DE102007048749A1 - Thermal generator for direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy, has linear structures integrated into substrates and made from thermoelectric material e.g. germanium, with high electrical and thermal conductivity - Google Patents

Thermal generator for direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy, has linear structures integrated into substrates and made from thermoelectric material e.g. germanium, with high electrical and thermal conductivity

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Publication number
DE102007048749A1
DE102007048749A1 DE200710048749 DE102007048749A DE102007048749A1 DE 102007048749 A1 DE102007048749 A1 DE 102007048749A1 DE 200710048749 DE200710048749 DE 200710048749 DE 102007048749 A DE102007048749 A DE 102007048749A DE 102007048749 A1 DE102007048749 A1 DE 102007048749A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
characterized
substrate
material
method according
thermogenerator
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Withdrawn
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DE200710048749
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German (de)
Inventor
Wolfgang R Fahrner
Maximilian Scherff
Stefan Schwertheim
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Fahrner, Wolfgang R.
Maximilian Scherff
Stefan Schwertheim
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Application filed by Fahrner, Wolfgang R., Maximilian Scherff, Stefan Schwertheim filed Critical Fahrner, Wolfgang R.
Priority to DE200710048749 priority Critical patent/DE102007048749A1/en
Publication of DE102007048749A1 publication Critical patent/DE102007048749A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L35/00Thermoelectric devices comprising a junction of dissimilar materials, i.e. exhibiting Seebeck or Peltier effect with or without other thermoelectric effects or thermomagnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L35/28Thermoelectric devices comprising a junction of dissimilar materials, i.e. exhibiting Seebeck or Peltier effect with or without other thermoelectric effects or thermomagnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof operating with Peltier or Seebeck effect only
    • H01L35/32Thermoelectric devices comprising a junction of dissimilar materials, i.e. exhibiting Seebeck or Peltier effect with or without other thermoelectric effects or thermomagnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof operating with Peltier or Seebeck effect only characterised by the structure or configuration of the cell or thermo-couple forming the device including details about, e.g., housing, insulation, geometry, module
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L35/00Thermoelectric devices comprising a junction of dissimilar materials, i.e. exhibiting Seebeck or Peltier effect with or without other thermoelectric effects or thermomagnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L35/34Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof

Abstract

The invention relates to a thermogenerator for the direct conversion of thermal into electrical energy, consisting of a substrate (1, 1 ') of thermally and electrically poorly conductive material and thereon integrated linear structures (7, 7') of thermoelectric material with high electrical conductivity.

