DE102006025334A1 - Refractive transparent safety element - Google Patents

Refractive transparent safety element

Info

Publication number
DE102006025334A1
DE102006025334A1 DE102006025334A DE102006025334A DE102006025334A1 DE 102006025334 A1 DE102006025334 A1 DE 102006025334A1 DE 102006025334 A DE102006025334 A DE 102006025334A DE 102006025334 A DE102006025334 A DE 102006025334A DE 102006025334 A1 DE102006025334 A1 DE 102006025334A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
security element
see
characterized
elements
security
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE102006025334A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Tina Clausnitzer
Marius Dr. Dichtl
Thomas KÄMPFE
Ernst-Bernhard Dr. Kley
Michael Dr. Rahm
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Giesecke and Devrient GmbH
Original Assignee
Giesecke and Devrient GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Giesecke and Devrient GmbH filed Critical Giesecke and Devrient GmbH
Priority to DE102006025334A priority Critical patent/DE102006025334A1/en
Publication of DE102006025334A1 publication Critical patent/DE102006025334A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/351Translucent or partly translucent parts, e.g. windows
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/20Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof characterised by a particular use or purpose
    • B42D25/29Securities; Bank notes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/328Diffraction gratings; Holograms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D2033/00Structure or construction of identity, credit, cheque or like information-bearing cards
    • B42D2033/24Reliefs or indentations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/324Reliefs

Abstract

The invention relates to a refractive see - through security element (60) for security papers, value documents and the like, having a transparent or at least translucent feature layer (22) having a plurality of unit cells (62) in a predetermined geometric arrangement, the unit cells each having a predetermined number in the Containing substantially achromatic refractive microstructure elements (64) aligned to refract incident light each in a predetermined spatial region such that the light diffracted by the individual microstructure elements (64) of an elementary cell (62) combines into predetermined image information, and wherein the unit cells (62) have a lateral dimension below the resolution limit of the eye.

Description

  • The The invention relates to a refractive see-through security element for security papers, value documents and the like, with a transparent or at least translucent one Feature layer. The invention further relates to a safety arrangement, a security paper and a value document with such see-through security elements, Method for producing refractive see-through security elements, and methods for checking the authenticity of see-through security elements.
  • Disk like Value or identity documents or other valuables, such as Branded goods, for example, are often provided with security features provided a review of the Authenticity of the data carrier and at the same time as protection against unauthorized reproduction serve. The security elements can be in shape, for example an embedded in a banknote security thread, a tear thread for product packaging, an applied security strip, a cover for a banknote with a through opening or a self-supporting transfer element, such as a patch or label after its manufacture on a Value document is applied.
  • A safety elements with viewing-angle-dependent effects play a special role since these are not reproduced even with the most modern copiers can. The security elements are with optically variable elements equipped to the viewer under different viewing angles convey a different image impression and for example depending on the viewing angle a different color impression and / or a show another graphic motive.
  • To For this purpose, security elements often come with security features equipped in the form of diffraction-optically effective micro- or nanostructures, like with embossed holograms or other hologram-like ones Diffraction structures. Such diffractive optical structures for a see-through security element are described for example in the document WO 2004/057382 A1. The optical effectiveness of holograms and hologram-like prey structures is based not least on the color splitting at the incidence of polychromatic light on the diffraction structure. The resulting color play is in the However, in recent years it has become so common that its Effect as an attractive security feature already clearly subsides. The characteristic The visual effect is often no more than that of the viewers Security feature, but merely perceived as a design variant, thereby reducing the benefit of these security features for counterfeit protection. About that In addition, the diffraction-optically generated image or color impressions can often be only from certain viewing directions and in good light conditions Completely and recognize sharply. In particular, the recognizability is holographic Subjects in low light conditions as with diffuse lighting often severely limited.
  • To the security elements used in transparent substrates will count in particular so-called DOE (Diffractive Optical Element) structures. These are embossed in transparent substrates diffraction structures each on monochromatic coherent Laser radiation of a predetermined wavelength designed. Become one with Laser of the appropriate wavelength radiates, can be registered images on a projection screen represent.
  • The Projection of the inscribed image with optimum quality requires but a light source that provides spatially coherent light of the design wavelength. If a monochromatic light source is used whose wavelength is from the design wavelength deviates, so the picture is in a different than the calculated Size on the Projection screen appear. At the same time, the efficiency drops, so that a higher one Proportion of incident light leaves the DOE structure undistorted. Using of polychromatic light, undesirable, striking color fringes occur when using white Light often makes the recognition of the inscribed image impossible. DOE structures are therefore for a fast and reliable authentication in the street hardly to use.
  • Another example of an optically variable security element is from the document EP 1049 590 B1 which discloses a security having a transparent portion in which a diffractive optical projection member is provided. The projection element causes a parallel light beam emanating from a preferably monochromatic light source passing through the transparent portion to be converted into a patterned beam of selected design.
  • The publication DE 101 00 836 A1 discloses an optical element having a main region with a plurality of sub-regions, each comprising a diffractive structure, which in laser illumination reconstructs light in a characteristic direction for the respective sub-region and combines it into an information pattern.
  • Proceeding from this, the present invention seeks to provide a see-through security element of the type mentioned, the avoids the disadvantages of the prior art. In particular, the security feature by visual security element as a security feature to have a novel optical information that offers a high protection against counterfeiting, no special lighting conditions required for authenticity testing and can be clearly identified with simple tools.
  • These Task is by the see-through security element with the features of claims 1 and 17 solved. A security arrangement, a security paper and a value document with such see-through security elements, process for the preparation Refractive transparent safety elements, as well as methods for authentication Such see-through security elements are in the sibling claims specified. Further developments of the invention are the subject of the dependent claims.
  • To A first aspect of the invention includes a generic refractive See-through security element a transparent or at least translucent Feature layer comprising a plurality of unit cells in one predetermined geometric arrangement, wherein the unit cells each a predetermined number substantially achromatic refractive Contain microstructure elements that are aligned so that they each incident light in a predetermined space area break, so that's different from the individual microstructure elements an elementary cell combines refracted light into a predetermined image information, and wherein the unit cells have a lateral dimension below the resolution limit of the eye.
