DE102007007029A1 - Security and / or value document with photonic crystal - Google Patents

Security and / or value document with photonic crystal

Info

Publication number
DE102007007029A1
DE102007007029A1 DE102007007029A DE102007007029A DE102007007029A1 DE 102007007029 A1 DE102007007029 A1 DE 102007007029A1 DE 102007007029 A DE102007007029 A DE 102007007029A DE 102007007029 A DE102007007029 A DE 102007007029A DE 102007007029 A1 DE102007007029 A1 DE 102007007029A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
security
value document
photonic crystal
document according
luminescent substance
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102007007029A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Oliver Dr. Muth
Malte Dr. PFLUGHOEFFT
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Bundesdruckerei GmbH
Original Assignee
Bundesdruckerei GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Bundesdruckerei GmbH filed Critical Bundesdruckerei GmbH
Priority to DE102007007029A priority Critical patent/DE102007007029A1/en
Publication of DE102007007029A1 publication Critical patent/DE102007007029A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/20Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof characterised by a particular use or purpose
    • B42D25/29Securities; Bank notes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07DHANDLING OF COINS OR VALUABLE PAPERS, e.g. TESTING, SORTING BY DENOMINATIONS, COUNTING, DISPENSING, CHANGING OR DEPOSITING
    • G07D7/00Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of valuable papers or for segregating those which are unacceptable, e.g. banknotes that are alien to a currency
    • G07D7/003Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of valuable papers or for segregating those which are unacceptable, e.g. banknotes that are alien to a currency using security elements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/36Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery comprising special materials
    • B42D25/378Special inks
    • B42D25/387Special inks absorbing or reflecting ultra-violet light

Abstract

The invention relates to a security and / or valuable document having a security element, wherein the security element contains a photonic crystal and a luminescent substance arranged on a substrate with an orientation defined with respect to a surface of the substrate. It is characterized in that an emission wavelength lambda of the luminescent substance and a lattice constant of the photonic crystal are coordinated and predetermined in accordance with the formula lambda = m * 2 * d, where d is a distance between two lattice planes of the photonic crystal and m is a positive integer are.

Description

  • Field of the invention
  • The The invention relates to a security and / or value document with a Security element, wherein the security element on a substrate with defined with respect to a surface of the substrate Orientation arranged photonic crystal and a luminescent substance contains. The invention further relates to a method for its production and a method for its verification.
  • Background of the invention and state of the art
  • in the Value and security printing have optically variable colors as good security feature enforced, since this without technical Aids are easy to check. From the Practice are such optically variable colors, for example, banknotes and documents known. These are difficult to readjust, a review For example, at a cash register often happens only fleetingly, so that only the presence of a color change is observed. by virtue of the variety of colors and pigments, for example liquid crystals or flakes having such effects and are purchasable, are impression falsifications which are clearly different from the original color change colors, but not necessarily for an untrained layman are recognizable.
  • One Another widespread security system involves use of luminescent substances. In most documents of value and security printing there are luminescences, since these are produced by simple means (printer, Copier) are not adjustable and for review only require a UV light source. The disadvantage is that usually only a quick check on the color impression takes place, so that a luminescence partially, for example with a Highlighter can be adjusted. For a close examination In contrast, complex spectrometers are required, with which between different luminescence wavelengths can be distinguished. Although this manages a machine check easy and reliable, but the equipment is considerably and consequently consuming.
  • From the literature WO 2006/045567 A2 a security and / or value document of the aforementioned construction is known. In this case, a layer is used as the photonic crystal, which is composed of spheres or spheres with a narrow monomodal diameter distribution, the spheres forming a dense sphere packing, that is to say a crystal structure. The diameter of the spheres is in a range of 50-500 nm, so that represent different reflection conditions according to the Bragg law at different network levels of the crystal for various components of visible light. As a result, an optically variable color effect is obtained, namely when pivoting the security and / or value document or viewing under changing observation angles. According to this prior art, the security and / or value document may additionally contain a luminescent substance. However, the diameter of the spheres is chosen to accommodate the desired optically variable effects, completely independent of eventual luminescence.
  • For the production of photonic crystals suitable structures are, for example, in the literature WO 03/025035 A2 . US 4,391,928 . EP 0 441 559 B1 and EP 0 955 323 B1 described.
  • luminescence typically has no directional characteristic, since the emitter centers within a coating, color or the like statistically oriented are. From other technical fields, such as technology The laser diodes, it is known, directed luminescence by using layer structures whose layers have a thickness suitable for reflection or forward amplification of the Luminescence radiation in a defined spatial direction lead. Such structures are for value and security printing less suitable due to the complex production.
  • Technical problem of the invention
  • Of the The invention is therefore based on the technical problem of a security element to provide which easily with minimal Tools, but increased reliability, too at a glance, verifiable is.
  • Broad features of the invention
  • To solve this technical problem, the invention teaches that an emission wavelength lambda of the luminescent substance and a lattice constant of the photonic crystal in accordance with the formula lambda = m × 2 × d, matched and predetermined, where d is a distance between two lattice planes of the photonic crystal and m is a positive integer.
