DE102014107426A1 - Electronic component and method for producing an electronic component - Google Patents

Electronic component and method for producing an electronic component

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Publication number
DE102014107426A1
DE102014107426A1 DE102014107426.2A DE102014107426A DE102014107426A1 DE 102014107426 A1 DE102014107426 A1 DE 102014107426A1 DE 102014107426 A DE102014107426 A DE 102014107426A DE 102014107426 A1 DE102014107426 A1 DE 102014107426A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
layer
buffer layer
example
barrier layer
electrically active
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE102014107426.2A
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German (de)
Inventor
Simon Schicktanz
Richard Baisl
Philipp Schwamb
Erwin Lang
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Osram Oled GmbH
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Osram Oled GmbH
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Publication date
Application filed by Osram Oled GmbH filed Critical Osram Oled GmbH
Priority to DE102014107426.2A priority Critical patent/DE102014107426A1/en
Publication of DE102014107426A1 publication Critical patent/DE102014107426A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/52Details of devices
    • H01L51/5237Passivation; Containers; Encapsulation, e.g. against humidity
    • H01L51/5253Protective coatings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00

Abstract

In various embodiments, an electronic device (100) is provided, the electronic device comprising: an electrically active region (106) on or above a substrate (102); an encapsulation structure (112) on or over the substrate (102) and the electrically active region (106); wherein the encapsulation structure (112) is configured to hermetically seal the electrically active region (106) with respect to permeation (114) of at least one substance harmful to the electrically active region (106) from a surface of the encapsulation structure (112) through the encapsulation structure (112). in the electrically active region (106), wherein the encapsulation structure (112) has a buffer layer (108) and a barrier layer (110), wherein the buffer layer (108) on or above the electrically active region (106) and / or the substrate ( 102) and the barrier layer (110) is formed on or above the buffer layer (108); wherein with respect to the at least one harmful substance, the permeability of the barrier layer (110) is less than the permeability of the buffer layer (108); and wherein the buffer layer (108) has a greater layer thickness than the barrier layer (110).

Description

  • In various embodiments, an electronic device and a method of manufacturing an electronic device are provided.
  • A conventional organic optoelectronic device has on a support an electrically active region with an anode, a cathode and an organic functional layer system in between. The organically functional layer system may comprise one or more emitter layers in which electromagnetic radiation is generated. A current flow between the electrodes leads to the generation of electromagnetic radiation in the organic functional layer system.
  • Organically electronic components, for example organic optoelectronic components, are conventionally protected against external influences, for example against the penetration of oxygen and water.
  • For example, a barrier layer, i. H. an encapsulation with environmentally tight layers of a few nm or a few microns thick, is formed directly on the electrically active region / are. The process for producing such a layer involves many ancillary requirements. An important part is the economy as well as the coating quality. Often, these can not be optimized at the same time, as, for example, faster processes can cause a lower layer quality. These layers are, for example, due to their small thickness, for example, very sensitive to contamination and particles. A barrier layer is conventionally formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD); a molecular layer deposition (MLD); a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or a cathode sputtering (sputtering) deposited. These layers conventionally have a thickness in a range of 25 nm and max. 3 to 5 μm. Particles can adversely affect the growth of these barrier layers and thus lead to inadequate protection and rapid precipitation (eg dark spots) of the component. Furthermore, barrier layers, for example CVD layers, are usually not hermetically sealed in practice, since they form, for example, morphologies which impair the tightness, for example grain boundaries. After the application of the barrier layer, a covering glass is conventionally applied to the barrier layer with an adhesive, in order to protect the barrier layers from mechanical damage and / or to avoid extensive exposure of the barrier layers with respect to the component environment.
  • In a conventional method, a cavity glass with a getter is used, which is laminated to the electrically active region. The disadvantage is that the encapsulation step is carried out in an inert gas atmosphere. This approach is costly and not applicable for transparent / flexible components.
  • In various embodiments, an electronic component and a method for producing an electronic component are provided, which is simple and / or inexpensive to carry out and / or which contributes to the fact that the electronic component is robust against harmful substances in the region of the sensitive layers, for example, the electrical active area and / or that the electronic component has the necessary tightness against the at least one harmful substance, for example, less than 10 -6 g / (m 2 / d).
  • In various embodiments, an electronic device is provided. The electronic component has an electrically active region on or above a substrate. Furthermore, the electronic component has an encapsulation structure on or above the substrate and / or the electrically active region. The encapsulation structure is configured to hermetically seal the electrically active region with respect to a permeation of at least one substance that is harmful for the electrically active region from a surface of the encapsulation structure through the encapsulation structure into the electrically active region. The encapsulation structure has a buffer layer and a barrier layer, wherein the buffer layer is formed on or above the electrically active region and / or the substrate and the barrier layer is formed on or above the buffer layer and / or the substrate. With respect to the at least one harmful substance, the permeability of the barrier layer is smaller than the permeability of the buffer layer. Furthermore, the buffer layer has a greater layer thickness than the barrier layer.
  • As an alternative to permeability, the barrier layer has a higher hermeticity or impermeability to the at least one harmful substance than the buffer layer. With respect to water as a harmful substance, the permeability, hermeticity, or water tightness can be determined as the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). Thus, the barrier layer has a lower WVTR with respect to water than the buffer layer.
  • Clearly, the buffer layer has a lower encapsulating effect than the barrier layer. For this, the buffer layer can be formed faster and / or cheaper than the barrier layer. In order to be able to achieve a sufficient encapsulation effect, the buffer layer can be formed with a relatively large layer thickness, for example with a layer thickness which can no longer be produced economically using conventional methods, for example a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. for example, a layer thickness with a thickness of more than about 1 micron to 5 microns. The improvement of the encapsulation effect is formed by means of the longer diffusion path and / or the larger storage capacity in the buffer layer. Alternatively or additionally, the improvement of the encapsulation effect is achieved by the fact that the buffer layer planarizes the surface on which the barrier layer is deposited, for example, it encloses its unevenness, for example transforming particles. The barrier layer can be made thin compared to the layer thickness of the buffer layer, that is, the barrier layer has a smaller layer thickness than the buffer layer. This may allow a more economical forming of the electronic component, since the formation of the barrier layer, for example by means of a chemical vapor deposition conventionally time and cost intensive.
  • The buffer layer can transform particles on the electrically active region. As a result, it may be optional or no longer necessary for the barrier layer to transform particles on the electrically active region, and for the barrier layer to be made thinner. Thus, with respect to the layer thickness of the barrier layer, it is sufficient that it is suitable for sealing the buffer layer.
  • Furthermore, the buffer layer may be formed by a rapid process such as a physical vapor deposition or electroplating process in which the material of the buffer layer has the bulk properties of the material.
  • The costs for the production method and / or the electronic component can thus be reduced, since an inexpensive material and / or a time-consuming and / or cost-effective process can be used as encapsulation material and method for producing the encapsulation, in particular the buffer layer, compared to the materials and methods for known hermetically sealed encapsulations, for example ALD / MLD layers. Furthermore, a laminating glass and / or adhesive can be saved on the barrier layer and the corresponding costs. Optionally, however, a laminating glass and / or a covering body can also be arranged on or above the barrier layer, for example by means of a bonding layer, for example of an adhesive.
  • In one embodiment, the electronic component may be formed as an integrated circuit or have such, for example a chip or a chip arrangement.
  • In one embodiment, the electronic component may be formed as an optoelectronic component or have such, for example, a light emitting diode, a solar cell; a fluorescent tube, an incandescent lamp, a fluorescent tube and / or a halogen lamp.
  • In one embodiment, the electronic component may be formed as an organic optoelectronic component or have such, for example, an organic photodetector, an organic solar cell and / or an organic light emitting diode.
  • In other words, in various embodiments, the electronic device is as an integrated circuit, such as a chip or a chip assembly; an optoelectronic component, for example a light-emitting diode, a solar cell; a fluorescent tube, an incandescent lamp, a display, a fluorescent tube and / or a halogen lamp; and / or an organic optoelectronic component, for example as an organic photodetector, an organic solar cell and / or an organic light emitting diode, or has such.
  • In one embodiment, the substrate may be hermetically sealed with respect to a permeation of a harmful substance through the substrate into the electrically active region.
  • In one embodiment, the substrate can have or be a printed circuit board, for example a flexible printed circuit board, for example a carrier with an electrical conductor structure. The carrier may be hermetically sealed with respect to the at least one harmful substance.
  • The substrate may be transparent, translucent or reflective.
  • In various embodiments, the electrically active region has a first electrode, a second electrode and an organically functional layer structure between the first electrode and the second electrode. The organically functional layered structure may be converted into an electric current be formed electromagnetic radiation and / or for converting an electromagnetic radiation into an electric current.
  • In one embodiment, the electrically active region may comprise a first electrode, a second electrode and a discharge gap between the first electrode and the second electrode, wherein the discharge path comprises a phosphor which is designed to convert an electrical current into an electromagnetic radiation.
  • In one embodiment, the electrically active region may comprise a first electrode, a second electrode and a pn junction or a plurality of pn junctions between the first electrode and the second electrode.
  • The encapsulation structure may further include a cover, wherein the cover is disposed over the barrier layer. The cover may be connected to the barrier layer by means of a bonding layer. Alternatively, a cavity is formed between the cover and the barrier layer.
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure may further comprise a housing, a molding compound and / or one or more further barrier layers. The molding compound may be, for example, a synthetic resin or an adhesive or have.
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure and the electrically active region can be monolithically formed on or above the substrate. For example, the electrically active area and / or the cover may have the same areal dimension as the substrate / t.
  • The encapsulation structure may be configured to protect the electrically active region from permeation of at least one of the following harmful substances: an oxidizing agent, a reducing agent, a solvent, such as water, oxygen, sulfur and / or an organic solvent, or a derivative said.