  • In preferred embodiments is the plurality of unit cells in at least one spatial direction periodically or at least locally arranged periodically. Especially symmetrical designs result when the unit cells are periodic even in two spatial directions or at least locally arranged periodically.
  • Prefers is at least a part of the microstructure elements by microprisms formed, each by the dimension of its base (area and outline), a refractive angle α, and an orientation of the microprism indicating azimuth angle β. The azimuth angle β is here defined as the angle between a reference direction and the vector, by projecting the normal vector of the refractive prism surface the base area arises.
  • alternative or additionally At least a part of the microstructure elements has a curved surface. These microstructure elements can, for example be formed by microcone or micro-step cone, the each characterized by the diameter of its base and an opening angle γ are.
  • With Advantageously, the unit cells have a lateral dimension below of about 300 μm, preferably below about 100 microns. On the other hand assign the microstructure elements to ensure that wavelength-dependent light diffraction effects to neglect are and that the incident light from the structural elements without disturbing Color effects are essentially achromatically broken, a lateral Dimension above about 3 μm on. Preferably, the dimension is in the range above about 5 μm, especially preferably above about 10 microns. Such structural elements can be due to the low Size related low profile depth well established in film technology.
  • The Elementary cells are useful in the plane the feature layer without gaps joined. In particular, the microstructure elements in each unit cell are also gapless joined together such that each light beam passing through the feature layer is detected by one of the microstructure elements. The gapless Arrangement may in particular by an at least in one spatial direction periodic or locally periodic arrangement of the unit cells be achieved. For example, identical, rectangular Unit cells line by line without gaps be joined together and vertically successive lines in the horizontal direction one at random chosen amount be moved against each other. The resulting surface-filling arrangement is then only in one spatial direction, namely for each row in the row direction periodically while the arrangement varies randomly with respect to the lines.
  • The Arrangement of the microstructure elements within different unit cells can be identical, so that each of the unit cells on the same Way the same contribution to the predetermined image information supplies. As it is for the desired optical effect, however, only on the presence all microstructural elements arrive within an elementary cell, but not on their relative arrangement, this degree of freedom can used to form a higher level security feature. Especially can be provided that each unit cell the same contribution provides the predetermined image information, the arrangement of the microstructure elements within the unit cell, however, is different.
  • According to one embodiment of the invention, the unit cells change over the surface of the feature layer, so that the image information generated by the refracted light at a lateral movement of the security element over an object in its position, shape and / or size changes. The change can be made abruptly, so that the image information generated during the movement, for example, jumps from one motif to another, or it can be slow and continuous, so that the image information also changes slowly and continuously during the movement. For example, a creative can go over several intermediate steps in another subject, or it can be the impression of a moving subject generated.
  • The predetermined image information is expedient from a number of pixels composed, wherein the microstructure elements within the unit cells each associated with one of these pixels. A pixel can also be associated with two or more microstructure elements, so that different brightnesses for the different pixels let generate.
  • The relative intensity The image information can also be determined by the relative area ratio the projection of the microstructure elements with a specific orientation on the ground, based on the entire base area the unit cell be determined.
  • In a second aspect of the invention includes a generic refractive See-through security element a transparent or at least translucent Feature layer, which is a substantially achromatic refractive Microstructure in the form of a mosaic of a plurality of substantially achromatic having refractive mosaic elements, wherein the mosaic elements so that they are incident light in different directions Space areas break, leaving that of the individual mosaic elements broken light combined to a predetermined image information, and wherein the mosaic elements have a lateral dimension below the resolution limit of the eye.
  • Prefers at least some of the mosaic elements are formed by microprisms, each by the dimension of its base, a refractive angle α and a characterizing the orientation of the microprism indicating azimuth angle β are.
  • alternative or additionally At least a part of the mosaic elements has a curved surface. These mosaic elements can formed for example by microcone or by micro-step cone be, each by the diameter of its base and an opening angle γ characterized are.
  • The Mosaic elements preferably have a lateral dimension below of about 100 microns, in particular below about 65 microns and more preferably below about 30 microns. On the other hand They also have a lateral dimension above about 3 microns, preferably above about 5 μm, more preferably above about 10 microns, to disturbing color fringes by wavelength-dependent diffraction effects to avoid.
  • In At the level of the feature layer, the mosaic elements are advantageous gapless joined together such that each light beam passing through the feature layer is detected by one of the mosaic elements. It can also be provided be that at least in some areas of the security element the local area inclination adjacent mosaic elements coincides along their common border. This creates a smooth surface in these subareas without discontinuous burrs or spikes.
  • To In a development of the invention, the feature layer has at least two Groups of mosaic elements. A first group of mosaic elements Reflects incident light to the viewer while a second group of mosaic elements incident light away from the viewer breaks, so for the viewer a grayscale image, especially a black and white image is created.
  • Around At the same time it can provide protection against contamination and before molding in all embodiments with the unit cells or with the Microstructured surface the feature layer with a transparent or translucent foil be glued. The unit cells or the microstructure itself can remain adhesive-free, to a sufficiently large refractive index difference between the microstructure elements of the unit cells or the Mosaic elements of microstructure and surrounding material (air) to ensure. alternative can even just the ridges or tops of the unit cells building up Microstructure elements or the microstructure building mosaic elements be glued. The feature layer can also be used with an adhesive glued to the film whose refractive index is significantly differs from the refractive index of the feature layer. Also by it will be a big enough one Refractive index difference between the microstructure elements or the Mosaic elements and the surrounding material ensured.
  • Another way to protect the unit cells or the microstructure against contamination and impression, is the microstructural elements of the unit cells or the mosaic elements of the microstructure with a hochbre pour out pouring material.
  • In Further advantageous embodiments, the feature layer with metallized areas in the form of patterns, characters or codes or with holographic or hologram-like diffraction structures combined. About that In addition, the see-through security element with other security features, as incorporated magnetic materials, specifically adjusted Conductivity, color shift effects, colored embossing lacquer and the like.
