DE102007020860A1 - XY and angle measurement using combined white light interferometry - Google Patents

XY and angle measurement using combined white light interferometry

Info

Publication number
DE102007020860A1
DE102007020860A1 DE102007020860A DE102007020860A DE102007020860A1 DE 102007020860 A1 DE102007020860 A1 DE 102007020860A1 DE 102007020860 A DE102007020860 A DE 102007020860A DE 102007020860 A DE102007020860 A DE 102007020860A DE 102007020860 A1 DE102007020860 A1 DE 102007020860A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
measuring
characterized
machine according
object
measuring machine
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
DE102007020860A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Marco BÜCHNER
Werner Fuchs
Erhard Grüner
Lars Heiser
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Carl Mahr Holding GmbH
Original Assignee
Carl Mahr Holding GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Carl Mahr Holding GmbH filed Critical Carl Mahr Holding GmbH
Priority to DE102007020860A priority Critical patent/DE102007020860A1/en
Publication of DE102007020860A1 publication Critical patent/DE102007020860A1/en
Ceased legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures
    • G01B11/2441Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures using interferometry
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • B23Q17/09Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or for determining cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool
    • B23Q17/0904Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or for determining cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool before or after machining
    • B23Q17/0919Arrangements for measuring or adjusting cutting-tool geometry in presetting devices
    • B23Q17/0938Cutting angles of drills
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • B23Q17/24Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools using optics or electromagnetic waves
    • B23Q17/248Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools using optics or electromagnetic waves using special electromagnetic means or methods
    • B23Q17/2495Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools using optics or electromagnetic waves using special electromagnetic means or methods using interferometers

Abstract

According to the invention, a planar X-Y measuring system is combined with a high-resolution Z-scanning white light interferometer for the measurement of complex 3-D objects, such as micro drills. The imaging measuring system is used as a monitor system for the white light interferometer. A planar Z-height scan of the white light interferometer is performed without mechanical movement of the axes of the CMM. The X, Y, Z readings are better than one micrometer in the X and Y directions and much better than one micrometer in the Z direction. For spatial angle measurement, only the Z height measured values of the white light interferometer are used.

