DE102004033348A1 - Method according to Joule process entails compressing, heating, and expanding gas, whereby in heating phase heat is extracted via heat exchanger for heating of processes - Google Patents

Method according to Joule process entails compressing, heating, and expanding gas, whereby in heating phase heat is extracted via heat exchanger for heating of processes

Info

Publication number
DE102004033348A1
DE102004033348A1 DE200410033348 DE102004033348A DE102004033348A1 DE 102004033348 A1 DE102004033348 A1 DE 102004033348A1 DE 200410033348 DE200410033348 DE 200410033348 DE 102004033348 A DE102004033348 A DE 102004033348A DE 102004033348 A1 DE102004033348 A1 DE 102004033348A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
heating
characterized
preceding
heat
method according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE200410033348
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Thomas Steer
Original Assignee
Steer, Thomas, Dr.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Steer, Thomas, Dr. filed Critical Steer, Thomas, Dr.
Priority to DE200410033348 priority Critical patent/DE102004033348A1/en
Publication of DE102004033348A1 publication Critical patent/DE102004033348A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C1/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid
    • F02C1/04Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid the working fluid being heated indirectly
    • F02C1/08Semi-closed cycles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C6/00Plural gas-turbine plants; Combinations of gas-turbine plants with other apparatus; Adaptations of gas- turbine plants for special use
    • F02C6/04Gas-turbine plants providing heated or pressurised working fluid for other apparatus, e.g. without mechanical power output
    • F02C6/10Gas-turbine plants providing heated or pressurised working fluid for other apparatus, e.g. without mechanical power output supplying working fluid to a user, e.g. a chemical process, which returns working fluid to a turbine of the plant
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C6/00Plural gas-turbine plants; Combinations of gas-turbine plants with other apparatus; Adaptations of gas- turbine plants for special use
    • F02C6/18Plural gas-turbine plants; Combinations of gas-turbine plants with other apparatus; Adaptations of gas- turbine plants for special use using the waste heat of gas-turbine plants outside the plants themselves, e.g. gas-turbine power heat plants

Abstract

The method according to the Joule process entails compressing a gas (2) with oxygen content, heating of the gas by partial oxidation, and expanding of the heated gas. In the heating phase heat is extracted via a heat exchanger (6) for the heating of processes. The combustion chamber (4) divides the heat phase into a first section for the provision of process heat and into a second section for the establishing of the inlet temperature in the expander (8). An independent claim is included for a gas turbine plant in which the combustion chamber has a heat exchanger which for the heating of a process plant is connected to the latter.