  • The Invention contains Furthermore, a security arrangement for security papers, value documents and The like with a see-through security element of the described Kind and with a separate display element that interacts with the see-through security element, the predetermined image information for the Viewer makes recognizable. The presentation element preferably has a area with a dot pattern, especially with a single dot on.
  • at a method of making a refractive see-through security element for security papers, Value documents and the like become transparent or at least produced translucent feature layer, and with a plurality of Elementary cells provided in a predetermined geometric arrangement. The unit cells are each given a predetermined number provided substantially achromatically refractive microstructural elements, which are aligned so that they each incident light break into a predetermined space area, so that the of the individual microstructural elements of a unit cell fractured Combined light to a predetermined image information. The unit cells even with a lateral dimension below the resolution limit of the eye.
  • In Preferred embodiment, the plurality of unit cells in a spatial direction or even in two spatial directions periodically or at least locally arranged periodically.
  • One another method of making a refractive see-through security element for security papers, Value documents and the like include the generation of a transparent one or at least transient feature layer associated with a substantially achromatic refractive microstructure in the form of a mosaic a plurality of substantially achromatic refractive mosaic elements is provided. The mosaic elements are aligned so that they to break incident light into different areas of space, so that the light refracted by the individual mosaic elements combined to a predetermined image information. The mosaic elements even with a lateral dimension below the resolution limit of the Eye generated.
  • In Both methods, the arrangement of the microstructural elements or the mosaic elements are advantageously calculated by a raytracing method. The surface relief with the microstructure elements or the mosaic elements can then For example, with grayscale lithography, direct exposure with a laser or electron beam writer or by direct editing of the substrate material, e.g. B. by laser ablation, structured become. additionally can the surface relief by means of an etching process transferred into a substrate material be to a greater tread depth or to achieve a modified profile shape.
  • Around producing a corresponding product in large quantities the resulting surface structure transferred with advantage by galvanic impression on a stamping cylinder.
  • In contains further aspects the invention a security paper and a value document such as a Banknote, ID card or the like that with a see-through security element equipped the type described.
  • The invention further relates to a method for checking the authenticity of a see-through security element, in which
    • A test object to be considered is selected, and an expected appearance is determined by the see-through security element when the test object is viewed,
    • The viewing security element is held at a distance above the test object and the test object is viewed by the security element,
    • The appearance of the test object is recorded and compared with the expected appearance, and
    • The authenticity of the see-through security element is assessed on the basis of the comparison of the detected with the expected appearance.
  • in the The simplest case is the see-through security element in the Viewing vertically over the Test object kept. It is understood, however, that the see-through security element Also, it can be designed with a certain inclination must be kept.
  • In another method for checking the authenticity, it is provided that
    • - A to be considered, substantially parallel light-generating light source, for example, a sufficiently distant point-like light source is selected and an expected Er when the light source is viewed through the see-through security element,
    • - the see-through security element is held against the light source and the light source is viewed through the security element,
    • The appearance of the light source is detected and compared with the expected appearance, and
    • The authenticity of the see-through security element is assessed on the basis of the comparison of the detected with the expected appearance.
  • Another method for checking the authenticity of a see-through security element is that
    • - an expected appearance is determined when checking the see-through security element,
    • - The see-through security element is illuminated with a beam of approximately parallel light and the projected behind the security element projection image is captured with a collecting screen,
    • The appearance of the projection image is captured and compared with the expected appearance, and
    • The authenticity of the see-through security element is assessed on the basis of the comparison of the detected with the expected appearance.
  • In All variants of the method can be provided in a development be that the see-through security element in the detection of Appearance relative to the test object to be considered laterally is moved, with the appearance of a lateral Movement in its position, shape and / or size changes.
  • all inventive designs is common that for observing the optical effects neither coherent light still light of a certain wavelength is required. Also occurs when using polychromatic light no or only a negligible Color splitting up. The optical effects are very distinctive and memorable and can not be adjusted by light-diffractive structures.
  • Further embodiments as well as advantages of the invention are described below with reference to FIGS explained. For better clarity, the figures refer to a scale and proportionally true representation omitted.
  • It demonstrate:
  • 1 a schematic representation of a banknote with a see-through area, over which a see-through security element according to the invention is arranged,
  • 2 a see-through security element held at a certain distance vertically above the object to be observed,
  • 3 in (a) an object to be viewed with a single object point and in (b) and (c) views when viewing the object with image doubling or image quadrupling,
  • 4 in (a) an object to be considered having a single object point and in (b) a symbol appearing upon viewing the object,
  • 5 a plan view of a refractive see-through security element according to an embodiment of the invention, wherein one of the microprisms contained is shown in a perspective view,
  • 6 in (a) and (b) cross-sections through an elementary cell along the line VI-VI of 5 for two different prism structures,
  • 7 a plan view of an array of unit cells, which realizes a higher-level security feature,
  • 8th the authenticity check of a see-through safety element according to another test method,
  • 9 the authenticity check of a see-through safety element according to the invention after a further test method,
  • 10 in (a) a plan view of a see-through security element according to the invention with a periodic arrangement of microcracks, (b) a perspective view of one of the microcracks, (c) the object to be viewed and (d) the image generated when viewed through the security element,
  • 11 in (a) a plan view of a see-through security element according to the invention with a surface-filling arrangement of truncated microcracks, (b) a side view of one of the truncated microcones, (c) the object to be viewed and (d) the image generated when viewed through the security element .
  • 12 in (a) a complete microcone and in (b) a micro-step cone of reduced height,
  • 13 in (a) a substantially achromatic refractive microstructure according to a further embodiment of the invention and in (b) and (c) the appearance of the microstructure of (a) at different viewing locations, and
  • 14 a variant of the microstructure of 13 according to a further embodiment of the invention.
  • The invention will be explained below using the example of a banknote. 1 shows a schematic representation of a banknote 10 which in a partial area of the note is a see-through area 12 contains. The see-through area 12 For example, a through opening or a transparent window portion of the bill 10 be. In or above this review area 12 is an inventive see-through safety element 14 arranged so that objects through the see-through security element 14 can be considered through.
  • To explain the principle of inventive see-through safety elements shows 2 a see-through security element 20 that at a certain distance a perpendicular over an object to be observed 30 is held.
