CN2705789Y - Biological tissue multiple frequency impedance measurer - Google Patents

Biological tissue multiple frequency impedance measurer Download PDF

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CN2705789Y
CN2705789Y CN 200320115915 CN200320115915U CN2705789Y CN 2705789 Y CN2705789 Y CN 2705789Y CN 200320115915 CN200320115915 CN 200320115915 CN 200320115915 U CN200320115915 U CN 200320115915U CN 2705789 Y CN2705789 Y CN 2705789Y
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impedance
phase
frequency
chip microcomputer
phase detector
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杨玉星
袁世英
周黎明
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Huazhong University of Science and Technology
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Abstract

The utility model discloses a kind of biological tissue multi-frequency impedance measurement device.This device comprises the amplification and the filtering circuit of data acquisition single-chip microcomputer, Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers, voltage controlled current source, galvanic electrode, voltage measurement and reference signal, amplitude discriminator, shaping and phase detector, PC, and isolated serial interface.The utility model is applied to the linear transformation iteration and fitting method biological tissue's impedance model Parameter Extraction first, can only finish the accurate match of impedance spectrum with finite frequency.Characteristics such as the utility model adopts the dual-cpu structure of single-chip microcomputer and PC, and digital frequency synthesis technology etc., and it is low, simple in structure to have a cost, and automatic analytic function is strong are convenient to directly carry out the design and the development of product.The utility model has realized extracting quickly and accurately the target of impedance model parameters R i, Re, Cm and α.

Description

A kind of biological tissue multi-frequency impedance measurement device
Technical field
The utility model belongs to technical field of biological, is specifically related to a kind of biological tissue multi-frequency impedance measurement device.
Background technology
Extract tissue impedance's model parameter by measuring the bio-impedance spectrum, realize continuous real-time monitoring human body physiological function state and detect pathology affair, will have very application prospects medical clinic applications.For example sit quietly for a long time under the state, the crooked motionless grade of lower limb causes lower limb tissue blood flow not smooth, the shank blood supply insufficiency, and tested position low-resistivity cell reduces, and liquid resistivity Ri obviously increases in the equivalence tissue, and the outer liquid resistivity Re influence of tissue is less.Model parameter provides quantitative data, the model parameter of electrical impedance be one quantitatively dividing tissue be in important indicator under the different physiological statuss.Be applied to that human body lower limbs tissue physiology under the evaluation work loading condiction changes and to the influence of work efficiency.Also can be used for the clinical pathology diagnosis, for example muscular atrophy, local canceration etc.
Bio-electrical impedance measuring is a kind of non-invasive measurement method, has broad clinical application prospect.It is divided into common bio-electrical impedance and two kinds of methods of bio-electrical impedance spectrometry at present.
(1) common biological impedance: be to regard tissue as simple equivalent resistance to finish measurement, this method is simple, and the information of obtaining is few and clinical use limitation is big.For example existing impedance rheogram, ICO etc.
(2) biological tissue's electrical impedance spectrum: be to adopt the multi-frequency impedance measurement, set up the measuring method of organizing the RC network model, its equivalent model parameters R i, R e, C mDescribe the inside and outside resistance of histocyte, cell membrane electric capacity with α and organize the electrology characteristic of frequency dispersion coefficient.The advantage that adopts tissue impedance's model be measure more accurate, biological tissue's information of obtaining more comprehensively, diagnostic value is big.
The electrology characteristic of tissue can be described by impedance model, is different from single Resistance model for prediction, adopts by intracellular fluid resistance (R i), extracellular fluid (R e) electric capacity (C on resistance and the film m) the multiparameter bio-impedance model formed.As shown in Figure 1.The duty of human body, the change of physiological function cause that bigger change takes place the different components impedance operator in the tissue.
Can obtain the frequency characteristic of the position tissue impedance that surveys by measuring system, comprise amplitude versus frequency characte and phase-frequency characteristic, amplitude versus frequency characte is the impedance magnitude under the different frequency, be ρ i among Fig. 2, phase-frequency characteristic is the impedance phase angle under the different frequency, i.e. θ i among Fig. 2, and (i is a certain Frequency point, for example get i=1-20,20 points).The frequency characteristic of tissue impedance is depicted the locus of points on complex coordinates, can be considered one section circular arc in theory.Determine the center of circle and the radius of circular arc according to the locus of points, promptly describe by Cole-Cole impedance equation:
Z = R ∞ + R 0 - R ∞ 1 + ( jωτ ) α - - - - ( 1 )
In the formula: τ=(R i+ R e) C m, R 0=R e, R =R i//R e, Z is one section circular arc of complex plane the 4th quadrant.As shown in Figure 2.Characteristic parameter τ represents time constant, R in the Cole-Cole impedance equation 0Representing frequency is 0 o'clock resistance value, R Resistance value when representing frequency infinitely great, α is a relaxation factor, generally value between 0~1.