  • A hermetically sealed at least one harmful substance layer can be understood as a substantially hermetically sealed layer. However, a hermetically sealed layer can still occasionally have diffusion channels for the at least one harmful substance. A diffusion channel in a layer can be understood as a cavity in the layer having at least two openings, for example a hole, a pore, a connection or the like. Through the diffusion channel, a substance or substance mixture can migrate or diffuse from an opening of the diffusion channel to the at least one second opening of the diffusion channel, for example statistically, by means of an osmotic and / or capillary pressure or electrophoretically. A diffusion channel may for example be formed in the layer such that different sides of the layer are interconnected by the diffusion channel (interconnect). For example, a diffusion channel may have a diameter ranging from about the diameter of a water molecule to about a few nm. For example, a diffusion channel in a layer may be, or be formed by, voids, grain boundaries, or the like in the layer.
  • For example, a hermetically sealed layer may have a rate of permeation, such as diffusion rate, with respect to at least one noxious substance, such as water as noxiant matter, of less than about 10 -1 g / (m 2 d) (grams per square meter per day), a hermetically dense one Cover and / or a hermetically sealed substrate may, for example, have a diffusion rate with respect to at least one harmful substance of less than about 10 -4 g / (m 2 d), for example in a range of about 10 -4 g / (m 2 d) to about 10 -10 g / (m 2 d), for example in a range of about 10 -4 g / (m 2 d) to about 10 -6 g / (m 2 d).
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure is configured to have a permeation of a noxious substance into the electrically active region of less than about 10 -6 g / (m 2 d).
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure surrounds the electrically active region, for example completely, together with the substrate.
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure forms, together with the substrate, a cavity in which the electrically active region is arranged.
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure may be formed such that the surface is exposed with respect to the environment of the electronic component.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer and / or the barrier layer comprises scattering particles, nanoparticles, phosphor particles, reflective particles, electrically conductive particles, electrically insulating particles and / or glass, metal and / or ceramic.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer and the electrically active region have a common interface. The buffer layer is by means of the common interface with the electrically connected area, for example by means of adhesion.
  • The buffer layer may comprise or be formed from an inorganic material, for example a glass, a metal and / or a ceramic.
  • The buffer layer may be formed such that the material of the buffer layer has the characteristics of a reference value of the material having it under the production conditions of the buffer layer, for example, a literature reference value, for example in a range of +/- 25%, for example in a range of +/- 20%, for example in a range of +/- 15%, for example in a range of +/- 10%, for example in a range of +/- 5% with respect to the value of the respective bulk properties of the material.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer is designed such that it is free of binder and / or bonding agent, for example, substantially free of air or gas inclusions, for example, less than 1 vol.% Einkes has, for example, less than 0.1 vol.% Einschlüssse has. In this case, the volume fraction (vol.%) Of the inclusions refers to a unit volume of the buffer layer.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer has two or more sublayers. The two or more sub-layers may differ from one another in at least one property.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is formed from the buffer layer, for example as a molten part of the buffer layer. The barrier layer may comprise the same material as the buffer layer, but for example have a higher density and / or fewer defects. Alternatively, the barrier layer may be formed on or above the buffer layer.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer comprises or is formed from an inorganic material, for example a glass, a metal and / or a ceramic.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer comprises at least one other material than the buffer layer. Alternatively, the barrier layer is formed from at least one other material than the buffer layer. Alternatively, the barrier layer has the same material as the buffer layer.
  • The barrier layer and the buffer layer have a common interface. The barrier layer can be connected to the buffer layer by means of the common interface, for example by means of adhesion.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is formed such that it is free of binder and / or bonding agent, or substantially free of air or gas inclusions.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer has two or more sublayers. The two or more sub-layers may differ from one another in at least one property.
  • In one embodiment, the barrier layer and / or the buffer layer may / may be structured. For example, the barrier layer and / or the buffer layer can only be formed in the permeation path of the harmful substance to the electrically active region with the surface exposed.
  • In one embodiment, the barrier layer and / or the buffer layer may be structured in such a way that the barrier layer completely laterally surrounds the electrically active region.
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure between the buffer layer and the electrically active region may have at least one further barrier layer.
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure may have a cover and a connection layer, wherein the cover is connected to the substrate, the barrier layer and / or the electrically active region by means of the connection layer.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer, the barrier layer, and a portion of the electrically active region are formed as an optical cavity. For example, the barrier layer may be at least partially reflective and the buffer layer may be translucent or transparent.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is formed with the buffer layer and a part of the electrically active region as a capacitor structure. For example, the barrier layer may be electrically conductive and the buffer layer may be formed dielectrically. The capacitor structure may be formed, for example, as a measurement structure for the harmful substance in the buffer layer.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer and / or the barrier layer is / are formed from one piece.
  • The buffer layer and the barrier layer may have diffusion channels for the harmful substance. The buffer layer may be formed such that it has more diffusion channels and / or more permeable diffusion channels than the barrier layer.
  • The barrier layer has a higher hermeticity than the buffer layer, for example, the barrier layer has a lower defect, grain boundary and / or cavity number density than the buffer layer.
  • In various embodiments, a method of manufacturing an electronic device is provided. The method includes forming an electrically active region on or over a substrate. Furthermore, the method comprises forming an encapsulation structure on or above the substrate and the electrically active region. The encapsulation structure is formed such that the electrically active region is hermetically sealed with respect to a permeation of at least one electrically active substance-damaging substance from a surface of the encapsulation structure through the encapsulation structure into the electrically active region. The encapsulation structure is formed with a buffer layer and a barrier layer. The buffer layer is formed on or above the electrically active region and / or the substrate, and the barrier layer is formed on or above the buffer layer. With respect to the at least one harmful substance, the permeability of the barrier layer is smaller than the permeability of the buffer layer. The buffer layer is formed with a larger layer thickness than the barrier layer.
  • In various embodiments, the method for producing an electronic component may include features of the electronic component; and an electronic component have features of the method for producing the electronic component in such a way and insofar as the features are each usefully applicable.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is formed from the buffer layer, for example by means of a melting of the buffer layer. For example, at least one subregion of the buffer layer can be liquefied and / or melted by means of electromagnetic radiation, so that the buffer layer runs and / or melts into a solid, closed barrier layer at least in the subregion.
  • Alternatively, the barrier layer is formed on or above the buffer layer, for example deposited. The buffer layer is deposited at a deposition rate of more than 100 nm / min, for example in a range of about 100 nm / min to 10,000 nm / min, for example in a range of about 100 nm / min to 1,000 nm / min, for example in one Range from about 100 nm / min to 500 nm / min, for example, in a range of about 200 nm / min to 10,000 nm / min, for example, in a range of about 500 nm / min to 10,000 nm / min, for example, in a range of about 200 nm / min to 500 nm / min, for example, in a range of about 500 nm / min to 1000 nm / min, for example, in a range of about 1000 nm / min to 10000 nm / min.
  • The buffer layer is deposited to a thickness of at least about 500 nm, for example in a range of about 500 nm to about 500,000 nm, for example in a range of v500 nm to about 10,000 nm, for example in a range of about 500 nm to about 3000 nm For example, in a range of about 10,000 to about 500,000 nm, for example, in a range of about 3,000 to about 500,000 nm, for example, in a range of about 3,000 to about 10,000, for example, in a range of about 10,000 to about 500000 nm.
  • The barrier layer may be formed from the gas phase on the buffer layer, for example by means of atomic layer deposition or molecular layer deposition, or a combination thereof.
  • The deposition rate when forming the barrier layer on the buffer layer may be lower than the deposition rate of the buffer layer on the electrically active region.
  • The barrier layer may be formed by means of another method, process parameters, and / or other material than the buffer layer.
  • In various embodiments, a buffer layer, for example made of glass and / or metal, is applied to or over the electrically active region and / or the substrate, and this buffer layer is at least partially melted. The energy for melting the buffer layer can be introduced into the buffer layer to a very limited extent by means of the electromagnetic radiation, for example by flash heating (flash heating) and / or by means of laser radiation, for example by means of pulsed laser radiation. As a result, the buffer layer can be locally heated and melted, for example, to the partial area. Due to the molten glass surface or metal surface of the buffer layer - which is also referred to as a barrier layer - and the resulting formed solid and closed glass or metal layer - which is still the buffer layer, but with a reduced layer thickness - an encapsulation is formed with a very high hermeticity with respect to a variety of harmful substances, such as air and / or water. Furthermore, compared with a conventional encapsulation by means of a cavity glass and / or a laminating glass, a reduction in thickness of the electronic component is possible, for example approximately halving the total thickness of the electronic component is possible. For example, the buffer layer can be used to produce a barrier layer that is so thin that it can be used for flexible electronic components, for example for flexible organic light-emitting diodes.
  • Furthermore, the energy input by means of the electromagnetic radiation can be carried out such that the heat load for heat-sensitive substances of the electrically active region is very low or even negligible. This can contribute to a particularly long life of the electronic component. In other words, in various embodiments, the barrier layer is formed from the same material as the buffer layer or like a sub-layer of the buffer layer. For example, the barrier layer is a fused subregion of the buffer layer. The barrier layer may also comprise a different material than the buffer layer, for example if the buffer layer has sub-layers with different materials before the melting process and the barrier layer is formed by one of the sub-layers and the unfused remainder of the buffer layer is formed by another of the sub-layers.
  • Embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the figures and are explained in more detail below.
  • Show it
  • 1 a schematic representation of an electronic component according to various embodiments;
  • 2 a schematic representation of various embodiments of an electronic component; and
  • 3 an illustration of a method for producing an electronic component according to various embodiments.
  • In the following detailed description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof, and in which is shown by way of illustration specific embodiments in which the invention may be practiced. In this regard, directional terminology such as "top", "bottom", "front", "back", "front", "rear", etc. is used with reference to the orientation of the described figure (s). Because components of embodiments can be positioned in a number of different orientations, the directional terminology is illustrative and is in no way limiting. It should be understood that other embodiments may be utilized and structural or logical changes may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention. It should be understood that the features of the various exemplary embodiments described herein may be combined with each other unless specifically stated otherwise. The following detailed description is therefore not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims.