Description

  • The The invention relates to a measuring machine for measuring objects is set up, and a corresponding procedure.
  • to Measurement of workpieces are imaging measuring methods known to work on an optical basis. The object is using of a lens. The optical axis of the lens determines the Z direction. At right angles X and Y measured values are determined.
  • For example, the WO 2005/108915 A1 In addition, a measuring system for microsystems technology, in which a white light interferometric measuring method is combined with an imaging measuring method. A lens that can be switched over from interference-optical measurement to imaging measurement is used for the implementation. With this device, both on the one hand in the X and Y direction areally and in the Z direction high resolution can be measured. In this way, the height structures can also be optically surveyed with a high level of precision even on stepped objects.
  • It increasingly poses the task of small objects with inclined Measure surfaces precisely and reliably. For example, drilling tools with diameters become much smaller manufactured as 1 mm down to tool diameters of 30 microns. These drilling tools have defined cutting edges and others Functional surfaces, such as clamping surfaces, open spaces and the like, which must be precisely measured. For example, rake angles and / or clearance angles are to be determined.
  • Especially the determination of angles below those functional surfaces are inclined, such as rake angle or clearance angle to the forehead and scope of the drilling tool, is difficult.
  • From that It is an object of the invention, a possibility for precise tool measurement especially for Show micro tools.
  • This object is achieved with the measuring machine according to claim 1 and the method according to claim 19:
    The measuring machine according to the invention is particularly suitable for measuring tools but also for measuring other objects, in particular objects with surfaces whose inclination is to be determined. The measuring machine has an imaging measuring head, which defines a first measuring plane. The imaging probe preferably serves to perform an XY measurement of the object. For example, object edges can be determined and measured in the recorded image by means of edge finding routines. The measuring machine also has an interferometric measuring head which defines a second measuring plane. The interferometric measuring head is used in conjunction with an evaluation device for determining the inclination of an object surface. With the interferometric measuring head, for example, it is possible to measure angles of functional surfaces of a tool, such as rake angle, clearance angle or the like.
  • Of the interferometric measuring head is preferably a planar Image capture set up. He thus allows the simultaneous Recording Z positions of several points of the object. Becomes a Z-scan performed, after performing the Scans for each pixel of a selected frame, a selected area of the object or the entire image, a valid z-value, if the object surface was in the scan area. The evaluation device determines the number of such Z values Inclination of the object surface.
  • Of the interferometric measuring head is preferably as a white light interferometer educated. It thus becomes a Z-resolution in the sub-micron range and precise inclination determination even of small areas, for example, only 200 microns by 200 microns or smaller allows. Alternatively, however, can Also interferometers are used that are not white Light but for example with monochrome light or light at least work two different wavelengths.
  • The Both measuring heads are preferably structurally different from each other separated. Neither for the design of the imaging measuring head still for the design of the interferometric measuring head compromises have to be made. They are in one given spatial distance to each other, wherein their two optical axes are preferably parallel to each other are oriented. Likewise, their measurement levels are preferably parallel oriented to each other. At least one of the two measuring heads, preferably the interferometric measuring head is at an adjusting device held the setting of a defined relative position allowed to the other measuring head. In particular, it is advantageous if the adjusting Justiermöglichkeiten for the inclination of the interferometric measuring head about the X-axis and about the Y-axis and a rotation about the Z-axis allowed. In order to Both measuring levels can be aligned parallel to each other become. Furthermore, the X and Y axes of the measurement planes can of the interferometric measuring head and the imaging measuring head in parallel aligned with each other.
  • For the object to be measured is an ob provided jekthalteeinrichtung which preferably defines at least one pivot axis by means of which the object surface whose inclination is to be determined, to bring in a certain orientation relative to the measuring plane.
  • If the object to be measured is a tool such as a drill is preferably, the object holder means a pan or The axis of rotation, with which the object is rotatable about its central axis. Furthermore, at least one pivot axis is preferably provided, with which the object is rotatable about a transverse axis. Through this pivoting possibilities can determine the object surface whose angle is to be determined in be placed in a position where they have no angle with the Includes trade fair level that is greater than for example 30 °. Preferably, everyone is included angles no larger than, for example 25 °. This applies z. B. for a lens 50 × 0.5. This can be achieved that the area to be measured does not leave the numerical aperture of the interferometric probe and thus detected correctly during the measurement.
  • The Measuring heads are preferably connected to an image evaluation device connected. This is used to determine the X-Y measured values the images supplied by the imaging probe. Furthermore the image evaluation device can determine the angle using the perform images supplied by the interferometric probe. The evaluation device can for this purpose a separate angle determination module contain. This module can be implemented in terms of hardware or software be and extract the desired angles from the pictures, the the interferometric measuring head supplies.
