stage and the actively connected voltage bridge of the output stage are electrically connected to a phase via a transformer. The electrical power transmitted via the DC-DC converter is then adjustable by the controller by being arranged such that during operation of the device it controls the active switches of the input stage and the output stage in such a way that the power transmission is achieved by adjusting the phase angles of the first and second AC voltage is adjustable via the DC-DC converter. Such a DC-DC converter is for example from the US 5,027,264 known.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, a three-phase DC-DC converter is used, as used in the DE 10 2012 204 035 A1 is shown.
  • While initially only the case is considered that a single first DC voltage of a DC voltage terminal of the first power distributor is converted into a single second DC voltage in the DC voltage terminal of the second power distributor, in an embodiment of the invention, in which a multi-phase AC power to transfer between two power grids is simply a plurality of the DC-DC converter described here can be provided.
  • The DC-DC converter, which provides the power flow-controlled connection between the first and the second power network in the device according to the invention, can additionally be used in one embodiment of the invention for realizing a QFC in one of the further connections.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, at least one of the DC voltage terminals of the first or second power distributor has a measuring device for detecting an electrical actual power flowing via the DC voltage connection, and the DC-DC converter has a controller, wherein the controller is connected to the measuring device and is set up such that in the operation of the device, it regulates the actual power via the DC-DC converter so that it is equal to the power determined by the control of the device.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, for each point in time t within a viewing period, the controller has information about which of the ports which power P (t) is fed into the device for bidirectionally connecting two power grids and via which of the ports which power P (t) is delivered at the time t.
  • As stated above, in one embodiment, the transmission of electrical energy in the first and / or the second power grid is based on energy packets and is power flow controlled. It is expedient here if the packet-based, power flow-controlled current transport takes place on the basis of a direct current network. However, embodiments are also conceivable in which the packet-based, power flow-controlled first or second power grid is an AC power grid.
  • In this case, the energy transfer does not take place differently than in the prior art Analog power flow through the transmission network as it sets according to Ohm and Kirchhoff but in the form of energy packets that are dynamically routed to the network node. In one embodiment, the device according to the invention forms such a routing network node of at least the first or the second power network or else both power grids.
  • Routes in the sense of the present application means that a transport path is first determined for an energy packet to be transmitted, and then the energy packet is transmitted along this path. In this case, for the routing as in the packet-switched Internet, the path from the producer to the buyer must be determined for each transmission of a packet. For this purpose, in one embodiment, the path or path is calculated by means of the known pathfinding or routing algorithms, preferably in the control of the device according to the invention.
  • An energy packet in the sense of the present invention is defined by its performance profile, which describes the time course of the power between the beginning and the end of the packet to be transmitted.
  • The packet transmission along a predetermined path is accomplished by controlling the power flow between all nodes of the path involved. This task is the responsibility of the individual controllers of the participating nodes, which together form part of the control plan of the power grid. The path determination and power flow control on each line is also done by the controllers of each node.
  • In order to enable such dynamic routing, the energy packet is assigned a data packet which is transmitted to the same receiver as the data packet and which contains the information required for the routing. Preferably, each energy packet is assigned at least one, but more preferably exactly one, data packet.
  • The transfer of such energy packet from source to sink will now be described by way of an exemplary embodiment: At the beginning of the transmission of the energy packet from the source to the sink, there is an agreement between the source and the sink when the source of the sink contains which energy packets Provides power. Based on this agreement, the energy packets to be transmitted from the source to the sink are then defined. Next, a determination is made of the path over which each energy packet is to be transported from the source to the sink. Different packages can be routed on different paths. Scouting can be based on rules of various kinds. For example, it may be a goal of pathfinding to minimize the energy losses during transmission. In another example, economic factors may influence scouting so that the cheapest route is always chosen. The path determination specifies in detail which network nodes and their connections are used for the power flow. The ascertained path is confirmed by signaling by all participating nodes and the data packet belonging to each energy packet with the power profile and the routing information of the energy packet is transmitted to each individual network node on the determined path. The participating nodes take the power profile from each data packet and at a given time regulate the power flow at each of their ports according to the specification of the power profile (s). After all the nodes have signaled "ready", the delivery node, ie the source, signals the start of the delivery and the "synchronous" power flow control of all participating nodes sets the defined power flow from the source to the sink. Further details of such a packet-based, power flow controlled energy transfer are in the DE 10 2009 003 173 A1 disclosed.
  • Such a power network based on energy packets and a power flow control of the transport of each energy packet is referred to in the sense of the present application as a packet-based, power flow-controlled power network.
  • In order to enable a routing of the energy packet, the data packet assigned to the energy packet in one embodiment has a unique addressing of the generator of the energy packet. In a further embodiment, the data packet has a unique addressing of the consumer of the energy packet, hereinafter also referred to as the destination address. In this way, both the origin and the destination of a particular energy package can be defined, whereby a routing of the individual elements of a network involved is possible.
  • The determination of the next receiver within the device according to the invention takes place, for example, by reading out the addressing of the customer specified in the data packet and looking up the next receiver in a stored routing table.
  • In this case, the routing may result in that, in one embodiment of the invention, a forwarding of an energy packet takes place only within the first or the second power network without the packet being transmitted via the DC voltage converter. However, in one embodiment, a Energy package can also be routed across the voltage levels.
  • The data packet defines a performance profile of the energy packet assigned to it. That the data packet describes the power to be provided by the power pack at any future time within a viewing period.
  • The power profile TP (t), also referred to below as the transport profile, for an energy packet to be transmitted via the DC-DC converter and between the first and the second power network, also referred to below as the transport packet, is in the simplest case, in which at one time only a single energy packet is received and this energy packet is to be transmitted via a single line, identical to the power profile of the received energy packet.
  • In more complex situations, two or more energy packets are received at two or more further terminals of the first electrical power distributor, which, preferably simultaneously, are to be transmitted via the DC-DC converter to the second power grid.
  • The method according to the invention therefore preferably comprises the steps of: combining a plurality of received energy packets into an energy packet or transport packet to be transmitted, each of the received energy packets having a power profile P (t) which determines which maximum power the energy packet at a time t, wherein in summarizing the power profiles P (t) of the received energy packets are added to a power profile TP (t) or transport profile of the energy packet or transport packet to be transmitted, and transmitting the destination addresses and the power profiles P (t) of the received energy packets in a data packet associated with the energy packet to be transmitted to the receiver. For purposes of the present application, calculating a transport packet from one or a plurality of energy packets is as determining the electrical power flowing through a port at a future time within a viewing period from the data received from a source or sink.
  • On the other hand, power packets received by one of the power grids containing a plurality of power packets must be separated in one of the power distributors and forwarded to different receivers.