  • As used herein, the terms "connected," "connected," and "coupled" are used to describe both direct and indirect connection, direct or indirect connection, and direct or indirect coupling. In the figures, identical or similar elements are provided with identical reference numerals, as appropriate.
  • The permeation of a substance is the process by which the substance, also referred to as permeate, permeates, passes through, passes through, passes through, passes through, drips through or flows through a solid; for example by Brownian molecular motion.
  • The permeate may be or may be a harmful substance for the electrically active region. The at least one harmful substance, for example, can chemically react with and chemically transform one or more substances of the electrically active region. Alternatively or additionally, the noxious substance may be as a catalyst for the conversion of one or more substances of the electrically active region. Alternatively or additionally, the harmful substance can crosslink, degrade or dissolve one or more substances of the electrically active region.
  • The permeate may have a liquid, gaseous, particulate, atomic, molecular or ionized form. For example, the permeate may be water, oxygen, an oxidizing agent, a reducing agent and / or a solvent, for example water, oxygen, sulfur or an organic solvent.
  • The volume property of a material, such as the buffer layer and / or the barrier layer, are the values of the property of the material that it has in volume. Nanoparticles and microparticles of one material may have property values that differ from the volume property values of the material. Thus, for example, a buffer layer formed of particles may have other property values than a buffer layer deposited from a gas phase. The volume property values of a material refer to one or more reference values of the material, for example, a literature reference value, in which the value of the property of the material was determined under certain conditions. For example, a gas phase SiN buffer layer may have the refractive index of SiN which SiN has at a deposition temperature of SiN at 70 ° C. However, the SiN buffer layer may have other values of properties with respect to SiN deposited at a higher temperature, for example, SiN having a deposition temperature of 300 ° C to 400 ° C. The volume properties can also be referred to as bulk properties. In various embodiments, the buffer layer and / or the barrier layer have properties, for example in the operation of the device that are the same or similar to the bulk properties of the materials that under the same process conditions, for example, the same temperature, the same process; are deposited as the materials of the buffer layer and / or barrier layer. The volume properties can be, for example, the density; the hardness; the permeability to the at least one harmful substance; the electrical conductivity; the refractive index; and / or the translucency, transparency or opacity of the material with respect to the bulk properties of the material at the deposition temperature; for example, with respect to the value of the volume properties in a range of +/- 25%, for example in a range of +/- 20%, for example in a range of +/- 15%, for example in a range of +/- 10%, for example in a range of +/- 5%.
  • In various embodiments, optoelectronic components are described as an example of an electronic component, wherein the electrically active region of an optoelectronic component has an optically active region. The optically active region can emit electromagnetic radiation by means of an applied voltage to the optically active region. In various embodiments, the optoelectronic component may be configured such that the electromagnetic radiation has a wavelength range which comprises X-ray radiation, UV radiation (A-C), visible light and / or infrared radiation (A-C).
  • An optoelectronic component may be, for example, as a light emitting diode (LED), as an organic light emitting diode (OLED), as a light emitting transistor or as an organic light emitting transistor, for example an organic field effect transistor (OFET) and / or be formed of organic electronics. The organically functional layered structure may include or be formed from an organic substance or an organic substance mixture that is, for example, configured to emit an electromagnetic radiation from a supplied electric current.
  • An organic light emitting diode may be formed as a so-called top emitter and / or a so-called bottom emitter. In a bottom emitter, electromagnetic radiation is emitted from the electrically active region through the carrier. In a top emitter, electromagnetic radiation is emitted from the top of the electrically active region and not by the carrier.
  • A top emitter and / or bottom emitter may also be optically transparent or optically translucent, for example, each of the layers or structures described below may be transparent or translucent or formed with respect to the absorbed or emitted electromagnetic radiation.
  • In various embodiments, an electronic component 100 provided, for example schematically illustrated in FIG 1 ,
  • The electronic component 100 has an electrically active area 106 on or over a substrate 102 on.
  • The electronic component 100 can be used as an integrated circuit, for example as a chip or a chip arrangement; an optoelectronic component, for example a light-emitting diode, a solar cell; a fluorescent tube, an incandescent lamp, a display, a fluorescent tube and / or a halogen lamp; and / or an organic optoelectronic component, for example as an organic photodetector, an organic solar cell and / or an organic light-emitting diode, or having such.
  • The substrate 102 can be hermetically sealed with respect to permeation of a harmful substance through the substrate 102 in the electrically active area 106 be educated.
  • The substrate 102 For example, it may include or be a circuit board, such as a flexible circuit board.
  • The substrate 102 may comprise a support and a thin-layer encapsulation on the support, for example on one or both sides. In various embodiments, a thin-layer encapsulation may be optional, for example, in the case where the carrier is hermetically sealed.
  • The carrier may comprise or be formed from glass, quartz, and / or a semiconductor material. Furthermore, the carrier may comprise or be formed from a plastic film or a laminate with one or more plastic films. The plastic may include or be formed from one or more polyolefins (eg, high or low density polyethylene or PE) or polypropylene (PP). Further, the plastic may include or be formed from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS), polyester and / or polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethersulfone (PES) and / or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). The carrier may comprise or be formed from a metal, for example copper, silver, gold, platinum, iron, for example a metal compound, for example steel.
  • The carrier may be part of or form part of a mirror structure. The carrier may have a mechanically rigid region and / or a mechanically flexible region or be formed in such a way, for example as a foil or sheet.
  • The thin film encapsulant may comprise or be formed from any of the following materials: alumina, zinc oxide, zirconia, titania, hafnia, tantalum oxide, lanthano, silica, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, indium tin oxide, indium zinc oxide, aluminum doped zinc oxide, poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide), nylon 66, as well as mixtures and alloys thereof.
  • The thin-layer encapsulation may be formed by one of the following methods: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), for example, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) or plasma-less atomic layer deposition (PLALD). ); a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, for example, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or plasmaless plasma vapor deposition (PLCVD); or alternatively by other suitable deposition methods; Molecular Vapor Deposition (MVD), a combination of ALD and MLD; or organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD).
  • In a thin film encapsulation having multiple sublayers, all sublayers may be formed by an atomic layer deposition process. A layer sequence comprising only ALD layers may also be referred to as "nanolaminate".
  • In a thin film encapsulant having multiple sublayers, one or more sublayers of the thin film encapsulant may be deposited by a different deposition process than an atomic layer deposition process, for example, by a vapor deposition process.
  • The thin film encapsulation may have a layer thickness of about 0.1 nm (one atomic layer) to about 1000 nm, for example, a layer thickness of about 10 nm to about 100 nm according to an embodiment, for example about 40 nm according to an embodiment.
  • The thin film encapsulant may include one or more high refractive index materials, for example, one or more high refractive index materials, for example, having a refractive index of at least 1.52; for example, at least 1.55; for example, at least 1.57; for example, at least 1.6; for example, at least 1.65; for example, at least 1.7; for example, at least 1.8; for example, at least 1.9; for example, at least 2.0; for example, at least 2.1; for example, at least 2.2; for example, at least 2.3; for example, at least 2.4; for example, at least 2.5; for example, in a range of about 1.52 to 2.5; for example in a range of about 1.53 to 2.25; for example, in a range of about 1.54 to 2.2; for example, in a range of about 1.55 to 2.1; for example in a range of about 1.57 to 2.0; for example in a range of about 1.58 to 2.0, for example in a range of about 1.59 to 2.0; for example in a range of about 1.60 to 2.0; for example, in a range of about 1.61 to 2.0; for example, in a range of about 1.62 to 2.0; for example in a range of about 1.63 to 2.0; for example, in a range of about 1.64 to 2.0; for example, in a range of about 1.6 to 2.5; for example, in a range of about 1.7 to 2.5; for example in a range of about 1.8 to 2.5; for example, in a range of approximately From 1.82 to 2.5; for example, in a range of about 1.85 to 2.5; for example in a range of about 1.9 to 2.5; for example, in a range of about 2.0 to 2.5.
  • Furthermore, the electronic component 100 an encapsulation structure 112 on or above the substrate 102 and the electrically active region 106 on, for example, in 1 by the dashed line.
  • The encapsulation structure 112 is formed, the electrically active area 106 hermetically seal with respect to permeation 114 (in 1 illustrated by means of the arrow 114 ) at least one for the electrically active region 106 harmful substance from a surface of the encapsulation structure 112 through the encapsulation structure 112 in the electrically active area 106 ,
  • The encapsulation structure 112 may be formed such that the surface of the encapsulation structure is exposed with respect to the environment of the electronic component 100 ,
  • The encapsulation structure 112 may be formed such that it the electrically active region 106 protects at least one of the following harmful substances from permeation: an oxidizing agent, a reducing agent, a solvent, for example from water, oxygen, sulfur and / or an organic solvent.
  • In various embodiments, the encapsulation structure surrounds 112 together with the substrate 102 the electrically active area 106 , For example, completely, for example, except for electrical contact areas 206 . 208 for electrically contacting the electronic component.
  • The encapsulation structure 112 For example, together with the carrier form a cavity in which the optically active region 106 is arranged.
  • In various embodiments, the encapsulation structure 112 a buffer layer 108 on.
  • The buffer layer 108 is or is on or above the electrically active area 106 and / or the substrate 102 educated.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer 108 and the electrically active region 106 a common interface. The buffer layer 108 is by means of the common interface with the electrically active region 106 connected, for example by means of adhesion.
  • The buffer layer 108 may comprise or be formed of an inorganic material, for example a glass, a metal and / or a ceramic.
  • The buffer layer 108 may be formed such that the material of the buffer layer 108 the volume properties of the material of the buffer layer 108 For example, the volume properties of the material in forming the buffer layer 108 ,
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer is 108 designed so that it is free of binder and / or connecting means.
  • In one embodiment, a buffer layer becomes 108 (buffer layer) on the electrically active area 106 deposited. The buffer layer 108 can level out impurities or particles.