Description

  • The The invention relates to a thermal generator whose current propagation in material of sub-micron thickness, in particular nanometer thickness, to be led.
  • are two different conductors or semiconductors at their ends connected and the ends brought to different temperatures, This allows a voltage or current flow in the circuit determine. In the case of metallic arrangements these are as Thermocouples known. If both current and voltage are used, this is the case of a thermogenerator. In this case will be technically mostly semiconductors used.
  • The quality value of a thermal generator is generally designated ZT, ZT = S 2 σ T / κ, (S Seebeck coefficient, σ electrical conductivity, T temperature, κ thermal conductivity). For commonly used materials and geometries, the ZT value is 0.6 or less [1]. The ZT value corresponds to the efficiency.
  • From the theory [2, 3] it is known that by transition from the macroscopic to the microscopic design, the ZT value increases with decreasing thickness of the legs of the generator. This is true for nanosheets and much more so for nanowires. Based on this finding, nanowires were used as the base material for thermal generators [2, 3]. In the literature examples are given in which Bi compounds were investigated as nanowires. As a rule, these were poured into the pores of an Al 2 O 3 mold [4]. Variants of the production are the LIGA technique [5] and filling of nanopores in a substrate layer [6].
  • The previous solutions of the production also bring some disadvantages. The production via pore filling requires only a narrow selection of support materials. However, this carrier material must have a low thermal conductivity. It is a general problem to handle the individual nanowires generated. The separation process is not always easy either. Applied z. B. electrochemical deposition on Al 2 O 3 .
  • outgoing From this prior art, the invention is based on the object a cost-effective and precise to manufacture Thermogenerator provide as well as a method for its production.
  • to The solution to this problem is a thermogenerator for direct conversion from thermal to electrical energy proposed, consisting from a substrate of thermally and electrically poorly conductive Material (or non-conductive material) and located on it integrated linear structures made of thermoelectric Material with high electrical conductivity.
  • advantageous Further developments are specified in claims 2 to 11. A method for producing such a thermal generator is in claims 12 to 27.
  • embodiments The invention are illustrated in the drawing and in the following described in more detail.
  • It shows:
  • image 1 the exemplary embodiment of an inventive Thermal generator;
  • image 2 the clarification of a preferably provided procedural Education;
  • image 3 an alternative embodiment of a thermal generator in a schematic View;
  • image 4 the formation of linear structures on a Substrate.
  • In picture 1 is the arrangement of two substrates 1 . 1' shown from thermally and electrically poorly conductive material, being on the substrate 1 respectively 1' linear structures made of thermoelectric material 7 . 7 ' are provided in parallel next to each other in multiple arrangement. The materials that make up the linear structures 7 respectively 7 exist, are different, so that these structures together form a thermocouple. The interconnection of the structures takes place via a metallization 8th at one end of the linear structures 7 . 7 ' , At the other end of the linear structures 7 . 7 ' is in each case a metallic compound 9 . 9 ' provided to which a consumer can be connected. By heating the metallization 8th a current is generated through the contacts 9 . 9 ' can be accepted by the consumer as a benefit.
  • Figure 2 explains a method of production. In this case, perpendicular to a preferably rectangular substrate 1 . 1' preferably made of material of low thermal and electrical conductivity, on two opposite sides of an optical system 2 and a fully reflective mirror 3 appropriate. By means of the optical system is monochromatic, preferably light from a laser 5 , radiated and the mirror 3 is mounted so that a standing wave field 4 between the optical system 2 and the mirror 3 is formed above the substrate. Towards the substrate normal an atomic or molecular beam 6 on the substrate 1 . 1' directed. On the way to the substrate, the beam passes 6 the standing wave field 4 , This ensures that the beam in the form of parallel stripes 7 . 7 ' on a substrate 1 . 1' precipitates because it is a one-dimensional optical standing wave field 4 passes. [7, 8]. There will be at least two substrates with corresponding stripes 7 . 7 ' coated, each made of an n-type material 7 or a p-type material 7 ' consist. The resulting stripes 7 . 7 ' have a pitch in the size of the irradiated wavelength, for example, 212 nm, with a width profile in the form of a sharp peak with a mean width of 38 nm. Such training is illustrated in Figure 4. Doing so are on a substrate 1 strip 7 formed, which have a height H of about 8 nm. The width of the individual line-shaped is on average (at B) 38 nm. The distance of the strips from each other "A" is about 212 nm.
  • Two accordingly with stripes 7 . 7 ' trained substrates 1 . 1' form the two legs of the thermogenerator.
  • at The deposition can be two or more materials in the form separated from one another or even simultaneously be so in the presence of stoichiometric or for doping necessary proportions by high temperature application and mutual reaction suitable p- or n-type thermogenerator legs can be formed.