  • The Determination of the angle is preferably carried out in a predetermined Direction. The direction of the angle to be determined can be automatic or, if desired, also be manually specifiable. To An input device may be provided by means of which in the Measuring plane of the interferometric measuring head to specify a line is where the angle is measured.
  • Of the interferometric measuring head delivers after performing his Z-scans a stack of images that can be processed immediately. It is also possible to use the image stack or parts of it or the z-values determined from the image stacking or parts thereof between store to the desired evaluation later make. This way you can stack with a picture several angles, z. B. several clearance angle at different locations a surface are determined.
  • With the interferometric measuring head and the imaging measuring head physically different working optical measuring heads combined together. White light interferometers work independently from their optical arrangement always in reflected-light brightfield illumination. With this lighting is on for a data logging specular surfaces reflect the slope of the surface limited to the numerical aperture. Because worked technical Surfaces usually diffuse diffusely, the actual Limit angle of the data acquisition greater than the be numerical aperture of the lens. The numerical aperture of the Lens is a geometric parameter, in the case of objectives of identical dimensions, for example microscope objectives, from the measuring distance and the opening radius of the lens certainly. Large numerical apertures require small measuring distances. complex shaped, in particular twisted rotation measuring objects, such as Micro drills require a compromise between numerical aperture and working distance. In the present embodiment This compromise is for the measurement of micro tools by means of Mirau lenses 20 × 0.4 / 50 × 0.5 and the measuring distances 3.6 mm / 1.7 mm found. Makeware tools usually require one much larger measuring distance, so that the mentioned Mirau lenses a measurement in the flute of macro tools geometrically impossible. Here can white light interferometer after Linnik be used. These allow an enlargement the measuring distance at the expense of the numerical aperture.
  • The Measuring method according to the invention is advantageously suitable for measuring chip and clearance angles on transverse and longitudinal cutting a micro drill. Other angles, such as helix angle, can be measured with the imaging probe.
  • Appropriate Features and benefits are for the invention Procedure to record. Further details emerge the drawing, the description or claims. The description is limited to essential aspects of the present Invention and other circumstances. The drawing is supplementary consulted. In the drawing is an embodiment of the invention illustrated. Show it:
  • 1 a measuring machine according to the invention in a fragmentary perspective view,
  • 2 the measuring machine after 1 in another fragmentary perspective view in different size rendering,
  • 3 the fixation of the interferometric measuring head of the measuring machine 2 in another perspective view,
  • 4 the measuring machine after 1 (without interferometric measuring head) in a perspective overall view,
  • 5 the object-holding device of the measuring machine after 1 in a perspective view in a first position for measuring the first clearance angle of the transverse cutting edge,
  • 6 the object-holding device after 5 in a second position for measuring the radius-dependent rake angle of the transverse cutting edge in a perspective view,
  • 7 the measuring heads and an evaluation device in a schematic block diagram and
  • 8th a graphical representation illustrating a measurement process.
  • In 1 is a measuring machine 1 in the neckline illustrating an arm 2 for storage of two measuring heads 3 . 4 having. The arm 2 is in at least one direction, z. B. mounted adjustable in the vertical direction. For adjustment, for example, serves an engine control device, which is also referred to as "axis" or "vertical axis".
  • The measuring head 3 is an imaging probe having a preferably vertical optical axis 5 sets. It contains a lens, a camera and if necessary a lighting device. The illumination device may also be of the measuring head 3 be formed and arranged separately. He sets a measurement level 6 firmly, on the optical axis 5 and thus also the Z direction designated by an arrow is vertical. The X-direction and the Y-direction, however, are in the measurement plane, as in 1 indicate further arrows.
  • The arm 2 is from a Z-pillar 7 worn vertical from a base. The interferometric measuring head 4 is between the Z-pillar 7 and the imaging probe 3 arranged. The interferometric measuring head 4 is from an adjustment device 8th worn him with his arm 2 combines. The adjustment device 8th allowed, as indicated by arrows 9 . 10 . 11 is indicated, an adjustment of the measuring head 4 around three different perpendicular axes. The arrow 9 indicates an adjustment possibility rotating around the optical axis 12 of the measuring head 4 at. The optical axis 12 is preferably parallel to the optical axis 5 to orient. Thus, the direction Z1 coincides with the Z direction. By rotation about the optical axis 12 the directions Y1, X1 of a measuring plane agree 13 of the measuring head 4 with the directions X and Y of the measurement plane 6 match.
  • The 2 and 3 illustrate the adjustment 8th , The measuring head 4 is in a holder 14 rotatably mounted about the Z-axis. An extension 15 a rotatably mounted ring 16 , with the measuring head 4 is connected, engages in a recess 17 and is in this with set screws 18 . 19 adjustable.
  • As 3 shows is the holder 14 also by means of further adjustment screws 20 . 21 . 22 against the arm 2 curious; excited. The tension is achieved, for example, by a slotted adjusting sleeve and two spherical washers per adjusting screw 20 to 22 generated.
  • 4 further illustrates the object storage. The object is here by a tool, for example in the form of a drill 23 illustrated. For storage of this object 24 serves z. As a cross table with two to the optical axes 5 . 12 right-angled directions. The two in the example horizontal positioning directions are in 4 symbolized by arrows. They form the basis of an object holder 25 with the object 24 is also mounted pivotably about at least one, preferably two axes. These axes are in 4 through arrows 26 . 27 symbolizes. One of the axes is concentric to the drill 23 aligned while the other ( 26 ) Radially or transversely to this and preferably horizontally and thus transversely to the optical axes 5 . 12 is oriented.