  • Therefore, it is expedient if, in one embodiment, the method according to the invention has the following steps: decomposing a received energy packet into a plurality of energy packets to be transmitted, wherein the data packet assigned to the received energy packet contains information about the destination addresses and the power profiles of the energy packets to be transmitted the energy packets to be transmitted with their associated power profiles to a respective receiver, and transmitting the data packets associated with the energy packets to be transmitted to the same receiver as the energy packets.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the routing is autonomous, i. H. without a higher-level central control. For example, based on routing tables, the routing decision can be made depending on the address of the customer, to which receiver the energy packet is to be transmitted next. However, other routing algorithms are alternatively suitable for path determination.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, the routing is self-organized, d. H. In the context of the present application, changes to the network, for example the addition or removal of network nodes or the addition or removal of connections between network nodes, are recognized by the system itself without requiring a higher-level entity in the sense of a central server or the like. In doing so, local, i. Rules to be applied in each network node provide global structures for both the control and the transport layer.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, such a packet-based power transmission is based on an approximation of the power P (t) as a function of the time t at each further connection as an integer multiple of an elementary power dP, where dP is constant over a defined time interval dt.
  • Such an approximation can also be understood and referred to as digitization or quantization of the power profiles. The digitized performance profile is also referred to as Quantum Power Flow.
  • As an alternative to an approximation or digitization of the power profiles P (t) by an elementary power dP, where dP is constant over a time interval dt, it makes sense that the controller is set up and configured such that it performs in the operation of the power distributor P (t) as a function of the time t at each of the terminals as a formula P (t) = Σ n / k = 02 k dP , This approximation is known in the data processing as Power of 2 representation.
  • The digitization of the power profiles makes it possible to efficiently solve the algorithmic task of distributing the power of other ports connected to sources at other ports connected to sinks with algorithms. Such algorithms are used, for example, in the DE 10 2014 119 431 A1 described in detail.
  • In one embodiment, the device according to the invention also has an electrical energy store which is set up so that it can receive, store and / or dispense electrical energy in the operation of the device, the energy store having one of the further connections of the first or second electrical power distributor is electrically connected, wherein the energy storage is configured such that, starting from information about a current state of the energy storage, which can be provided by the energy storage at a future time t within a viewing period maximum electric power P del (t) and one at the time t maximum Power consumption P cap (t) is calculable, and wherein the controller is set up and configured such that in the operation of the power distribution in calculating the current at the time t through each of the other terminals flowing electrical power P (t) to this M t taken into account by the energy storage maximum electric power P del (t) or at this time t possible power consumption P cap (t) of the energy storage considered.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the control of the device is also set up so that it can compensate for under- and surpluses of the electrical power flows through the device in the operation of the device by managing a connected to another port of the device energy storage, ie from this removes or stores electrical power. For this purpose, in one embodiment, the control of the device is set up in such a way that it calculates, for each instant t within a viewing period T, the electrical power P (t) flowing across each terminal connected to such an energy store:
    • - the maximum achievable by the time of each source electrical power P del (t) and
    • - the required at the time of each sink electric power P to the (t) or at the time when the maximum possible power consumption P cap (t) of each depression, and
  • in that it controls the power controllers so that the calculated electric power P (t) is set at the time t at the respective terminal.
  • It goes without saying that the power P (t) fed into the power distributor from the sources at any time t is at most as great as the maximum electric power P del (t) which can be supplied at this time by these sources and, if applicable, the energy store. , Also, in one embodiment, ideally, at the time t of each of the sinks connected to a terminal of the electric power distributor, an electric power equal to or equal to the electric power P dem (t) required at that time t by the respective sink is provided this time t maximum possible power consumption P cap (t) of the respective sink.
  • In other words, for each of the energy stores connected to another terminal of the first and second electric power distributors and connected by the controller according to the invention, the controller determines a power profile, i. a profile of the electrical power P (t) flowing for each time point t within one observation period T via the respective further connection. In addition, the controller determines a power profile for the DC-DC converter, i. a profile of the electrical power P (t) flowing through the DC-DC converter for each instant t within a viewing period T.
  • At least one of the foregoing objects is also achieved by an electrical network comprising a device according to any one of the preceding claims, a first power grid and a second power grid, a data network connected to the communication device, at least one source of electrical energy, the source is electrically connected to one of the further terminals of the first or second electric power distributor, wherein the source is configured so that starting from an information about a current state of the source, the maximum from the source at a future time t electric power P del (t ), and wherein the source has a communication device connected to the data network that is arranged to operate during operation of the power network Transmits data to the communication device with information about a present state of the source and / or with information about the maximum achievable electric power P del (t) within a viewing period T at a future time t, and with at least one sink for electrical energy, wherein the sink is connected to one of the other terminals of the other power distributor.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, this sink has a communication device connected to the data network, which is set up in such a way that, during operation of the power network, it has data about an electrical power P P required by the sink at a future time t within a viewing period T the (t) or at the time maximum power consumption P cap (t) of the sink transmits to the communication device.
  • This embodiment represents the classic case of a situation in which the device forms a gateway between a power network which is packet-based and in which, in addition to a transport of the electrical packets, an information transmission takes place while the second power network is a power network of conventional type.
  • In the further embodiment, both the first and the second power grid are packet-based, line-flow-controlled power grids.
  • A communication device according to the present invention is in one embodiment an interface for connecting to a data network, it is irrelevant to the present invention, over which physical transmission path the data network transmits the data to the communication device of the device for bidirectionally connecting two power grids. The data network may be, for example, a wired data network, a wireless network or a powerline data network.
  • The device according to the invention for bidirectionally connecting two power grids is designed to receive data via a communication device from the sources or sinks electrically connected to the device via the power grids. This assumes that the sources, sinks, and power grids have the appropriate technology to generate data and transmit it to the power distribution facility's communication facility.
  • However, in one embodiment, in addition, sources, sinks, or power grids may also be connected to the device for bidirectionally connecting two power networks that do not provide a data connection to the device. To this end, in one embodiment of the invention, the controller of the apparatus is arranged to apply an estimate to the source, sink, or power network connected to the apparatus, and not communicating status information in the form of data to the apparatus at a future time t within a viewing period T maximum power P del (t) available from such source or power P dem (t) or recordable power P cap (t) required by such sink to also include these sources or sinks can. Such an estimate or prediction may be based, for example, on information about the type of source, sink or grid, or on a measure of past-time flow from that source or sink.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, the device for bidirectionally connecting two power grids at any point in time t within a viewing period T has information about which sinks connected to the device decrease which power at precisely this point in time t. This requires an additional flow of information from the sinks to the control of the device. Therefore, the device according to the invention in such an embodiment, a communication device which is connectable to the data network and which is arranged so that it additionally receives data from the sinks in the operation of the device according to the invention.