Because survey frequency is limited, must rely on algorithm to ask for the impedance model parameter of biological tissue in the practical application according to the definite measured data.There is distinct disadvantage in existing algorithm, the anti-model of three Frequency point approximate treatment of usefulness blood resistivity that for example has, and the precision of this approximate treatment is low, and error is big.The foreign scholar adopts the characteristic parameter of the round fitting process extraction of least square in vitro tissue model etc., but has iterations big (needing hundreds of or thousands of iterative computation), and not high the choosing with initial value of fitting precision influences iteration convergence, causes arithmetic speed slow.The shortcoming of utilizing this algorithm to measure is that speed is slow, precision is low.
The prior biological impedometer mostly adopts simple Resistance model for prediction, and for example the nothing of clinical employing is created impedance method cardiac output surveying instrument etc., uses limitation big, can only be used for the human body privileged site.Biological tissue's multi-frequency impedance surveying instrument does not also have the practicability instrument at present.Existing in addition to be in the instruments design scheme of development experimental phase complicated, and performance is simple, and the algorithm of employing and the function of realization are very simple, the cost height.And do not possess impedance model parameter extraction analytic function.Detection in vivo biosome impedance model parameter etc. (referring to patent of invention CN1312052A, by the biological impedance apparatus that monolithic integrated optical circuit constitutes, open day September 12 calendar year 2001) for a long time.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this utility model is to provide a kind of biological tissue multi-frequency impedance measurement method, and it is fast that this method has computing velocity, the characteristics that measuring accuracy is high.The utility model also provides the measurement mechanism of realizing this method, and that this device has is simple in structure, cost performance is high, characteristics such as easy to use.
A kind of biological tissue multi-frequency impedance measurement device that the utility model provides comprises part of data acquisition and data processing section,, for providing insulating power supply, two parts it is characterized in that by the DC/DC DC converter,
The structure of described part of data acquisition is:
The data acquisition single-chip microcomputer is used to finish data sampling, and storage and serial data send, and the control Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers produces the frequency of various needs;
Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers links to each other with single-chip microcomputer, is used to produce the sine voltage signal of different frequency, constant amplitude, and Fen Erlu sends the voltage controlled current source and second wide-band amplifier to;
Voltage controlled current source links to each other with Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers, is used for described sine voltage signal is converted to sinusoidal constant current signal;
Galvanic electrode links to each other with voltage controlled current source, is used for sinusoidal constant current signal is added to the tissue detected part;
Potential electrode is used to extract the sine voltage signal Ui relevant with tissue characteristics that biological tissue produces, and sends first wide-band amplifier and first wave filter successively to,
First wide-band amplifier and first wave filter amplify sine voltage signal Ui, divide two the tunnel to send amplitude discriminator and shaping and phase detector to after the filtering;
Amplitude discriminator is used for the amplitude information of the different frequency of bio-electrical impedance is converted to the level size, sends road A/D converter in the single-chip microcomputer to, sends impedance amplitude to described data processing section after converting digital signal to;
Send second wave filter to after the sine voltage signal Ur amplification of second wide-band amplifier with input, also send shaping and phase detector after the filtering to; This second wide-band amplifier and second wave filter and first wide-band amplifier and first wave filter keep amplifying synchronously and filtering;
Shaping and phase detector are made of reshaper and phase detector, the signal shaping that reshaper is used for receiving becomes square wave, phase detector is used for phase-detection, the phase information of tested tissue obtains the size of phase information by phase detector with respect to constant reference signal, this phase information is admitted to another road AD converter in the single-chip microcomputer, sends phase value to described data processing section after converting digital signal to;
Described data processing division is divided into PC, and it links to each other with single-chip microcomputer by isolated serial interface, is used for the impedance amplitude and the phase value of sampling are carried out analytical calculation, obtains the impedance model parameters R i, R e, C mAnd α.