  • To the buffer layer 108 special requirements are made. The thermal expansion of the buffer layer 108 should be comparable to the thermal expansion of the barrier layer 110 and / or the substrate 102 be. To avoid the formation of cracks, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the buffer layer should be 108 less than 20 10 -6 K -1 . Laterally, the buffer layer 108 optionally have a higher permeability to the harmful substance, that is, have a lower density or a higher permeability. This may be sufficient because the geometric dimension of the buffer layer may be laterally in the millimeter range or more. This allows a relatively long diffusion path and a relatively large storage capacity in the buffer layer 108 be formed with respect to the at least one harmful substance or be. Furthermore, the buffer layer should 108 have a low permeability with respect to the at least one harmful substance, for example water, in order to even support the encapsulation effect (lag time) or to form a lateral impermeability. Furthermore, the buffer layer should 108 economically and non-destructively directly on the electrically active area 106 can be applied.
  • A process and / or for forming the buffer layer 108 necessary device can / can compared with an encapsulation structure without buffer layer 108 be chosen so that the manufacturing process for forming the electronic component is more economical, for example, by choosing a high deposition rate for the buffer layer. Alternatively or additionally, the buffer layer may have a lower layer quality, for example less dense with respect to the harmful substance, for example less dense with respect to moisture. Subsequently, the encapsulating effect of the encapsulation structure can be increased by means of an additional, for example simple, fast, economical process. As a result, an electronic component with an encapsulation structure having different morphologies can be realized.
  • In one embodiment, the process for morphology modification of the buffer layer 108 or the encapsulation structure 112 a photonic heating of the buffer layer 108 or part of the buffer layer 108 have, for example by means of a flash lamp or a laser. This can be a large area and quickly a selective energy input, such as heat input, in the buffer layer 108 respectively.
  • Alternatively or additionally, a buffer layer 108 , For example, an inorganic buffer layer 108 , are applied with a high rate process and with a conventional thin film encapsulation layer as a barrier layer 110 be provided. The barrier layer 110 can be formed, for example, by means of a chemical vapor deposition, for example by means of an atomic layer deposition, a plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition; and / or as a nanolaminate.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer becomes 108 formed from a glass, for example by means of a physical vapor deposition or from a paste. In various embodiments, the buffer layer becomes 108 formed of a metal, for example by means of a galvanic deposition or an electrophoretic deposition. In various embodiments, the buffer layer 108 For example, the deposited glass or metal, a direct physical contact with the ground, for example, to the substrate 102 and / or the electrically active region 106 , Thus, in various embodiments, there is no connection means for connecting the buffer layer 108 or the material of the buffer layer 108 necessary with the substrate, for example to the substrate 102 and / or the electrically active region 106 ,
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer 108 two or more sublayers. The two or more sub-layers may differ from one another in at least one property.
  • In various embodiments of a buffer layer 108 , the buffer layer can 108 a first sub-layer, a second sub-layer over the first sub-layer and a third sub-layer over the second sub-layer. Alternatively, the buffer layer 108 have only one layer or two or more than three sub-layers.
  • The partial layers can be formed, for example, of different materials and / or by means of different methods. For example, the different materials or different methods may be selected such that the sub-layers have different properties, for example different physical properties. The physical properties may be, for example, melting points, specific heat capacities, densities, permeabilities, coefficients of thermal conductivity and / or optical properties, such as reflection properties, scattering properties and / or conversion properties. For example, the third sub-layer may be arranged on the outside and have a lower melting point than the sub-layers below. This can simply help make sure that only the third sub-layer to the barrier layer 110 is merged. For example, the second sub-layer may have a higher melting point and serve as a stopping layer for the melting process. The first sub-layer may then optionally have a higher or lower melting point than the second sub-layer, for example to serve as an additional stop layer or as a further layer of the barrier layer 110 to serve.
  • For example, a stop layer having a relatively high melting point may be formed directly on the electrically active region, and a relatively low melting point sublayer may be formed over the stop layer, which is then fused to the barrier layer, for example, while leaving the stop layer as a buffer layer. Alternatively or additionally, the different partial layers may correspondingly have different heat conduction coefficients, so that, for example, one of the partial layers with a relatively high coefficient of thermal conduction is used to quickly dissipate the heat produced in the melting process, for example via the air or the substrate, and thereby heat from the sensitive layers, such as the electrically active area, keep away. Alternatively or additionally, the materials of the partial layers can be coordinated so that stresses in the electrically active region can be reduced. For example, the material of the partial layers may be attached to the material of the substrate 102 be adapted, for example, this be designed similarly to tensions in the electrically active region 106 to reduce and / or prevent.
  • In various embodiments, the sublayers have different functions and become dependent on the various functions formed with different materials and / or with different methods. For example, one of the sub-layers, as explained above, serve as a stop layer. Alternatively or additionally, one of the partial layers can serve as a scattering layer. For example, scattering particles can be introduced into the corresponding sublayer. Alternatively or additionally, one of the partial layers can serve as an electrically conductive layer. For example, a sub-layer of the buffer layer can be electrically conductive and / or electrically conductive structures, for example particles and / or nanostructures, can be introduced into the electrically conductive sub-layer. Alternatively or additionally, one of the partial layers can serve as an electrically insulating layer. Alternatively or additionally, one of the sub-layers may serve as a conversion layer for converting light with respect to its wavelength. For example, phosphor particles can be introduced into the corresponding partial layer. Alternatively or additionally, one of the partial layers can serve as a mirror layer. For example, a reflective buffer layer can be used for the mirror layer and / or reflective particles can be embedded in the buffer layer.
  • Alternatively, the melting points of the sublayers of the buffer layer 108 , be adjusted so that the second and the third sub-layer to the barrier layer 110 is merged. In this case then assigns the barrier layer 110 several, for example, two sub-layers on.
  • Alternatively or additionally, the materials and the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation can be adjusted to one another such that at a given wavelength only one of the sublayers of the buffer layer 108 to the barrier layer 110 is melted. In this way, a lower partial layer, for example the first partial layer, can be melted, while a higher partial layer, for example the second partial layer, a partial layer of the buffer layer 108 remains.
  • Alternatively or additionally, the first and / or the second partial layer can have a particularly high heat capacity, so that the heat occurring during the melting process is rapidly dissipated and kept away from the organically functional layer structure. By way of example, this allows a temperature of the organically functional layer structure to be kept below 85 ° C.
  • Alternatively or additionally, one or more of the partial layers of the buffer layer 108 , have given electrical properties. For example, one or more of the partial layers may be formed as electrically conductive layers or as electrically insulating layers. Alternatively or additionally, one or more of the partial layers may have given optical properties. For example, one or more of the sub-layers may be formed as scattering layers for scattering light, mirror layers for reflecting light, or conversion layers for converting light with respect to its wavelength.
  • The buffer layer may be formed, for example, according to an embodiment of the thin-layer encapsulation described above.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer is 108 electrically isolated from or insulating for the electrically active region 106 educated.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer is 108 in the encapsulation structure 112 embedded, for example, surrounded by this. Alternatively or additionally, the encapsulation structure 112 and the electrically active region 106 monolithic on or above the substrate 102 educated.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer is 108 over the entire surface with respect to the surface 108 of the electronic component 100 be arranged behind a hermetically sealed layer or formed, for example, behind or below the barrier layer. The barrier layer 110 For example, an atomic layer epitaxy layer (atomic layer deposition-ALD) can be used, which can reshape a substrate completely.
  • In one embodiment, the encapsulation structure 112 between the buffer layer 108 and the electrically active region 106 have at least one further barrier layer. For example, the further barrier layer may be formed according to one of the embodiments of the thin-layer encapsulation. The buffer layer 108 can between the further barrier layer and the barrier layer 110 in the encapsulation structure 112 be arranged, for example, stacked.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer 108 laterally adjacent and / or above the electrically active region 106 be or be trained.
  • The buffer layer 108 can be partially melted, leaving the barrier layer 110 is trained.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer has scattering particles and / or nanostructures for achieving at least one predetermined effect. The nanostructures can For example, be nanodots, nanotubes and / or nanowires. In various embodiments, the buffer layer comprises a glass, a metal and / or a ceramic.
  • In various embodiments, the encapsulation structure 112 a barrier layer 110 on.
  • The barrier layer 110 is on or above the buffer layer 108 and / or on or over the substrate 102 educated.
  • For example, the barrier layer 110 in an area, for example in an edge area or a contact area 206 . 208 of the electronic component, laterally on the buffer layer 108 and / or on or over the substrate 102 be educated. This may cause the barrier layer 110 the buffer layer 108 encapsulate laterally.
  • Alternatively, the buffer layer 108 are exposed in this area and laterally have a greater width. As a result, the diffusion path can be extended laterally and thus the diffusion time required by the at least one harmful substance to move to the electrically active region 106 to get.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is 110 from the buffer layer 108 formed, for example by means of a melting of the buffer layer 108 , The barrier layer 110 may be the same material as the buffer layer 108 However, for example, have a higher density and / or fewer defects. Alternatively, the barrier layer 110 on or above the buffer layer 108 be formed.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer 110 an inorganic material on or is formed therefrom, for example a glass, a metal and / or a ceramic.
  • The barrier layer 110 and the buffer layer 108 have a common interface. The barrier layer 110 can by means of the common interface with the buffer layer 108 be connected, for example by means of adhesion.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is 110 designed so that it is free of binder and / or connecting means. Furthermore, the barrier layer 110 essentially free of air or gas inclusions. For example, the volume fraction of air or gas inclusions in the barrier layer 110 less than 5%, for example less than 1%, for example less than 0.1%.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer 110 two or more sublayers. The two or more sub-layers may differ from one another in at least one property.
  • The barrier layer 110 may consist of one, two or more melted and then cooled and / or solidified portions of the buffer layer 108 be formed. Alternatively or additionally, the barrier layer 110 can be of one, two or more on the buffer layer 108 be deposited deposited layers or be.
  • The barrier layer 110 may be formed of the same material as the buffer layer 108 or the barrier layer 110 may be formed of a different material than the buffer layer 108 ,
  • The barrier layer 110 For example, it may be formed according to a described embodiment of the thin-film encapsulation.