  • The control for controlling the flows of the electrical power P (t) within the device according to the invention via the voltage converter and / or via the further connections is for example a microprocessor or in general a computer. In the present application, logic controllers to be distinguished from one another are mentioned, namely the control of the device which effects the power flow control and the controls of the power controllers in the DC-DC converter and in the further connections. Although logically different from one another, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that these controls can be applied to a single hardware, i. in a single machine, can be implemented.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the elements of the device according to the invention are distinguished into elements of the so-called control plane or control plane and the power plane or transport plane. While the elements of the Control Plane serve to control the transport of electrical energy, the Power Plane takes over the actual energy transmission or conduction. In this case, the control plane includes the control and the communication device as well as all control lines or control buses which connect the control with the elements of the power level. Also part of the control plane is the software that provides the algorithms for the controller. If, in one embodiment, elements of the power level have additional controls, for example for providing control loops, then these controllers as well as data lines which connect the controllers together form part of the control plane.
  • In one embodiment, the task of the control plane is primarily to assume the communication tasks (signaling), the routing function and the power flow control of the device according to the invention. Optionally, in embodiments, the control plane may also perform other tasks, such as forming power packets when feeding power from conventional networks to packet-based networks.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, the control of the device forms part of a control plane of the first and / or second power network.
  • The controller is connected to the communication device of the device so that it can receive and process the data received from the communication device. In order to effect the distribution of the flow of electrical power P (t) within the device, in one embodiment the controller is also connected to the power controllers in the further terminals of the device. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller gives each of the power controllers at least one desired value for the power P (t) as a function of the time t which is to flow over the respective connection. While in one embodiment of the invention, the controller also performs a control of the power at the respective further connection and to receive a measured value for the actual power from the terminal, in the other embodiments, the power controller itself have its own control circuit, which is set up in that it adjusts the actual power of the target power specified by the control. The combination of a power controller with the associated control and measuring device control is referred to in the present application as QFC.
  • At least one of the aforementioned objects is also achieved by a method for bidirectionally connecting two power grids with the steps of: transmitting electrical power from a first power grid through a first electrical power distributor having an electrical distribution circuit having a DC voltage port and at least one further port the DC voltage terminal, wherein the first power network is connected to the further terminal and wherein a DC voltage is applied to the DC voltage terminal, converting the first DC voltage from the DC voltage terminal of the first electric power distribution to a second DC voltage in a bidirectional DC voltage converter, wherein the converting comprises converting the first DC voltage into a first AC voltage in an input stage, transforming the first AC voltage into a second AC voltage in a transformer and converting the second AC voltage to a second DC voltage in an output stage, setting the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter as a function of time to at least three values with a power controller, and providing the second DC voltage to a DC voltage connection of a second electric power distributor, transmitting an electrical power from the DC voltage connection to at least one further terminal of the second electrical power distributor having an electrical distribution circuit, wherein the second terminal is connected to a second power network for electrical energy and receiving data of a source or a sink, which are part of the first or second power network, with a communication device, which is connected to a data network, controlling a flow of electrical power as a function of the time between the terminals of the first and second electrical power distribution comprising a controller, wherein the controller is connected to the DC-DC converter, and wherein controlling comprises processing the data received from the communication device, determining the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter for a future time within a viewing period from the one of the sources or sinks , and controlling the electric power flowing through the DC-DC converter at any time within the observation period to be equal to the power previously determined for that time.
  • In one embodiment of the method, the communication device only receives data from sources or sinks that are part of one of the two power grids. In such an embodiment, the method fulfills a gateway functionality, wherein a first packet-based, power flow-controlled power network, which requires an exchange of data packets mandatory for power transport, is connected to a second, conventional power network without data exchange with the device according to the invention.
  • However, it is also possible that, in one embodiment, both sources or sinks connected to the first power grid and sources or sinks connected to the second power grid send the data to the communication device, in addition to the first and second / or the second power grid is connected to at least one source and / or sink that does not send data to the communication device.
  • In one embodiment, the method according to the invention can optionally serve either energy packets from the first packet-based, power flow controlled power supply network or feed into this.
  • In one embodiment, where there is no data for the power flow from a source or sink of the second power grid, a forecast is made for the one, preferably each, future time within a viewing period from or to the second power grid provided power flow created. Such predictions can be made, for example, from an observation of the power flow in such a sink or from such a source in a past observation period.
  • In one embodiment, when another sink of the first or second distribution circuit is connected to a sink that is not also connected to the communication device via the data network, the method of the invention further comprises the steps of: predicting the sink signaling, at any future time within a viewing period, of electrical power required or receivable as to the drain as a function of time within the observation period to an element of the first or second power network also connected to the controller via the data network so that this element provides at least a portion of the predicted performance at the respective future time, and at any point in the observation period, forming the difference between the predicted and the sink power and the power actually required or absorbable by the sink at that time and compensating for the difference, preferably by extracting or storing the difference in an electrical energy store.
  • A central aspect here is the compensation of the difference between the power predicted for a point in time that is required or receivable by the sink and the actual power flowing at that point in time. This becomes clear by considering an example in which the first network is a packet-based, power controlled MV DC network as the source, while the second network is a conventional 250V, 50 Hz AC network as a sink. The power required by the second power supply can then only be predicted, with the deviation between the prognosis and the actual power required being managed by the method according to the invention. The resulting overfilling or underfilling can be compensated with the aid of an energy store managed by the method according to the invention, for example an accumulator. On longer timescales, it is also possible to compensate for over- or under-coverage by appropriate signaling to the connected via the first network with the device according to the invention sources or sinks.
  • In a further embodiment, if a source connected to another terminal of the first or second distribution circuit is not also connected to the communication device via the data network, controlling further comprises the steps of: predicting from the source to each future one Time provided within the period of observation, signaling the power predicted for the source as a function of the time within the observation period to an element of the first or the second power network, which is also connected to the controller via the data network, so that this element for determining the future time of the predicted power, determining a receiver for the predicted power provided at a future time, and for each time within the viewing period, forming an energy packet for the power This power actually provided by the source and a data packet associated with the power pack having a power profile and a receiver address.
  • Also in such an embodiment, it may be useful to have a difference between the predicted power provided by the source at a particular time and the power actually required by the sink at that time, preferably by taking or storing the difference in an electrical energy store , can be compensated. As an alternative to compensation by storage in or removal from an energy store, the difference can be fed into or removed from a conventional network connected to one of the further connections.
  • The method according to the invention also allows a flexible transmission of electrical energy from a source in a first voltage level to a drain in a second voltage level. This is especially true if both the source and the sink are each part of a packet-based power flow controlled power grid.
  • Inasmuch as the above-described embodiments can be at least partially realized using a software-controlled processing device, it is obvious that a computer program providing such software control and a storage medium on which such a computer program stored as aspects of the invention are to be considered.