  • In another procedure, an undoped substrate provided with a thin layer can be coated in strip form with p or n doping material. For example, the substrate may be coated with a coating of intrinsic amorphous silicon, which is coated with stripes 7 made of phosphorus-containing material and with stripes 7 made of boron-containing material. This dopant is then driven in a high-temperature step of about 500 ° C to 1500 ° C in the thin layer.
  • In both embodiments, the strip ends of both substrate 1 . 1' or the ends of the strips 7 . 7 ' be connected in parallel, preferably by a metallization 8th respectively 9 can be made in a width of a few millimeters. According to Embodiment Figure 1 are each a substrate with n- and a substrate with p-type stripes 7 . 7 ' Laid back to back, so that all stripes are parallel, for example from right to left. At one end of the substrates 1 . 1' becomes a common metallization 8th in the form of a U-profile, so that the n- and p-type strips are connected to each other and to each other. At the other end of the substrates in each case a metallic compound 9 . 9 ' the n-type strip 7 and the p-type stripe 7 ' attached, but no connection of n-type strip to p-type strip. Instead, this connection is made via the corresponding consumer. Thus, all n-type strips and all p-type strips are connected in parallel.
  • According to another procedure, a substrate 1 . 1' preferably of low electrical and thermal conductivity coated with an intrinsic semiconductor material. In this material, suitable doping materials are introduced by bombardment with high-energy radiation. The bombardment takes place with a focused ion beam. Focussing takes place via an electrostatic / electromagnetic lens known from literature and practice.
  • The beam is guided by the beam guidance of the implantation system in suitable geometric patterns. As an example, parallel lines 7 . 7 ' serve. The resulting stripes 7 . 7 ' may have a width ranging in size from 1 to 1,000 nm.
  • If suitable materials are selected, the dopings for the n-type legs can be selected 7 of thermal generators. If suitable materials are selected, dopings can be introduced for the p-type legs of thermal generators. The introduced dopants are driven through a high-temperature step between 500 ° C and 1,500 ° C in the semiconductor layer and activated.
  • The Metallization and interconnection is done as previously described.
  • Figure 3 explains how the dopants for the n-type legs are selected when choosing the appropriate materials 7 and the p-type thighs 7 ' of thermogenerators by alternately changing the ion source alternately on the same substrate 1 can be provided. The introduced dopants are driven through a high temperature step between 500 ° C and 1500 ° C in the semiconductor layer of the substrate and activated. At the end of the n-strip 7 and at the end of the p-strip 7 each becomes a contact 10 . 10 ' attached, between which in turn a consumer can be switched.
  • The Invention is not limited to the embodiment, but in the context of the Revelation often variable.
  • All new individual items disclosed in the description and / or drawing. and combination features are considered essential to the invention.
  • literature
    • 1. Rowe, DM, ed. (1994), CRC Handbook of thermoelectrics, CRC Press.
    • Second Dresselhaus, MS; Lin, Y .; Cronine, SB; Rabin, O .; Black, MR; Dresselhaus, G. & Koga, T. (2001), Recent Trends in Thermoelectric Materials Research 111, Academic Press, chapter Quantum Wells and Quantum Wires for Potential Thermoelectric Applications, pp. 1-121.
    • Third Dresselhaus, MS & Heremans, JP (2006), Thermoelectrics Handbook: Macro to Nano, CRC Press, chapter Recent Developments in Low-Dimensional Thermoelectric Materials, pp. 39-1-39-24.
    • 4. Fleurial et al., Patent US7098393B2 (2006)
    • 5. Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe, patent DE000020120785U1 (2002)
    • 6. Okamura et al., Patent US6969679B2 (2005)
    • 7th McClelland JJ (2000) Nanofabrication via Atom Optics. In: Nalwa HS (ed) Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, p 335. Academic Press, New York
    • 8th. McClelland JJ, Gupta R, Jabbour ZJ, Celotta RJ (1966) Laser Focusing of Atoms for Nanostructure Fabrication. Aust J Phys, vol 49, p 555
    • 9th Wiek, A., Focused Ion Beams, in: WR Fahrner, Nanotechnology and Nanoprocesses, pp. 179-196, Springer, Berlin (2003)
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list The documents listed by the applicant have been automated generated and is solely for better information recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • - US 7098393 B2 [0027]
    • - DE 000020120785 U1 [0027]
    • - US 6969679 B2 [0027]
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • - Rowe, DM, ed. (1994), CRC Handbook of thermoelectrics, CRC Press. [0027]
    • - Dresselhaus, MS; Lin, Y .; Cronine, SB; Rabin, O .; Black, MR; Dresselhaus, G. & Koga, T. (2001), Recent Trends in Thermoelectric Materials Research 111, Academic Press, chapter Quantum Wells and Quantum Wires for Potential Thermoelectric Applications, pp. 1-121. [0027]
    • - Dresselhaus, MS & Heremans, JP (2006), Thermoelectrics Handbook: Macro to Nano, CRC Press, chapter Recent Developments in Low-Dimensional Thermoelectric Materials, pp. 39-1-39-24. [0027]
    • - McClelland JJ (2000) Nanofabrication via Atom Optics. In: Nalwa HS (ed) Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, p 335. Academic Press, New York [0027]
    • - McClelland JJ, Gupta R, Jabbour ZJ, Celotta RJ (1966) Laser Focusing of Atoms for Nanostructure Fabrication. Aust J Phys, vol 49, p 555 [0027]
    • - Wiek, A., Focused Ion Beams, in: WR Fahrner, Nanotechnology and Nanoprocesses, pp. 179-196, Springer, Berlin (2003) [0027]