  • In other words, the particles with which the photonic crystal is formed become in terms of diameter and Anord Tuned with the proviso to the emission wavelength that the intensity of the luminescence is different at different viewing angles.
  • With The invention will be a considerable improvement of the safe and easy verification of luminescent security elements reached. Because a checking person needs only the security and / or value document of a luminescence stimulating radiation, such as UV, exposing and checking i) whether luminescence is observed, and ii) if so, whether their Intensity when tilting the security and / or value document varied. Only if both criteria are fulfilled will that be Security and / or value document accepted as genuine. An inventive Luminescent security element is no longer simple means replicable.
  • The Invention exploits the knowledge that a photonic crystal as well can be used for, the intrinsically undirected luminescence through Refraction with an anisotropic distribution of intensity equip in solid angle.
  • definitions
  • When Security and / or value documents are merely exemplary called: identity cards, passports, ID cards, access control cards, Visas, tax stamps, tickets, driving licenses, motor vehicle papers, Banknotes, checks, postage stamps, credit cards, any chip cards and adhesive labels (eg for product protection). Such security and / or value documents typically have a substrate, a Print layer and optionally a transparent cover layer on. One Substrate is a support structure onto which the print layer with information, Pictures, patterns and the like is applied. As materials For a substrate come all customary materials on paper and / or plastic basis in question.
  • One Security element is a structural unit that at least one Security feature includes. A security element can be a self-contained structural Entity associated with a security and / or value document, For example, it can be glued, but it can also be a integral part of a security and / or value document act. An example of the former is a security and / or document of value stick-on visa. An example for the latter is an integrated into a bill or passport, For example, a laminated, flat construct. Under The latter also includes layers or coatings that are on Substrate are attached.
  • One Security feature is a structure that only with (opposite simple copying) increased effort or not at all unauthorized producible, reproducible, manipulable or changeable is. In the context of the invention, the security feature by the Composite of photonic crystal and luminescent material formed. The term composite means the optical coupling with tuning of lattice spacing and emission wavelength.
  • Of the Term of luminescence refers to the emission of electromagnetic Radiation, especially in the IR, visible or UV range, in the course a relaxation of an atomic or molecular electronic Systems from an excited state to an energetically lower one Condition, generally the electronic ground state. in this connection can the previous stimulation by electric. Energy or a electrical potential (electroluminescence), bombardment with electrons (Cathodoluminescence), bombardment with photons (photoluminescence), Heat effect (thermoluminescence) or friction (triboluminescence) respectively. Within the scope of the invention, photoluminescence is preferred. The Luminescence includes in particular the phosphorescence as well as the (photo) fluorescence.
  • Fluorescence is a radiative deactivation of excited electronic states, whereby the transition from the excited state to the lower energetic state, for example the ground state, is spin-permissible. The residence time in the excited state is typically about 10 -8 s, ie the emission of fluorescence radiation ends immediately after the end of the energy input for excitation. In contrast, phosphorescence is a spin-forbidden deactivation of excited states via inter-combination processes. Therefore, the relaxation is weak and slow. The residence time in an excited state is a few milliseconds to hours and correspondingly long the emission of the phosphorescence radiation is observed.
  • The Emission wavelength of a luminescent substance is for the substance used is characteristic and determined by the energy difference between excited state and the energetically lower electronic State, for example the ground state. As emission wavelength is the maximum of the emission intensity in an emission spectrum designated.
  • A luminescent substance contains atoms, molecules or particles which are capable of luminescence. With a luminescent substance, a luminescent ink or ink can be created, which contains the customary further components of paints or inks, such as binders, penetrating agents, Adjusting agents, biocides, surfactants, buffering agents, solvents (water and / or organic solvents), fillers, pigments, effect pigments, anti-foaming agents, anti-settling agents, UV stabilizers, etc. Suitable ink formulations for various printing processes are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art and luminescent substances used according to the invention are in this respect mixed in place of or in addition to conventional dyes or pigments.
  • A Radiation is typically functional to stimulate luminescence. when the wavelength of the radiation is smaller than that Wavelength of the luminescence radiation. However, one can Be functional with higher wavelength radiation, if the luminescent substance concerned to so-called up-conversion Processes is capable.
  • A Network level is defined in space by the Miller indices h, k, and l. The distance d is defined as the smallest distance parallel network planes, i. e. of lattice planes with same Miller indices.
  • A dense sphere packing corresponds to a fcc (face centered cubic, face centered cubic, cubic dense sphere packing) or hcc or hcp (hexagonal close packed, hexagonal dense sphere packing) grid. The lattice constant a is here a = 2 0 . 5 · D where D is the diameter of the spheres, which is given as the distance of the nearest adjacent sphere centers.