  • The see-through security element 20 contains a transparent feature layer 22 with a plastic substrate 24 , For example, a PET film, and one on the plastic substrate 24 applied and embossed lacquer layer 26 , In the paint layer 26 are essentially achromatic refractive microstructural elements 28 shaped, which may be formed for example by prisms, by three-, four- or multi-sided pyramids or by cone structures, as explained in detail below.
  • The lateral dimension of the microstructure elements 28 lies in at least one spatial direction below the resolution limit of the naked eye. In the case of elongated prisms, this spatial direction is given in particular by the spacing of neighboring prisms. In pyramid structures, the lateral dimensions are advantageously even along two spatial directions (length and width of the pyramids) below the resolution limit of the naked eye. Since wavelength-dependent light diffraction effects should be negligible, the lateral dimensions are chosen to be greater than about 3 μm at the same time.
  • In the embodiment of 2 The see-through security element has a parallel arrangement of elongated prisms 28 with an opening angle θ of 90 ° and with a distance of adjacent prisms of about 30 microns. The lateral dimension perpendicular to the main extension of the prisms 28 on the one hand lies clearly below the resolution limit of the naked eye, on the other hand, the dimensions are already so large that no appreciable color splitting occurs by wavelength-dependent diffraction effects.
  • The production of the microstructure elements 28 For example, it can be done by first applying a UV-curing lacquer layer to the substrate 24 applied, the desired relief structure embossed after an optional pre-curing in the lacquer layer and the lacquer layer is then cured by exposure to UV radiation. In addition to the embossing in UV-curable lacquer, of course, other methods known per se, such as embossing in thermoplastics come into question.
  • As in the supervision of 3 (a) to recognize, points the object considered 30 a single point 32 on. Will the see-through security element 20 first on the object 30 put on and then lifted vertically upwards, so occurs due to the refraction of light in the microstructure elements 28 a characteristic optical effect resulting in a multiplication of the images of the object point 32 manifests.
  • For example, when using elongated prisms as microstructures, duplication of the object images occurs, as in the view 34 of the 3 (b) illustrated. The single point 32 of the object 30 creates for the viewer B while spatially separated point images 36A and 36B whose apparent distance p is the distance a between the object 30 and see-through security element 20 increases. The cause of this splitting is that of the object point 32 outgoing light due to the refraction of light in the microstructure elements 28 on two different ray paths 38A and 38B ( 2 ) to the eye of the observer B. The apparent positions of the points 36A and 36B result from the straight continuation of the rays running to the eye of the beholder, as in 2 illustrated.
  • Are the microstructures 28 applied across the surface, so the viewer B looks through the security element 20 only the two dot pictures 36A and 36B , as from all of the object point 32 Outgoing light radiate only those on one of the two ray paths 38A respectively. 38B running to the viewer 8th reach. Remain between the microstructures 28 however, unstructured intermediate areas, so a certain part of the object point 32 Outgoing light rays go directly to the eye of the observer B. In this case, beside the point images appearing offset by refraction of light 36A and 36B additionally a direct point picture 40 to recognize that in 3 (b) indicated by dashed lines.
  • The number of offset dot images corresponds to the number of surface orientations of the microstructures 28 , Thus, the two surface orientations of the elongated prism structure of the 2 to two point pictures 36A and 36B as explained above. Accordingly, for example, by an area-filling arrangement of similar four-sided pyramids can be an appearance with four point images 44 get as in the view 42 of the 3 (c) illustrated. Also there can be the direct point picture 46 be visible when the microstructures are spaced apart.
  • Of the In particular, the effect of image multiplication by the microstructures can be be used to when viewing through a security element according to the invention from a single object point symbol representations, such as a Logo or one or more letters as below explained with reference to the wide figures.
  • First shows 4 (a) an object 50 with a single object point 52 having a diameter between 0.1 to 2 mm, for example, a diameter of 1 mm. When viewed through a security element that is at a distance of about 2 mm to 2 cm vertically above the object 50 is held, a viewer from a typical reading distance of about 30 cm is a symbol 54 perceive that in 4 (b) is represented by the letter "L" and that should have an extension of about 2 mm to about 2 cm on the security element 56 that make up the symbol 54 composed, are different images of the same object point 52 and are generated by the periodic microstructures in the manner described below.
  • 5 shows a plan view of a refractive see-through security element 60 with a transparent feature layer having a periodic arrangement of a plurality of unit cells 62 having. each of the unit cells 62 contains nine essentially achromatic refractive microprisms 64 , which in addition to their size in each case by a refractive angle α and the orientation of the micro prism relative to a reference direction Ref indicating azimuth angle β are characterized. One of the microprisms 64 is in 5 with its characteristic parameters shown in perspective view.
  • In the exemplary embodiment, the size of the microprisms 64 each 30 microns × 30 microns, the size of a unit cell 62 thus 90 microns × 90 microns. The square unit cells 62 fill the structured area of the see-through security element 60 completely off, allowing each passing beam of light from one of the microprisms 64 deflected and broken into a predetermined space area. By choosing the sizes of microprisms 64 and the unit cells 62 it is ensured that the microstructure can not be resolved with the naked eye. At the same time are the microprisms 64 sufficiently large, so that wavelength-dependent light diffraction effects are negligible, the influence of the light rays is thus substantially achromatic.
  • The number of microprisms 64 within the unit cells corresponds to the number of pixels 56 that make up the symbol to be displayed 54 composed. Related to a unit cell 62 defines the position of the pixels 56 of the symbol 54 in each case one spatial direction into which that of the object point 52 The incident light must be deflected to achieve a representation of the symbol.
  • Accordingly, each of the microprisms becomes 64 one of the pixels 56 associated with the refractive angle α and the azimuth angle β of the associated microprism 64 be chosen so that the from the object point 52 incident radiation in through the pixel 56 Defined spatial direction is deflected and can be perceived there by an observer.
  • The nine microprisms 64 an elementary cell 62 together create a representation of the symbol consisting of nine pixels 54 , In the simplest case, all unit cells are identical, so each unit cell 62 equally to the overall picture.