  • The 5 and 6 illustrate various pivotal positions of the drill 23 , In the position after 5 is the central axis 28 of the drill 23 pivoted so far upwards that the front cutting edge 29 of the drill 23 parallel to the exhibition levels 6 . 13 is oriented. In 6 is the drill 23 so swung that its rake surface 30 with the trade fair levels 6 . 13 includes only a small acute angle.
  • The measuring heads 3 . 4 each contain cameras connected to an image evaluation device 31 are connected as they are in 7 is indicated schematically by a dot-dashed block. It contains a module 32 for XY measurement. This module 32 may be, for example, a software program with edge finder routines and the associated hardware. The interferometric measuring head 4 is on the other hand an angle measuring module 33 connected, which serves to determine the surface tilt angles. The angle measuring module 33 can be realized by one or more software routines in conjunction with the associated hardware. To the image evaluation module is an input module 34 connected. This serves z. B. for specifying the measuring direction for determining the desired angle by the angle measuring module 33 ,
  • The measuring machine described so far 1 works as follows:
    First, the measuring machine 1 adjusted. These are the measuring heads 3 . 4 by means of the adjusting device 8th aligned in parallel, so that the measurement levels 6 . 13 are parallel to each other. In addition, the measuring head 4 around the optical axis 12 turned so that its X1 direction coincides with the X direction of the measuring head 3 matches. The same applies to the Y1 direction.
  • As an object 24 to measure serves to further illustrate the drill 23 , This becomes, for example, first in the field of view of the measuring head 3 positioned. For example, its cutting edge 29 Be measured, the drill becomes 23 in the position after 5 pivoted. The measuring head 3 is now adjusted in the Z direction until the measuring level 6 exactly on the cutting edge 29 lies. The XY measurement can now be performed by image acquisition and edge finding and edge measurement.
  • Below is the inclination of the cutting edge 29 subsequent open space 35 Be measured, the drill becomes 23 without pivoting in the field of view of the measuring head 4 linear procedure. His exhibition level 13 is at the same height as the exhibition level 6 , The interferometric measuring head 4 Now perform a Z-scan by looking at the measurement plane 13 in several stages in the direction of the optical axis 12 adjusted. This is the open space 35 scanned. 8th illustrates the process. In each step of the scan, an interferometric image of the free space is taken. Only those parts of the open space that are right down to the smallest fractions of a micrometer in the measurement plane 13 lie, provide a valid Z-measure for each pixel. Thus, a height profile can be extracted from the image stack obtained in the Z-scan 8th through contour lines 36 are indicated. These serve only to illustrate the measuring process. They do not coincide with the individual Z steps of the measuring head 4 together and are not necessarily visible in the picture.
  • Via the input module 34 becomes a line 37 predetermined, on which the searched angle, in the present example a clearance angle, is to be determined. The line 37 can be specified by entering two or more points or removed from a library containing typical tool shapes and their form elements, such as cutting edges and functional surfaces, such as rake surfaces and / or open spaces and the like. Along the line 37 Now the existing z-values are extracted from the image stack. These Z values obtained with great accuracy can be approximated by a straight line, the angle of which to the reference plane is ne 13 determined and as an angle value at an output of the image evaluation module 31 is issued.
  • 6 illustrates the measurement process using the example of measuring a rake face. After the rake angle at the drill 23 is relatively large, the drill, for example, as in 6 shown, inclined so that the rake face 30 with the trade fair level 13 an angle smaller than 30 °. After carrying out the Z-scan, the Z-values of the rake face are extractable from the image stack and the radius-dependent rake angles can be extracted therefrom, ie both the axial rake angle and the radial rake angle as well as the effective rake angle. The Axialspanwinkel lies in an imaginary axially oriented plane, the Radialspanwinkel in a radially oriented plane and the effective rake angle in a plane perpendicular to the cutting edge plane.
  • According to the invention for the measurement of complex 3D objects, such as Micro drills, an areal measuring X-Y measuring system with a high-resolution Z-scanning white light interferometer combined. The imaging measuring system is used as a monitor system for used the white light interferometer. It will be a planar Z-height scan of the white light interferometer without mechanical movement the axes of the coordinate measuring machine performed. The X, Y, Z readings are better with a resolution as a micrometer in the X and Y directions and with a resolution much better than a micrometer in the Z direction. To the spatial Angle measurement will only be the Z height readings used by the white light interferometer.
  • 1
    measuring machine
    2
    poor
    3
    imaging probe
    4
    interferometric probe
    5
    optical Axis of the imaging probe
    6
    measuring plane of the imaging probe
    7
    z column
    8th
    adjusting
    9 10, 11
    arrows
    12
    optical axis
    13
    line
    14
    holder
    15
    extension
    16
    ring
    17
    recess
    18 19
    adjusting screws
    20 21, 22
    adjusting screws
    23
    drill
    24
    object
    25
    Object holder
    26 27
    arrows
    28
    central axis
    29
    End cutting edge
    30
    clamping surface
    31
    Bildauswertemodul
    32
    module
    33
    Angle measuring module
    34
    input module
    35
    open space
    36
    contour lines
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list The documents listed by the applicant have been automated generated and is solely for better information recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • WO 2005/108915 A1 [0003]