  • The reflection condition according to Bragg's law is: lambda = m × 2 × d with d as the spacing of the network planes and m a positive integer (order), in particular 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10. The following is calculated with m = 1 (1st order) ,
  • d and a are composed as follows: d = a / (h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ) 0.5 ,
  • For the relationship between the emission wavelength λ and the diameter D of the balls, the result is: D = [(h 2 + k 2 + l 2 )/8th] 0.5 · lambda respectively. D = (n / 8) 0.5 × lambda, when (h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ) is taken together as n.
  • The term diameter D denotes the mean diameter of the spheres (or average distance of the next adjacent spheres), which is defined as the maximum of a number-related (monomodal) linear normalized density distribution. This density distribution is given by q r (x) = dQ r / dx with q r of the density distribution, Q r (x) of the cumulative distribution, with respect to the number and dx, the diameter difference.
  • in the Within the scope of the invention, the density distribution should be as possible be tight, so that clearly visible and reproducible angle dependencies arise when viewing. It is preferred if the (usually Gauss distribution-like) density distribution at half Maximum value of density a width of less than 10% of the (mean) Diameter D, preferably less than 5% of the diameter D, ideally less than 2% of the diameter D.
  • If other particle shapes, such as slices or rods are used instead of spheres, a narrow size distribution in the above sense is also important. Instead of the mean diameter D then the average equivalent diameter D Ä occurs , which is calculated according to defined geometric rules from the relevant form. In this case, however, a correspondingly narrow distribution of the aspect ratio (different geometric extents of a particle) is important.
  • in the The scope of the invention will be set up in the rule that the photonic crystal at the emission wavelength none has complete bandgap. Photonic crystals with complete bandgap are so far only theoretical postulated and characterized by the fact that the light in can not propagate any spatial direction. For photonic crystals with incomplete bandgap, as in the context of Invention used in particular, is the propagation of light In contrast, only possible in certain spatial directions.
  • embodiments the invention
  • Of the Luminescent substance can basically be in the IR, visible, or emit UV. It is preferred if the emission in the visible takes place, since then a check of the security and / or value document by simple inspection can.
  • Of the Luminescent substance may be a luminescent dye and / or a luminescent pigment include.
  • The luminescent dye may be selected from the group consisting of "organic fluorescent dyes, naphthalimides, coumarins, xanthenes, thioxanthenes, naphtholactams, azlactones, methines, oxazines, thiazines, and mixtures of two or more different such substances". The luminescent pigment may be selected from the group consisting of "ZnS: Ag, Zn silicate, SiC, ZnS, CdS (with Cu or Mn activated), ZnS / CdS: Ag, ZnS: Cu, Al, Y 2 O 2 S: Eu, Y 2 O 3 : Eu, YVO 4 : Eu, Zn 2 SiO 4 : Mn, CaVVO 4 , (Zn, Mg) F 2 : Mn, MgSiO 3 : Mn, ZnO: Zn, Gd 2 O 2 S: Tb , Y 2 O 2 S: Tb, La 2 O 2 S: Tb, BaFCl: Eu, LaOBr: Tb, Mg tungstate, (Zn, Be) silicate: Mn, Cd borate: Mn, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F, Cl: Sb, Mn, (SrMg) 2 P 2 O 7 : Eu, Sr 2 P 2 O 7 : Sn, Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 : Eu, Y 2 SiO 5 : Ce, Tb, Y (P , V) O 4 : Eu, BaMg 2 Al 10 O 27 : Eu, MaAl 11 O 19 : Ce, Tb, and mixtures of two or more different such substances ". In this case, the host lattice is indicated before the ":" and a doping element after the ":".
  • It is preferred if the luminescent substance is a fluorescent dye which is selected from the group consisting of "organic fluorescent dyes, naphthalimides, coumarins, xanthenes, thioxanthenes, naphtholactams, azlactones, methines, oxazines, thiazines, and mixtures of two or more different such substances ". For further suitable and preferred fluorescent dyes is only for example on the References Schwander et al., "Fluorescent Dyes" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002 . WO 03/052025 A . WO 02/053677 A . EP 0147252 A . GB 2,258,659 and FM Winnik et al., Xerox Disclosure Journal Vol. 3, 1992, pages 161-162 , referenced.
  • in the Within the scope of the invention may advantageously also two or more different luminescent substances are used, wherein the different luminescent substances have different emission wavelengths exhibit. The concept of different mission wavelengths denotes a wavelength difference of at least 3 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, or 30 nm, in the visible. Due to the Different emission wavelengths then result in different Angle under which the different colors of luminescence respectively observed with particularly high or low intensity can be. The concept of high intensity referred to an emission wavelength the maximum intensity to be observed. A low one Intensity then denotes one opposite the high intensity decreased intensity, for example decreased by at least 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, or 80%. Thereby is when tilting the security and / or value document Lumineszenzfarbwechsel generated.
  • The photonic crystal is advantageously formed by an fcc or hcc grid with a lattice constant a, and where d = a / n 0.5 with n = 1 to 20, in particular 1 to 5, and where n is (h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ) with h, k, and l as Miller indices. The lattice points or particles of the photonic crystal can basically. have any shapes, such as slices or rods. However, it is preferred if the grid points or particles are formed as spheres (spheres).