Description

  • short version
  • The The invention relates to a method according to the Joule process, a method for the indirect heating of an allothermal reactor and a gas turbine plant.
  • State of Technology - allotherms reactor
  • Allothermal reactors ( 21 ) are characterized in that they must be externally heated to maintain the reactions ( 6 ). The reactions usually take place at temperatures above 600 - 800 ° C, so that the heating must take place above these temperatures. If the heating takes place through the combustion of combustible substances, the flue gases at the end of combustion still have a temperature which is above the working temperature in the reactor to be heated. The exhaust gases then still contain a considerable amount of usable energy. The efficiency of heating is therefore initially reduced by the high exhaust gas temperature.
  • A increase of efficiency known achieve by using some of the waste heat from the exhaust to heat exchanger preheat the combustion air. This procedure is sufficient known and needs no closer Explanation. Problems arise here, however, when through the combustion technology (e.g., pulse burners) or maximum allowable material loads the preheating the combustion air is limited to a certain maximum temperature.
  • State of Technology - gasification Carbonaceous fuels with the help of water vapor
  • The Gasification of carbonaceous fuels is usually used for fuels carried out, due to their chemical pollutants or other physical Properties (e.g., ash content) for use in gas turbines or Internal combustion engines are not suitable. Become by gasification she is transferred to a state in which they can be used in these highly efficient machines.
  • At the Market is currently providing fuel for gas turbines almost exclusively the Entrained flow gasification with oxygen. This is a considerable effort to separate the oxygen from the air required. By gasification with oxygen is already a Part of the chemically bound energy contained in the fuel in tactile Flue gas heat implemented. The efficiency potential for the use of solid fuels in the gas turbine is thus - due to process engineering - always decisively under the potential of natural gas or other, directly for the gas turbine suitable fuels.
  • In the published patent application DE 199.48.332 discloses a carbonaceous material gasifier in the form of a circulating fluidized bed that is externally heated. The heating in the gasification of carbonaceous fuels with water vapor is very expensive, since a significant amount of heat must be introduced into the reactor. This is usually between 20 and 50% of the calorific value of the carbonaceous fuel. It is thus a significant area required for heat transfer. The area is determined by
    • • the amount of heat to be transferred
    • • the mean logarithmic temperature difference, hence the temperature difference at the end of the heat exchanger
    • • the heat transfer coefficient from the heat-emitting to the heat-absorbing side
  • Some considerations to possible Designs failed due to the problems of heat input or too big Heat exchange surfaces in comparison to the reactor volume.
  • The aim of every technical development is to reduce this required area for heat transfer. So far, this has been done by the following measures:
    • • The amount of heat to be transferred is process-related. However, it is desirable to preheat the incoming media (air in the combustion and steam in the reformer) as well as possible.
    • • In order to limit the heat exchange surface, one currently accepts high outlet temperatures and high temperature differences.
    • • To improve the heat transfer coefficient, a fluidized bed is always selected on the reactor side, which allows high heat transfer rates. On the heating side you either choose a pulsating combustion ( US 5,059,404 ) or also a fluidized bed ( DE 199 00 116 ).
    • • To decouple geometric constraints, heat pipes (heat pipes) are used for heat transfer ( DE 199 00 116 ).
  • object the invention
  • The invention is based on the object, the heating of process equipment, in particular from allothermal reactors, to improve.
  • These The object is achieved by the objects the claims 1, 7, 17 and 24 solved.
  • The Invention solves the heating problems of allothermal reactors, in particular of Steam carburetors for carbonaceous fuels, by a combination of different Method. Thus, the invention basically breaks new ground.
  • For the reactor side can - as usual - a fluidized bed although this is not mandatory.
  • On the heating side will burn combustible materials carried out in an oxygen-containing gas. Heat exchangers included in this Flue gas stream are arranged, usually have a relatively low Heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient is increased by the combustion in the oxygen-containing gas takes place under pressure. By the pressure charging is - at same gas velocity - the Heat transfer coefficient elevated. additionally can the heat exchanger optionally with ribs for further improvement of heat transfer be.
  • The Exhaust gas temperature at the end of the heating should be as high as possible to the heat exchange surfaces to reduce. As combustion takes place under pressure, it requires before combustion a compression of the oxygen-containing gas, allows but afterwards also a relaxation. From this process, the As Joule or gas turbine process is known, can be gain mechanical work. He brings the higher the efficiency, the higher the Inlet temperature of the gases in the relaxation part of the process is. The objective of a possible high exhaust gas temperature at the end of the heat exchanger is therefore due solved the coupling with the print charging in a very efficient way.