  • In various embodiments, is on or above the barrier layer 110 a further buffer layer and / or barrier layer is formed, for example in the form of the cover and / or connecting layer, or according to one of the embodiments of the thin-layer encapsulation, as described above.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer 110 a substance or a mixture of substances of the electrically active region 106 have, for example, according to one of the embodiments of the electrically active region 106 ,
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is 110 arranged on the surface laterally with respect to a flat dimension of the electronic component, for example between a cover of the encapsulation structure and the substrate.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer is 108 and / or the barrier layer 110 formed such that a part of the at least one diffused material in the buffer layer 108 and / or the barrier layer 110 is sorbable.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is 110 electrically isolated from or insulating for the electrically active region 106 ,
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer is 108 and / or the barrier layer 110 structured such that they only in the permeation 114 of the harmful substance between the substrate 106 and a cover 106 and / or with respect to the buffer layer 108 between the substrate 102 and the barrier layer 110 is trained. Alternatively or additionally, the buffer layer 108 and / or the barrier layer 110 be formed structured or become such that the buffer layer 108 the electrically active area 106 completely laterally surrounding.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer 110 as a seal of the buffer layer 108 be formed, since the buffer layer 108 has a higher permeability with respect to the at least one harmful substance. The example in 2 illustrated barrier layer 110 can on the buffer layer 108 be formed or from the buffer layer 108 be formed.
  • For example, the barrier layer 110 a harmful substance permeability of less than about 10 -4 g / (m 2 d), for example in a range of about 10 -4 g / (m 2 d) to about 10 -10 g / (m 2 d) For example, in a range of about 10 -4 g / (m 2 d) to about 10 -6 g / (m 2 d). The buffer layer 108 has a harmful substance permeability of greater than about 10 -6 g / (m 2 d), for example in a range of about 10 -1 g / (m 2 d) to about 10 -4 g / (m 2 d) ), for example in a range of about 10 -1 g / (m 2 d) to about 10 -2 g / (m 2 d).
  • The from the buffer layer 108 formed barrier layer 110 can by means of melting the buffer layer 108 be formed. The barrier layer 110 so can from the buffer layer 108 be formed or that they are above the electrically active area 106 on one of the electrically active area 106 opposite side of the buffer layer 108 is that they have a given depth towards the electrically active area 106 which is smaller than the remaining layer thickness of the unfused part of the buffer layer 108 , and that it is otherwise in a plane parallel to the electrically active region 106 extends. The barrier layer 110 thus extends into 2 in a horizontal direction.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is 110 an ALD, MLD or CVD layer and formed by such a method. Alternatively, the barrier layer is formed, for example, from a solder. The solder can be liquefied by means of a flash lamp or a laser, so that it is on the buffer layer 108 runs. As a result, the thermal input to the solder and the electrically active region can be reduced.
  • With respect to the at least one harmful substance, the permeability of the barrier layer 110 less than the permeability of the buffer layer 108 , Furthermore, the buffer layer 108 a greater layer thickness than the barrier layer 110 ,
  • The barrier layer 110 and / or the buffer layer 108 can / can be designed such that a part of the at least one diffused material in the barrier layer 110 and / or the buffer layer 108 is sorbable. In other words: the barrier layer 110 and / or the buffer layer 108 For example, the buffer layer may have a greater capacity to store the at least one harmful substance than the barrier layer, or vice versa.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer may / may 110 and / or the buffer layer 108 be structured formed. For example, the barrier layer can / can 110 and / or the buffer layer 108 only in the permeation path 114 of the harmful substance to the electrically active area 106 be formed with exposed surface.
  • The barrier layer 110 can be on or over the substrate 102 be educated. The barrier layer 110 may be formed such that the barrier layer laterally on the buffer layer 108 is formed and this laterally encapsulated, such as in 1 is illustrated.
  • In various embodiments, the buffer layer is 108 , the barrier layer 110 and a part of the electrically active region 106 formed as an optical cavity. For example, the barrier layer 110 at least partially reflective and the buffer layer 108 be formed translucent or transparent.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is 110 with the buffer layer 108 and a part of the electrically active region 106 formed as a capacitor structure. For example, the barrier layer 110 electrically conductive and the buffer layer 108 be formed dielectric. The capacitor structure can be used, for example, as a measuring structure for the harmful substance in the buffer layer 108 be educated.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer is facing 110 and / or the buffer layer 108 Additives such as scattering particles, electrically conductive particles, electrically insulating particles, phosphor particles, reflective particles and / or nanostructures.
  • The buffer layer 108 and the barrier layer 110 may have diffusion channels for the harmful substance. The buffer layer 108 can be designed to do more Diffusion channels and / or more permeable diffusion channels than the barrier layer 110 ,
  • The buffer layer 108 may be formed such that the at least one harmful substance has a lower capillary pressure in a diffusion channel of the buffer layer 108 as in the barrier layer 110 , For example, the buffer layer 108 have larger cavities than the barrier layer 110 ,
  • The barrier layer 110 may be formed such that the at least one harmful substance has a lower capillary pressure in a diffusion channel of the barrier layer 110 as in the buffer layer 108 , For example, the barrier layer 110 have a higher density and smaller diffusion channels than the barrier layer 110 ,
  • The barrier layer 110 may have a lower permeability to a harmful substance than the buffer layer 108 , The barrier layer 110 For example, it may have a lower defect, grain boundary and / or cavity number density than the buffer layer 108 ,
  • Generally, the buffer layer 108 and the barrier layer 110 be formed with any number of sub-layers, with any physical properties, for example, in each case at least one layer. The layer thickness of the buffer layer 108 is then composed of the layer thicknesses of the partial layers.
  • For example, the buffer layer 108 have a layer thickness of at least 0.5 microns; of at least 3 μm; of at least 5 μm; of at least 10 μm; of at least 0.5 μm; of at least 1 μm; of at least 2 μm; of at least 3 μm; of at least 4 μm or at least 5 μm; for example in a range from about 0.5 μm to 1000 μm, for example from 1 μm to 100 μm, for example from 1 μm to 5 μm, for example from 3 μm to 50 μm, for example from 5 μm to 60 μm. The partial layers may have a thickness in a range, for example, from 0.05 μm to 5 μm, for example from 0.1 μm to 2 μm, for example from 1 μm to 2 μm. The minimum layer thickness may be chosen depending on the average dimension of the unevenness of the deposition surface. The deposition surface is the surface on which the layer is deposited. The average dimension can be determined, for example, based on the average diameter of the particles on the deposition surface, for example based on the clean room class of the production environment of the buffer layer. By means of the minimum layer thickness, the unevenness can be reshaped and a flat surface can be formed. A buffer layer with a greater layer thickness, for example with a layer thickness from about 1 μm, can have a better deformation and / or embedding of the particles on the deposition surface.
  • A buffer layer with a layer thickness of, for example, at least 1 .mu.m can be formed economically by means of a galvanic deposition of a metal or by means of a deposition of a glass by means of PVD, for example PE-PVD (plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition), or PVD metal deposition with a high deposition rate.
  • The barrier layer 110 may have a layer thickness, for example, of at least 1 nm; of at least 2 nm; of at least 5 nm or at least 10 nm; for example in a range from 1 nm to 3000 nm, for example from 10 nm to 200 nm, for example from 10 nm to 100 nm, for example from 10 nm to 50 nm. The partial layers may have a thickness in a range, for example, from 5 nm to 200 nm, for example from 5 nm to 100 nm, for example from 2 nm to 50 nm.
  • In various embodiments, the electrically active region 106 a first electrode 210 , a second electrode 214 and a discharge gap between the first electrode 210 and the second electrode 214 on. The discharge path may comprise a phosphor which is designed to convert an electric current into an electromagnetic radiation.
  • In various embodiments, the electrically active region 106 a first electrode 210 , a second electrode 214 and a pn junction or multiple pn junctions between the first electrode 210 and the second electrode 214 on.
  • In an optoelectronic device 100 can be the electrically active area 106 an optically active area 106 be or have such. The electrically active area 106 is, for example, the range of the optoelectronic component 100 in which electrical current for operation of the optoelectronic component 100 flows and / or generated and / or absorbed in the electromagnetic radiation.
  • The electrically active area 106 can be a first electrode 210 , a second electrode 214 and an organic functional layer structure 212 between the first electrode 210 and the second electrode 214 have, for example, illustrated in 2 , The organic functional layer structure 212 may be for converting an electric current into an electromagnetic radiation and / or for converting a Electromagnetic radiation to be formed in an electric current.
  • The organic functional layer structure 212 may comprise one, two or more functional layered structure units and one, two or more interlayer structures between the layered structure units. The organic functional layer structure 212 For example, it may comprise a first organically functional layered structure unit, an interlayer structure, and a second organically functional layered structure unit.
  • The first electrode 210 may be formed as an anode or as a cathode.
  • The first electrode 210 may comprise or be formed from one of the following electrically conductive material: a metal; a conductive conductive oxide (TCO); a network of metallic nanowires and particles; a network of carbon nanotubes; Graphene particles and layers; a network of semiconducting nanowires; an electrically conductive polymer; a transition metal oxide; and / or their composites. A first electrode 210 of metal or metal may include or be formed from one of the following materials: Ag, Pt, Au, Mg, Al, Ba, In, Ca, Sm or Li, as well as compounds, combinations or alloys of these materials.
  • The first electrode 210 may comprise a layer or a layer stack of multiple layers of the same material or different materials.
  • The first electrode 210 For example, it may have a layer thickness in a range from 10 nm to 500 nm, for example from less than 25 nm to 250 nm, for example from 50 nm to 100 nm.
  • The first electrode 210 may be a first electrical contact area 208 have or be electrically connected to this, to which a first electrical potential can be applied.
  • The first electrical potential may be provided by a power source, such as a power source or a voltage source.
  • Alternatively, the first electrical potential is to an electrically conductive substrate 102 can be applied and the first electrode 210 through the substrate 102 be fed indirectly electrically. The first electrical potential may be, for example, the ground potential or another predetermined reference potential.