  • Then it is particularly preferred if the spheres are core-shell particles are, which are arranged in a tight ball package. Of the to be set average diameter of the spheres depends from the emission wavelength of the luminescent substance used from. Thus, the mean diameter of the spheres in the range from 270-5000 nm, in particular from 270-2500 nm when the luminescent substance emits in the IR (780-3000 nm). Of the average diameter of the spheres can range from 135-1200 nm, in particular from 135-600 nm, when the luminescent substance emitted in the visible (380-780 nm). The mean diameter The spheres can range from, 35-600 nm, in particular from 35-300 nm when the luminescent substance in the UV (100-380 nm).
  • The photonic crystal can be prepared by deposition from the liquid phase by self-assembly, for example under pressure, as in the inkjet printing process. For example, the production of artificial opals from SiO 2 from solutions is well known.
  • It is particularly preferred if the core-shell particles have a core of an organic or inorganic core material and a sheath of a polymeric organic sheath material, wherein the sheath material is flowable at elevated temperature, while the core material is not flowable at the elevated temperature. The background is that in order to form a photonic crystal, the necessary periodic remote structure, for example the dense sphere packing, has to be produced in a defined orientation. When a bed or emulsion or suspension of such core-shell particles is subjected to a compressive force under elevated temperature, the shear forces created between the particles cause the particles to line up and align themselves to a dense sphere on a surface of a substrate as the particles move can move against each other. A flowable jacket under the pressure and temperature conditions facilitates such order movements of the particles to each other and results in a photonic crystal with excellent long-range order and clear orientation on the substrate. In detail, there are different possibilities of execution.
  • The inorganic core material may be selected from the group consisting of "metals, semimetals, metal chalcogenides, in particular metal oxides, metal pnictides, in particular metal nitrides or metal phosphides, and mixtures of two or more different such substances, wherein the metal consists of one element of the first three main groups of the Periodic Table or a metallic element of the subgroups and wherein the semimetal may comprise Si, Ge, As, Sb, and Bi ", in particular is selected from the group consisting of" SiO 2 , TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , SnO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 ".
  • preferably, is the organic nuclear material selected from the group consisting of "aliphatic, aliphatic / aromatic or wholly aromatic Polyesters, polyamides, polycarbonates, polyurea, polyurethanes, Aminoplast resins, phenolic resins, such as formaldehyde condensates of melamine, urea or phenol, epoxy resins, acrylic esters, such as Methyl (meth) acrylate, butyl (meth) acrylate, isopropyl (meth) acrylate, Polystyrene, PVC, polyacrylonitrile, random or block copolymers one or more such homopolymers, and mixtures of two or more different such homo- or copolymers ".
  • The Jacket material may be selected from the group consisting from "aliphatic, aliphatic / aromatic or wholly aromatic Polyesters, polyamides, polycarbonates, polyurea, polyurethanes, Aminoplast resins, phenolic resins, such as formaldehyde condensates of melamine, urea or phenol, epoxy resins, polyepoxides, poly (meth) acrylates, such as polymethyl (meth) acrylate, polybutyl (meth) acrylate, polyisopropyl (meth) acrylate, polystyrene, PVC, polyacrylonitrile, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene oxide, Polybutadiene, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyoxymethylene, rubber, Polyisoprene, random or block copolymers of one or more such homopolymers, and mixtures of two or more different such homopolymers or copolymers ".
  • expedient it is when the core material has a higher glass transition temperature as the cladding material, since then at a temperature between the glass transition temperatures of the materials excluding the cladding material and not the nuclear material flows. The core material can for example, a glass transition temperature in the range of more than 60 ° C, preferably more than 80 ° C, most preferably, of more than 90 ° C, while the jacket material for example, a glass transition temperature in the range of 40-90 ° C, especially from 60-80 ° C, may have. Such Range of glass transition temperatures are, for example, organic Recommend polymers as core material. Alternatively, for example in the case of inorganic core materials, the glass transition temperature of the core material above 300 ° C, and then the glass transition temperature of the cladding region, for example in the case of polycarbonates, also high, for example in the range of 80-250 ° C, especially 120-200 ° C, be.
  • The Sheath material, which in the course of the production of the photonic Crystal can form a matrix into which the spheres or cores are embedded (and fixed), should one of the Refractive index of the core material different refractive index (also Called refractive index). The term of the different refractive index denotes doing a difference of at least 0.001, better at least 0.01, advantageously at least 0.1. The expert can from the above materials for the core material and the cladding material easily suitable in view of the difference in the refractive index Select fabric pairings. This may be the core material, but Also, the jacket material have the respective higher refractive index.
  • The Weight ratio of core material to shell material can in the range of 2: 1 to 1: 5, in particular in the range of 3: 2 to 1: 3, lie. Preferably, this ratio is in the case of polymeric materials for both materials not larger than 2: 3.