Characteristics such as the utility model is a kind of measurement mechanism of practicality, and its adopts the dual-cpu structure of single-chip microcomputer and PC, and digital frequency synthesis technology etc., and it is low, simple in structure to have a cost, and automatic analytic function is strong are convenient to directly carry out the design and the development of product.The utility model has realized extracting quickly and accurately the target of impedance model parameters R i, Re, Cm and α.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the impedance model synoptic diagram of tissue;
Fig. 2 is the Cole-Cole impedance diagram;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of biological tissue's multi-frequency impedance measurement device;
Fig. 4 is a linear transformation iteration and fitting method flow chart;
Fig. 5 is the interface circuit figure of AD7008 and ADuC812;
Fig. 6 is an electrode riding position synoptic diagram;
Fig. 7 is synchronous symmetrical structure amplifier;
Fig. 8 is the prestage circuit theory diagrams;
Fig. 9 is the amplitude discriminator circuit diagram;
Figure 10 is an analysis software, interface and tissue measured result synoptic diagram.
Embodiment
Measurement mechanism is made up of two parts, as shown in Figure 3, wherein is the part of data acquisition based on the data acquisition single-chip microcomputer in the frame of broken lines, and frame of broken lines is outward the data processing section based on PC.Because measurement mechanism directly acts on the experimenter, must carry out isolation processing.Isolate and comprise Signal Spacing and isolated from power, isolated from power adopts the DC/DC DC converter to realize that Signal Spacing then adopts the digital isolation method of photoelectrical coupler.The input/output terminal of the serial line interface between PC and data acquisition single-chip microcomputer respectively adds two photoelectrical couplers and realizes the numeral isolation, and total data gathers single-chip microcomputer and treatment circuit partly is isolated into floating ground state.The advantage that adopts digital partition method is to eliminate the nonlinearity erron that simulation is isolated, and improves measuring accuracy.Another advantage is safe and reliable, does not reduce the linearity of simulating signal, can improve the common-mode rejection ratio of amplifier again, the enhanced system antijamming capability.
Below introduce other ingredient respectively:
(1), part of data acquisition
(1) the data acquisition single-chip microcomputer 13: data acquisition single-chip microcomputer 13 is used to finish data sampling, and storage and serial data send, and control Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers 6 produces the frequency of various needs.The utility model has been selected the single-chip microcomputer that includes two road A/D converters for use, can directly rely on software to finish the data acquisition task, and what present embodiment was selected for use is the ADuC812 single-chip microcomputer.
(2) Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers 6: by data acquisition single-chip microcomputer 13 control Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers DDS (direct digital frequency synthesis,) produce the different frequency automatic switchover of 12 Frequency points in 500Hz~200kHz frequency (for example to), the sine voltage signal of constant amplitude.Adopt the advantage of digital frequency synthesizer to be: by Single-chip Controlling can direct convenience ground produce optional frequency, frequency stability is good, switching time short (can less than 20ns), the frequency resolution height, the change amplitude is easy, and is flexible and convenient to use.Present embodiment is selected DDS AD7008 for use.Chip Microcomputer A uC812 control Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers DDS AD7008 has realized that digitized frequency produces.AD7008 is the high integration digital frequency synthesizer.AD7008 inside mainly is made of reference frequency source, phase accumulator, sinusoidal wave sampling ROM, digital to analog converter and low-pass filter.The interface control of AD7008 is simple, available 8 or 16 bit parallel mouths or control words such as the direct incoming frequency of serial port, phase place and amplitude.The interface circuit of AD7008 and ADuC812 as shown in Figure 5.32 bit frequency control words can reach 0.0014Hz in the output frequency resolution rate of 6MHz clock, and maximum output frequency can reach 1MHz.
(3) voltage controlled current source 5: it is converted to sinusoidal constant current signal with the sine voltage signal that Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers 6 produces.Voltage controlled current source both can adopt integrated device also can adopt the operational amplifier design, as long as can finish this function.
(4) electrode 1-4: the utility model adopts four Ag/AgCl plate electrodes, and wherein electrode 1,4 is two galvanic electrodes, by two galvanic electrodes the constant sinusoidal current (peak value of sinusoidal current is 100uA) of subliminal stimulus amplitude is added to the tissue position.Electrode 2,3 is two potential electrode, claims voltage electrode again, is used to extract the sine voltage signal relevant with tissue characteristics that biological tissue produces.