  • In various embodiments, the organic functional layer structure 212 one, but also more than two organic functional layer structures.
  • The first organically functional layer structure unit and the optionally further organically functional layer structures may be identical or different, for example have the same or different emitter material. The second organically functional layer structure unit, or the further organically functional layer structure units, may be formed like one of the embodiments of the first organically functional layer structure unit described below.
  • The first organic functional layer structure unit may include a hole injection layer, a hole transport layer, an emitter layer, an electron transport layer, and an electron injection layer.
  • One or more of the said layers may be provided in an organically functional layer structure unit, wherein identical layers may have physical contact, may only be electrically connected to one another, or may even be electrically insulated from one another, for example, formed side by side. Individual layers of said layers may be optional.
  • A hole injection layer may be on or over the first electrode 210 be educated. The hole injection layer may include one or more of the following materials exhibit or can be formed therefrom: HAT-CN, Cu (I) pFBz, MoO x, WO x, VO x, ReO x, F4-TCNQ, NDP-2, NDP-9, Bi (III) pFBz, F16CuPc; NPB (N, N'-bis (naphthalen-1-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -benzidine); beta-NPB N, N'-bis (naphthalen-2-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -benzidine); TPD (N, N'-bis (3-methylphenyl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) benzidine); Spiro TPD (N, N'-bis (3-methylphenyl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) benzidine); Spiro-NPB (N, N'-bis (naphthalen-1-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -spiro); DMFL-TPD N, N'-bis (3-methylphenyl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -9,9-dimethyl-fluorene); DMFL-NPB (N, N'-bis (naphthalen-1-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -9,9-dimethyl-fluorene); DPFL-TPD (N, N'-bis (3-methylphenyl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -9,9-diphenyl-fluorene); DPFL-NPB (N, N'-bis (naphthalen-1-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -9,9-diphenyl-fluorene); Spiro-TAD (2,2 ', 7,7'-tetrakis (n, n-diphenylamino) -9,9'-spirobifluorene); 9,9-bis [4- (N, N-bis-biphenyl-4-yl-amino) phenyl] -9H-fluorene; 9,9-bis [4- (N, N-bis-naphthalen-2-yl-amino) phenyl] -9H-fluorene; 9,9-bis [4- (N, N'-bis-naphthalen-2-yl-N, N'-bis-phenyl-amino) -phenyl] -9-fluoro; N, N'-bis (phenanthrene-9-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) benzidine; 2,7-bis [N, N-bis (9,9-spiro-bifluorenes-2-yl) amino] -9,9-spiro-bifluorene; 2,2'-bis [N, N-up ( biphenyl-4-yl) amino] 9,9-spiro-bifluorene; 2,2'-bis (N, N-di-phenyl-amino) 9,9-spiro-bifluorene; Di- [4- (N, N-ditolyl-amino) -phenyl] cyclohexane; 2,2 ', 7,7'-tetra (N, N-di-tolyl) amino-spiro-bifluorene; and / or N, N, N ', N'-tetra-naphthalen-2-yl-benzidine.
  • The hole injection layer may have a layer thickness in a range of about 10 nm to about 1000 nm, for example in a range of about 30 nm to about 300 nm, for example in a range of about 50 nm to about 200 nm.
  • On or above the hole injection layer, a hole transport layer may be formed. The hole transport layer may comprise or be formed from one or more of the following materials: NPB (N, N'-bis (naphthalen-1-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) benzidine); beta-NPB N, N'-bis (naphthalen-2-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -benzidine); TPD (N, N'-bis (3-methylphenyl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) benzidine); Spiro TPD (N, N'-bis (3-methylphenyl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) benzidine); Spiro-NPB (N, N'-bis (naphthalen-1-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -spiro); DMFL-TPD N, N'-bis (3-methylphenyl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -9,9-dimethyl-fluorene); DMFL-NPB (N, N'-bis (naphthalen-1-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -9,9-dimethyl-fluorene); DPFL-TPD (N, N'-bis (3-methylphenyl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -9,9-diphenyl-fluorene); DPFL-NPB (N, N'-bis (naphthalen-1-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) -9,9-diphenyl-fluorene); Spiro-TAD (2,2 ', 7,7'-tetrakis (n, n-diphenylamino) -9,9'-spirobifluorene); 9,9-bis [4- (N, N-bis-biphenyl-4-yl-amino) phenyl] -9H-fluorene; 9,9-bis [4- (N, N-bis-naphthalen-2-yl-amino) phenyl] -9H-fluorene; 9,9-bis [4- (N, N'-bis-naphthalen-2-yl-N, N'-bis-phenyl-amino) -phenyl] -9-fluoro; N, N'-bis (phenanthrene-9-yl) -N, N'-bis (phenyl) benzidine; 2,7-bis [N, N-bis (9,9-spiro-bifluorenes-2-yl) amino] -9,9-spiro-bifluorene; 2,2'-bis [N, N-bis (biphenyl-4-yl) amino] 9,9-spiro-bifluorene; 2,2'-bis (N, N-di-phenyl-amino) 9,9-spiro-bifluorene; Di- [4- (N, N-ditolyl-amino) -phenyl] cyclohexane; 2,2 ', 7,7'-tetra (N, N-di-tolyl) amino-spiro-bifluorene; and N, N, N ', N'-tetra-naphthalen-2-yl-benzidine, a tertiary amine, a carbazole derivative, a conductive polyaniline and / or polyethylenedioxythiophene.
  • The hole transport layer may have a layer thickness in a range of about 5 nm to about 50 nm, for example in a range of about 10 nm to about 30 nm, for example about 20 nm.
  • On or above the hole transport layer, an emitter layer may be formed. Each of the organically functional layered structure units may each have one or more emitter layers, for example with fluorescent and / or phosphorescent emitters.
  • An emitter layer may include or be formed from organic polymers, organic oligomers, organic monomers, organic small, non-polymeric molecules, or a combination of these materials.
  • The electronic component 100 may include or be formed from one or more of the following materials in an emitter layer: organic or organometallic compounds such as derivatives of polyfluorene, polythiophene and polyphenylene (for example 2- or 2,5-substituted poly-p-phenylenevinylene) and metal complexes such as iridium Complexes such as blue phosphorescent FIrPic (bis (3,5-difluoro-2- (2-pyridyl) phenyl- (2-carboxypyridyl) iridium III), green phosphorescing Ir (ppy) 3 (tris (2-phenylpyridine) iridium III ), red phosphorescent Ru (dtb-bpy) 3 * 2 (PF 6) (tris [4,4'-di-tert-butyl- (2,2 ') - bipyridine] ruthenium (III) complex), and blue fluorescent DPAVBi (4,4-bis [4- (di-p-tolylamino) styryl] biphenyl), green fluorescent TTPA (9,10-bis [N, N-di (p-tolyl) amino] anthracene) and red fluorescent DCM2 (4-dicyanomethylene) -2-methyl-6-julolidyl-9-enyl-4H-pyran) as a non-polymeric emitter.
  • The emitter materials may be suitably embedded in a matrix material, for example a technical ceramic or a polymer, for example an epoxide; or a silicone.
  • In various embodiments, the emitter layer may have a layer thickness in a range of about 5 nm to about 50 nm, for example in a range of about 10 nm to about 30 nm, for example about 20 nm.
  • The emitter layer may have single-color or different-colored (for example blue and yellow or blue, green and red) emitting emitter materials. Alternatively, the emitter layer may comprise a plurality of sub-layers which emit light of different colors. Alternatively it can also be provided to arrange a converter material in the beam path of the primary emission generated by these layers, which at least partially absorbs the primary radiation and emits secondary radiation of a different wavelength.
  • The organically functional layered structure unit 216 may include one or more emitter layers configured as a hole transport layer. Furthermore, the organically functional layered structure unit 216 have one or more emitter layers, which is / are designed as an electron transport layer.
  • On or above the emitter layer, an electron transport layer can be formed, for example deposited.
  • The electron transport layer may include or be formed from one or more of the following materials: NET-18; 2,2 ', 2' '- (1,3,5-Benzinetriyl) -tris (1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole); 2- (4-biphenylyl) -5- (4-tert-butylphenyl) -1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolines (BCP); 8-hydroxyquinolinolato-lithium, 4- (naphthalen-1-yl) -3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles; 1,3-bis [2- (2,2'-bipyridine-6-yl) -1,3,4-oxadiazo-5-yl] benzene; 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen); 3- (4-biphenylyl) -4-phenyl-5-tert-butylphenyl-1,2,4-triazole; Bis (2-methyl-8-quinolinolate) -4- (phenylphenolato) aluminum; 6,6'-bis [5- (biphenyl-4-yl) -1,3,4-oxadiazo-2-yl] -2,2'-bipyridyl; 2-phenyl-9,10-di (naphthalen-2-yl) anthracenes; 2,7-bis -9,9-dimethylfluorene [2- (2,2'-bipyridine-6-yl) -1,3,4-oxadiazo-5-yl]; 1,3-bis [2- (4-tert-butylphenyl) -1,3,4-oxadiazo-5-yl] benzene; 2- (naphthalen-2-yl) -4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; 2,9-bis (naphthalen-2-yl) -4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; Tris (2,4,6-trimethyl-3- (pyridin-3-yl) phenyl) borane; 1-methyl-2- (4- (naphthalen-2-yl) phenyl) -1H-imidazo [4,5-f] [1,10] phenanthroline; Phenyl-dipyrenylphosphine oxides; Naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride or its imides; Perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride or its imides; and silanol-based materials containing a silacyclopentadiene moiety.
  • The electron transport layer may have a layer thickness in a range of about 5 nm to about 50 nm, for example in a range of about 10 nm to about 30 nm, for example about 20 nm.