  • Between Core and mantle of a core-shell particle can be a coupling layer be furnished. For example, there are networked ones or partially crosslinked organic polymers in question. Alternatively, you can the surface of the core for a binding or Liability of the cladding material functionalized in the usual way be.
  • The Production of for the production of photonic crystals suitable core-shell particles, for example, in the beginning described prior art, as well as other variants and details for core materials, cladding materials, coupling layers, etc .. This prior art is hereby expressly referenced.
  • Usable according to the invention Photonic crystals can be used as a film, layer or foil be educated. Accordingly, they can be treated by conventional coating methods, or adhesion promoters are mounted on a substrate. in this connection They can be an integral part of a document form, for example in the case of card structures.
  • invention Photonic crystals can be a visible pattern, for example the outline of an object or a person, or a string form letters and / or numbers. Even barcodes come as Pattern in question. Then the coating is carried out with appropriate printing process or a foil is cut out accordingly. It goes without saying that a photonic crystal is also macroscopically isotropic, i. e. without pattern, can be formed.
  • For the arrangement of the luminescent substance have various possibilities. The luminescent substance may be present in the particles of the photonic crystal be arranged. In the case of core-shell particles is an arrangement in the core material and / or in the shell material of the core-shell particles possible. For this purpose, in the case of organic nuclear material, the relevant Material before solidification or polymerization in the course of the production of Particles preferably mixed homogeneously with the luminescent substance. In the case of inorganic core material, the luminescence generating doping, for example with rare earth elements occur, which are incorporated in the host lattice of the core material. Then can the photonic crystal without admixture of luminescent particles be generated, thereby disrupting the formation of the photonic Crystal due to the presence of interstitial luminescent particles safely avoided.
  • in the Case of polymeric materials for core and / or cladding regions The core-shell particle can luminescent the respective polymer Contain monomer components, and regularly, static, blockwise or as side chains (graft copolymers). Also For example, in the case of a crosslinked polymer, the crosslinking agent may be luminescent be. Finally, luminescent substances can the polymer chain may be covalently, ionically or complexed.
  • However, the luminescent substance can also be arranged between the particles of the photonic lattice. In the case of pigments, it is recommended that the ratio of the diameter D of the pigment particles to the diameter D (or D Ä ) of the particles of the photonic grating D p / D (or D p / D Ä ) is less than 0.5, preferably less than 0.1, most preferably less than 0.02. Then, the pigment particles between the particles or spheres of the photonic crystal can be arranged and damage to the particles or spheres in the course of pressure is virtually eliminated. If the luminescent substance is a luminescent dye, it can in any case be distributed freely between the particles of the photonic lattice without disturbing the latter or its arrangement. In both cases, the preparation of the photonic crystal is effected by mixing particles of the photonic crystal with the luminescent substance and then forming the long-range order into the crystal, as described above. A variant of this is when the luminescent substance is deposited on the surface of the particles of the photonic crystal, for example by layer by layer absorption. As a result, a uniform growth on the particles of the photonic crystal is achieved with the result of adhering to the narrow density distribution. The advantage here is that the particles of the photonic crystal and the luminescent can be selected and modified independently of each other, which allows easier adaptation to different products of the value and security printing.
  • alternative the photonic crystal can also be underlaid with the luminescent substance be. Thus, for example, with a paint or ink, which the Contains luminescent substance coated on the substrate, for example be printed. Then the application of the photonic occurs Crystals on the coating, for example in the simplest case as Foil. This variant is procedurally the easiest and also allows modifications of the system luminescent / photonic in a simple manner Crystal, for example, for different types or valences of security and / or value documents.
  • After all is it possible that in the photonic crystal and or in a layer containing the luminescent substance additional non-luminescent colorants such as dyes or pigments are. For this all come in the field of security and / or Value documents usual colorants, which the average expert are known, in question. Likewise, usual forensic feature substances in the photonic crystal or another Layer of security and / or value document be provided.
  • The The invention further relates to a method for producing a security and / or value document according to the invention or a security element therefor, wherein a substrate on a surface or part surface with a Coating containing the particles of the photonic to be formed Crystal provided and this coating with simultaneous action is compressed by heat and pressure, optionally before the coating with the particles containing a luminescent layer the luminescent substance is applied to the substrate, and / or wherein the particles contain or are mixed with the luminescent substance are. In this embodiment of a manufacturing process the formation of the photonic crystal takes place with the compression.
  • Preferably the action of heat takes place with a temperature in the Range of 60-260 ° C, especially 70-190 ° C, and for a period of 0.5-7200 s, preferably from 0.5-3600 s, most preferably from 1-10 s. The compression can be carried out at a pressure of 1-100 bar, preferably from 1-20 bar. Typically done the compression by means of a press, in particular a laminating press. In the case of an inorganic core material in conjunction with a Polymer high glass transition temperature as a shell material, for example in Range of 80-250 ° C, the effect of heat at a correspondingly higher temperature, for example at 140-250 ° C, done.