  • Of the heat exchangers can be implemented in all known technologies. In addition to tube bundle heat exchangers However, heat pipes are also available for heat transfer.
  • In terms of process technology, this invention provides considerable advantages:
    • • Gas turbines usually operate with very high excess air, usually between 3 and 4. It is therefore possible to release additional heat in the combustion chamber by adding additional fuel, provided that it is discharged from the combustion chamber before entering the gas turbine. Neglecting this heat flow into and out of the combustion chamber results in a - theoretically - unchanged efficiency of the gas turbine process.
    • • The heating of the reformer is carried out by the additionally introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas turbine fuel. Since this additionally introduced heat - theoretically - is used completely for heating the reformer, the heating results in an efficiency of almost 100%.
    • • The gas turbine inlet temperature is usually well above the working temperature allothermal carburetor, so that the outlet temperature of the heating medium from the heat exchanger is almost meaningless.
    • • From the waste heat of the gas turbine can, as already common practice, generate steam, which can be used on the one hand in a steam process, on the other hand as a gasification medium.
    • • The production of combustible gases from carbonaceous feedstocks takes place by coupling the processes with a very high degree of efficiency. Losses remain essentially the - relatively small - sensible amounts of heat from the residual heating of the media in the reactor and from the cooling and cleaning of the fuel gases produced before use.
    • • Utilizing the combustible gases in the gas turbine results in an overall efficiency of the process that is only marginally lower than the efficiency that is currently provided by using fuels that are per se suitable for use in gas turbines.
    • The invention develops solid fuels for gas turbine operation, without suffering considerable procedural expenses or considerable loss of efficiency.
  • description the invention
  • Air is sucked from the environment ( 1 ) and in a compressor ( 2 ) compressed. The compressed air ( 3 ) is placed in a combustion chamber ( 4 ) and there with fuel gas ( 28 ), so that at least a part of the oxygen contained in the air reacts with the fuel gas with the release of heat. From the combustion chamber, flue gas ( 5 ) and enter a heat exchanger ( 6 ), which has an allothermic reactor ( 21 ) connected is. The combustion chamber may be divided into several sections with intermediate heat exchangers. The heat exchanger ( 6 ) transmits at least a portion of the in the combustion chamber ( 4 ) released energy to the allothermal reactor ( 21 ). The heat exchanger ( 6 ) can be realized for example by a heat pipe, as for example in patent DE 199.00.116 is mentioned.
  • The flue gases, after exiting the heat exchanger in a further combustion chamber ( 8th ) again by adding a further fuel gas stream ( 29 ) are heated ( 9 ), then in a turbine ( 10 ) and released to the environment ( 11 ).
  • The mechanical energy released in the turbine is preferably via a direct coupling ( 12 ) to the compressor ( 2 ), the remaining surplus over a wave ( 13 ). However, the household of mechanical energy is irrelevant to the invention.
  • In the allothermal reactor ( 21 ) fuel is added ( 23 ), which is not suitable for direct use in the gas turbine, and with the aid of a gasification agent ( 22 ), preferably steam with the aid of the heat exchanger ( 6 ) introduced heat into a combustible gas ( 24 ) transformed. The in the published patent application DE 199 48 332 disclosed carburetor is in two ways for the coupling with the gas turbine.
  • The gas can be passed through a device for gas purification (not further described) ( 25 ) are again chemically and physically cleaned. For this purpose, substances can also be added to the gas stream (eg water vapor for the shift reaction) or stripped off (eg dust).
  • As well Heat can be added to the process in this cleaning area or be withdrawn.
  • The purified product gas ( 26 ) can then be the combustion chamber (s) ( 4 . 8th ) fed to the gas turbine ( 28 . 29 ) or a foreign use ( 30 ). Preferably, the reactor is operated above the pressure of the combustion chambers of the gas turbine. However, the fuel gas can be used to increase the pressure to the pressure level of the combustion chambers of the gas turbine via a compressor ( 27 ) are compressed, if the pressure in the carburetor is below the pressure of the combustion chambers or the pressure losses are too high up to the combustion chamber.
  • The invention thus has the coupling of a gas turbine ( 1 - 13 ) with an allothermic reactor ( 21 ) for the production of combustible gases ( 24 - 26 ) to the object. The heat required to heat the allothermal reactor is in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine ( 4 ) and via a heat exchanger ( 6 ) transfer. The combustible gases ( 24 ) are at least partially used for heating the gas turbine ( 28 . 29 ).
  • Overall results
    • • An increase in the efficiency of heating allothermal reactors and
    • • An increase in the efficiency potential of gas turbine processes when using solid fuels.