Claims (27)

  1. Thermogenerator for the direct conversion of thermal into electrical energy, consisting of a substrate ( 1 . 1' ) of thermally and electrically poorly conducting material and integrated linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) made of thermoelectric material with high electrical and thermal conductivity.
  2. Thermogenerator according to claim 1, characterized in that the width of the linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) be about 1 to 1,000 nm, preferably 3 to 100 nm.
  3. Thermogenerator according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the material of the linear structure ( 7 . 7 ' ) Silicon, phosphorus, boron, germanium, magnesium, tin, chromium, manganese, antimony, zinc, lead, iridium, aluminum, cobalt, nickel, silver, magnesium, titanium, rhenium, iron, ruthenium, bismuth, tellurium, the doping thereof, Alloys and compounds, each alone or in combination with others of the materials mentioned.
  4. Thermogenerator according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the thermogenerator consists of two substrates ( 1 . 1' ), wherein on the first substrate ( 1 ) Components of n-type material are deposited on the second substrate ( 1' ) Components of p-type material are deposited, wherein the deposited material is the line-shaped structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) forms that the two substrates ( 1 . 1' ) at one of the strip ends with a contacting all strip ends ( 8th ), and that the two substrates ( 1 . 1' ) at the other strip ends with a contact ( 9 . 9 ' ) are provided, which is connected to a consumer.
  5. Thermogenerator according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the substrate ( 1 . 1' ) directly with line-shaped structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) is coated from thermoelectric material.
  6. Thermogenerator according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that a first substrate ( 1 ) has been coated with an intrinsic semiconducting layer and a line-shaped coating of the semiconducting layer has been carried out with a material which serves as n-type doping in the semiconductor.
  7. Thermogenerator according to one of claims 1 to 4 and / or 6, characterized in that a second substrate ( 1' ) is coated with an intrinsic semiconducting layer and a line-shaped coating of the semiconducting layer has been made with a material which serves as p-type doping in the semiconductor.
  8. Thermogenerator according to one of the claims 6 or 7, characterized in that the semiconducting layer consists of an amorphous or microcrystalline semiconductor.
  9. Thermogenerator according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that a substrate with ( 1 ) is covered by an intrinsic semiconducting layer and the strip-shaped coating alternately consists of two materials, one of which forms an n-type doping in the semiconducting layer and a p-type doping in the other, so that strips ( 7 . 7 ' ) are applied with alternating doping and connected to each other at the ends.
  10. Thermogenerator according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that in each case at the end of the p-strip ( 7 ) and at the end of the n-stripe ( 7 ' ) A contact is provided.
  11. Thermogenerator according to one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that a plurality of substrate pairs ( 1 . 1' ) with linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) are connected in parallel or in series.
  12. Method for producing a thermal generator for converting thermal energy into electrical energy, characterized in that on a substrate ( 1 . 1' ) of thermally and electrically poorly conducting material linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) are deposited from thermoelectric material with high electrical conductivity.
  13. Method according to claim 12, characterized in that the linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) are applied in a width of 1 to 1000 nm, preferably 3 to 100 nm.
  14. Method according to one of claims 12 or 13, characterized in that the material by a on the substrate ( 1 . 1' ) atomic or molecular beam is deposited on the substrate.
  15. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the atomic or molecular beam on that from its generator source to the substrate ( 1 . 1' ) a one-dimensional optical standing wave field ( 4 ), wherein the field distribution of the standing wave field ( 4 ) the deposition of the material from the atomic or molecular beam in linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) causes.
  16. Method according to one of claims 14 or 15, characterized in that by means of the atomic or molecular beam on a first substrate ( 1 ) or on a first area of a substrate ( 1 ) sequentially or simultaneously depositing materials comprising components of n-type ther are moelektrischen material.
  17. Method according to one of claims 14 to 16, characterized in that by means of the atomic or molecular beam on a second substrate ( 1' ) or on a second area of the substrate ( 1' ) sequentially or simultaneously depositing materials that are components of p-type thermoelectric material.
  18. Method according to one of claims 12 or 13, characterized in that a first substrate ( 1 ) or a first region of the substrate ( 1' ) is coated with an intrinsic semiconducting layer and the line-shaped structures ( 7 ) are made of thermoelectric material with a material which serves as n-type doping in the semiconductive layer.
  19. Method according to one of claims 12 or 13 or 18, characterized in that a second substrate ( 1' ) or a second region of the substrate ( 1 ) is coated with an intrinsic semiconducting layer and the line-shaped structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) are made of thermoelectric material with a material which serves as p-type doping in the semiconductive layer.
  20. Method according to one of claims 12 to 14 or 16 to 19, characterized in that by means of a focused atomic or molecular beam, which is produced with an ion implantation plant, an implantation of thermoelectric material, in particular in the semiconductive layer for producing the linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) is made.
  21. A method according to claim 20, characterized in that the guidance of the beam, the implantation of the material in a linear structure ( 7 . 7 ' ) is produced.
  22. Method according to one of claims 12 to 21, characterized in that the coating of a substrate ( 1 . 1' ) alternately in the form of strips ( 7 . 7 ' ) is applied, namely of different materials, which serve as n- and p-type doping, wherein preferably in alternating sequence in each case an n-type strip and a p-type strip is provided from one end.
  23. Method according to one of claims 12 to 22, characterized in that the strip-shaped provided Material in a high temperature treatment step to an n-type or converted to a p-type alloy.
  24. Method according to claim 23, characterized that the high-temperature treatment at 500 ° C to 1,500 ° C. he follows.
  25. Method according to one of claims 12 to 24, characterized in that on the first ends of the linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) a contact ( 8th ) is applied and the contacts of the different structures are contacted with each other.
  26. Method according to one of claims 12 to 25, characterized in that on the second ends of the linear structures a contacting ( 9 . 9 ' ) is applied and the contacts of the different structures are connected to an electrical load.
  27. Method according to one of claims 12 to 26, characterized in that a plurality of substrates ( 1 . 1' ) and / or linear structures ( 7 . 7 ' ) electrically connected in parallel and / or serially connected or contacted.
DE200710048749 2007-10-11 2007-10-11 Thermal generator for direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy, has linear structures integrated into substrates and made from thermoelectric material e.g. germanium, with high electrical and thermal conductivity Withdrawn DE102007048749A1 (en)