  • It is understood that in practice usually a larger number, for example 6 × 6 Micro prisms per unit cell is provided. Next to the next possibility described above, a different brightness of the pixels by different size on the base projected areas to achieve a different brightness of the pixels of the symbol can also be achieved by using different pixels a different number of prisms is assigned to the light break to them.
  • For the refractive effect of microprisms 64 is the refractive angle α and the refractive index n of the material of the feature layer prevail. For a prism with a not too large refractive angle α, the set of the narrow prism applies to a good approximation for the deflection angle δ: δ = (n-1) · α.
  • With this relationship can from the required deflection angle δ for a pixel 56 easily the associated refractive angle α of the associated micro prism can be calculated. In addition to the stated, clearly understandable approximation relationship, the deflection angle δ can of course also be calculated exactly, preferably by means of a computer. The azimuth angle β of Micro prism results from the relative position of the pixel 56 within the symbol to be displayed 54 ,
  • Since only the refractive angle and the refractive index enter into the relationship for the deflection angle, the thickness of the microprisms can be chosen largely freely. Start all microprisms 64 at the edge of the refractive angle α with a thickness of zero, the result is a cross section through an elementary cell 62 , as in 6 (a) shown.
  • By suitable choice of the thicknesses of the microprisms 64 However, it is usually possible, a structure with little or no discontinuity jumps 66 to receive, as in 6 (b) shown. The refractive effect of the microstructure corresponds to the 6 (b) the the 6 (a) , but avoids any unwanted side effects at the connection points 65 neighboring prisms 64 ,
  • The relative arrangement of the microprisms 64 within a unit cell 62 can be chosen arbitrarily, without changing the visual appearance for the viewer B. This property can be exploited to realize by a special arrangement of microprisms another, accessible only with aids security feature in the security element.
  • For example, the microprisms 64 in adjacent unit cells 62 each mirror-symmetrical to a mirror axis 68 be arranged as in 7 schematically shown by means of an embodiment with 2 × 2 microprisms per unit cell. The four different microprisms are marked with the numbers "1" to "4". As every elementary cell 62 each a complete set of microprisms 64 contains, all elementary cells produce the same visual effect for a viewer. The mirror-symmetrical arrangement of 7 represents a simple, higher-level security feature, the presence of which can easily be verified with a light microscope, but which gives the same overall visual effect as an array of identical unit cells. A readjustment attempt, which only aims to imitate the recognizable optical effect, will not be able to reproduce such a micro order, especially since the design of the 7 for illustration only shows a simple example of such a microorder. By varying the microstructural elements within the unit cells, the image quality can be increased, since the already low diffraction is further suppressed by such a variation.
  • One Another security feature of higher level consists in varying outlines of the microstructure elements. Because of the small dimensions of the elements, their varying outline shapes can not with mere Eye, but be recognized with the help of a microscope. By varying outline shapes with a constant area can even be the optical one Improve impression of the security element, as a possible Diffraction of light caused by a regular arrangement of one of the Microstructure elements formed grid is formed, is reduced.
  • In addition to with regard to 2 described viewing a dot pattern through the security element, the see-through security elements according to the invention can be checked for authenticity with other test methods. For example, as in 8th shown, an approximately point-shaped light source 70 , such as a few meters away bulb or the like through the refractive see-through security element 60 through it. Here, too, for the viewer B due to the optical effects described above, the symbol coded in the unit cells 54 visible as in 8th based on the ray trajectories 72A and 72B schematically illustrated. In this case, the image appearing to the viewer is made up of a plurality of luminous pixels which are illuminated by the light beams of the light source which have been refracted by similar microprisms in certain viewing directions 70 be formed.
  • Should be a security element 60 To be optimized for this test method, it is recommended that the refractive angle of the microprisms 64 tending to be smaller than in the consideration of object points discussed above, to accommodate the larger viewing distances encountered.
  • Another test method in which the see-through security element 60 with a beam of approximately parallel light 80 is lit in is 9 illustrated. This may, for example, be the radiation of a laser pointer, but monochromatic or coherent radiation is not required for testing. Rather, the approximately parallel light 80 come from a relatively distant light source or from an intermediate lens.
  • This test procedure produces the symbol 54 through the refraction of the microprisms 64 as a projection figure on a collecting screen 82 , The size of the pixels 84 on the Auffangschirm is thereby by the diameter of the incident light beam 80 given.
  • In all the above test methods, there is an optimal distance range for the viewing, in which the symbol shown 54 on the one hand is large enough to be recognized as such, in the on the other hand, the distance of the pixels 56 respectively. 84 small enough to ensure that the symbol is easy to read. In particular, if the pixels are too large, gaps between the dots may arise. Is the incident light beam 80 not completely parallel, also takes the surface brightness of the pixels 84 with increasing distance from security element 60 and catching screen 82 from.
  • At least a portion of the microstructure elements may also have curved surfaces as shown in FIG 10 to 12 explained. For example, circular lines or circular arcs can be generated with the aid of conical structures from an object point or a punctiform light source. An essential difference to the designs described above consists in the fact that the circular lines or line arcs run continuously and are not composed of discrete points. It should be understood that curved surface designs and straight surface designs may be combined in any manner.
  • 10 (a) shows a plan view of a refractive see-through security element 90 , whose transparent feature layer with a periodic arrangement of micro cones 92 is provided. In addition to the diameter of its base d is every micro cone 92 characterized by an opening angle γ. One of the micro cones 92 is in 10 (b) with its characteristic parameters shown in perspective view.
  • When viewing the object 50 with the single object point 52 (please refer 10 (c) ) through the see-through security element 90 create the microcone 92 a continuous circle 94 , as in 10 (d) shown. The radius of the circular line is determined by the opening angle γ. The larger the opening angle of the microcone 92 is, the smaller the radius of the circle 94 , which can be recognized by the observer through the security element or on a collecting screen.
  • By a variation Δγ of the opening angle of the micro-cone around a central value γ 0 can also be the width of the circular line 94 to be influenced. The microcone 92 are expediently joined together periodically, the arrangement in a hexagonal grid allows the largest area coverage.