Claims (27)

  1. Process according to the Joule process, at least consisting of the process steps • compression of an oxygen-containing gas ( 2 ), • heating of the oxygen-containing gas by partial oxidation (exothermic reaction) ( 4 ), • relaxation of the heated gas ( 10 ), characterized in that in the heating phase ( 4 . 8th ) via a heat exchanger ( 6 ) Heat for heating processes ( 21 ) is taken.
  2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the combustion chamber, the heating phase in a first part to provide the process heat ( 4 ) and in a second part for adjusting the inlet temperature in the expander ( 8th ) is divided.
  3. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the heat for heating an allothermal reactor ( 21 ) is taken.
  4. Process according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the reactor ( 26 ) combustible gases ( 24 ) are produced from carbonaceous fuels.
  5. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the combustible gases ( 24 ) wholly or partly in the heating phase of the gas turbine ( 28 . 29 ) are used.
  6. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the combustible gases produced in the gasifier are wholly or partly in the heating phase of the gas turbine ( 28 ) are used for the provision of heat for heating processes.
  7. Process for the indirect heating of an allothermal reactor, in which the required heat is provided by an exothermic reaction, characterized in that the oxygen-containing gas required for combustion ( 1 ) previously compressed ( 3 ) has been.
  8. Process according to Claim 7, in which the heat required is provided by an exothermic reaction, characterized in that the oxygen-containing gas required for combustion ( 1 ) by a compressor ( 2 ) was compressed.
  9. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 8, characterized in that the resulting during combustion Exhaust gases are relaxed.
  10. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 9, characterized in that the exhaust gases in a turbine ( 10 ) under release of mechanical work ( 12 . 13 ) be relaxed.
  11. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 10, characterized in that the pressure during combustion ( 4 . 8th ) is lower than the pressure in the allothermal reactor ( 21 ).
  12. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 11, characterized in that in the allothermal reactor ( 21 ) produced combustible gases ( 24 ) wholly or partly as fuel gas in a combustion chamber ( 4 . 8th ) are used.
  13. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 12, characterized in that the combustible gases (11) produced in the allothermal reactor ( 24 ) before use as fuel gas ( 28 . 29 ) a chemical or physical cleaning ( 25 ).
  14. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 13, characterized in that the combustible gases (11) generated in the allothermal reactor ( 24 ) before use as fuel gas ( 28 . 29 ) ( 27 ).
  15. Process according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 14, characterized in that the allothermal reactor ( 21 ) is a carburetor.
  16. Process according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 15, characterized in that the allothermal reactor ( 21 ) is a gasifier, is used in the water vapor as the gasification medium.
  17. Process according to the Joule process, at least consisting of the process steps • compression of an oxygen-containing gas ( 2 ), • heating of the oxygen-containing gas by partial oxidation (exothermic reaction) ( 4 ), • relaxation of the heated gas ( 10 ), characterized in that the heating in a combustion chamber with heat extraction ( 4 . 6 ), wherein the decoupled heat at least partially for heating an allothermic reactor ( 21 ) is used, in which the combustion gases required for heating the combustion chamber ( 28 . 29 ) partially or wholly produced.
  18. Process according to claim 17, characterized in that the allothermal reactor ( 21 ) is formed in the reaction part as a stationary fluidized bed.
  19. Process according to at least one of the preceding claims 17 to 18, characterized in that the allothermal reactor ( 21 ) is formed in the reaction part as a circulating fluidized bed.
  20. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 17 to 19, characterized in that the heating of the allothermal reactor ( 21 ) takes place essentially in the reaction region.
  21. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 17 to 20, characterized in that the heating of the allothermal reactor ( 21 ) takes place substantially outside the reaction zone.
  22. Method according to at least one of the preceding claims 7 to 21, in which a part ( 30 ) of the combustible gases ( 24 ) is used for the production of hydrogen or synthetic hydrocarbons.
  23. Process according to at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 22, in which as fuel ( 23 ) solid, liquid, pasty or other for the direct heating of a gas turbine unsuitable substances, preferably of biogenic origin, are used.
  24. Gas turbine plant with A compressor, • a combustion chamber and • one Turbine, characterized in that the combustion chamber a heat exchanger has, which connected to the heating of a process plant with this is.
  25. Gas turbine plant according to claim 24, characterized in that that the process plant includes an allothermal gasifier.
  26. Gas turbine plant according to claim 25, characterized in that that the allothermal carburetor for supplying combustible gases with the Combustion chamber is connected.
  27. Gas turbine plant according to at least one of the preceding claims 24 to 26, characterized in that the heat exchanger through a heat pipe is trained.
DE200410033348 2004-07-09 2004-07-09 Method according to Joule process entails compressing, heating, and expanding gas, whereby in heating phase heat is extracted via heat exchanger for heating of processes Withdrawn DE102004033348A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200410033348 DE102004033348A1 (en) 2004-07-09 2004-07-09 Method according to Joule process entails compressing, heating, and expanding gas, whereby in heating phase heat is extracted via heat exchanger for heating of processes