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Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5360764A (en) * 1993-02-16 1994-11-01 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Method of fabricating laser controlled nanolithography
DE19932308A1 (en) * 1999-07-10 2001-01-18 Bosch Gmbh Robert Sensor for measuring radiation and currents has a membrane layer spaced from a silicon body using contact columns
DE20120785U1 (en) 2001-03-15 2002-03-28 Karlsruhe Forschzent Microstructured thermal generator for direct conversion of thermal into electrical energy
US6969679B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2005-11-29 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Fabrication of nanoscale thermoelectric devices
US20060032526A1 (en) * 2002-12-13 2006-02-16 Cannon Kabushiki Kaisha Thermoelectric conversion material, thermoelectric conversion device and manufacturing method thereof
US20060118159A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2006-06-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Thermoelectric direct conversion device
US7098393B2 (en) 2001-05-18 2006-08-29 California Institute Of Technology Thermoelectric device with multiple, nanometer scale, elements
US7161168B2 (en) * 2002-07-30 2007-01-09 The Regents Of The University Of California Superlattice nanopatterning of wires and complex patterns
DE102005063038A1 (en) * 2005-12-29 2007-07-05 Basf Ag Nano wires or nano tubes manufacturing method for e.g. air conditioning system, involves providing melted mass or solution, which contains thermo electric active material or precursor compounds of thermo electric active materials