  • An electron injection layer may be formed on or above the electron transport layer. The electron injection layer may include or be formed from one or more of the following materials: NDN-26, MgAg, Cs 2 CO 3 , Cs 3 PO 4 , Na, Ca, K, Mg, Cs, Li, LiF; 2,2 ', 2''- (1,3,5-Benzinetriyl) -tris (1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole); 2- (4-biphenylyl) -5- (4-tert-butylphenyl) -1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolines (BCP); 8-hydroxyquinolinolato-lithium, 4- (naphthalen-1-yl) -3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles; 1,3-bis [2- (2,2'-bipyridine-6-yl) -1,3,4-oxadiazo-5-yl] benzene; 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen); 3- (4-biphenylyl) -4-phenyl-5-tert-butylphenyl-1,2,4-triazole; Bis (2-methyl-8-quinolinolate) -4- (phenylphenolato) aluminum; 6,6'-bis [5- (biphenyl-4-yl) -1,3,4-oxadiazo-2-yl] -2,2'-bipyridyl; 2-phenyl-9,10-di (naphthalen-2-yl) anthracenes; 2,7-bis -9,9-dimethylfluorene [2- (2,2'-bipyridine-6-yl) -1,3,4-oxadiazo-5-yl]; 1,3-bis [2- (4-tert-butylphenyl) -1,3,4-oxadiazo-5-yl] benzene; 2- (naphthalen-2-yl) -4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; 2,9-bis (naphthalen-2-yl) -4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; Tris (2,4,6-trimethyl-3- (pyridin-3-yl) phenyl) borane; 1-methyl-2- (4- (naphthalen-2-yl) phenyl) -1H-imidazo [4,5-f] [1,10] phenanthroline; Phenyl-dipyrenylphosphine oxides; Naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride or its imides; Perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride or its imides; and silanol-based materials containing a silacyclopentadiene moiety.
  • The electron injection layer may have a layer thickness in a range of about 5 nm to about 200 nm, for example in a range of about 20 nm to about 50 nm, for example about 30 nm.
  • For an organic functional layer structure 212 with two or more organic functional layered structure units, the second organically functional layered structure unit may be formed above or next to the first functional layered structure units. An intermediate layer structure may be formed electrically between the organically functional layer structure units.
  • In various embodiments, the interlayer structure may be formed as an intermediate electrode, for example according to one of the embodiments of the first electrode. An intermediate electrode may be electrically connected to an external voltage source. The external voltage source may provide, for example, a third electrical potential at the intermediate electrode. However, the intermediate electrode can also have no external electrical connection, for example by the intermediate electrode having a floating electrical potential.
  • In various embodiments, the interlayer structure may be formed as a charge generation layer (CGL) charge generation layer structure. A charge carrier pair generation layer structure may include one or more electron-conducting charge carrier pair generation layer (s) and one or more hole-conducting charge carrier pair generation layer (s). Each of the electron-conductive charge carrier generation layer (s) and the hole-conducting charge carrier generation layer (s) may be formed of an undoped conductive substance or a dopant in a matrix. The carrier-pair generation layer structure should be formed with respect to the energy levels of the electron-conducting carrier generation layer (s) and the hole-conducting carrier generation layer (s) such that at the interface of an electron-conducting carrier generation pair having a hole-conducting carrier pair Production layer to be a separation of electron and hole can. The charge carrier pair generation layer structure may further comprise a permeation barrier between adjacent layers.
  • On or above the organic functional layer structure 212 or optionally on or over the one or more further of the organic functional layer structure and / or organic functional layers, the second electrode 214 be educated.
  • The second electrode 214 may according to one of the embodiments of the first electrode 210 be formed, wherein the first electrode 210 and the second electrode 214 may be the same or different. The second electrode 214 may be formed as an anode, that is, as a hole-injecting electrode or as a cathode, that is, as an electron-injecting electrode.
  • The second electrode 214 may be a second electrical contact area 206 have or be connected to, for example, illustrated in FIG 2 by means of the electrical connection layer 202 , To the second electrical contact area 206 a second electrical potential can be applied. The second electrical potential may be provided by the same or a different energy source as the first electrical potential and / or the optional third electrical potential of an intermediate electrode. The second electrical potential may be different from the first electrical potential and / or the optionally third electrical potential. The second electrical potential may, for example, have a value such that the difference to the first electrical potential has a value in a range from approximately 1.5 V to approximately 20 V, for example a value in a range from approximately 2.5 V to approximately 15V, for example, a value in a range of about 3V to about 12V.
  • In various embodiments, the first electrode 210 by means of a resist 204 from the second electrode 214 electrically isolated. The resist may be or may be, for example, a polyimide or a resin.
  • In various embodiments, the encapsulation structure 112 a housing, a cover 226 , a molding compound and / or one or more further barrier layers, for example illustrated in FIG 2 , The molding compound may be, for example, a synthetic resin or an adhesive or have. The encapsulation structure 112 can be a permeation 114 of less than about 10 -6 g / (m 2 d).
  • In various embodiments, the encapsulation structure 112 a molding compound, such as a synthetic resin or an adhesive. In various embodiments, the molding compound forms a housing for the electronic component 100 out.
  • The encapsulation structure 112 may also have a cover 226 have, wherein the cover 226 above the barrier layer 110 is arranged, for example by means of a connecting layer 224 , The cover can by means of a bonding layer with the barrier layer 110 be connected. Alternatively, there is a cavity between the cover 226 and the barrier layer 110 educated.
  • In other words, in various embodiments, the encapsulation structure 112 a cover 226 and a tie layer 224 exhibit. On or above the tie layer 224 can a cover 226 be formed or arranged. The cover 226 can by means of the bonding layer 224 with the barrier layer 110 , the substrate 102 and / or the electrically active region 106 be connected.
  • The cover 226 For example, a glass cover 226 , a metal foil cover 226 or a sealed plastic film cover 226 be. The glass cover 226 For example, by means of a frit bonding (glass frit bonding / glass soldering / seal glass bonding) by means of a conventional glass solder in the geometric edge regions of the electronic component 100 with the second barrier layer 110 or the electrically active area 106 and / or the substrate 102 be connected or become.
  • The cover 226 and / or the tie layer 224 may have a refractive index (for example at a wavelength of 633 nm) of 1.55.
  • In various embodiments, in an encapsulation structure 112 with cover 226 a tie layer 224 optional, for example if the cover 226 directly on the barrier layer 110 is formed, for example, a cover 226 made of glass, which is formed by means of plasma spraying.
  • In various embodiments, a cover 226 and / or a tie layer 224 , for example in the form of a resin layer; optional. The barrier layer 110 For example, as a replacement and / or instead of the cover 226 serve.
  • In other words, in various embodiments, is on or above the barrier layer 110 a tie layer 224 be provided, for example, from an adhesive or a Paint. By means of the bonding layer 224 For example, a cover 226 on the second barrier layer 110 be connected, for example, be glued.
  • A connection layer 224 For example, particles that diffuse electromagnetic radiation, for example light-scattering particles, can comprise a transparent material. This allows the connection layer 224 act as a scattering layer and lead to an improvement of the color angle distortion and the Auskoppeleffizienz.
  • The connection layer 224 may have a layer thickness of greater than 1 micron, for example, a layer thickness of several microns. In various embodiments, the connection layer 224 include or be a lamination adhesive.
  • The connection layer 224 may be configured to include an adhesive having a refractive index less than the refractive index of the cover 226 , Furthermore, a plurality of different adhesives may be provided which form an adhesive layer sequence.
  • Furthermore, in various exemplary embodiments, one or more input / output layers in the electronic component may additionally be provided 100 be formed, for example, an external Auskoppelfolie on or above the substrate (not shown) or an internal Auskoppelschicht (not shown) in the layer cross-section of the optoelectronic device 100 , The input / outcoupling layer may have a matrix and scattering centers distributed therein, the average refractive index of the input / outcoupling layer being greater or smaller than the mean refractive index of the layer from which the electromagnetic radiation is provided. Furthermore, in various embodiments, additionally one or more antireflective layers (for example combined with the barrier layer 110 ) in the optoelectronic component 100 be provided.
  • On or above the electrically active area 106 and / or the substrate 102 For example, a so-called getter layer or getter structure, for example a laterally structured getter layer, can be arranged, for example in or as the buffer layer 108 ,
  • In various embodiments, during operation of the electronic component, an electromagnetic radiation from an electric current in the electrically active region 106 generated, or vice versa. The electrically active area 106 is formed in such a way, for example with transparent or translucent layers or structures, that the electromagnetic radiation can be transmitted at least through one side (optically active side). For example, the electrically active region may be formed such that it has two opposing optically active sides, for example being transparent or translucent in a viewing direction. The electronic component 100 may be formed such that the electromagnetic radiation laterally and / or flat through the substrate 102 , the buffer layer 108 , the barrier layer 110 , the compound layer 224 and / or the cover 226 is transmissable. Alternatively, one of the layers or structures mentioned may be reflective or reflective, so that an electromagnetic radiation incident on this layer or structure can be deflected by this layer or structure.
  • The electronic component 100 is by means of contact areas 206 . 208 Contactable with a component-external electrical energy source, for example, energized. The electronic component is designed such that an electric current from the contact areas 206 . 208 indirectly, for example through a connecting layer 202 ; or directly, for example by means of a contact area 206 . 208 extended electrode 210 . 214 the electrically active region; electrically with the electrically active area 106 can flow, and vice versa. The current path of the electric current passes through the electrically active region 106 from a contact area 206 to the other contact area 208 , The electrically active area 106 is designed such that a predetermined electrical effect can be effected, for example, an electromagnetic radiation and / or an electric field and / or a magnetic field can be generated. Alternatively or additionally, in the electrically active region 106 an electric current can be generated from such a radiation or field. Alternatively or additionally, the electrically active region 106 have one or more circuits, for example with one or more switches, such as electrically switchable switches, such as transistors; for example in the form of a logic circuit.
  • In various embodiments, a method 300 for producing an electronic component 100 provided.
  • The procedure 300 has a training 302 an electrically active area 106 on or over a substrate 102 on.
  • Furthermore, the method 300 forming an encapsulation structure 112 on or above the substrate 102 and the electrically active region 106 on.