  • As far as aspects of the invention have been described above with regard to the device for bidirectionally connecting two power grids and the electrical network with this device, they also apply to the corresponding method for bidirectionally connecting two power grids. As far as the method is carried out with the device or the electrical network according to this invention, the method has the corresponding steps for this purpose. In particular, however, embodiments of the device according to the invention and of the electrical network are suitable for carrying out embodiments of the method. If necessary, the control of the device for implementing the corresponding method steps is set up.
  • Further advantages, features and applications of the present invention will become apparent from the following description of embodiments thereof and the accompanying figures.
  • 1 schematically shows the structure of an embodiment of a bidirectional DC-DC converter.
  • 2 shows schematically the circuit structure of a first simple embodiment of the device according to the invention for the bidirectional connection of two power grids.
  • 3 shows schematically the circuit structure of an embodiment of the device according to the invention with a plurality of power flow controlled further terminals of the power distributor of the MV level.
  • 4 shows schematically the circuit structure of an embodiment of the device according to the invention with a plurality of power flow controlled further terminals of the power distributor of the MV level and the LV level.
  • 5 schematically shows the circuit construction of an embodiment of the device according to the invention for bidirectionally connecting two power networks with two switching networks as distribution circuits of the power distributor in the MV plane and the LV plane.
  • In the figures, identical elements are designated by identical reference numerals.
  • The bidirectional DC-DC converter 2 out 1 allows a quantized power flow control between a first power grid and a second power grid, wherein the coupling of the two power grids requires a DC voltage (DC voltage) as an input and also outputs a DC voltage. The DC-DC converter 2 has an entrance level 3 , a transformer 4 and an output stage 5 ,
  • The entrance level 3 is with the DC connection 6 a first electrical power distributor and the output stage 5 with a DC voltage connection 7 a second electrical power distributor. The entrance level 3 converts a DC voltage at the DC voltage connection 6 of the first electric power distributor into an AC voltage with a mains frequency of 1000 Hz. This AC voltage is then using the transformer 4 transformed into a second AC voltage, which from the output stage 5 is rectified again, so that they are DC voltage to the DC voltage connection 7 of the second electric power distributor can be given.
  • The conversion of the DC input voltage into the first AC voltage therefore takes place at such high frequencies, since in this way the mass and size of the transformer 4 can be reduced. The electrical power coming from the DC voltage connection 6 to the DC voltage connection 7 is transmitted, can be with the help of the DC voltage converter used in the invention 2 Taxes. These are the input and output stages 3 . 5 as shown schematically in 1 of the DE 10 2012 204 035 A1 shown, built. The functionality of the input stage and the output stage is also in the DE 10 2012 204 035 A1 in particular in paragraph [0034]. The at the entrance level 3 applied DC voltage is converted by means of three actively switched voltage bridges with several active switches in three alternating voltages. Each of these three AC voltages is in the three-phase transformer 4 transformed into three second AC voltages. The output stage 5 also has three active switched voltage bridges with active switches, which convert the second alternating voltages into a single second DC voltage. By activating the active switches of the input stage 3 and the output stage 5 the phase angles of the first alternating voltages and the second alternating voltages are adjusted, so that the power transmission via the DC-DC converter 2 is also adjustable. For this purpose, in the illustrated embodiment, the DC-DC converter 2 via a controller 8th , which have an interface 9 is connected to the central control of the device according to the invention.
  • The control 8th is used to set the specifications for the performance profile P (t) over the DC converter 2 implement electrical power to be transmitted as a function of time. The controller controls this 8th via control lines 10 . 11 the controllable switches of the input stage 3 and the output stage 5 at. In addition, the DC-DC converter has 2 over two measuring devices 12 . 13 , with which the actual transmitted electrical power can be detected, so that the controller 8th provides a control loop. This ensures that the actual electrical power actually transmitted between the first and the second power grid at any instant t within a viewing period T is equal to the desired power P (t) specified by the central controller.
  • While in this application linguistically always between the entrance level 3 and the output stage 5 It is obvious that these are identical components. This in particular to provide the required bidirectionality. So it's possible that the output stage 5 perceives the tasks of the input stage and the input stage 3 the tasks of the output stage. Accordingly, the electric power flow would then be from 7 to 6.
  • The DC-DC converter 2 As used in the embodiments of the present figures, on the one hand provides a DC / DC voltage conversion, on the other hand, but also a quantized power flow control, so that in the following figures that on the left side of 1 shown equivalent circuit diagram 14 for the voltage converter 2 is used.
  • 2 shows a first, very simple embodiment of the device according to the invention for the bidirectional connection of two power grids.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the first power grid 15 formed by a self-organized packet-based DC network at the medium voltage level (MV network). The second power grid 16 however, it is powered by a conventional low-voltage power grid 16 (LV network) formed. This is the LV network 16 around a conventional 250 V AC mains with a mains frequency of 50 Hz.
  • The device according to the invention 1 is with the help of a connection 17 to the MV network 15 connected and with the help of a connection 18 to the LV network 16 , These two connections 17 . 18 form in the language of the present application in each case a further connection of the first and second electric power distributor 19 . 20 ,
  • At the first electric power distributor 19 it is in the simple embodiment 2 to a simple line as a distribution circuit 24 with the further connection 17 and the DC voltage connection 6 , The second electric power distributor 20 is from a line as a distribution circuit 30 , the further connection 18 and the DC voltage connection 7 educated.
  • The transition between the two MV and LV voltage levels takes place with the aid of the bidirectional voltage converter 2 out 1 wherein it provides a power control. This is the QFC or the controller of the converter 2 over the connection 9 with a controller 21 the device 1 connected. This control 21 can be considered as the central control of the device while the controller 8th directly and exclusively to the regulation of the converter 2 serves and beyond perceives no higher-level tasks.
  • The control 21 the device 1 is with a data interface 22 connected as a communication device in the context of the present application. The data interface 22 is on a data network 38 connected, which in the form of a bus data packets between the individual elements or nodes in the MV network 15 exchanges. It is in the first power grid 15 assigned to each energy package a data packet.
  • Good is the functionality of the embodiment of the device 1 out 2 clearly, if, for example, considered a local network station, which makes the Umspannspannung from the medium voltage level in the low voltage level of a road. In this case, in the illustrated embodiment, the LV network 16 conventionally designed, since it would require a particularly high effort as the last mile of electricity transport and because of the many connected consumers or energy sources (for example in the form of photovoltaic systems) for complete conversion to a packet-based, power-controlled network. In contrast, it is believed that the MV network 15 is already a packet-based, power-controlled DC network. Therefore, the device according to the invention not only provides a bidirectional connection between the MV and LV levels, but also a bus router or a gateway for connecting two completely different network technologies.