  • However, the microcone can 92 as well as more general forms of motive, are usually not joined together without gaps. Through the remaining unstructured spaces 96 this occurs from the object point 52 originating light largely unchanged by the security element 90 through and creates a central pixel 98 within the circle 94 , It is understood that this property can already be taken into account in the design of the symbol to be displayed.
  • For microstructure elements, such as the micro cones 92 , which can not be arranged as such in their entirety and surface-filling in the plane due to their shape, is in a further variant of the invention the possibility of arranging the microstructure elements by partially overlapping surface-filling in the plane of the feature layer.
  • 11 (a) shows a see-through security element 100 with a surface-filling arrangement of cut off micro cones 102 , Each of the underlying microcone has the same size as the cones of the embodiment of 10 , These are indicated by the dashed representation of the footprints of the underlying microcone 104 in 11 (a) indicated.
  • By an overlap of the microcone, for example in the form of the square lattice of 11 (a) , can be a complete filling of the area without spaces 96 be achieved. These are subregions of the output cone 104 cut off and removed, as in the side view of one of the overlapping microcone 102 of the 11 (b) becomes clear. In the embodiment of 11 have the overlapping microcone 102 a square base on. Similarly, however, other overlaps may be formed, for example, based on a hexagonal grid. Since in a hexagonal lattice a higher surface filling is achieved even without overlapping, it is then sufficient to remove smaller portions of the microcone in order to achieve a complete surface filling.
  • Looking at the object again 50 with the single object point 52 ( 11 (c) ) through the see-through security element 100 generate the overlapping microcone 102 also a circle 106 whose radius is determined by the opening angle γ, as in 11 (d) shown. Because the rotational symmetry of the cone 102 is reduced by the removed portions to a fourfold symmetry, the image brightness varies along the circular line 106 according to the reduced symmetry, as in 11 (d) through the different sections of the circle 106A and 106B indicated.
  • Is the area fill through the overlapping microcone 102 completely, no central picture occurs 108 of the object point 52 However, not quite complete surface filling can, if desired, give a more or less intense picture 108 remain.
  • For a given diameter of the Grundflä che d and the given opening angle γ is the height of the cones 92 or 104 established. The maximum achievable in practice size is limited by the resolution of the eye, the manufacturability, preferably in conventional film technology, and the layer thickness of the paint layer to be embossed. On the other hand, the cones must not be too small to effectively suppress wavelength-dependent diffraction effects. Since a very small opening angle γ would lead to very high cone structures under the additional condition of a sufficiently large base area, in some embodiments it is advantageous to reduce the volume of the microcone while maintaining the refractive surface.
  • 12 (a) shows a micro cone 110 with an opening angle γ, a base diameter d and a height h. To reduce the height h with largely unchanged refractive properties, the cone can 110 into a series of concentric annular cone zones 112 are decomposed, of which the sections of constant height are omitted in each case. This creates a micro-step cone 114 with significantly reduced height s, as in 12 (b) shown. The procedure is analogous to the transition of a spherical lens to a Fresnel lens. Becomes a microcone 110 as in the embodiment in five cone zones 112 decomposed, the height s of the resulting step cone is 114 only about one fifth of the height h of the exit cone. The number of cone zones 112 can be chosen as needed, on the one hand not to exceed the maximum height per cone zone, on the other hand, the minimum size to avoid color effects caused by light diffraction in the cone zones.
  • The micro-step cone 114 can like the microcone 92 respectively. 104 be arranged in a periodic lattice with space or overlapping with no gap.
  • In the representations of the 10 and 11 Each elementary cell of the feature layer contains only a single microstructural element for illustration 92 respectively. 104 , It is understood, however, that in practice, a unit cell may contain a plurality of differently curved microstructure elements, optionally also in combination with straight-sided microstructure elements of the type described above, to produce more complex symbols or graphic patterns.
  • In an extension of the described embodiments, the refractive unit cells over the area the security elements away so changed that at unchanged position of viewed object and observer and a lateral movement of the security element a running effect occurs, thus the position of the Appearance of the object changed. Alternatively or additionally also the appearance of the object itself, even at the lateral Change movement, so that a morphing effect arises.
  • In the authenticity check, the extent of the considered object, for example the object point, should be 52 of the 4 (a) , the apparent diameter of the light source 70 of the 8th , or the diameter of the light beam 80 of the 9 in this case, be no larger than the individual areas of the security element, within which the unit cells are structured the same, in order to obtain a locally unique image representation.
  • In a further variant of the invention, the substantially achromatic refractive microstructure does not consist of repeatedly arranged individual motifs, but is individually aligned over the entire area to the representation of image information, as is the case with the security elements 130 and 140 of the 13 and 14 explained. For consideration, such a security element must generally be brought to a predetermined position between the object to be viewed and the viewer in order to develop the desired optical effect. This limitation is offset by the advantage of a significantly higher achievable resolution for the image information. The luminosity of the image display is higher, since the light of the entire surface section contributes to the image information.
  • In the design of the security element 130 or 140 First, the geometric conditions are determined, in particular the required position of the security element relative to the object to be considered. The area of the security element 130 will then be in mosaic elements 132 decomposed whose extent lies below the resolution limit of the human eye. For example, the mosaic elements 132 of the 13 formed by microprisms of a lateral dimension of 20 microns x 20 microns, which, as already described above, each characterized by a refractive angle α and an azimuth angle β.
  • Then, for every micro prism 134 , which is part of the symbol to be displayed, determines the required spatial orientation, that is to say the angles α and β, such that light, which emanates from the object to be imaged, in the respective microprism due to the refraction of light 134 broken to the viewer. On the other hand, the areas that are not part of the symbol to be displayed are microprisms 136 equipped, which deflect the originating from the object to be imaged light from the position of the viewer.
  • In this way, black and white representations of graphic motifs can be realized. For example, a viewing of the object 50 with the single object point 52 through the security element 130 of the 13 (a) at the predetermined place the in 13 (b) represented appearance, the arrangement of microprisms 134 . 136 equivalent. The illustrated image information in the exemplary embodiment in this case for illustration only from the letter "L".