Four electrodes of present embodiment adopt the bigger plate electrode of area, can make the measure portion electric field change even like this.Galvanic electrode is placed on the outside, and potential electrode is placed on the inboard.As shown in Figure 6.When surveying the impedance of lower limb, two voltage electrodes (potential electrode) spacing is 7cm, and galvanic electrode and voltage electrode spacing are 2cm, first galvanic electrode 2cm under the knee joint.
This measurement mechanism requires very strict for the amplifier circuit frequency characteristic, could realize like this measuring in wider frequency range.For avoiding raising the cost, we adopt the synchronous symmetrical structure method for designing of two-way.As shown in Figure 7.One the tunnel is the voltage measurement amplifier stage, and another road is the reference signal amplifier stage.The symmetrical structure advantage is to reduce device cost, synchroballistic phase error.Design just can adopt relatively low amplifier of price such as low noise broadband operational amplifier OP37 to realize the phase compensation of two paths of signals like this, and the precision of raising Measurement Phase reduces circuit cost.Introduced respectively below:
(5) voltage measurement amplifier stage: comprise first wide-band amplifier 7 and first wave filter 8.Wide-band amplifier 7 is used for the amplification of bio-voltage, and the faint voltage signal Ui that organizes that is about to two voltage electrodes 3,4 amplifies and filtering.Because the survey frequency scope is very wide, amplifier must adopt the high precision broad frequency amplifier, but in order to reduce circuit cost, the utility model adopts low noise broadband operational amplifier OP37 design, and price is relatively low.The circuit of used wideband pre-amplifier as shown in Figure 8.A1, A2 constitute the differential three amplifier low noise circuits of balanced, symmetrical in parallel with A3 in the prestage circuit, wherein A1, A2 select for use high cmrr and symmetry good integrated operational amplifier TL084 form, A3 select for use and have the ultra-low noise characteristic (
Figure Y20032011591500081
Rms), the integrated operational amplifier OP-37 of high cmrr (120dB) forms, and prestage adopted common mode shielding driving circuit, improves the common-mode rejection ratio of amplifier.This circuit is in isolated part, and floating ground working method further improves common-mode rejection ratio.The choose reasonable circuit parameter is realized broadband prestage amplification requirement, and keeps the low characteristics of price.The requirement of broad band amplifier is that high input impedance, good amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristic, low drift, low noise, bandwidth, antijamming capability are strong etc.Wave filter 8 is common second-order low-pass filters, can adopt the operational amplifier design, and fundamental purpose is to reduce high frequency interference.
(6) amplitude discriminator 9: be used for the amplitude information of the different frequency of bio-electrical impedance is converted to the level size.Common amplitude discriminator need adopt the RC circuit, the RC circuit must possess discharging function so that quickening work, discharge control is finished by computing machine, but complex structure, performance does not reach requirement, so a kind of amplitude discriminator circuit that has automatic discharge and follow function of present embodiment design is realized fast and steady operation, has improved measuring accuracy.The amplitude level information of amplitude discriminator is admitted to the road AD converter that ADuC812 includes.The amplitude discriminator circuit theory diagrams as shown in Figure 9.U1A among the figure, D1, D2 forms precise rectification circuit, U1B is an emitter follower, and capacitor C 1 is an integrating capacitor, and it is to improve discharge path for integrating circuit that present embodiment adds resistance R 2, this amplitude discriminator does not need discharge switch to realize automatic discharge, and amplitude detection can be carried out continuously automatically.Realize quick and steady operation, improve measuring accuracy.
(7) reference signal amplifying circuit: form by second wide-band amplifier 10 and second wave filter 11.Be used for reference signal is carried out symmetry amplification synchronously, obtain with reference to sine voltage signal Ur from signal source (being Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers 6), reference signal and measurement voltage signal are kept synchronous amplification filtering, promptly keep identical amplification and the filtering of signal Ui with tissue.Purpose is to reduce phase error.Improve the precision of phase measurement.
(8) shaping and phase detector 12: as shown in Figure 7, voltage measurement amplifier stage and reference signal amplifier stage two paths of signals at first are shaped to and are square wave, send into phase detector then and finish phase-detection.The phase information of tested tissue obtains the size of phase information by phase detector with respect to constant reference signal.Phase information is admitted to another road AD converter sampling that ADuC812 includes.Wherein shaping circuit can adopt high-speed comparator LM319 to realize, and phase detector can adopt integrated phase lock CD4046 to realize.