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200410033348 DE102004033348A1 (en) 2004-07-09 2004-07-09 Method according to Joule process entails compressing, heating, and expanding gas, whereby in heating phase heat is extracted via heat exchanger for heating of processes

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102004033348A1 true DE102004033348A1 (en) 2006-02-02

Family

ID=35530089

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE200410033348 Withdrawn DE102004033348A1 (en) 2004-07-09 2004-07-09 Method according to Joule process entails compressing, heating, and expanding gas, whereby in heating phase heat is extracted via heat exchanger for heating of processes

Country Status (1)

Country Link
DE (1) DE102004033348A1 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102011015807A1 (en) * 2011-04-01 2012-10-04 H S Reformer Gmbh Increase the efficiency of heating allothermal reactors
DE102011109948A1 (en) * 2011-08-10 2013-02-14 h s beratung GmbH & Co. KG Gas turbine
WO2013038001A1 (en) 2011-09-16 2013-03-21 H S Reformer Gmbh Device and method for converting a solid fuel

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102011015807A1 (en) * 2011-04-01 2012-10-04 H S Reformer Gmbh Increase the efficiency of heating allothermal reactors
DE102011109948A1 (en) * 2011-08-10 2013-02-14 h s beratung GmbH & Co. KG Gas turbine
WO2013021043A3 (en) * 2011-08-10 2013-04-04 H S Reformer Gmbh Gas turbine with heat exchanger
WO2013038001A1 (en) 2011-09-16 2013-03-21 H S Reformer Gmbh Device and method for converting a solid fuel
DE102011113623A1 (en) 2011-09-16 2013-03-21 H S Reformer Gmbh Gas turbine

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
JP5830142B2 (en) Equipment for producing hydrogen gas using biomass
US7402188B2 (en) Method and apparatus for coal gasifier
US4315893A (en) Reformer employing finned heat pipes
RU2287010C2 (en) Environmental safe process for obtaining energy from coal (options)
US7926292B2 (en) Partial oxidation gas turbine cooling
RU2119700C1 (en) Method and plant for cogeneration of electrical and mechanical energy
EP0202428B1 (en) Process for gasifying a carbon-containing fuel, particularly coal
JP2015025145A (en) Method and device for producing low-tar synthesis gas from biomass
US7665291B2 (en) Method and system for heat recovery from dirty gaseous fuel in gasification power plants
US6141796A (en) Use of carbonaceous fuels
CN101987277B (en) CO is isolated from burnt gas 2method and apparatus
US6101983A (en) Modified gas turbine system with advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustor cycle
Hofbauer et al. The FICFB—gasification process
EP1982053B1 (en) Method for increasing the efficiency of an integrated gasification combined cycle
RU2309275C2 (en) Method of and device for combined generation of thermal and electric energy by gas turbine with afterburning chamber
ES2434122T3 (en) Cement clinker manufacturing procedure and cement clinker manufacturing facility
EP0571233B1 (en) Staged furnaces for firing coal pyrolysis gas and char
KR20020093111A (en) Oxygen Separation Method Integrated with Gas Turbine
DE4407619C1 (en) Fossil fuel power station process
KR101767287B1 (en) System for heat integration with methanation system
CN101970617B (en) Method and device for converting carbonaceous raw materials
US6799425B2 (en) Method for converting thermal energy into mechanical work
US8936886B2 (en) Method for generating syngas from biomass including transfer of heat from thermal cracking to upstream syngas
Vera et al. Study of a downdraft gasifier and externally fired gas turbine for olive industry wastes
WO2010045320A2 (en) Device and method for conversion of biomass to biofuel

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
8139 Disposal/non-payment of the annual fee