Claims (21)

  1. Measuring machine ( 1 ) for measuring objects ( 24 ), in particular for tool measurement, with an imaging measuring head ( 3 ), which is a first measurement level ( 6 ) with an interferometric measuring head ( 4 ), which has a second measurement level ( 13 ) with an object holder ( 25 ) for receiving and storing the object to be measured ( 24 ) is set up, with a positioning device, for determining desired relative positions of the measuring heads ( 3 . 4 ) and the object ( 24 ), and with an evaluation device ( 31 ) for determining the inclination of an object surface against the second measuring plane ( 13 ) based on measurements of the interferometric measuring head ( 4 ).
  2. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the interferometric measuring head ( 4 ) is set up for a planar image recording.
  3. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the interferometric measuring head ( 4 ) forms a white light interferometer.
  4. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the two measuring heads ( 3 . 4 ) are structurally separated from each other.
  5. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the two measuring heads ( 3 . 4 ) are held at a fixed predetermined distance from each other.
  6. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the interferometric measuring head ( 4 ) an optical axis ( 12 ), that the imaging head ( 3 ) an optical axis ( 5 ) and that the two optical axes ( 5 . 12 ) are oriented parallel to each other.
  7. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the two measuring planes ( 6 . 13 ) are oriented parallel to each other.
  8. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one of the measuring heads ( 4 ) on an adjusting device ( 8th ) for setting a defined relative position to the other measuring head ( 3 ) is held.
  9. Measuring machine according to claim 8, characterized in that the adjusting device ( 8th ) allows rotation about the z-axis (z1).
  10. Measuring machine according to claim 8, characterized in that the adjusting device ( 8th ) permits rotation about a first x-axis transverse to the z-axis.
  11. Measuring machine according to claim 8, characterized in that the adjusting device ( 8th ) permits rotation about a first transverse to the z-axis y-axis.
  12. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the object holding device ( 25 ) at least one pivot axis ( 26 . 27 ) in order to position the object surface whose inclination is to be determined in an orientation relative to the measuring plane ( 13 ), in which the object surface is the numerical aperture of the interference optical measuring head ( 4 ) does not leave.
  13. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the measuring heads ( 3 . 4 ) an image evaluation device ( 31 ) connected.
  14. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the image evaluation device ( 31 ) from the imaging head ( 3 ) supplied images xy measured values of the object ( 24 ).
  15. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the evaluation device ( 31 ) an angle determination module ( 33 ) for determining area angles from images which the interferometric measuring head ( 4 ).
  16. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that an input module ( 34 ) is provided, with which the direction of the angle to be determined can be fixed.
  17. Measuring machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the interferometric measuring head ( 4 ) is set up to perform a z-scan.
  18. Measuring machine according to claim 17, characterized that the z-scan delivers a stack of images that from the interferometric Measuring head is evaluated.
  19. Method for determining angles of selected areas ( 30 . 35 ) of objects where the surface of the object ( 24 ) in the field of view of an interference optical measuring head ( 4 ), with the measuring head ( 4 ) carried out a z-scan and from the data obtained in the z-scan the inclination of the object surface to the measuring plane ( 13 ) is determined.
  20. A method according to claim 19, characterized in that the object is positioned so that the surface ( 30 . 35 ) within the numerical aperture of the interferometric measuring head ( 4 ) is orders.
  21. Method according to claim 19, characterized in that the object ( 24 ) is positioned in such a way that the surface ( 30 . 35 ) an inclination to the measuring plane ( 13 ) which is less than 30 ° in each direction.
DE102007020860A 2007-05-02 2007-05-02 XY and angle measurement using combined white light interferometry Ceased DE102007020860A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102007020860A DE102007020860A1 (en) 2007-05-02 2007-05-02 XY and angle measurement using combined white light interferometry

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102007020860A DE102007020860A1 (en) 2007-05-02 2007-05-02 XY and angle measurement using combined white light interferometry
PCT/EP2008/054940 WO2008135390A1 (en) 2007-05-02 2008-04-23 X-y and angular measurement by means of combined white light interferometry and microscopy

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WO (1) WO2008135390A1 (en)

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ITNA20130025A1 (en) * 2013-05-07 2014-11-08 Antonio Vitiello Robot for mechanical processing with pneumatic or magnetic coupling

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CN103499309B (en) * 2013-10-11 2016-04-27 中国科学院光电技术研究所 A kind of automatic interference detection system with environmental feedback and method

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ITNA20130025A1 (en) * 2013-05-07 2014-11-08 Antonio Vitiello Robot for mechanical processing with pneumatic or magnetic coupling

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