  • Since it is the second power grid 16 is an AC voltage network, comprises the second electrical power distributor 20 also a DC / AC converter 23 between the DC voltage connection 7 and the other connection 18 , The DC / AC converter 23 converts the DC voltage at Output of the DC-DC converter 2 into the AC voltage of the LV network 16 and vice versa.
  • 3 shows an embodiment of the device according to the invention 1' for the bidirectional connection of two power grids 15 ' . 16 , which compared to the embodiment of 2 an amended first electric power distributor 19 ' having. This first electric power distributor 19 ' has a significantly extended functionality.
  • The first power distributor 19 ' forms a network node of the first DC network 15 ' , The electricity transport within this network 15 ' is packet based and power flow controlled as in the DE 10 2009 003 173 A1 described. It is the with the DC-DC converter 2 connected DC voltage connection 6 treated like any of the other connections 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 Also, just that the power flow control in this port using the DC-DC converter 2 he follows.
  • Again, the power distributor points 19 ' exactly one DC voltage connection 6 on, which with the input stage of the DC-DC converter 2 connected is. In the illustrated embodiment, however, the first power distributor has 19 ' a distribution circuit 24 ' , which the DC voltage connection 6 electrically with four further connections 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 combines. This power distributor 19 ' forms a fully configured network node within a first packet based, power controlled power grid 15 ' , Each of the other connections 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 of the first distribution board 19 ' It also has a QFC which provides power flow control over each of the other ports 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 allows. That way the power distributor can 19 ' not only provide a transition from the MV level to the LV level but also complete routing functionality within the actual MV level, without necessarily also a power flow from the MV level to the LV level.
  • To provide this functionality, the QFCs are in each further port 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 via a control bus 29 with the controller 21 connected. The communication takes place as before via a connection of the interface 22 to the data network 38 , which in the illustrated embodiment, parallel to the individual routes, which with the first power distributor 19 ' are connected, run.
  • 4 shows an even higher expansion stage of the device according to the invention.
  • Unlike the configuration 3 is off in the embodiment 4 also the second power grid 16 ' , ie the LV voltage level, a packet-based and power-controlled DC voltage network. The first power distributor 19 ' is built like in 3 shown and is therefore in 4 not shown again. Also the second power distributor 20 ' forms in this embodiment, a full-service network node of the packet-based, power flow controlled LV network 16 ' , For this purpose, the second electric power distributor 20 ' an electrical distribution circuit 30 ' on, with a single DC connection 7 and in the illustrated embodiment, six further terminals 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 where as before for the first power distributor 19 ' Detailed description of each of the other connections 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 has a QFC. The QFCs are via a tax bus 37 with the central control 21 connected. In addition, the device has 1'' via a second network interface 22 ' , which with the data network 39 of the LV power network 16 ' connected is.
  • While in embodiments it is possible for the individual QFCs in the other ports 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 of the second electric power distributor 20 ' spatially closely related to the other components of the device according to the invention 1'' are arranged, embodiments are conceivable in which the terminals 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 as well as the associated QFCs logically belong to the device, while spatially distinct from the other components, such as the DC-DC converter 2 , are arranged remotely. For example, the ports 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 as well as the QFCs be arranged in the houses of the street, while logically from the control 21 , which is housed together with the other components in a local network station controlled.
  • While the embodiment of 4 shows an arrangement in which the second electric power distributor 20 ' a full node of a packet-based, power-controlled power grid 16 ' forms, mixed forms are also possible. These would be an excellent one of the further connections 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 connected a conventional power grid, which in particular does not comprise a data network, which is an information flow of sources and sinks connected to the power grid 16 ' connected to the controller 21 could provide. One way to realize the QFCs is in the DE 10 2014 119 431 in 5 and the associated description. There the QFC is called DFC. However, it has the same structural features and functionalities as the components referred to in the present application as QFC.
  • 5 shows an embodiment in which the first power distributor by a switching matrix is realized, in which the connections 3100 and 1100 can be connected via the circuit of the corresponding QFCs so that via the connections 3100 provided power flows to the terminals 1100 can be transferred regulated. At one connection of the coupling field is then the connection 6 a voltage-transformable power controller according to 1 connected. The connection 7 is then connected to a switching network that represents the second power distributor.
  • The in 5 shown circuitry of an embodiment of the device according to the invention for bidirectional connection of two power grids is based on the embodiment of 4 , For a better overview, see 5 however, only the power level of the device is shown schematically. The distribution circuits 2100 the power distributors have a significantly higher complexity than the distribution circuits 16 ' . 19 ' out 4 , Both the distribution circuit 2100 of the first power distributor and the distribution circuit 2100 of the second power distributor are each formed by a fully reconfigurable switching matrix or crossbar.
  • A switching matrix as a distributor circuit makes it possible to interconnect any other MV3100, LV3100 connection connected to a source with any other connection connected to a MV1100, LV1100 sink. This both within the MV level or the LV level, but also across voltage levels. In addition, all sources MV3100, LV3100 can be interconnected either in parallel or in series. For this purpose, has the distribution circuit 2100 out 5 at each node of the switch fabric via a power flow controller QFC. The wiring of the distribution circuit 2100 takes place as previously described for the QFCs in the terminals by the control of the device.
  • In the 5 shown embodiment of the device according to the invention is useful when connected to the terminals MV3100, LV3100 managed by the controller of the device memory for electrical energy. These memories are used to handle over- and under-coverage, ie the compensation of ordered and promised energy packages. The management of memories associated with the reconfigurable switch fabric is described in detail in US Pat DE 10 2014 119 431 A1 described.
  • The functionality of a device according to the invention will now be described below 3 described. In addition to the above regarding 3 described characteristics is assumed that to the further connection 28 the electrical distribution circuit 24 at the MV voltage level, a conventional MV AC mains is connected. The further connection points to this 28 a DC / AC converter (in 3 not shown) to connect the AC grid to the packet-based, power flow controlled DC grid, which is part of the power distributor 19 ' is.
  • The device according to the invention 1' out 3 now forms a gateway between the packet-based, power flow controlled power grid in the MV voltage level, the conventional with the other terminal 28 connected AC mains in the MV voltage level as well as the conventional AC mains in the LV voltage level, which with the further connection 18 the second electrical distribution circuit is connected.
  • Although these three power grids are conceptually distinct from each other, they can be logically treated the same, as the inventive apparatus ensures that the conventional LV and MV networks also appear as sinks or sources to all network elements within the packet-based power flow controlled power grid which can receive or send energy packets. For example, the device according to the invention provides target or source addresses for the two conventional LV and MV networks.
  • So that the device according to the invention can connect the three networks to each other, it has the following functionalities, which in the control 21 are implemented in the form of software and are controlled by it. The functionalities are based on the embodiment 3 described and to modifications with respect to 4 added.