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5360764A (en) * 1993-02-16 1994-11-01 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Method of fabricating laser controlled nanolithography
DE19932308A1 (en) * 1999-07-10 2001-01-18 Bosch Gmbh Robert Sensor for measuring radiation and currents has a membrane layer spaced from a silicon body using contact columns
DE20120785U1 (en) 2001-03-15 2002-03-28 Karlsruhe Forschzent Microstructured thermal generator for direct conversion of thermal into electrical energy
US7098393B2 (en) 2001-05-18 2006-08-29 California Institute Of Technology Thermoelectric device with multiple, nanometer scale, elements
US7161168B2 (en) * 2002-07-30 2007-01-09 The Regents Of The University Of California Superlattice nanopatterning of wires and complex patterns
US20060032526A1 (en) * 2002-12-13 2006-02-16 Cannon Kabushiki Kaisha Thermoelectric conversion material, thermoelectric conversion device and manufacturing method thereof
US6969679B2 (en) 2003-11-25 2005-11-29 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Fabrication of nanoscale thermoelectric devices
US20060118159A1 (en) * 2004-10-29 2006-06-08 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Thermoelectric direct conversion device
DE102005063038A1 (en) * 2005-12-29 2007-07-05 Basf Ag Nano wires or nano tubes manufacturing method for e.g. air conditioning system, involves providing melted mass or solution, which contains thermo electric active material or precursor compounds of thermo electric active materials

Non-Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Dresselhaus, M. S. & Heremans, J. P. (2006), Thermoelectrics Handbook: Macro to Nano, CRC Press, chapter Recent Developments in Low-Dimensional Thermoelectric Materials, pp. 39-1-39-24.
Dresselhaus, M. S.; Lin, Y.; Cronin, S. B.; Rabin, O.; Black, M. R.; Dresselhaus, G. & Koga, T. (2001), Recent Trends in Thermoelectric Materials Research 111, Academic Press, chapter Quantum Wells and Quantum Wires for Potential Thermoelectric Applications, pp. 1-121.
McClelland JJ (2000) Nanofabrication via Atom Optics. In: Nalwa HS (ed) Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, p 335. Academic Press, New York
McClelland JJ, Gupta R, Jabbour ZJ, Celotta RJ (1966) Laser Focusing of Atoms for Nanostructure Fabrication. Aust J Phys, vol 49, p 555
Rowe, D. M., ed. (1994), CRC Handbook of thermoelectrics, CRC Press.
Wiek, A., Fokussierte Ionenstrahlen, in: W. R. Fahrner, Nanotechnologie und Nanoprozesse, pp. 179-196, Springer, Berlin (2003)

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