  • That of the microprisms 136 The light directed away from the viewer can be randomly or evenly distributed in all directions. In this case, the image information can be recognized only from a viewing position as described above. However, it is also possible that of the microprisms 136 directed deflected light targeted in a second viewing direction. In this viewing direction, the light of the microprisms forming the symbol is missing 134 so that from the second viewing direction, a negative image of the symbol can be seen, as in 13 (c) shown.
  • The two types of mosaic elements 134 . 136 can also be distinguished by the fact that only one type is equipped with microprisms, while the areas of the other type remain unstructured, as in 14 shown. In this case, the light coming from the object will be in the unstructured areas 142 of the security element 140 not distracted while in the areas provided with microprisms 144 is directed in a desired spatial direction. In this way too, the symbol to be displayed can be recognized at predetermined viewing positions.
  • Next the mentioned Black and white images can Of course also gray scale representations are generated by the proportion of Microprisms within a surface section, the Directing light towards or away from the viewer, accordingly the desired one Gray value selected becomes.
  • Also in the interpretation of the described mosaic structures exist unchanged optical effect certain creative freedom, in the above-described Type used to generate security features higher level can. For example, the outline of the mosaic elements is largely free selectable, even if designs are preferred in which the outline forms a complete one coverage allow. The outline shape may be, for example, over the area of the Security elements in a defined manner from square to rectangular Change outline shapes, something with a bare one Eye not recognizable due to the small size of the structural elements is, however, easily detected by light microscopy.
  • at the production of a described security element is first Icon selected, into which the object viewed through the security element to be transformed. The required microstructure can in simple cases through geometric considerations In more complex cases, it can be designed with computer assistance For example, be calculated by a ray tracing analysis. Lies a descriptive of the surface relief Record, this can be done, for example, with grayscale lithography, Direct exposure structured with a laser or electron-beam recorder become. If the achievable tread depth is insufficient, can also transfer the relief to a substrate material using suitable dry etching techniques be, with the tread depth can be increased accordingly.
  • In Other manufacturing variants may be the substrate using suitable methods edit directly without resorting to paint layers. Only For example, the method of laser ablation is mentioned as an example.
  • In In all variants, it makes sense to have the surface structure obtained by galvanic impression, for example, on a stamping cylinder transferred to, to produce a corresponding product in larger quantities.

Claims (51)

  1. Refractive transparent security element for security papers, Value documents and the like, with a transparent or at least translucent feature layer containing a plurality of unit cells in a predetermined geometric arrangement, wherein the Elementary cells each a predetermined number substantially achromatically refractive microstructural elements containing so aligned, that they each incident light in one break predetermined space, so that of the individual microstructure elements an elementary cell combines refracted light into a predetermined image information, and wherein the unit cells have a lateral dimension below the resolution limit of the eye.
  2. See-through security element according to claim 1, characterized characterized in that the plurality of unit cells in at least a spatial direction arranged periodically or at least locally periodically is.
  3. See-through security element according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the plurality of unit cells in two spatial directions periodically or at least locally arranged periodically.
  4. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 3, characterized in that at least a part of the microstructure elements formed by microprisms, each by the dimension their base area, a breaking angle α and an azimuth angle β indicating the orientation of the microprism is characterized are.
  5. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 4, characterized in that at least a part of the microstructure elements a curved one surface having.
  6. See-through security element according to claim 5, characterized characterized in that at least a part of the microstructure elements formed by microcone or by micro-step cone, the each characterized by the diameter of its base and an opening angle γ are.
  7. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the unit cells a lateral Dimension below about 300 μm, preferably below about 100 microns.
  8. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the microstructure elements a lateral dimension above about 3 microns, preferably above about 5 μm, more preferably above about 10 microns.
  9. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the unit cells in the Level of the feature layer gapless joined are.
  10. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the microstructure elements in each unit cell gapless joined are.
  11. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 10, characterized in that each of the unit cells each provides the same contribution to the predetermined image information.
  12. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the arrangement of the microstructure elements is different within the unit cells.
  13. See-through security element according to claim 11 or 12, characterized in that the arrangement of the microstructure elements within the unit cells a higher level security feature forms.
  14. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 13, characterized in that the unit cells on the area change the feature layer, so that the image information generated by the refracted light is included a lateral movement of the security element over one Object in its position, shape and / or size changes.
  15. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 14, characterized in that the predetermined image information is composed of a number of pixels, and the microstructure elements assigned within the unit cells each one pixel are.
  16. See-through security element according to claim 15, characterized in that the relative intensity of the image information by the relative area ratio the projection of the microstructure elements with a bestimm th alignment on the ground, based on the entire base area the unit cell is determined.
  17. Refractive transparent security element for security papers, Value documents and the like, with a transparent or at least translucent feature layer, which is a substantially achromatic Refractive microstructure in the form of a mosaic of a plurality having substantially achromatic refractive mosaic elements, the mosaic elements being oriented to be incidental Light in different areas of space break, so that the from the individual mosaic elements refracted light to a predetermined Image information combined, and wherein the mosaic elements a lateral Dimension below the resolution limit of the eye.
  18. See-through security element according to claim 17, characterized in that at least a part of the mosaic elements formed by microprisms, each by the dimension their base area, a breaking angle α and an azimuth angle β indicating the orientation of the microprism is characterized are.
  19. See-through security element according to claim 17 or 18, characterized in that at least a part of the mosaic elements a curved one surface having.
  20. See-through security element according to claim 19, characterized in that at least a part of the mosaic elements is formed by micro cones or by micro-step cones, respectively are characterized by the diameter of their base surface and by an opening angle γ.
  21. See-through security element after at least one the claims 17 to 20, characterized in that the mosaic elements a lateral dimension below about 100 microns, preferably below about 65 μm, more preferably below about 30 microns.
  22. See-through security element after at least one the claims 17 to 21, characterized in that the mosaic elements a lateral dimension above about 3 microns, preferably above about 5 μm, more preferably above about 10 microns.
  23. See-through security element after at least one the claims 17 to 22, characterized in that the mosaic elements in the Level of the feature layer gapless are joined together.
  24. See-through security element according to claim 23, characterized in that at least in partial areas of the security element the local area tilt adjacent mosaic elements coincides along their common border.