    • 1. The controller maintains a list of which energy packets at each time t within a viewing period T energy packets must be received and sent. For this purpose, the list of each observation period T contains entries of all energy packets with the respective source addresses, the performance profiles and the destination addresses.
    • 2. Predicting a performance profile for the one with the further connection 18 the second electric power distributor connected LV network, wherein the power flow through the other terminal 18 is indicated at each time t within the observation period T. The energy package belonging to this performance profile receives the address of the further connection, depending on whether the LV network forms a source or a sink at the respective time 18 either as source address or as destination address. The list formed in step 1 is supplemented by the energy packets generated in this way.
  • 4 In contrast, shows an embodiment with a plurality of other terminals 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 of the second power distributor on the LV side. In such an embodiment, for example, with two terminals 35 . 36 be connected to conventional LV AC grids while the connections 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 are connected to a packet-based, power flow controlled network. In such an embodiment, the conventional LV AC power grids receive the addresses of the terminals 35 . 36 or the QFCs in these ports.
    • 3. From the forecasts in step 2 and from analyzes of the power flows in the past, it is possible to determine fluctuation ranges for under- or covering-up of the power flow via the device according to the invention. From the fluctuation range so-called option packages are created. These are energy packages that are, at a certain probability, either additionally required to be forwarded to a sink, or that provide a surplus of power that can not currently be passed to sinks.
  • At each point in time t, it is then checked first whether these option packages are in one with one of the further connections 25 . 26 or 27 of the first distribution board 19 ' cached memory can be cached or provided by this. Alternatively, in one embodiment, as shown in FIG 4 is shown, the spoke also to one of the other ports 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 be connected to the power distribution on the LV level.
  • For the part of the option packages, which the memory can not serve, contracts with other sources or sinks are closed. A commitment to an option package means that the appropriate source or sink, as long as the option condition is met, progressively delivers or purchases the corresponding service for each time interval and only when the option is exercised. The list referred to in item 1 will be supplemented with those option packages that are not of the one with the further connection 25 . 26 or 27 connected memory can be operated.
    • 4. From the energy packages included in the list in paragraph 1, assuming that transport from the MV level to the LV level is necessary, a transport package will be created which will transmit the power flow at each time t within the observation period T the DC-DC converter 2 describes. Such current transport across the voltage levels is particularly necessary if the LV side has a power requirement that is greater than a power supply on the LV side.
  • Such a transport package is formed by the necessary to cover the power requirement on the LV side and at the other terminals 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 incoming service packages. For this purpose, a power profile is formed, which describes the power flow over the DC-DC converter as a function of time. The associated data packet contains next to the destination address, in the case of 3 the address of the only other connection 18 of the second power distributor, including the power profiles of the individual energy packets, which are combined into the transport package.
  • This transport packet is then at the given time t via the voltage converter 2 transported between the MV level and the LV level. The transport package for the power flow via the DC-DC converter forms the sum of all energy packets that are to be transmitted to the LV network. The data packet assigned to the transport packet contains, in addition to the destination address, which identifies the further connection of the second service distributor, the service profile of the transport packet.
  • In the embodiment of 3 instructs the second power distributor 20 only one more connection 18 on. Accordingly, the entire transport package, which is the power flow through the DC-DC converter 2 describes, at this connection 18 provided.
  • In embodiments in which the second power distributor 20 on the LV side has several other connections, the transport package can be distributed in the second electric power distributor to the respective other terminals. For this purpose, the data packet assigned to the transport package for the transport of power via the DC-DC converter must contain the destination addresses of all the energy packets contained therein as well as the respective power profiles in order to enable a division of the transport packet into the energy packets to be provided at the individual connections.
    • 5. Does the list in step 1 include energy packages that need to be provisioned for sinks whose performance does not match those with the other connections 25 . 26 and 27 connected packet-based, power flow controlled power grid or sources associated with this can be provided, they are combined to form a separate, separate transport package. This transport package then becomes conventional with the further connection 28 related AC mains. This packet has as source address the address of the further connection 28 of the first distribution board 19 ' on. The then received transport package is from the power distribution 19 ' for onward transport into transport packages for the participating connections and possibly via the DC-DC converter 2 disassembled and provided with the appropriate data packets.
  • In this case, the controller also communicates with the control center or the higher-level energy management system with the other connection 28 connected conventional power grid, so that in a viewing period T pending transport packages can be fed into the schedule management of the conventional MV network.
  • Conversely, an infeed of transport packets into this conventional follows with the further connection 28 of the first distribution board 19 ' connected MV network, so did the controller 21 additionally the task of complying with the technical and legal as well as the operator's requirements.
    • 6. It is possible to determine by measuring which power actually at any time t over the further connection 18 flows. Set on the AC side of the DC / AC converter 23 out 3 a voltage drop, this means that more power is taken than the DC-DC converter 2 provides. On the other hand, it is provided by the connected conventional LV network 16 taken to less power, so is on the DC-DC converter 2 detectable that the manipulated variable for controlling the target / actual deviation of the DC-DC converter 2 increases. On the other hand, considering the embodiment 4 , so shows a voltage drop on the AC side of the DC / AC converter, over which a conventional LV network via one of the terminals 31 to 36 is underfunded, that is, it is provided by the corresponding QFC too little power. Conversely, a corresponding increase in the manipulated variable of the corresponding QFC indicates an overlap, that is, too much power is provided.
  • It is therefore possible to record any deviation between the forecasted output and the actual output and to determine under- or over-coverage. Exceeds or falls below at the DC / AC converter 23 If the measured power has a certain fluctuation range, then the options defined in step 3 are executed, ie the option packages are either sourced or delivered. For each time interval t + dt, it is checked whether the option triggering condition is fulfilled. If not, the delivery will be stopped. As a result, although the delivery could be stopped at the time t, but due to the time quantization, the delivery actually stops only at t + dt. This leads to a small oversupply, but this is justifiable by the tolerance band. In case of an overlap, proceed accordingly. After a predicted energy packet has been transmitted to a sink, unreleased options for power packages for power delivery or power consumption expire, or they are released in order to free up the resources again.
  • In the event that the over- or under-coverage does not match that with one of the other connections 25 . 26 or 27 the step-by-step exercise of the option will be analogous to the corresponding sources and sinks that have committed to deliver these optional packages.
    • 7. In the event that underfunding or cover can not be solved by redeeming the described options, the inventive device according to existing contracts with sources and sinks Lastabwürfe or load increases over that with the other connection 18 of the second power distributor 20 perform connected LV network.
  • If this is possible and contractually permissible, there is also the possibility of short-term supply relationships with those with the other connections 25 . 26 or 27 adapt the sinks and sources connected to the first distribution panel or the supply relationships with other nodes.