(2) data processing section:
Data processing division is divided into the PC 15 that program noted earlier is housed, and it links to each other with single-chip microcomputer 13 by isolated serial interface 14.
(1) adopts the organize amplitude-frequency and the phase frequency value of 15 pairs of samplings of PC to carry out analytical calculation, draw impedance circle diagram and frequency characteristic, and utilize the iterative fitting process of linear transformation to extract the impedance model parameters R i, R e, C mAnd α, the automatic continuous analysis of realization impedance model parameter.Its processing flow chart as shown in Figure 4, present embodiment adopts software Matlab to carry out algorithm and Drawing Design.Below to the in addition further detailed explanation of treatment scheme and measuring method.
Linear transformation iterative least square fitting process is the method that the linear transformation of match circle coordinates and iterative fitting are combined, its principle is: deviation from circular from has reflected actual circle and desirable round radially departure degree, the computing method of classical Circularity error evaluation are least square fitting methods, and its mathematical model has been expressed at definite least square center coordinate (x 0, y 0) time, make the radius error quadratic sum be minimum this basic thought.It is model 1
F ( x 0 , y 0 , r ) = Σ i = 1 n ϵ i 2 = Σ i = 1 n [ ( x i - x 0 ) 2 + ( y i - y 0 ) 2 - r ] 2 - - - - ( 2 )
To F (x 0, y 0, r) ask local derviation and make it equal 0.But variable (x appears 0, y 0, nonlinear function r) is directly found the solution the comparison difficulty.
Actual in Circularity error evaluation, if satisfy: (a) x 0, y 0Value minimum, promptly so-called " little deviation hypothesis "; (b) deviation from circular from compare with its radius be the trace, be called little error condition.Little error condition can be used another kind of circle model representation, and promptly model 2:
F 1 ( x 0 , y 0 , r ) = Σ i = 1 n ϵ i 2 = Σ i = 1 n [ ρ i - x 0 cos θ i - y 0 sin θ i - r ] 2 - - - - ( 3 )
To F 1(x 0, y 0, r) ask local derviation and make it equal 0, obtain being expressed as the equation of matrix form:
(A TA)X=A TB (4)
Each variable is respectively in the formula (4):
X = x 0 y 0 r , B = ρ 1 ρ 2 · · · ρ N , A = cos θ 1 sin θ 1 1 cos θ 2 sin θ 2 1 · · · · · · · · · cos θ n sin θ n 1
ρ i = x i 2 + y i 2 , cos θ i = x i ρ i , sin θ i = y i ρ i , - - - - i = 1 , · · · n
The unique solution of formula (4) is:
X=(A TA) -1(A TB)
Promptly
x 0 y 0 r = Σ i = 1 n co s 2 θ i Σ i = 1 n sin θ i cos θ i Σ i = 1 n cos θ i Σ i = 1 n sin θ i cos θ i Σ i = 1 n si n 2 θ i Σ i = 1 n sin θ i Σ i = 1 n cos θ i Σ i = 1 n sin θ i n - 1 × Σ i = 1 n cos θ i ρ i Σ i = 1 n sin θ i ρ i Σ i = 1 n ρ i - - - - ( 5 )
Satisfying under the little deviation hypothesis, exact solution (5) can be thought the optimization solution of formula (2).According to above analysis, draw the algorithm that the linear iteration computing of simplifying with least square method approaches accurate round optimization solution.It obtains the exact solution of formula (5) under new coordinate system by the linear transformation of coordinate origin, and along with the increase of iterations, exact solution also must be the optimization solution of formula (2).Linear transformation iterative least square match ratio juris that Here it is.Utilize this theory, adopt software to realize program design.To the convergence discriminant coefficient, the iterations initialize carries out coordinate transform and finishes and find the solution, and differentiates last output optimization solution by convergence again.