  • On the coating with particles of the photonic crystal can be a Separating and / or protective layer can be arranged. The protective layer can in the course of the action of heat and pressure with the Substrate, possibly the luminescent layer, and the coating with Welded particles or laminated to a layer composite. The protective layer should, based on the emission wavelength lambda, be transparent.
  • alternative to the above procedure, an inventive Security and / or value document also be prepared by that a finished photonic crystal, in particular in the form of a film (Thickness, for example, 0.1-500 μm) applied to the substrate and is connected to it, whether by gluing, be it by Lamination. Also in this case, the luminescent substance already in the photonic crystal be present. But it is also possible here that before the substrate with a separate coating, for example a printing layer containing the luminescent substance.
  • The The invention further relates to a security and / or value document which with an inventive invention above Method is available.
  • After all The invention relates to a method for verifying a method according to the invention Security and / or value document or security element, wherein the luminescent substance is excited to emit a luminescence radiation is, for example, by exposure to UV radiation, wherein the intensity of the luminescence radiation in dependence from the angle with respect to the surface of the safety and / or value document, and wherein the determined angle dependence the luminescence radiation with a predetermined angular dependence is compared. If no angle dependence is determined, or does not agree with the particular angle dependence the predetermined angle dependence match, so it is not an inventive Security and / or value document and consequently a replica. If the determined angle dependence matches with the given angle dependence, the safety and / or value document as according to the invention and therefore really verified. The determination may be in the simplest case by visual inspection. But it is also possible that To determine angular dependence by machine. The determination is in the case of different luminescers each for the relevant emission wavelengths performed for which different angle dependencies are predetermined.
  • in the Below, the invention is based on merely embodiments illustrative examples explained in more detail.
  • Example 1: different types of construction a security and / or value document
  • In the 1 Cross sections are represented by different variants of security and / or value documents according to the invention.
  • In the 1a you recognize a substrate 1 , which may be single-layered or multi-layered. On this substrate is immediately a print layer 2 attached, the printing layer 2 contains two different fluorescent substances in a uniform distribution. A first fluorescent substance has an emission wavelength of 500 nm and a second fluorescent substance has an emission wavelength of 707 nm. The layer sequence is followed by a photonic crystal formed as a film 3 at. This photonic crystal 3 is from core-shell particles according to the literature WO 2003/025035 A2 educated. The core-shell particles have a mean particle diameter of 354 nm. To the photonic crystal 3 closes a visible light transparent protective layer 4 which in turn can be single-layered or multi-layered. It is also possible that between the print layer 2 and the photonic crystal 3 a single-layer or multi-layer intermediate layer is arranged, which is not shown for clarity. The substrate 1 with the print layer 2 , the photonic crystal 3 and the protective layer 4 are joined together by lamination forming a monolithic layer block.
  • In the variant of 1b the same fluorescent substances are used, but these are in the photonic crystal 3 are arranged. This can cause the print layer 2 omitted. The fluorescent substances are adsorbed or adsorbed on the surface of the core-shell particles, in a uniform distribution.
  • Example 2: Angular dependence fluorescence of the subject of example 1
  • In the tuning of the emission wavelengths with the diameter of the particles of the photonic crystal 3 , and so finally with the lattice constant a and the lattice plane distance d of the photonic crystal 3 shows that red (707 nm) is emitted at maximum intensity at about 45 ° to the surface normal of the security and / or value document, but at 0 ° and 90 ° the intensity is greatly reduced, more typically below 90% of the maximum intensity. In contrast, green (500 nm) is observable at 45 ° with only 10% or less of the maximum intensity, but at 0 ° and 90 ° with maximum intensity.
  • It results in the representation of 2a , where it is a projection of in the 2 B perspectively shown hemisphere in the direction of the surface normal of the security and / or value document. One recognizes areas R, which appear red in approx. 45 °, while the areas G appear in approx. 90 ° and 0 ° green.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list The documents listed by the applicant have been automated generated and is solely for better information recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • - WO 2006/045567 A2 [0004]
    • WO 03/025035 A2 [0005]
    • US 4391928 [0005]
    • EP 0441559 B1 [0005]
    • EP 0955323 B1 [0005]
    • WO 03/052025 A [0032]
    • WO 02/053677 A [0032]
    • EP 0147252 A [0032]
    • GB 2258659 [0032]
    • WO 2003/025035 A2 [0061]
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • References Schwander et al., "Fluorescent Dyes" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002 [0032]
    • - FM Winnik et al., Xerox Disclosure Journal Vol. 17, no. 3, 1992, pages 161-162 [0032]

Claims (30)

  1. A security and / or value document having a security element, wherein the security element contains a photonic crystal and a luminescent substance arranged on a substrate with a defined orientation with respect to a surface of the substrate, characterized in that an emission wavelength λ of the luminescent substance and a lattice constant of the photonic crystal in accordance with the formula lambda = m × 2 × d matched and predetermined, where d is a distance between two lattice planes of the photonic crystal and m is a positive integer.