  • In addition, there is also the case that the connected conventional MV network or the connected conventional LV network triggers a demand time response action. To do this, the operator of the conventional network informs the controller according to the present invention of impending changes in sink-related or source-provided power, for example, shutdown of a large-scale consumer. The information about such an imminent change in performance then leads to an adaptation of the forecast for the affected conventional network. For purposes of the original disclosure, it is to be understood that all such features as will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the present description, drawings, and claims, even if concretely described only in connection with certain other features, both individually and separately any combination with other of the features or feature groups disclosed herein are combinable, unless this has been expressly excluded or technical conditions make such combinations impossible or pointless. On the comprehensive, explicit representation of all conceivable combinations of features is omitted here only for the sake of brevity and readability of the description.
  • While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and the foregoing description, such illustration and description is exemplary only and is not intended to limit the scope of the protection as defined by the claims. The invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiments.
  • Variations of the disclosed embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the drawings, the description and the appended claims. In the claims, the word "comprising" does not exclude other elements or steps, and the indefinite article "a" or "an" does not exclude a plurality. The mere fact that certain features are claimed in different claims does not exclude their combination. Reference signs in the claims are not intended to limit the scope of protection.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1, 1 ', 1' '
     contraption
    2
     DC converter
    3
     doorstep
    4
     transformer
    5
     output stage
    6
    DC voltage connection of the first power distributor
    7
     DC voltage connection of the second power distributor
    8th
    Control of the DC-DC converter 2
    21
    Control of the device 1 . 1' . 1''
    9, 22, 22 '
     interface
    10, 11
     control line
    12, 13
     measuring device
    14
     Equivalent circuit
    15, 15 '
     MV station
    16, 16 '
     LV network
    17
     further connection of the first power distributor
    18
    further connection of the second power distributor
    19, 19 '
     first electrical power distributor
    20, 20 '
     second electrical power distributor
    21
     control
    22, 22 '
     Interface as a communication device
    23
     DC / AC converter
    24, 24 '
     Distribution circuit of the first power distributor
    30, 30 '
     Distribution circuit of the second power distributor
    25, 26, 27, 28
    further connection of the first power distributor 19 '
    29, 37
     control bus
    31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36
    further connection of the second power distributor 20 '
    38
     Data network
    39
    Data network
    MV1100
     connected to a sink further connection of the MV power distributor
    LV1100
     Another connection of the LV power distributor connected to a drain
    2100
     Distribution circuit as a crossbar
    MV3100
     Another connection of the MV power distributor connected to a source
    LV3100
     Another connection of the LV power distributor connected to a source
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 102009003173 A1 [0011, 0077, 0146]
    • DE 102014119431 A1 [0040, 0093, 0156]
    • US 5027264 [0060, 0065]
    • DE 102012204035 A1 [0060, 0066, 0133, 0133]
    • DE 102014119431 [0152]

Claims (15)

  1. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) for bidirectionally connecting two power grids to a first electrical power distributor ( 19 . 19 ' ) for the first power grid ( 15 . 15 ' ) with an electrical distribution circuit ( 24 . 24 ' ), which has a DC voltage connection ( 6 ) and at least one other connection ( 17 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 ), wherein with the further connection ( 17 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 ) a source or sink forming part of the first electricity network ( 15 . 15 ' ) is connectable, and wherein the DC voltage connection ( 6 ) and the further connection ( 17 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 ) are electrically connected to each other so that an electric current can flow in any direction between them, a bidirectional DC-DC converter ( 2 ) with one with the DC voltage connection ( 6 ) of the first electric power distributor ( 19 . 19 ' ) connected input stage ( 3 ) for converting a first DC voltage of the first electric power distributor ( 19 . 19 ' ) into a first AC voltage, a transformer ( 4 ) for transforming the first alternating voltage into a second alternating voltage and an output stage ( 5 ) for converting the second AC voltage to a second DC voltage, wherein the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) comprises a power controller which is set up such that, during operation of the apparatus, the power is supplied via the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) is adjustable as a function of time to at least three values, a second electrical power distributor ( 20 . 20 ' ) for the second power grid ( 16 . 16 ' ) with an electrical distribution circuit ( 30 . 30 ' ), one with the output stage ( 5 ) of the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) connected DC voltage connection ( 7 ) and at least one other connection ( 18 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ), wherein with the further connection ( 18 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) a source or sink forming part of the second electricity network ( 16 . 16 ' ) is connectable, and wherein the DC voltage connection ( 7 ) and the further connection ( 18 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) are electrically connected to each other such that an electric current can flow in any direction between them, a communication device ( 21 . 21 ' ) connected to a data network ( 38 . 39 ) and which is set up so that it can be used in the operation of the device ( 1' ) Receives data from a source or sink, and a controller ( 21 ) for controlling a flow of electrical power as a function of the time between the terminals ( 17 . 18 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) of the first and second electric power distributors ( 19 . 19 ' . 20 . 20 ' ), whereby the controller ( 21 ) with the communication device ( 21 . 21 ' ) is connected in such a way that the communication device ( 21 . 21 ' ) received data from the controller ( 21 ) are processable, the controller ( 21 ) with the DC-DC converter ( 2 ), the controller ( 21 ) is set up so that, during operation of the device, it can be switched on at a future time within a viewing period via the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) determines electrical power from the data received from the source or sink, and wherein the controller ( 21 ) is set up such that, in the operation of the device, it is at any future time within the observation period via the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) controls electrical power that is equal to the power previously determined for that time.
  2. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the input stage ( 3 ) of the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) has at least one actively switched voltage bridge with a plurality of active switches for converting the first DC voltage into the first AC voltage, and that the output stage ( 5 ) of the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) has at least one actively switched voltage bridge with a plurality of active switches for converting the second AC voltage into the second DC voltage, wherein the actively switched voltage bridge of the input stage ( 3 ) and the active voltage bridge of the output stage ( 5 ) electrically via the transformer ( 4 ) are connected to a phase, wherein a controller ( 21 ) is set up so that, during operation of the device, it activates the active switches of the input stage ( 3 ) and the output stage ( 5 ) such that, via the setting of the phase angle of the first and the second AC voltages, the DC voltage via the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) transmitted electrical power is adjustable.
  3. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the distribution circuit ( 24 ' . 30 ' ) of the first and / or the second electric power distributor ( 19 . 19 ' . 20 . 20 ' ) at least two further connections ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ), wherein at least one of the further connections ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ), preferably at least one further connection ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 ) of the first distribution board ( 19 . 19 ' . 20 ) and at least one other connection ( 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) of the second power distributor ( 19 . 19 ' . 20 . 20 ' ), particularly preferably all other connections ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) of the first and the second power distributor ( 19 . 19 ' . 20 . 20 ' ), a power controller, which is set up such that, during operation of the apparatus, the power supply via the respective further connection ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) is adjustable to at least three values as a function of time, and that the controller ( 21 ) is connected to each of the power controllers, the controller ( 21 ) is set up in such a way that, during the operation of the device, it is connected via the further connections ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) determines electrical power in dependence on the data received from the sources or sinks, and wherein the controller ( 21 ) is set up in such a way that, during the operation of the device, it activates via the respective further connection ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) controls electrical power as a function of time.