X by above calculating 0, y 0And r, be calculated as follows Cole-Cole impedance equation model parameters R again 0, R , α and τ:
R 0 = x 0 + r 2 - y 0 2 - - - - ( 6 )
R ∞ = x 0 - r 2 - y 0 2 - - - - ( 7 )
α = 1 - 2 π arcsin ( | y 0 | r ) - - - - ( 8 )
Derive
τ = ( R 0 - Z i ( ω i ) Z i ( ω i ) - R ∞ ) 1 α j ω i - - - - ( 9 )
Z wherein ii) represent at f iComplex impedance under the frequency on the arc track, ω i=2 π f iOwing to measure the noise that is brought, eyeball often is distributed in the both sides of track, this will give to calculate and introduce error, therefore we adopt average way to reduce error, promptly on average obtaining by N the N that data point calculated timeconstant addition, complex impedance Z is a curve as shown in Figure 2, and parameter τ is a real number, has
τ = 1 N Σ i = 1 n | ( R 0 - Z i ( ω i ) Z 1 ( ω i ) - R ∞ ) 1 α j ω i | - - - - ( 10 )
At last, determine the impedance model parameters R i, R eAnd C mAs follows:
R e=R 0 (11)
R i = R 0 × R ∞ R 0 - R ∞ - - - - ( 12 )
C m=τ/(R i+R e) (13)
Its measuring method is as follows:
1. instrument calibration: adopt the measuring resistance and the capacitance network that provide to calibrate before using.To determine the transformational relation of voltage swing and impedance value;
2. to the variable initialize: read in the voltage amplitude of each Frequency point and the numerical value of phase place by instrument, be converted to respective impedance amplitude and phase value,, calculate initial coordinate values, calculate center of circle initial value according to the numerical value of electrical impedance amplitude and phase place according to the relation of calibrating;
3. by formula calculate (1)~(11).
The step that programs is as follows
(1) initialization: provide the value of differentiating condition of convergence e, iterations k=0;
(2) impedance amplitude and the phase value that measure for N time of input, the calculating initial coordinate values is to central coordinate of circle x 0, y 0Initialize;
(3) coordinate transform: as previously described, carry out coordinate transform;
(4) according to the exact solution of formula (5) computation model 2: (x 0 K+1, y 0 K+1, r K+1) T
Do (5) judge the condition of convergence: above-mentioned separating greater than e deny?
(6) if greater than e, proceed coordinate transform, again the exact solution of computation model 2.And make k=k+1;
(7) judge that whether k is greater than 50, if then this calculating is invalid.Continue said process otherwise then return (5), until satisfying the condition of convergence: separate less than e;
What (8) output was optimized separates and iterations;
(9) separating of will optimizing is used for the computation model parameters R i, R e, C mAnd α, and draw the impedance circle diagram of match.Calculating is carried out according to formula (6)~(13);
(10) termination routine operation.
(2) two large divisions of whole device need realize isolating, and needs to use isolated serial interface to isolate transmission between PC and the single-chip microcomputer.As adopt two photoelectrical couplers that the data serial mouth of RS232 is isolated, isolate to realize numeral.
When measuring, adopt the instrument of development, the biology content of selected measuring point and description, i.e. medical value and physiology content, usually and the doctor formulate jointly.For example a part is made up of blood vessel, and measuring purpose is the blood vessel situation of change.
The whole apparatus structure of the utility model is simple, and is easy to use.Adopt digital isolation technology, measure safety for body electrical signals, reliable.Bioelectrical signals is extracted part adopt floating ground technology, both realized human body and electric isolation, improve measuring accuracy and stability again.And the utility model also has advantages such as size is little, circuit structure is simple, with low cost.PC partly is mainly software function, and convenient for making the user, the interface of design system as shown in figure 10.Designed systematic analysis software has friendly interface, can import experimenter individual essential information, can import data, calibrates and extracts the impedance model parameters R automatically by above-mentioned fitting algorithm i, R e, C mAnd α.Draw impedance circle diagram and frequency characteristic.The interface of system and tissue impedance measured result are as shown in figure 10." * " is the human body measured data among the figure, and solid line is matched curve.Being matched curve above, is the parameters calculated value below.Measure as can be seen and have higher fitting precision.
Use step:
(1) measures: the bio-impedance multi-frequency surveying instrument that adopts development, selected organizing the measuring point and having the meaning of biological physiology of determining, promptly there is definite medical clinic applications to be worth and Physiologic Studies value, should formulates measurement scheme jointly with the doctor usually.For example a part is made up of blood vessel, and the measurement purpose is the situation of change of blood vessel etc.
(2) lay electrode: adopt four Ag/AgCl electrodes, determine electrode separation, and be maintained fixed constantly, each measuring condition and environment remain unchanged.Skin surface is handled, guaranteed electrode and human body low resistance contact.