  2. Security and / or value document according to claim 1, wherein the luminescent substance emits in the IR, visible, or UV.
  3. Security and / or value document according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the luminescent substance is a luminescent dye and / or a luminescent pigment.
  4. The security and / or value document according to claim 3, wherein the luminescent dye is selected from the group consisting of organic fluorescent dyes, naphthalimides, coumarins, xanthenes, thioxanthenes, naphtholactams, azlactones, methines, oxazines, thiazines, and mixtures of two or more different ones Substances "and / or wherein the luminescent pigment is selected from the group consisting of" ZnS: Ag, Zn silicate, SiC, ZnS, CdS (activated with Cu or Mn), ZnS / CdS: Ag, ZnS: Cu, Al, Y 2 O 2 S: Eu, Y 2 O 3 : Eu, YVO 4 : Eu, Zn 2 SiO 4 : Mn, CaVVO 4 , (Zn, Mg) F 2 : Mn, MgSiO 3 : Mn, ZnO: Zn, Gd 2 O 2 S: Tb, Y 2 O 2 S: Tb, La 2 O 2 S: Tb, BaFCl: Eu, LaOBr: Tb, Mg tungstate, (Zn, Be) Silicate: Mn, Cd borate: Mn, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F, Cl: Sb, Mn, (SrMg) 2 P 2 O 7 : Eu, Sr 2 P 2 O 7 : Sn, Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 : Eu, Y 2 SiO 5 : Ce, Tb, Y (P, V) O 4 : Eu, BaMg 2 Al 10 O 27 : Eu, MaAl 11 O 19 : Ce, Tb, and mixtures of two or more different such substances ".
  5. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 1 to 4, wherein the luminescent substance is a fluorescent dye is, which is selected from the group consisting of "organic fluorescent dyes, naphthalimides, coumarins, xanthene, Thioxanthenes, naphtholactams, azlactones, methines, oxazines, thiazines, and mixtures of two or more different such substances ".
  6. Security and / or value document according to one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the photonic crystal is formed by a fcc or hcc grating with a lattice constant a, and wherein d = a / n 0.5 with n = 1 to 20, in particular 1 to 5, and where n is (h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ) with h, k, and l being Miller indices.
  7. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 1 to 7, wherein the grid points of the photonic Crystal formed by spheres or their centers are.
  8. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 7, wherein the spheres core-shell particles are, which are arranged in a tight ball package.
  9. Security and / or value document according to claim 8, where the mean diameter of the spheres in the range from 270-5000 nm, in particular from 270-2500 nm is when the luminescent substance emits in the IR (780-3000 nm).
  10. Security and / or value document according to claim 8, where the mean diameter of the spheres in the range from 135-1200 nm, in particular from 135-600 nm, when the luminescent substance emits in the visible (380-780 nm).
  11. Security and / or value document according to claim 8, where the mean diameter of the spheres in the range from 35-600 nm, in particular from 35-300 nm, when the luminescent substance emits in the UV (100-380 nm).
  12. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 8 to 11, wherein the core-shell particles have a Core of an organic or inorganic core material and a Having a sheath of a polymeric organic sheath material, wherein the jacket material is flowable at elevated temperature is while the nuclear material at the elevated Temperature is not fluid.
  13. Security and / or value document according to claim 12, wherein the organic core material is selected from the group consisting of "aliphatic, aliphatic / aromatic or wholly aromatic polyesters, polyamides, polycarbonates, polyurea, Polyurethanes, Aminoplastharze, phenoplast resins, such as formaldehyde condensates of Melamine, urea or phenol, epoxy resins, acrylic esters, such as methyl (meth) acrylate, Butyl (meth) acrylate, isopropyl (meth) acrylate, polystyrene, PVC, polyacrylonitrile, Random or block copolymers of one or more such homopolymers, and Mixtures of two or more different such homo- or copolymers ".
  14. The security and / or value document according to claim 12, wherein the inorganic core material is selected from the group consisting of "Me metals, metalloids, metal chalcogenides, in particular metal oxides, metal pnictides, in particular metal nitrides or metal phosphides, and mixtures of two or more different such substances, wherein the metal may be formed from one element of the first three main groups of the periodic table or a metallic element of the side groups and wherein Semi-metal Si, Ge, As, Sb, and Bi may include ", in particular is selected from the group consisting of" SiO 2 , TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , SnO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 ".
  15. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 12 to 14, wherein the core material has a glass transition temperature in the range of more than 60 ° C, preferably more than 80 ° C, most preferably greater than 90 ° C, or wherein the core material has a glass transition temperature of more than 300 ° C having.