  4. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the controller ( 21 ) is set up so that, during the operation of the device, it is able to monitor, via each of the further connections ( 17 . 18 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) and via the DC-DC converter ( 2 The electrical power flowing is calculated from: - the maximum amount of electrical power that can be supplied by each source or power grid; and - the electrical power required by each sink or grid at the time, or the maximum power consumption of each sink at that time; it controls the power controllers in such a way that the calculated electrical power at this time at the respective further connection ( 17 . 18 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) is set.
  5. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the distribution circuit ( 2100 ) comprises a switching network, wherein nodes of the switching network are preferably formed by controllable power controllers.
  6. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that each of the further connections ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) with a power controller, a voltage converter and / or a measuring device for detecting a via the further connection ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) Has flowing actual electrical power and / or a controller, wherein the controller is configured so that it the actual power via the further connection ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) so that it is equal to the determined power.
  7. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one of the direct current connections ( 6 . 7 ) of the first or second power distributor ( 19 . 19 ' . 20 . 20 ' ) a measuring device ( 12 . 13 ) for detecting a via the DC connection ( 6 . 7 ) flowing actual electrical power and wherein a controller ( 21 ) is set up so that, in the operation of the device, it measures the actual power via the DC-DC converter ( 2 ) so that it is equal to the determined power.
  8. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the controller ( 21 ) is set up and configured such that, during operation of the device, it can control the power as a function of time at each of the further connections ( 17 . 18 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) is approximated as an integer multiple of an elementary power, where the elementary power is constant over a time interval or that the control ( 21 ) is set up and configured to operate during operation of the device ( 1 . 1'' ) the power as a function of time at each of the other connections ( 17 . 18 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) when P (t) = Σ n / k = 02 k dP approximated.
  9. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the controller ( 21 ) is set up and configured in such a way that, during operation of the device, it controls the power controllers in such a way that, at any point in time within one observation period, the power is applied to a further connection ( 17 . 18 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) connected to a sink or a power receiving electric power network, electric power provided is equal to the power required at that time from the sink or the electric power receiving power network.
  10. Contraption ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims with an electrical energy store which is set up so that it can receive, store and / or dispense electrical energy during operation of the device, the energy store being connected to one of the further terminals ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) of the first or second power distributor ( 19 ' . 20 ' ), wherein the energy store is configured so that, based on information about a current state of the energy store, the maximum electrical power that can be provided by the energy store at a future time within a viewing period and a maximum power consumption at a time within a viewing period can be calculated , and where the controller ( 21 ) is set up and configured to operate in the operation of the Distributor ( 19 ' . 20 . 20 ' ) calculating at a time within a viewing period over each of the further ports ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) flowing electrical power considered at this time of the energy storage maximum electric power or the possible power consumption of the energy storage device at this time considered.
  11. Electric network with a device ( 1 . 1' . 1'' ) according to one of the preceding claims, a data network ( 38 . 39 ) connected to the communication device ( 22 . 22 ' ), at least one source of electrical energy, the source being connected to one of the further terminals ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) of the first or second electric power distributor ( 19 ' . 20 ' ), wherein the source is configured such that based on information about a current state of the source, the maximum available electrical power from the source at a future time is calculable, and wherein the source is connected to the data network ( 38 . 39 ), which is adapted to operate during operation of the power grid ( 15 ' . 16 ' ) Data with information about a current state of the source and / or with information about the maximum future deliverable electrical power to the communication device ( 22 . 22 ' ), and with at least one sink for electrical energy, the sink communicating with one of the further connections ( 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 ) of the other electrical power distributor ( 19 ' . 20 ' ) is electrically connected.
  12. Method for bidirectionally connecting two power grids with the steps Transmission of electrical power from a first power network through a first electrical power distributor having an electrical distribution circuit having a DC voltage port and at least one other connected to the first power supply terminal, to the DC voltage terminal, wherein the first power supply is connected to the other terminal and wherein the DC voltage terminal is a first DC voltage, Converting the first DC voltage from the DC voltage terminal of the first electric power distributor to a second DC voltage in a bidirectional DC-DC converter, wherein the converting comprises Converting the first DC voltage into a first AC voltage in an input stage, Transforming the first AC voltage into a second AC voltage in a transformer and Converting the second AC voltage to a second DC voltage in an output stage, Adjusting the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter as a function of time to at least three values with a power controller, and Providing the second DC voltage at a DC voltage terminal of a second electrical power distributor, Transferring an electrical power from the DC voltage terminal of the second electric power distributor to at least one further terminal of the second electric power distributor with an electrical distribution circuit, wherein the second terminal is connected to a second power network for electrical energy and Receiving data from a source or sink that is part of the first or second power network with a communication device connected to a data network, Controlling a flow of electrical power as a function of time between the terminals of the first and second electric power distributors with a controller, the controller being connected to the DC-DC converter and comprising controlling; Processing the data received from the communication device, Determining the electrical power flowing through the DC-DC converter for a future time within a viewing period from the data received from the sources or sinks, and Controlling the electric power flowing through the DC-DC converter at any time within the observation period to be equal to the power previously determined for that time.
  13. A method according to claim 12, characterized in that, when connected to another terminal of the first or the second distribution circuit is a drain or a source which is not also connected to the communication device via the data network, the control further comprises the following steps: Predicting the electrical power or source power available from the sink at any future time within a viewing period, signaling the anticipated required power for the sink, or the power provided to the source as a function of time within the viewing period to an element the first or the second power network, which is also connected via the data network to the controller, so that this element to the at any time within the observation period, to form the difference between the time required by the sink or provided by the source and at that time actually required by the sink or power available to the source and compensating for the difference, preferably by extracting or storing the difference in an electrical energy store.
  14. A method according to claim 13, characterized in that when the difference between the power demanded by the sink for a time and the power actually required by the sink at that time exceeds a predetermined threshold, an optionally ordered power flow is sourced from a source or an optionally ordered power flow into a memory.
  15. A method according to claim 12 or 13, characterized in that, when connected to another terminal of the first or the second distribution circuit is a source which is not also connected to the communication device via the data network, the controlling further comprises the steps of: removing the power required from the source, forming a power pack for the power extracted from the source, and a data packet associated with the power pack, the data packet containing, as address of the source, an address of the further port to which the source is connected, and a power profile comprising describes power taken over from the source as a function of time, and includes a receiver address.
DE102015109967.5A 2015-06-22 2015-06-22 Device and method for bidirectionally connecting two power grids Withdrawn DE102015109967A1 (en)

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