(3) start the multi-frequency impedance measuring system of developing of organizing and enter automatic surveying work, carry out data acquisition and storage, change frequency and finish data acquisition and storage repeatedly, reach the automatic analyser that carries out impedance parameter after the predetermined data and calculate, measure and analytical work is all undertaken by the prompting of close friend's software interface.
(4) calibration and selection gear: the network that the measuring resistance electric capacity that using earlier before the measurement is provided is formed is calibrated, and determines measurement range and selects corresponding measurement gear.Can be resistance value with the measuring voltage size conversion after the calibration simultaneously.
(5) data of Ce Lianging: what obtain from surveying instrument is the amplitude versus frequency characte and the phase-frequency characteristic of different frequency.Measurement data can be preserved automatically.
(6) automatic result calculated: can draw the matched curve of tissue impedance and provide each parameter value R of measurement i, R e, C mAnd α.
(7) draw the amplitude versus frequency characte of continuous coverage and the curve map of phase-frequency characteristic.
Adopt the completed experimental result of the utility model device as follows:
(1) at first comes the verification algorithm precision with the Matlab data simulation.Operation result residual error quadratic sum e i 2Very little by (10 -9The order of magnitude).With time error less than 10 -9Loop iteration number of times only 5 times.This is the theoretical precision of this algorithm.
(2) be standard with the realistic simulation RC network then, test and assess soft, the hardware performance of designed system.The result shows that this measuring system has higher match accuracy (relative error<± 5%) and precision (standard deviation<± 1%).
(3) to the actual repeatedly test of 20 health volunteers, all can obtain stable result, the each measurement has better repeatability.
(4) upper limbs ischemic experiment: forearm is organized in the different variation of impedance model parameter generating of (with blood pressure cuff blocking-up blood vessel method) under the simulation ischemic state, R behind the ischemic iSignificantly rise R eRise tissue film's capacitor C a little mDescend a little.
(5) lower limb ischemia experiment: under the condition of sitting quietly for a long time, lower limb tissue impedance parameters R iProlong in time, show with working load and increase the weight of and increase.R eAnd C mChange not remarkable.
(6) rats death time and impedance variation correlation research are obtained clear and definite result.Research purpose is to provide scientific basis for legal medical expert and public security system autopsy conclusion.
This measurement mechanism distinct characteristics is simple in structure in a word, and volume is little, reduce cost greatly and improve cost performance.Some gordian techniquies of hardware aspect guarantee the reliable and stable work of system, have designed one and have overlapped the measuring system that can convenient, practical, fast, accurately, automatically measure in body biological tissue electrical impedance amplitude and phase place.Can measure fast, accurately in body bio-electrical impedance model parameter, and various application occasions such as biological tissue's ischemic situation when being applied to monitoring and prolonging working load in time and increase the weight of.

Claims (6)

1, a kind of biological tissue multi-frequency impedance measurement device comprises part of data acquisition and data processing section,, for providing insulating power supply, two parts it is characterized in that by the DC/DC DC converter,
The structure of described part of data acquisition is:
Data acquisition single-chip microcomputer (13) is used to finish data sampling, and storage and serial data send, and control Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers (6) produces the frequency of various needs;
Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers (6) links to each other with single-chip microcomputer (13), is used to produce the sine voltage signal of different frequency, constant amplitude, and Fen Erlu sends voltage controlled current source (5) and second wide-band amplifier (10) to;
Voltage controlled current source (5) links to each other with Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers (6), is used for described sine voltage signal is converted to sinusoidal constant current signal;
Galvanic electrode (1,4) links to each other with voltage controlled current source (5), is used for sinusoidal constant current signal is added to the tissue detected part;
Potential electrode (3,4) is used to extract the sine voltage signal (Ui) relevant with tissue characteristics that biological tissue produces, and sends first wide-band amplifier (7) and first wave filter (8) successively to,
First wide-band amplifier (7) and first wave filter (8) amplify sine voltage signal (Ui), divide two the tunnel to send amplitude discriminator (9) and shaping and phase detector (12) to after the filtering;
Amplitude discriminator (9) is used for the amplitude information of the different frequency of bio-electrical impedance is converted to the level size, sends road A/D converter in the single-chip microcomputer (13) to, sends impedance amplitude to described data processing section after converting digital signal to;
Send second wave filter (11) to after sine voltage signal (Ur) amplification of second wide-band amplifier (10) with input, also send shaping and phase detector (12) after the filtering to; This second wide-band amplifier (10) and second wave filter (11) keep amplifying synchronously and filtering with first wide-band amplifier (7) and first wave filter (8);
Shaping and phase detector (12) are made of reshaper and phase detector, the signal shaping that reshaper is used for receiving becomes square wave, phase detector is used for phase-detection, the phase information of tested tissue obtains the size of phase information by phase detector with respect to constant reference signal, this phase information is admitted to another road AD converter in the single-chip microcomputer (13), sends phase value to described data processing section after converting digital signal to;
Described data processing division is divided into PC, and it links to each other with single-chip microcomputer (13) by isolated serial interface (14), is used for the impedance amplitude and the phase value of sampling are carried out analytical calculation, obtains the impedance model parameters R i, R e, C mAnd α.