  16. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 12 to 15, wherein the jacket material is selected is selected from the group consisting of "aliphatic, aliphatic / aromatic or wholly aromatic polyesters, polyamides, polycarbonates, polyurea, Polyurethanes, aminoplast resins, phenolic resins, such as Formaldehyde condensates of melamine, urea or phenol, epoxy resins, Polyepoxides, poly (meth) acrylates, such as polymethyl (meth) acrylate, polybutyl (meth) acrylate, Polyisopropyl (meth) acrylate, polystyrene, PVC, polyacrylonitrile, polyethylene, Polypropylene, polyethylene oxide, polybutadiene, polytetrafluoroethylene, Polyoxymethylene, rubber, polyisoprene, random or block copolymers one or more such homopolymers, and mixtures of two or more different such homo- or copolymers ", and wherein the cladding material preferably has a glass transition temperature in the range of 40-90 ° C, especially from 60-80 ° C, or in the range of 80-250 ° C has.
  17. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 1 to 16, wherein the luminescent substance in the photonic Crystal is arranged.
  18. Security and / or value document according to claim 17, wherein the luminescent substance in the particles of the photonic Crystal, in particular in the core material and / or in the cladding material the core-shell particle is arranged.
  19. Security and / or value document according to claim 17 or 18, wherein the luminescent substance between the particles of the photonic crystal is arranged.
  20. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 1 to 19, wherein the photonic crystal with the luminescent substance is underlaid.
  21. Method for producing a security and / or Value document or a security element according to one of the claims 1 to 20, wherein the substrate is on a surface or Partial surface with a coating containing the particles of photonic crystal and this coating under simultaneous Heat and pressure is compressed, optionally before coating with the particles of the photonic crystal a luminescent layer containing the luminescent substance on the Substrate is applied, and / or wherein the particles of the photonic Crystals contain the luminescent substance or are mixed with it.
  22. The method of claim 21, wherein said exposure of heat at a temperature in the range of 60-180 ° C, especially from 70-130 ° C, and for a Duration of 0.5-7200 s, preferably 0.5-3600 s, most preferably from 1-10 s.
  23. The method of claim 21 or 22, wherein the compaction at a pressure of 1-100 bar, preferably 1-20 bar, takes place.
  24. Method according to one of claims 21 to 23, wherein the compression by means of a press, in particular a laminating press, he follows.
  25. Method according to one of claims 21 to 24, being on the coating with particles of the photonic crystal a release and / or protective layer is arranged.
  26. Method according to one of claims 21 to 25, the protective layer in the course of the action of heat and printing with the substrate, optionally the luminescent layer, and the Welded coating with particles of the photonic crystal or laminated to a layer composite.
  27. The method of claim 26, wherein the protective layer, based on the emission wavelength lambda, transparent is.
  28. Security and / or value document or security element obtainable by a method according to any one of claims 21 to 27.
  29. Security and / or value document according to one of Claims 1 to 20 or 28 in the embodiment as identity card, passport, ID card, access control card, Visa, tax stamp, ticket, driver's license, motor vehicle paper, Banknote, check, postal stamp, credit card, chip card or adhesive label.
  30. Method for verifying a security and / or value document or a security element according to one of claims 1 to 20 or 28 to 29, wherein the luminescent substance is excited to emit a luminescence radiation, wherein the intensity of the luminescence radiation is observed or determined as a function of the angle with respect to the surface of the security and / or value document, and wherein the observed or certain angular dependence of the luminescence radiation with a predetermined angular dependence is compared.
DE102007007029A 2007-02-08 2007-02-08 Security and / or value document with photonic crystal Pending DE102007007029A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102007007029A DE102007007029A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2007-02-08 Security and / or value document with photonic crystal
CA2677418A CA2677418C (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-06 Security and/or valuable document having a photonic crystal
CN2008800043902A CN101652800B (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-06 Safety and/or valuable document having a photonic crystal
PCT/DE2008/000228 WO2008095481A2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-06 Safety and/or valuable document having a photonic crystal
EP08715461A EP2118855A2 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-06 Safety and/or valuable document having a photonic crystal
AU2008213463A AU2008213463A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2008-02-06 Safety and/or valuable document having a photonic crystal
AU2014203815A AU2014203815A1 (en) 2007-02-08 2014-07-11 Safety and/or valuable document having a photonic crystal
AU2016225899A AU2016225899B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2016-09-09 Safety and/or valuable document having a photonic crystal

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CN (1) CN101652800B (en)
AU (3) AU2008213463A1 (en)
CA (1) CA2677418C (en)
DE (1) DE102007007029A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2008095481A2 (en)

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GB0720550D0 (en) 2007-10-19 2007-11-28 Rue De Int Ltd Photonic crystal security device multiple optical effects
EP3109060B1 (en) 2015-06-23 2018-08-15 Hueck Folien Gesellschaft m.b.H. Safety element and method for manufacturing a safety element

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CA2677418C (en) 2016-09-20
WO2008095481A2 (en) 2008-08-14
CN101652800B (en) 2013-02-06
CA2677418A1 (en) 2008-08-14
AU2014203815A1 (en) 2014-07-31
EP2118855A2 (en) 2009-11-18
CN101652800A (en) 2010-02-17
AU2016225899B2 (en) 2018-02-01
AU2008213463A1 (en) 2008-08-14
AU2016225899A1 (en) 2016-09-29

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