  • The encapsulation structure 112 is formed such that the electrically active region 106 hermetically sealed with respect to a permeation 114 at least one for the electrically active area 106 harmful substance from a surface of the encapsulation structure 112 through the encapsulation structure 112 in the electrically active area 106 ,
  • In various embodiments, forming the encapsulation structure 112 a training 404 a buffer layer 108 on or above the substrate 102 and / or the electrically active region 106 on.
  • In various embodiments, forming the encapsulation structure 112 a training 406 a barrier layer 110 on or above the buffer layer 108 and / or the substrate 102 on.
  • With respect to the at least one harmful substance, the permeability of the barrier layer 110 less than the permeability of the buffer layer 108 , The buffer layer 108 is formed with a larger layer thickness than the barrier layer 110 ,
  • In various embodiments, the method 300 for producing an electronic component 100 Features of the electronic component 100 on; and an electronic component 100 Features of the procedure 300 for producing the electronic component 100 in such a way and to the extent that the features are each usefully applicable. Thus, the method has features described in connection with the features of the electronic component such that the electronic component is formed with the feature.
  • In various embodiments, the barrier layer becomes 110 from the gas phase on the buffer layer 108 formed, for example, deposited by means of an atomic layer deposition or Molekugelagenabscheidens.
  • The deposition rate when forming the barrier layer 110 on the buffer layer 108 may be less than the deposition rate of the buffer layer 108 on the electrically active area 106 ,
  • The barrier layer 110 may be formed by means of another method, process parameters and / or other material than the buffer layer 108 ,
  • The barrier layer 110 can be considered part of the surface 108 the encapsulation structure 112 be formed, through which the at least one harmful substance would penetrate into the electrically active substance.
  • In various embodiments, an electronic component and a method for producing an optoelectronic component are provided with which it is possible to reduce the requirements for the layer deposition process of encapsulation layers in electronic components. As a result, an overall process optimized with respect to various parameters can be provided. This can be improved, for example, economically and / or qualitatively. For example, a high rate post-densification process such as sintering a metal, a glass, or the like; be used for an economically fast and watertight layer application. The buffer layers according to various embodiments allow high rates for depositing the buffer layer, for example higher rates than conventional plasma assisted vapor deposition processes for thicker layers. Inorganic buffer layers have a more suitable thermal expansion and impermeability than organic buffer layers, for example a more suitable expansion and impermeability than, for example, parylene or the like. As a basis for denser layers, the buffer layer allows a sufficient encapsulation effect, for example, a better encapsulation effect than a conventional barrier thin layer, since this itself is not sufficiently dense with respect to their example process-related morphology, such as grain boundaries.
  • The invention is not limited to the specified embodiments. For example, the barrier layer may be formed only laterally beside and on the buffer layer. Furthermore, the production of the barrier layer, in particular the melting of the buffer layer, can take place in several steps. For example, the buffer layer can be irradiated twice, thrice or more times with electromagnetic radiation, for example with different irradiation durations, irradiation intensities or different wavelengths. For example, depending on the wavelength, the partial layer to be melted can be selected.

Claims (15)

  1. Electronic component ( 100 ), comprising: • an electrically active region ( 106 ) on or over a substrate ( 102 ); An encapsulation structure ( 112 ) on or above the substrate ( 102 ) and the electrically active region ( 106 ); Where the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) is formed, the electrically active area ( 106 ) hermetically sealed with respect to permeation ( 114 ) at least one for the electrically active region ( 106 ) harmful substance from a surface of the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) through the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) in the electrically active region ( 106 ), Wherein the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) a buffer layer ( 108 ) and a barrier layer ( 110 ), wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) on or above the electrically active region ( 106 ) and / or the substrate ( 102 ) is formed and the barrier layer ( 110 ) on or above the buffer layer ( 108 ) and / or the substrate ( 102 ) is trained; Wherein, with respect to the at least one harmful substance, the permeability of the barrier layer ( 110 ) is smaller than the permeability of the buffer layer ( 108 ); and wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) has a greater layer thickness than the barrier layer ( 110 ).
  2. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to claim 1, wherein the electronic component is embodied as or comprising: an integrated circuit, preferably as a chip or a chip arrangement; An optoelectronic component, preferably a light-emitting diode, a solar cell; a fluorescent tube, an incandescent lamp, a display, a fluorescent tube and / or a halogen lamp; and / or an organic optoelectronic component, preferably as an organic photodetector, an organic solar cell and / or an organic light-emitting diode.
  3. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the electrically active region ( 106 ) a first electrode ( 210 ), a second electrode ( 214 ) and an organic functional layer structure ( 212 ) between the first electrode ( 210 ) and the second electrode ( 214 ), wherein the organically functional layer structure ( 212 ) is adapted to convert an electric current into an electromagnetic radiation and / or to convert an electromagnetic radiation into an electric current.
  4. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) and the electrically active region ( 106 ) have a common interface, wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) by means of the common interface with the electrically active region ( 106 ), preferably by adhesion.
  5. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) and / or the barrier layer ( 110 ) are / is designed to be free of binder and / or bonding agent; and / or is substantially free of air or gas inclusions.
  6. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) has two or more sub-layers, wherein the two or more sub-layers differ from each other in at least one property; and / or wherein the barrier layer ( 110 ) has two or more sub-layers, wherein the two or more sub-layers differ from each other in at least one property.
  7. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the barrier layer ( 110 ) from the buffer layer ( 108 ), preferably as a molten part of the buffer layer ( 108 ).
  8. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the barrier layer ( 110 ) on or above the buffer layer ( 108 ) is formed.
  9. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the barrier layer ( 110 ) and the buffer layer ( 108 ) have a common interface, the barrier layer ( 110 ) by means of the common interface with the buffer layer ( 108 ), preferably by adhesion.
  10. Electronic component ( 100 ) according to one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) and the barrier layer ( 110 ) Have diffusion channels, wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) is formed such that it has more diffusion channels than the barrier layer ( 110 ); and / or wherein the barrier layer ( 110 ) has a higher hermeticity than the buffer layer ( 108 ), preferably the barrier layer ( 110 ) has a lower defect, grain boundary and / or cavity number density than the buffer layer ( 108 ).
  11. Procedure ( 300 ) for producing an electronic component ( 100 ), the procedure ( 300 ) comprising: • training ( 302 ) of an electrically active region ( 106 ) on or over a substrate ( 102 ); Forming an encapsulation structure ( 112 ) on or above the substrate ( 102 ) and the electrically active region ( 106 ); Where the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) is formed such that the electrically active region ( 106 ) is hermetically sealed with respect to a permeation of at least one of the electrically active region ( 106 ) harmful substance from a surface of the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) through the Encapsulation structure ( 112 ) in the electrically active region ( 106 ), Wherein the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) with a buffer layer ( 108 ) and a barrier layer ( 110 ), wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) on or above the electrically active region ( 106 ) and / or the substrate ( 102 ) and the barrier layer ( 110 ) on or above the buffer layer ( 108 ) is formed; Wherein, with respect to the at least one harmful substance, the permeability of the barrier layer ( 110 ) is smaller than the permeability of the buffer layer ( 108 ); Where the buffer layer ( 108 ) is formed with a greater layer thickness than the barrier layer ( 110 ), and wherein the barrier layer ( 110 ) from the buffer layer ( 108 ) is formed, preferably by means of a melting of the buffer layer ( 108 ).
  12. Procedure ( 300 ) for producing an electronic component ( 100 ), the procedure ( 300 ) comprising: • training ( 302 ) of an electrically active region ( 106 ) on or over a substrate ( 102 ); Forming an encapsulation structure ( 112 ) on or above the substrate ( 102 ) and the electrically active region ( 106 ); Where the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) is formed such that the electrically active region ( 106 ) is hermetically sealed with respect to a permeation of at least one of the electrically active region ( 106 ) harmful substance from a surface of the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) through the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) in the electrically active region ( 106 ), Wherein the encapsulation structure ( 112 ) with a buffer layer ( 108 ) and a barrier layer ( 110 ), wherein the buffer layer ( 108 ) on or above the electrically active region ( 106 ) and / or the substrate ( 102 ) and the barrier layer ( 110 ) on or above the buffer layer ( 108 ) is formed; Wherein, with respect to the at least one harmful substance, the permeability of the barrier layer ( 110 ) is smaller than the permeability of the buffer layer ( 108 ); Where the buffer layer ( 108 ) is formed with a greater layer thickness than the barrier layer ( 110 ), Whereby the barrier layer ( 110 ) on or above the buffer layer ( 108 ), preferably depositing, and wherein the buffer layer is deposited at a deposition rate greater than about 100 nm / min to a thickness of at least about 500 nm.
  13. A method according to claim 11 or 12, wherein the barrier layer ( 110 ) from the gas phase on the buffer layer ( 108 ), preferably deposited by atomic layer deposition or molecular layer deposition.
  14. Method according to one of claims 11 to 13, wherein the deposition rate in the formation of the barrier layer ( 110 ) on the buffer layer ( 108 ) is less than the deposition rate of the buffer layer ( 108 ) on the electrically active area ( 106 ).
  15. Method according to one of claims 11 to 14, wherein the barrier layer ( 110 ) is formed by means of another method, different process parameters and / or a different material than the buffer layer ( 108 ).
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Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10318187A1 (en) * 2002-05-02 2003-11-27 Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh Encapsulation for organic light emitting diode components
US20100213828A1 (en) * 2009-02-26 2010-08-26 Samsung Mobile Display Co., Ltd. Organic light emitting diode display
WO2013007592A1 (en) * 2011-07-14 2013-01-17 Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh Encapsulation structure for an optoelectronic component and method for encapsulating an optoelectronic component

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10318187A1 (en) * 2002-05-02 2003-11-27 Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh Encapsulation for organic light emitting diode components
US20100213828A1 (en) * 2009-02-26 2010-08-26 Samsung Mobile Display Co., Ltd. Organic light emitting diode display
WO2013007592A1 (en) * 2011-07-14 2013-01-17 Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh Encapsulation structure for an optoelectronic component and method for encapsulating an optoelectronic component

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