2, measurement mechanism according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the model of data acquisition single-chip microcomputer (13) is selected the AduC812 single-chip microcomputer for use, and Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers (6) is selected DDS AD7008 for use.
3, measurement mechanism according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: amplifier (7,10) adopts the differential three amplifier low noise circuits of balanced, symmetrical in parallel to realize, comprises two integrated operational amplifier TL084 and an integrated operational amplifier OP-37.
4, measurement mechanism according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: wave filter (8,11) adopts second-order low-pass filter to realize.
5, measurement mechanism according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: the shaping circuit in (12) of shaping and phase detector adopts high-speed comparator LM319 to realize, phase detector adopts integrated phase lock CD4046 to realize.
6, measurement mechanism according to claim 4 is characterized in that: the shaping circuit in (12) of shaping and phase detector adopts high-speed comparator LM319 to realize, phase detector adopts integrated phase lock CD4046 to realize.
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Cited By (7)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100578916C (en) * 2006-03-17 2010-01-06 株式会社百利达 Vector detecting device and living-body complex impedance measuring apparatus having the vector detecting device
CN109581057A (en) * 2017-09-28 2019-04-05 四川锦江电子科技有限公司 A kind of impedance detection device of multipole ablation catheter
CN111208171A (en) * 2020-01-12 2020-05-29 中国人民解放军国防科技大学 Method for judging transmittance performance based on electromagnetic periodic structure impedance characteristic
CN111214238A (en) * 2018-11-27 2020-06-02 李志荣 Self-adjusting portable blood oxygen monitoring patch for stimulating human body
CN112220472A (en) * 2020-09-25 2021-01-15 重庆大学 Chest electrical impedance non-invasive detection method based on cross four-electrode method
CN112244836A (en) * 2020-10-19 2021-01-22 广东工业大学 Auxiliary fingertip palpation equipment
CN114113227A (en) * 2021-11-22 2022-03-01 江苏济纶医工智能科技有限公司 Measuring system and measuring method

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100578916C (en) * 2006-03-17 2010-01-06 株式会社百利达 Vector detecting device and living-body complex impedance measuring apparatus having the vector detecting device
CN109581057A (en) * 2017-09-28 2019-04-05 四川锦江电子科技有限公司 A kind of impedance detection device of multipole ablation catheter
CN111214238A (en) * 2018-11-27 2020-06-02 李志荣 Self-adjusting portable blood oxygen monitoring patch for stimulating human body
CN111208171A (en) * 2020-01-12 2020-05-29 中国人民解放军国防科技大学 Method for judging transmittance performance based on electromagnetic periodic structure impedance characteristic
CN112220472A (en) * 2020-09-25 2021-01-15 重庆大学 Chest electrical impedance non-invasive detection method based on cross four-electrode method
CN112220472B (en) * 2020-09-25 2023-09-15 重庆大学 Chest cavity electrical impedance noninvasive detection method based on cross four-electrode method
CN112244836A (en) * 2020-10-19 2021-01-22 广东工业大学 Auxiliary fingertip palpation equipment
CN112244836B (en) * 2020-10-19 2022-08-16 广东工业大学 Auxiliary fingertip palpation equipment
CN114113227A (en) * 2021-11-22 2022-03-01 江苏济纶医工智能科技有限公司 Measuring system and measuring method
CN114113227B (en) * 2021-11-22 2024-02-02 江苏济纶医工智能科技有限公司 Measurement system and measurement method

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