  25. See-through security element after at least one the claims 17 to 24, characterized in that a first group of mosaic elements incident light breaks towards the viewer and a second group breaks light falling from the viewer breaks away from the mosaic elements, so for the Viewer a grayscale image, especially a black and white image arises.
  26. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 25, characterized in that the elementary cells or with the microstructured surface of the feature layer with glued to a transparent or translucent film.
  27. See-through security element according to claim 26, characterized in that the unit cells or the microstructure self-adhesive-free are / is.
  28. See-through security element according to claim 26, characterized in that only the ridges or tips of the Elementary cell-building microstructural elements or the microstructure adhering mosaic elements are glued.
  29. See-through security element after at least one the claims 26 to 28, characterized in that the feature layer with an adhesive is glued to the film whose refractive index differs significantly from the refractive index of the feature layer.
  30. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 29, characterized in that the microstructure elements the unit cells or the mosaic elements of the microstructure with poured out a high refractive index material.
  31. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the feature layer with metallized areas is combined in the form of patterns, characters or codes.
  32. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 31, characterized in that the feature layer with ho lographic or hologram-like Diffraction structures is combined.
  33. See-through security element after at least one the claims 1 to 32, characterized in that the see-through security element with other security features, such as incorporated magnetic Fabrics, specific conductivity, color shift effects, colored embossing lacquer and the like.
  34. Security arrangement for security papers, value documents and the like with a see-through security element after at least one of the claims 1 to 33, and a separate display element that interacts with the see-through security element, the predetermined image information for the Viewer makes recognizable.
  35. Safety arrangement according to Claim 34, characterized that the presentation element is an area with a dot pattern, in particular with a single point, or at least one essentially punctate Has light source.
  36. A method for producing a refractive see-through security element for security papers, documents of value and the like, in which a transparent or at least translucent feature layer is produced and provided with a plurality of unit cells in a predetermined geometric arrangement, the unit cells each having a predetermined number of substantially achromatic refractive microstructure elements which are aligned so that they each break incident light in a predetermined spatial area, so that the tarzelle of the individual microstructure elements of a cell broken light to a predetermined image information combined, and wherein the unit cells with a lateral dimension below half the resolution limit of the eye are generated.
  37. Method according to Claim 36, characterized that the plurality of unit cells in at least one spatial direction is arranged periodically or at least locally periodically.
  38. Method according to claim 36 or 37, characterized that the plurality of unit cells in two spatial directions periodically or at least locally arranged periodically.
  39. Method for producing a refractive see-through security element for security papers, Value documents and the like, in which a transparent or at least translucent feature layer is generated and having a substantially achromatic Refractive microstructure in the form of a mosaic of a plurality provided substantially achromatisch refractive mosaic elements with the mosaic elements being aligned so that they to break incident light into different areas of space, so that the light refracted by the individual mosaic elements combined into a predetermined image information, and wherein the Mosaic elements with a lateral dimension below the resolution limit of the eye.
  40. Method according to at least one of claims 36 to 39, characterized in that the arrangement of the microstructure elements or the mosaic elements calculated by a ray tracing method becomes.
  41. Method according to at least one of claims 36 to 40, characterized in that the surface relief with the microstructure elements or the mosaic elements with grayscale lithography, direct exposure with a laser or electron-beam recorder or another Method of creating continuous surface structures in photoresist or e-beam resist is structured.
  42. Method according to at least one of claims 36 to 40, characterized in that the surface relief with the microstructure elements or the mosaic elements by direct processing of the substrate material, in particular by laser ablation, is structured.
  43. A method according to claim 41 or 42, characterized that the surface relief by means of an etching process transferred into a substrate material and optionally modified.
  44. Method according to at least one of claims 36 to 43, characterized in that the surface structure obtained is transferred by galvanic impression on a stamping cylinder.
  45. Method according to claim 44, characterized in that that transmitted to an embossing cylinder surface relief with the microstructure elements or the mosaic elements by embossing into a W-curing Lacquer layer or by embossing produced in thermoplastics.
  46. Security paper for the production of value documents or the like, with a see-through security element after at least one of the claims 1 to 33 is equipped.
  47. Value document such as banknote, identity card or the like, that with a see-through security element after at least one of claims 1 until 33 is equipped.
  48. Method for checking the authenticity of a see-through security element, in which - one to be considered test object selected and an expected appearance when viewing the test object is determined by the see-through security element, - the see-through security element at a distance above held the test object and the test object by the security element is looked at, - the Appearance of the test object captured and expected Appearance is compared, and - The authenticity of the see-through security element based the comparison of the recorded with the expected appearance is judged.
  49. Method for checking the authenticity of a see-through security element, in which - one substantially parallel light-generating light source to be observed, in particular, a sufficiently far away punctiform light source is selected and an expected appearance when viewing the light source is determined by the see-through security element, - the see-through security element held against the light source and the light source through the security element is looked at, - the Appearance of the light source detected and expected Appearance is compared, and - The authenticity of the see-through security element based the comparison of the recorded with the expected appearance is judged.
  50. A method for checking the authenticity of a see-through security element, in which - an expected appearance is determined during examination of the see-through security element, - illuminating the see-through security element with a beam of approximately parallel light and the projection image arising behind the security element is captured with a catching screen, the appearance of the projection image is captured and compared with the expected appearance, and the authenticity of the see-through security element is assessed on the basis of the comparison of the detected and the expected appearance.
  51. Method according to at least one of claims 48 to 50, characterized in that the see-through security element in capturing the appearance relative to the one to be considered Test object is moved laterally.
DE102006025334A 2006-05-31 2006-05-31 Refractive transparent safety element Withdrawn DE102006025334A1 (en)

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PCT/EP2007/004570 WO2007137744A2 (en) 2006-05-31 2007-05-23 Refractive transparent security element
EP07725470.4A EP2029371B1 (en) 2006-05-31 2007-05-23 Refractive transparent security element

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WO2007137744A2 (en) 2007-12-06
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WO2007137744A3 (en) 2008-03-13
EP2029371A2 (en) 2009-03-04

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